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Trip Relay Theory

Trip Relay Theory


(Alstom Type MVAJ)

Tripping & Auxiliary Relay Application


Auxiliary relays, type MVAA, can be used when the scheme
demands several contacts for:
Event recording
Alarm Initiation
Contact logic etc.

Tripping relays, type MVAJ, are designed to initiate circuit


breaker tripping coils. There are two main types:
Low Burden
High Burden

(ESI 48-4 Class EB1)


(ESI 48-4 Class EB2)

Remember!
Auxiliary relays should not be used for tripping purposes.

Why Bother With Tripping Relays?


Tripping relays are used to protect the contacts of the main protection
relay, should the 52a CB auxiliary contact fail.
+

Protective
Relay

MVAJ
52a

Trip
Coil

Failure of the 52a contact leaves the MVAJ to break the trip coil
current. Whilst the MVAJ may be damaged, it is cheaper and easier to
replace than an advanced protective relay

Differences Between Auxiliary and Tripping

Auxiliary relays have a low burden design (typically 3 Watts) so


as to minimise the drain on station batteries.
The low current drain makes the relay relatively slow compared
to tripping relays.
Typically 12 25ms (depending upon contact arrangement)

Tripping relays must operate in less than 10ms.


Achieved by increasing the driving current
This increases the burden to between 25 and 150 Watts
Need to consider heat build-up!

Heat Dissipation Solution (1)

MIDOS case can dissipate typically 4 to 6 Watts of heat.


MVAJ relay coils will dissipate between 25 and 150W unless
additional measures are taken.
Three methods to prevent the relay from burning out:
1.) Economy Resistor
2.) Cut Off Contact
3.) Late Acting Cut Off Contact

Heat Dissipation Solution (2)


Economy Resistor Method
Used on self reset relays only
Reduces coil current to safe limits following energisation
Continuously Rated
Tripping Unit

RL2-A

R1
RL1

RL1-A

R2

RL2-B

R4

R3
RL2

R4 Limits the coil current post energisation

R2 Sets the minimum operating current (ESI standards)

Heat Dissipation Solution (3)


Cut Off Contacts

Used on lock-out relays only (Hand, Electrical Reset)

Reduces coil current to zero following energisation (<10ms)

Late acting cut off permits the use of slower series auxiliary units, such as
MCAA:
+

Protective
Relay

MVAJ
40ms
Delay

Operating Time
Typically 12ms

Operating
Coil

MCAA
52a

Trip
Coil

Low Burden or High Burden?


According to ESI 48-4:
Low Burden (EB1) ~ Operating Current 25mA* (25W)
High Burden (EB2) ~ Operating Current 50mA** (150W)

High burden relays are more secure than low burden.


Low burden relays used when trip wiring remains in the same room
(i.e. short distances).
High burden relays used when trip relay is remote from the
protective relay or if trip wiring leaves the relay room. (Low Burden
can be used when double pole switching)
High burden relays are also immune to capacitance discharge
(Tested with a 10F charged to 150V).
*

- 110/125V model only. 30V and 48V = 10mA

**

- 110/125V model only. 30V and 48V = 20mA

Battery Earth Fault Issues


Earth faults on the battery or trip circuit wiring can lead to:
an impulse discharge through the relay coil due to wiring capacitance
a steady state voltage across the relay coil
a steady state trickle current through the relay coil

The magnitude of the currents and voltages depend upon the


following factors:
The position of the fault
Length of DC wiring (cable capacitance)
Battery earthing arrangement (centre tapped or negative earthed)
Type of battery monitoring device

Battery Earth Fault Issues - Centre Tapped Battery Steady


State Current (Iss)

Relay minimum operating threshold must be greater than steady state trickle
current (ISS)

Maximum voltage across relay = 0.5 x VDC (Assuming R1 = R2)

Consider battery boost charging (125% VDC)

Earth fault on negative rail results in no steady state current through relay
+

RTOTAL =

PR

ITOT

R1

ISS

R3

VDC

ITOT =

Trip
Relay
ISS =

R2

R2 (R3 + RRELAY)
R2 + R3 + RRELAY
1.25 VDC
RTOTAL
VDC (ITOT x R1)
R3 + RRELAY

For Stability:
Min Op Current > ISS

Battery
Monitor Resistors

+ R1

Battery Earth Fault Issues - Centre Tapped Battery Example:


ISS Calculation
Assume the following:
110V battery supply
BA300 battery monitor (R1 = R2 = 56k & R3 = 100)
High Burden MVAJ21 (150W, 81, Min Op Current 50mA)

RTOTAL =
ITOT =

ISS =

R2 (R3 + RRELAY)
R2 + R3 + RRELAY
1.25 VDC
RTOTAL

1.25 x 110V

VDC (ITOT x R1)


R3 + RRELAY

+ R1

56.2k

56k (100 x 81)


56k + 100 + 81

+ 56k

= 56.2 k

= 2.45mA

137.5 (2.45mA x 56k)


100 + 81

= 2.4mA

Therefore, the relay will be stable for the steady state current

Battery Earth Fault Issues - Centre Tapped Battery


Discharge Currents (Positive Rail)

Capacitive current discharges from C2 through the relay coil

Maximum discharge voltage (VC2)= 0.5 x 1.25 x VDC (Assuming R1 = R2)

Mal-operation occurs if the discharge current remains above the relay operating
threshold for typically more than:
10ms for a tripping relay
20ms for an auxiliary relay
+

IDIS =

PR
C1

R1

C3

R3
VDC

R2

VC2

C2

Battery
Monitor Resistors

IDIS
Trip
Relay

0.5 x 1.25 x VDC


RRELAY

Time Constant = C2 x RRELAY


Current settles to steady state
after approximately 5 time
constants

Battery Earth Fault Issues - Centre Tapped Battery Example:


IDIS Calculation (1)
Check relay stability for capacitance discharge assuming the following:
10uF wiring capacitance (according to ESI 484 EB2)
110V battery supply
Low Burden Aux Relay MVAA21 (3W, 4k, Typical Op Current = 7mA)
High Burden Trip Relay MVAJ21 (150W, 81, Min Op Current 50mA)

Assume boost charge conditions

Battery Earth Fault Issues - Centre Tapped Battery Example:


IDIS Calculation (2)
Aux Relay (MVAA 21) Calculation:
0.5 x 1.25 x 110V
= 17mA
4000

Peak Discharge Current (IDIS) =

Time Constant = 10uF x 4000 = 40.3ms

Relay will be unstable


during battery earth fault
conditions

20

Current (mA)

Currents takes longer than


20ms operating time to
decay below the 7mA
threshold.

17mA

15
10
5

35ms

0
-20

20

40
Time (ms)

60

80

100

Battery Earth Fault Issues - Centre Tapped Battery Example:


IDIS Calculation (3)
Aux Relay (MVAJ 21) Calculation:
Peak Discharge Current (IDIS) =

0.5 x 1.25 x 110V


= 853mA
81

Time Constant = 10uF x 81 = 0.81ms

Pulse duration is insufficient


to cause mal-operation

1000
800
Current (mA)

Discharge current falls


below 50mA threshold in
approximately 2.3ms.

853mA

600
400

2.3ms

200

Relay is stable

0
-20

20

40
Time (ms)

60

80

100

Battery Earth Fault Issues - Centre Tapped Battery


Discharge Currents (Negative Rail)

Capacitance C3 is charged up to 0.5 VDC (assuming R1 = R2)

Current discharges from C3 through the relay in reverse direction

Most tripping / auxiliary relays are NOT polarity conscious

Comparable discharge current to positive rail fault


+
PR
C1

R1

C3

R3

VDC

R2

C2

Battery
Monitor Resistors

VC3

IDIS
Trip
Relay

Battery Earth Fault Issues Negative Earthed

Battery earth fault results in no current flow through the relay

Consider faults at positions F1 and F2:


F1 Relay is shorted out
F2 Negative is already earthed (second earth has no impact)

Similar scenario for positive earthed batteries


+

F1

PR
C1
C3

Battery
Monitor

VDC

Trip
Relay

C2

F2

Battery Earth Fault Issues Unearthed Battery (1)

Capacitive current supplied by C1 and C2 simultaneously

During the fault C2 is connected to ground via the relay


(VC2 collapses to zero)

C1 charges to VDC via the relay

Relay may see VDC if C1 is much greater than C2


Possible if positive rail is longer than the negative

Voltage across relay during the fault is approximately -VC2 (unfaulted)


+

IC1

VC1

IC2

VC2

C1
C3

Battery
Monitor

VDC

PR

C2

Trip I
=I +I
Relay RELAY C1 C2

Battery Earth Fault Issues Unearthed Battery (2)

Maximum voltage across the relay approximates to:


1.25 x C1
VRELAY = -VC2 (Unfaulted) = -VDC x
(C1 + C2)

NOTE:
Assuming linear
leakage current

If positive rail capacitance is much greater than the negative, VRELAY ~ VDC

Peak discharge current (IRELAY) approximates to:


IRELAY =

VRELAY
RRELAY

Discharge current can be twice as much as centre tapped batteries

High burden relays more important with unearthed batteries

Battery Earth Fault Issues Negative Biasing Resistors


Double pole switching can be used to prevent capacitance discharge
mal-operations
Low burden relays acceptable
Current path is interrupted on both positive and negative rails
Negative potential biasing resistors:
Minimises corrosion of battery terminals (though not proven)
Limits relay discharge current to approximately 0.6mA at 110V
Low burden relay still acceptable

+
PR
Trip
Relay

Battery
Monitor

VDC

100k Negative
Biasing Resistor

AC Immunity Issues Transverse voltage (voltage between cores)


All substation wiring will be subject to electrical interference
Two main forms of AC interference are produced by:
Inductive coupling
Capacitive coupling

Inductive coupling is predominantly produced by faults on adjacent


primary conductors
Capacitive coupling is generally produced by current carrying
conductors in the same multi-core cable. Typical circuits:
CT & VT wiring
Substation heater supplies

If calculated value is excessive then use twisted pairs or AC immune


interposing relay

AC Immunity Inductive Coupling (1)


The induced voltage between pilot cores (VC) can be calculates as
follows:
For a non-twisted cable:

VC =

1
jI M
2 S

Where:
Is = Maximum primary fault current
M = Mutual inductance between primary
and secondary conductors

Mutual inductance (M) varies depending upon:


Conductor material
Earth resistivity
Conductor spacing / layout

M = 2 x 10-4 r Ln

r=

A2 + (b + 800 (2 / ) )2
(a2+b2)

1
1 + (Dd/2 2)2

= 1260 x

1/
u

Where:
a = Mean distance between prim. & sec.
b = Height of primary conductor
= Earth resistivity (m-1)
r = Coefficient of screen
D = Shield external diameter (m)
d = Thickness of shield (m)
= Depth of field penetration in to shield (m)
u = Permeability of shield material (H/m)
= conductivity of shield material (-1m)

AC Immunity Inductive Coupling (2)


Typical mutual inductance (M):
37 core armoured multcore cable (7/0.67mm):
Steel Armour:
u = 300 H/m
= 10.2 x 106 m
Aluminium Armour:
u = 1 H/m
= 35 x 106 m

Induced voltage (un-twisted cable):


Assuming:
6.75m separation (400kV)
Cable near surface
60kA fault level

AC Immunity Inductive Coupling


Example: Calculation

Determine maximum cross-site cable length for high burden trip relay:

High Burden Trip Relay MVAJ21 (150W, 81, Min Op Current 50mA)
Steel armoured cable (7/0.67 mm)
Earth resistivity () = 30 m
Mutual inductance (M) = 0.062 mH/km
6.75 m conductor separation
55 kA fault level

Maximum Induced Voltage (VC)

1
jI M
2 S

1
55 x 103 x 2 x 50 x 0.062 x 10-3
2

= 0.535 V/m
Minimum Operating Voltage (VOP) = IMIN x RRELAY = 0.05 x 81 = 4.05V
Maximum cable length

= VOP / VC

= 4.05 / 0.535 = 7.6 metres

If unsure use a twisted cable or an interposing relay

AC Immunity Capacitive Coupling


From CT & VT Circuits

Capacitive coupling from CT & VT circuits occurs when DC wiring shares the same
multi-core cable

Capacitive coupling increases with cable length

Coupling from VT circuits is not too severe as voltage is typically less than 150V during
fault conditions

CT circuits associated with High Impedance protection can reach high voltages during
fault conditions (not to ground)

Maximum CT voltage is limited to typically 3kV by the Metrosil

Coupling current is limited by:


Coupling capacitance
Relay impedance
Battery monitor resistance

Problem is nullified by double pole switching

AC Immunity Capacitive Coupling


From CT & VT Circuits

Typical circuit configuration:


C
3kV

Metrosil

High Z
Relay

ZRLY

3kV

VRELAY

Multicore

R2+R3

PR
Trip
Relay

R1
R3
VDC

VRELAY =

R2

3kV x ZRLY
ZRLY + (R2+R3)2 + (1/C)2

VRELAY increases in proportion to the relay impedance

Immunity level depends upon the trip relay AC impedance (ZAC):


ZAC same as DC if rectifier included in circuit
ZAC much greater without rectifier

AC Immunity Capacitive Coupling From CT Circuits:


Example (1)
Assuming:

12 core 7/0.67mm cable with 58nF per km (very common)


Maximum wiring length for grid substation is 500m
50Hz system
BA300 battery monitor R1 = R2 = 56k and R3 = 100
10000
Voltage Across Relay (Volts)
& Relay Current (mA)

V relay

1000

I relay

100
10
1
0.1
10

100

1000

10000

Relay Im pedance (Ohm s)

100000

1000000

AC Immunity Capacitive Coupling From CT Circuits:


Example (continued)

Check AC stability for the following relays:


48/54V MVAJ25 (Not rectified)
ZDC = 22, ZAC = 6.4k
DC Pick-up 252mA @ 5.5V, AC Pick-up 4mA @ 25.7V

110/125V MVAJ 23 (Not rectified)


ZDC = 230, ZAC = 1.2k
DC Pick-up 55mA @ 13V, AC Pick-up 60mA @ 75V

110/125V MVAJ 21 (Rectified)


ZDC = ZAC = 110
DC / AC Pick-up 260mA @ 30V

Plot results on graph

AC Immunity Capacitive Coupling From CT Circuits:


Example (continued)

AC stability results compared to coupling current

Relay Current (mA)

1000

Stable
100

10

Unstable
1
10

100

1000

10000

MVAJ25 unstable even though DC


minimum operating current is
greater than the coupling current

Zrelay (Ohms)

Never compare DC minimum operating current with AC interference levels

Ideally, do NOT share multi-cores between CT and DC circuits


Most important for high impedance busbar schemes

AC Immunity Capacitive Coupling


From Substation Heater Supplies

Capacitive coupling from 240V heater circuits occurs when DC wiring shares the same
multi-core cable:
240V ac
Trip
Relay

To Battery
+ve

Typically 100m
Up to 1000m

PR

Relay
Panel

25.6nF

R1

Relay tested with a 240V source in


series with a 100nF capacitor.

R3

VDC

240V

ZRLY

R2
256nF

VRELAY =

240V x ZRLY
ZRLY + (R2+R3)2 + (1/C)2

Equivalent Circuit with Typical Capacitance

MVAJ Basic Models (Phase 1)


M

#
1 Self Reset
3 Hand Reset
4 Electrical Reset
5 Hand & Electrical Reset
6, 7, 8, 9 As above with delayed cut off / economy(*)

1 Low Burden
2 High Burden

Application - Tripping
Mechanism - Attracted Armature
Operating Quantity - Voltage
MIDOS Case

* - High Burden only

MVAJ Basic Models (Phase 2)


All models can be selectively Low Burden or High Burden using
selector link.
10 and 20 contact versions
include delayed cut off as
standard, giving compatibility
with series MCAA units.

Opto Isolated Inputs Stability & Immunity

Opto Isolated (Opto) Inputs Issues

Opto Inputs are commonly used for protection signalling and CB status
recognition

Optos may also be used for tripping purposes, i.e.


Buchholz Trip / Alarm
Intertrip Send

With a low burden design, Optos are susceptible to battery earth fault and
AC interference issues

Some Optos have AC immunity filters and threshold levels to minimise the
effects of these issues

Parallel resistors can be used to improve immunity for capacitance discharge


and steady state battery earth fault voltage

Battery Earth Fault Issues - Centre Tapped Battery Steady


State Fault Voltage (VF)

Voltage threshold must be greater than steady state fault voltage (VF).

Maximum voltage across opto = 0.5 x VDC x 1.25

Optos without voltage threshold setting must employ a parallel resistor to


prevent mal-operation

For simplicity calculate parallel resistor (RP) assuming ROPTO is infinite and R3
negligible
R1
1.25VDC

+
PR

ITOT

VOPTO

R1

ISS

R3

RP

VDC

Opto

R2

VPU
RP =

R1
1.25VDC
VPU

x R2
-1

+ R2
-1

Where:
VPU = Opto Voltage Threshold
Battery
Monitor Resistors

Battery Earth Fault Issues - Centre Tapped Battery Example:


RP Calculation
Calculate the parallel resistor (RP) value for steady state stability. Assume
the following:
110V battery supply at boost charge
BA300 battery monitor (R1 = R2 = 56k & R3 = 100)
19V Opto threshold
R1
VDC
VPU
RP =

VPU

1.25 x 110

-1

19
=

R1
VDC

56k

x R2

+ R2
-1

x 56k
-1
= 10.7 k

56k
1.25 x 110
19

+ 56k
-1

Therefore, a 10k resistor would suffice. However we must also check for
stability for capacitance discharge..

Battery Earth Fault Issues - Centre Tapped Battery


Discharge Currents (Positive Rail)

Capacitive current discharges from C2 through the relay coil

Maximum discharge voltage (VC2)= 0.5 x 1.25 x VDC (Assuming R1 = R2)

Mal-operation occurs if the discharge voltage remains above the opto voltage
threshold (VPU) for more than the opto recognition time:
MiCOM P14x = 12ms with Opto Filtering activated
Can be as low as 0.2ms for some relays!

Steady state resistor value may be too large for stability


+
PR

VOPTO

C1

R1

C3

R3

RP

VDC

R2

VC2

C2

IDIS

Battery Earth Fault Issues - Centre Tapped Battery


Discharge Currents (Positive Rail)

Parallel resistor should be selected to ensure voltage reduces below opto threshold
(VPU) before the minimum opto recognition time (TPU) elapses:
-t

VPEAK

15

VOPTO

Current (mA)

20

VOPTO = VMIN + (VPEAK VMIN) . e

VPU

Where:

10

VPEAK = 0.5 x 1.25VDC

VMIN

TPU

VMIN = 1.25VDC x

0
-20

20 Time 40

60

80

C2.RP

R2//RP
R1+(R2//RP)

100

Time (ms)

Problem: VOPTO and VMIN both dependent upon RP value


Hence, use iterative approach to select RP value
Higher Opto threshold (Vpu) & AC Filtering improve immunity
These also allow high value resistors to be used meaning lower drain on station batteries

Battery Earth Fault Issues - Centre Tapped Battery


Discharge Currents (Negative Rail)

Capacitance C3 is charged up to 0.5 VDC (assuming R1 = R2)

Current discharges from C3 through the opto in reverse direction

Comparable discharge current to positive rail fault

Some optos are NOT polarity conscious

Parallel resistor (RP) will provide immunity as previously discussed


+
PR
C1

R1

C3

R3

VC3
RP

VDC

R2

IDIS

C2

Battery
Monitor Resistors

VOPTO

Battery Earth Fault Issues Unearthed Battery (1)

Capacitive current supplied by C1 and C2 simultaneously

During the fault C2 is connected to ground via the relay


(VC2 collapses to zero)

C1 charges to VDC via the relay

Opto may see VDC if C1 is much greater than C2


Possible if positive rail is longer than the negative

Voltage across Opto during the fault is approximately -VC2 (unfaulted)


+

IC1

VC1

IC2

VC2

VOPTO

C1
C3

Battery
Monitor

VDC

PR

C2

RP
IOPTO = IC1 + IC2

Battery Earth Fault Issues Unearthed Battery (2)

Maximum voltage across the relay approximates to:


1.25 x C1
VOPTO = -VC2 (Unfaulted) = -VDC x
(C1 + C2)

NOTE:
Assuming linear
leakage current

If positive rail capacitance (C1) is much greater than the negative, then:
VOPTO ~ VDC

To calculate parallel resistor (RP) assume peak voltage equates to VDC at boost
charge and use largest capacitance of C1 and C2. Hence:-

RP =

-TPU
VPU
C x Ln
1.25VDC

Where:

TPU = Minimum Opto Recognition Time


VPU = Opto Voltage Threshold
VDC = Nominal DC voltage
C

= Largest capacitance rail capacitance

Apply AC immunity filters and opto thresholds to improve stability where available
Current Transformers - P 42

AC Immunity Issues Optos without AC immunity filters should be connected with screened
twisted cables
Ideally, unused optos should be shorted and earthed
Never share opto wiring with CT and VT circuits
Ideally, use double pole switching
Parallel resistor will provide some immunity but should not be relied
upon.

Current Transformers - P 43