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Unit-2

AERODYNAMICS OF ROCKETS AND MISSILES


2.1. Airframe Components of Rockets and Missiles
The body of the missile may be divided into three major sections, the forebody, or
nose; the mid-section; and the aft, or boattail, section. Forebodies may have many
varieties of shapes, most common of which are conical, ogival, power-series, or
hemispherical.

These shapes, shown in Figure, are used primarily of missiles of

supersonic speeds and are generally selected on the basis of combine d aerodynamic,
guidance, and structural considerations. For example, a hemispherical nose has very high
drag from the aerodynamic drag or performance standpoint, but it is excellent from the
standpoint of structural integrity, aerodynamic heating, and certain types of guidance (i.e.,
infrared). Since the pressure or wave drag may be several times that due to friction at
supersonic speeds, careful selection of the nose shape is mandatory to assure satisfactory
performance and operation of the over-all system. Hence it is of interest to understand
and appreciate the aerodynamic forces of these forebodies at supersonic speeds.

Conical Forebody:
The supersonic flow over a cone has characteristics, which are similar in
appearance but markedly different in nature from those corresponding to twodimensional flow (i.e., flow over a wedge). The similarity in appearance is that an
oblique shock is formed at the tip of the wedge and apex of the cone (see fig.). However,
the flow characteristics aft of the shock wave, where the air undergoes both aerodynamic
and thermodynamic changes, are noticeably different depending upon whether the flow is
two-dimensional or three-dimensional as in this case of the conical nose. Briefly, these
flow characteristics are (1) the shock angle, (2) streamlines or flow direction, and (3) air
properties between the shock wave and surface of the body.

Ogival Forebody:
Next the aerodynamic characteristics of the ogival forebody will be discussed,
since this type of nose configuration is used more frequently than the conical nose. An
ogive is similar to a cone except that the planform shape is formed by an arc of a circle
instead of a straight line as shown in Figure. A tangent ogive shown in Figure is one
whose base is tangent to the cylindrical mid-section of the body of the missile. The
ogival shape has several advantages over the conical section. These advantages are (1)
slightly greater volume for a given base and length (l/d ratio), (2) a blunter nose,
providing structural superiority, and (3) slightly lower drag.

Hemispherical Forebody:
This type of nose is used on some of the missiles, particularly those which us e IF
(infrared) seekers. This type of nose imposes an extremely high drag penalty on the
missile; i.e., wave drag may be six to seven times that of an ogive. The use of this type of

nose on missiles indicates the extent to which an aerodynamicist must compromise to


achieve an optimum and feasible missile system.
Other Forebody Shapes:
Many other shapes of noses are being used on present-day missiles. The majority
of these shapes may be considered as modified ogives. On some missiles, the shape of
the nose section may be defined by some elaborate expression derived purely from radar
consideration, i.e., to minimize refraction and radar-beam distortion. For these peculiarly
shaped nose sections, the drag may be estimated by mathematical expressions or by
eyeballing the degree of similarity between the ogive and the shape question. There are
other types of nose shapes, which were derived theoretically from aerodynamic drag
consideration. Some of these are the parabolic or power-series noses (see Figure).
Another well-known one is the Von Karman nose, named after its originator (see
Figure).
Mid-Section:
In most missile configurations, the mid-section is cylindrical in shape. The shape
is advantageous from the standpoints of drag, ease of manufacturing, and load-carrying
capability. The zero-lift drag (=0) of a cylindrical body is caused by viscous forces
(skin friction) only. At low angles of attack, a very small amount of normal force is
developed on the body, and this results from the carry-over from the nose section. At
rather large angles, some amount of normal forces is developed because the cross-flow
drag acts normal to the body centerline. The total normal-force coefficient is
approximated by,
C N 2 CD 90

Ap
S

Where Ap- planform area


S- reference area
These experimental data show that the effect of afterbody extension is to increase
CN and move the center of pressure aft as a result of body carry-over and viscous crossflow effects.

Boattail:
The tapered portion of the aft section of a body is called the boattail. The purpose
of the boattail is to decrease the drag of a body which has a :squared-off base. The latter
feature has relatively large base pressure and, consequently, high drag values because of
the large base area. By boattailing the rear portion of the body, the base area is reduced
and thus a decrease in base drag is realized. However, the decrease in base drag may be
partially nullified by the boattail drag.

Accurate determination of boattail drag is rather difficult because of the


dependence on the geometry of the fore and aft portions of the body and real-fluid
effects.

However, for preliminary design analysis, results from correlation of both

theoretical and experimental test data should be used when available. In the absence of
experimental test data, the boattail drag may be estimated by theoretical methods. One
such method involves the derivation of the pressure distribution over the entire length of
the body, as shown schematically in Figure. This Figure shows the familiar pressure
distribution over the forward portions of the body as obtained by the Taylor-Maccoll
theory and the Prandtl-Meyer equation for an expansion around a two-dimensional
corner, beginning with the Mach number at point 1. The increase in pressure along the
cylindrical portion can be approximated by linearized theory to obtain the pressure at
point 3. The Prandtl-Meyer equation again can be used, as before, to approximate the
pressure at point 4. The boattail drag may then be obtained by integrating the pressure
shown in Figure.
Although boattailing is generally used, it does have some disadvantages, which
must be overcome.

First, the lift on the boattail is destabilizing, which must be

compensated by some increase in tail area.

Next, the center-of-pressure travel is

increased with angle of attack. Hence one must weigh these adverse factors with the
drag-saving feature to decide whether or not to use boattail in a particular design.
Presumably, no boattail was used on the German V-2 because of the undesirable effect of
center-of-pressure travel with angle of attack.
Base Pressure:
At supersonic velocities the base of the body experiences a large negative
pressure (relative to ambient or free-stream static pressure) resulting in a substantial
increase in missile drag. An accurate determination of this base-pressure coefficient is
also quite involved since it depends on many parameters, including boattail angle, Mach
number, and boattail length.

The combined effects of several of these important parameters were compiled and
correlated with test data with reasonably good success for the power-off condition (i.e.,
no jet exhausting from the base). For typical applications the base-pressure-coefficient
variation with Mach number is shown in Figure. The base-pressure drag coefficient C Db
is related to the base-pressure coefficient as follows:

C Db =CPb

Sb
S

Where, Sb=base area


S=body cross-sectional area (reference area)
CPb=base-pressure coefficient
The proper base area must be used in above equation.

For the power-off

condition the total base area is used, whereas with power on, only that portion of the base
shown in Figure is used.
The base pressure is markedly changed by the presence of a jet emitting from the
rocket motor.
The effects of increasing aspect ratio are as follows:
1.

Increase CN and CDo

2.

Increase (L/D)max

3.

Increase span

4.

Reduce trim angle of attack

5.

Reduce wing area

6.

Increase structural weight

7.

Negligible effect on center-of-pressure travel for A>2

Wing Area:
The size of the wing of a missile may be dictated by the following three
important considerations:
1. Range and maneuverability requirements
2. Types of design
3. Compatibility with subsystem operation
2.1.1. Aerodynamic Surfaces
1. Supersonic wing cross-sectional shapes
The biconvex shape has a slight advantage in minimum drag for unit crosssectional strength in addition to the absence of sharp corner. These sharp corners affect
the flow conditions over the surface. The biconvex section also provides larger wedge
angles at the LE & TE. This is improving stiffness & hence resistance to chord wise
twisting moment

2. Supersonic Wing Plan forms:

The main difference between the subsonic & supersonic types of profiles is the
symmetry about the chord & sharpness of the leading edge for the supersonic case,
because of the type of flow and pressure distribution encountered at supersonic speeds.
The advantage of camber as in subsonic case no longer exists. The wing receives its lift
as a result of the average relative angle to the incoming stream rather of any increase in
velocity over the upper surface compared to the lower one. Likewise the sharp LE
required in the interest of minimization of drag under the conditions of supersonic flow.
The need for a sharp L.E. is explained as follows. The air is traveling faster than speed of
the sound and hence faster than speed of pressure impulse, which could warn the air of
the presence of the wing before its arrival. In the subsonic case, such a warning causes
the air to split before reaching the surface so that the rounded L.E. creates no added drag

due to its shape. Supersonically a rounded L.E. will cause the air to pile up and create a
very high primary region at the front of the surface with a resulting high drag, the sharp
L.E. is thus essential in order to minimize this creation of high pressure and result in large
drag force at the L.E.

A subsonic LE exists when the LE angle as measured from the centre line is less
than that of Mach angle () i.e., the LE is said to be within or behind the Mach angle. For
such cases, the L/D ratio can be improved by utilizing rounded or subsonic LE.
Correspondingly, a subsonic T.E. is one wherein the angle between the centre line & the
T.E. is less than that of the Mach angle. The use of the term subsonic for either LE or TE
simply means that the component of flow normal to the edge has a Mach number less
than one. For subsonic TE, the flow field between the tip & the Mach angle will be
influenced by tip losses, which will reduce the lift produced in that region.
The normal force on a wing is the result of the difference between a pressure on
the upper and lower surfaces. For two dimensional lifting surfaces, theoretical normal
force coefficients is given by,
Normal force, C N
C N

4
M 2 1

The wave drag for various cross sections is given by

4
M 2 1

Double wedge: CDw

4 2
M 2 1

Modified Double Wedge, (flat 1/3 chord): CDw


Biconvex (circular arc): CDw
=

Here,
2.2.

6 2
M 2 1

5.33 2
M 2 1

max .thickness
chord

Forces acting on a Missile while passing through atmosphere

angle of attack
M X & M Y load factor in longitudinal and transverse directions.
C - Drag;

W Weight;

angle between control surface & body axis

LN Nose force vector


LB Body force vector
LV Normal component of thrust
LT Tail force vector

LR Resultant force
F Thrust along longitudinal direction.
LR nz LN LB LT LV
F nx C
If M0 is the moment about centre of gravity or mass then,
M 0 M N M B M T M V (algebraic sum)
dcN
q d2

d N , ,T

LN ,T

dcN
2
q d
d

LV
Moments;

dcM
3
q d
d

M N ,T

dcM
3
q d
d

MV
dcM
dc M
3
M0
q d
d

dc
q d 3 M

dcM dc M
dcM
M0



d B d T
d N

dc
q d 3 M q d3
d

dcM


d V

For trim condition or Equilibrium condition, M 0 0

dc

dcM

d V

dc M
dcM



d B d T
d N

2.3.

Classification of Missiles

Most missiles can be classified into four general classes:


1.

AAM - Air to Air Missiles

2.

SAM Surface to Air Missiles

q d3

3.

ASM Air to Surface Missiles

4.

SSM Surface to Surface Missiles

AAM:
The air-to-air missile is on which is launched from one airplane against another
flying aircraft or air target. This type of missiles is generally of the smaller variety
because of i) the carrying capacity of the relatively smaller fighter aircrafts ii) the
relatively short-range requirement. Because of the relatively short range involved, the
AAMs are usually the boost glide type: i.e., they are boosted to either the maximum
speed with their own power plant and glide the rest of the way to the target. A solid
propellant motor is most frequently used on these types of missiles because of its inherent
simplicity, reliability and attractive handling features.
The aerodynamic problems associated with launching these missiles straight
ahead of the parent aircraft are relatively simple. However caution must be excised to
account for the possibilities of the air flow interference between the missiles and the
airplane. This interference problem is particularly critical for high speed launching from
highly swept wing fighters. In the special role of bombers defense, for which the AAM
may be retro launched or launched perpendicular to the flight directions of the bomber.
The maneuverability requirement is generally of an AAM is generally the most service
when comparison with the other classes of missiles. This is due to i) the relatively high
launching speed ii) high target velocity and maneuverability and iii) relatively short time
flight for corrections.
SAM:
The surface to air missiles is normally designed for area defense against attacking
aircrafts or ICBMs. As a result the aerodynamic design depends upon its range, which
can vary from few miles to several hundred miles. For relatively short range, single stage
solid or liquid motor is generally used. Again a boost sustainer trajectory may be used to
improve the missile performance characteristics. For long ranges, multistage is often
required in order to reduce the overall weight of the missiles. Ramjets or other air
breathing power plants are proven to be the advantageous from the economic and weight
standpoints. Perhaps one of the chief disadvantage of using the air breathing ram jet is
that the very large external and or droppable booster are required to boost the missile to

the ram jet ignition speeds. The guidance system may vary significantly for different
range requirements. For relatively short ranges, beam riding or infrared guidance may
provide sufficient accuracy for the desired probability of the kill. However, for longrange intercepts, some form of homing or terminal guidance system is required to ensure
an effective kill. The maneuverability requirement for this classes of missiles can be quite
severe particularly against fast flying low altitude targets. Generally this types of missiles
is launched vertically or at an high elevation to maximize the effective area of the missile
weapon systems.
ASM:
It is normally designed as an offensive or tactical weapon to knock out the enemy
surface targets such as gun emplacements, tanks, ships or airfields. The launching
problems associated with the straight forward launches of AAMs , again ,the range of
this types of missiles varies from few miles to hundreds of miles. For relatively shortrange missiles, the ASMs

is normally boosted of the pylons because of the relatively

lightweight. For long range applications, the ASM is usually dropped of the pylons,
altitude stabilized, and gradually, boosted up to the required speeds\. Multistage may be
beneficial for this types of missiles if the range is appreciable. Careful considerations
must be given to the missile aircraft installations in order to minimize the performance
degradation to the parent aircraft, particularly with the large sized long range ASMs. The
maneuverability requirement for the ASMs is generally much lower than that of the
AAMs, because of the slow moving or stationery ground targets.
SSM:
It may be used in two separate roles involved. One is as a long ranged offensive or
retaliatory weapon: other is for use in support of ground troops in the role of the artillery
battery. The former weapon may have a range, which ranges from one thousand to
several thousands of miles and may fly at the cruise or ballistic type of trajectory. For the
latter type of trajectory, multi staging is mandatory to reduce the size of the rocket motor
and the overall weight of the missile for this mission. Because of their weight , these
missile are always launched from their upright position on the launch pads. The
maneuverability requirements are very low, and the chief control requirement arises from

wind profile effects on the missile trajectory during its ascent. The re-entry body of such
missiles is a design, which merits many special considerations.
As a artillery weapon, the SSM is normally boosted off a ground launched and
coasts to the target. In general only a moderate degree of maneuverability is required for
this type of missile. A special type of SSM is one, which is launched from beneath the
water (i.e., Polaris).
2.4.

Method of Describing Forces & Moments Acting on a Rocket Projectile


The direction of the rocket is depending upon the direction of velocity vector

from the mass center.


X, Y, & Z are orthogonal system.
XY plane plane of angle of attack
The orientation of the rocket relative to the airflow is definable by the angle of
attack, and the roll angle, . The angle is defined as the angle between the plane of
angle of attack and a plane fixed in the rocket and containing its longitudinal axis.
R Aerodynamic force
-RX Drag force = D =CD

V 2
S
2

RY Lift Force = L = CL

V 2
S
2

RZ Lateral Force = CZ

V 2
S
2

MX Rolling moment = mx

V 2
S l
2

V 2
MY Yawing moment = my
S l
2
MZ Pitching moment = mz

V 2
S l
2

CD, CL, CZ, mx, my, & mz are dimensionless force coefficient of the respective forces and
moments.

Forces acting perpendicular to the body axis = L cos D sin F


Moment due to this force, M z L cos D sin lc
1
M z mz V 2 s
l
2
1
mz V 2 s
l lc L cos
2

D
sin

mz l lc
cd sin

cl cos
The distance lc which is equal to CO will be positive, if the centre of pressure lies
forward of C.
Knowing the coefficient mz relative to a given point from the rocket axis, we can use the
'
above equation(). To calculate coefficient mz relative to another point on the axis.

mz ' lc lc

mz
lc

In fig (), the C-X axis coincides with the longitudinal axis of the rocket and C-Y axis lies
along the plane of angle of attack & is perpendicular to CX 1. CZ1 is perpendicular to both
CX1 & CY1.
The components of the aerodynamic moment MX1, MY1, & MZ1 have same names as the
flow system of co-ordinates.
Expressing cl1 , cd1 , mx1 , & my1 in terms of cl & cd
cl1 cl cos cd
sin
cd1 cl sin cd cos
mx1 m y sin mx cos
my1 my cos mx
sin
In this analysis, the speed, V & the orientation of the rocket are assumed
unchanging. Here R and M are regard as static for static moment. They are determined by
the velocity of the mass centre & the orientation of the rocket. The effect of angular
velocity can be taken into account by introducing dynamic forces and moments. For
rockets dynamic forces & moments of practical importance are the damping moments of
M and M i.e., lateral and longitudinal aerodynamic moments.

Dependence of Cd on .
For externally small angle of attack, the drag
coefficient is practically independent of . The
above figure gives the variation Cd with . Cd is

an even function of in the case of symmetric rockets at very low angle of attack, it can
be observed from the figure the drag coefficient is practically independent of .
Dependence of Cd on :
The various aerodynamic investigations have shown that the coefficient Cd for finned
rocket is independent if the roll angle .
Dependence of Cl on :
In case of symmetric rockets Cl 0 if 0 . You continued our attention for very
small angle of attack 6 o . The variation of Cl
with can be represented by a straight line as
shown in the above figure.
Cl

is always positive

If is negative Cl is also negative


If is positive Cl is also negative
Cl ( )

Cl

Cl

is positive and also constant


is within 6

Wind tunnel tests have shown that the dependence of lift coefficient on roll angle is
also practically negligible for finned rockets of symmetric configuration.
Fins:
Aerodynamic tests have shown that for finned projectiles in which he fins extend
to larger caliber than the main body. Cl \ C Is 8 to 10 fines greater for the same projectile
without fin.

Thus fins provide major parts of the lift force, which acts on finned

projectiles. Test has been carried out on over caliber-finned projectiles in order to
investigate the relationship between

Cl

and the velocity of the projectile.

Upto the Mach no 0.75, the magnitude of

Cl

was practically independent of the

Mach number, M.
Influence of Characteristics of Fins on Cl

2.5.

i. Number of fins
ii. Area of fins
iii. Span, l
iv. Chord, b
Aerodynamic tests have shown that there is no advantage having more than six fins
because more than this number will offset additional lift gained with increase in drag.
From the theory of wings it is known, the

Cl
for a wing depends on its aspect ratio

l2
Aspect ratio, AR =
Sw
For Aspect ratio greater than 3
AR
Cl
2

AR 2
S
w

For a wing,

Cl
increases with increasing AR.

Note of caution: The fins of rockets are of low aspect ratio generally, the values may
range from 0.5 to 1.5 and the above equation is only approximately corrected. However,
still it gives a qualitative idea of the form of function

Cl
(AR). And we shall use it to

determine the effect of changes in span and chord.


L Cl

V 2
S
Sw 2 w

V 2
Cl

Sw

2
S

V 2
Cl

SM
Similarly, L

2
S
M

S
Cl
Cl

S M S W S M
AR SW
Cl
2


AR 2 S M

S
M

SM mid cross-section area (constant)

AR
Cl
:
SW

AR 2

S
M

2.6. The Lateral Aerodynamic Moment of a Rocket


The lateral component M z of the aerodynamic moment is perpendicular to the
plane of the angle of attack & it tends to alter the angle of attack. It can be seen from the
figure that the sign of M z is same as that of and then the moment M z tends to increase
to the absolute magnitude of the angle of attack, . But if M z & have opposite signs
then the absolute value of the angle of attack will tend to reduce i.e., the rocket axis tends
to align the tangent to the trajectory. In the former case, the moment M z is a destabilizing
moment and in the latter case it is stabilizing moment. If over a certain range of , the
inequality condition

Mz
0 , then the rocket is said to be aerodynamically stable over

this range of .
If

mz
0 , then the rocket is said to be aerodynamically stable over this range of .

Conversely, if

mz
0 , the rocket is aerodynamically unstable.

If mz = 0 over a certain range of , the rocket is aerodynamically neutrally stable. For


symmetric rockets, mz = 0, if = 0.
Confining attention to very small angles of attack ( < 6). The function mz is
usually linear with respect to and therefore can be represented by a straight line passing
through the origin ass shown in the above figure.

mz is given by
mz

mz
.

mz
constant

mz
0; unstable projectiles

mz
0; stable projectiles

mz
0 ; neutrally stable projectiles

lc is positive or negative depending upon the position of coefficient of pressure with


respect to coefficient of moment.
L cos D sin

mz l lc cl cos cd sin

cl

cos cd sin

lc

mz
cl


l lc
cos cd sin

Since, is very small cos ; 1,sin ;


mz
cl

l lc

cd

mz
c

l lc l cd

For finned rockets, the coefficient cd is usually much smaller than

of

cl
, i.e., only 2 - 4%

cl
and therefore can be neglected.

c
mz
l ; lc l

As in the case of cl , wind tunnel test have shown, mz for a finned rocket is

practically independent of roll angle, .


l reference length
2.7.

Influence of Various Parts of a Rocket on Moment, MZ


Fig.1 shows typical line density distribution of CL1 over the length of unfinned

projectiles with in OGIVAL head and truncated cone face at positive angle of attack, .
From the figure w.r.to the graph

cl1

, you can find the coefficient CL1 by integration over

the length of the rocket i.e., by finding the area bound by the curve
The moment MZ is found from the formula
l
cl
V 2
S M 1

x xc dx
MZ =
2

cl1

and x-axis.

As can be seen from fig, the distribution of normal force density

cl1

for

unfinned projectiles is such that the moment M Z is created which is destabilizing, since
the integrant in the above equation is positive through out.
l length of the rocket

The mounting of fins on the tail of unfinned rocket gives rise to a notable change
and normal force density
cl1

cl1

distribution only in the vicinity of the fins. Figure 2 shows

as a function of x for a finned rocket at the same positive angle of attack.


When making rough calculation of aerodynamic moment MZ w.r.to mass centre,

the destabilizing moment of the Ogival part is added algebraically to the stabilizing
moment of fins. In any practical situation, the sum will be stabilizing one. For a given
rocket body, the stabilizing moment will be greater, when the larger is the normal force of
the fin and greater the distance between the fins and mass centre.
2.8. The Lateral Aerodynamic Damping Moment
The lateral angular velocity gives rise to an additional aerodynamic moment
M which is proportional to the angular velocity and so directed that it tends to reduce the
angular velocity and this moment is known as lateral damping moment.

sin

Veff
V
V
=

=
sin

sin
2
2

6
V lc
Veff
sin

V cos
cos

lc
cos
V

Using approximation,
sin

cos cos ; 1
Veff ; V
;

lc
V

Lift force on the fins


L=
=

Veff2
Cl
eff
SM

2
Cl

lc V 2

SM

V
2

M Z L cos lc : Stabilizing moment

Cl

Using the approximation that

lc V 2

S M cos lc

V
2

cos ; 1

Cl
lc V 2
MZ
S M lc


V
2
MZ

Cl
C 2 V
V 2
lc
S M l l
SM
c

2
14 4 2 424 3
angularvelocity

Cl 2 V
lc S M

M m l 2 V SM
m = Dimensionless coefficient

2.9. The Longitudinal Aerodynamic Moment


In the case of symmetric finned rockets the component M X of the aerodynamic
moment along a longitudinal axis is zero. However it is not the case for rockets with
slanted fins. In such a rocket, each fin is mounted to make certain angle
longitudinal axis in such a way that on rotation of missile through

with

360
degrees (where n
n

is the number of fins). Each fin assumes the position occupied by the adjacent fin prior
rotation when fins are slant mounted, a moment arises during the flight, which tends to
rotate the rocket about its axis of symmetry.

For simplicity, study the motion of such a rocket at an angle of attack, =0 (fig ).
Since each fin encounters the airflow at an angle of attack, the fins are acted upon by a
lift force L1 perpendicular to rocket axis. The centre of pressure of this force i.e., the point

of intersection of its line of action with the plane of the fin is at a distance of r c as shown
in (fig

).
If there are n fins the total longitudinal moment is n.L1.rc. Since the lift force is

proportional to air density & to the square of the velocity & further to the fin angle, .
M X mx

V 2
SM l
2

mx
V 2

SM l

Wind tunnel tests have shown that the moment coefficient m x for the rocket with
slanted fin is practically independent of the angle of attack, .
2.10.

The Longitudinal Aerodynamic Damping Moment, M


On rotation of a finned rocket with straight or slanted fin with angular velocity,

about its axis of symmetry, there arises a longitudinal damping moment, M proportional
to and tending to reduce the value of . This moment arises in exactly the same as the
lateral damping moment.
We can analyze this effect by reference to a rocket with straight fins flying at a
velocity, V with an angle of attack, = 0 and the axial angular velocity, . The fin
velocity is the sum of translational velocity, V of the mass centre and relative velocity,
V is equal to the product of angular velocity, with distance rc between the centre of
pressure of the fin & the rocket axis. This additional velocity, V is perpendicular to V.
Owing to the appearances of this additional velocity, V , the fins meet the air flow at an
effective angle of attack, eff
tan eff

V
V

or eff ;

V
V

eff ;

rc
.
V

The resulting lift force, L1 on the fins give rise to a moment opposing the angular
velocity, and this damping moment can be represented by M.

M
M

mx
V 2
eff
SM l

1 mx

V rcS M l
2

M m
V SM l 2
m dimensionless coefficients of the longitudinal damping moment.
2.11.

Drag Estimation

Pressure Drag:
Pressure or form drag in subsonic flow is generally small and may be neglected in
preliminary design studies. However, in the transonic and supersonic region pressure
drag constitutes a great percentage of the total drag of the missile and hence must be
carefully obtained before and accurate determination can be made on missileperformance capabilities. Pressure drag in the transonic region can best be determined
from experimental test data or by the transonic-area rule, which is highly mathematical
but can be solved on automatic computing machines. In the supersonic-speed region the
pressure drag can be determined by the relationships presented in the preceding chapter.
Body:
The body-pressure drag consists of three primary parts- nose-wave drag, boattailwave drag, and base-pressure drag.
Wing:
The theoretical wave drag of an airfoil has been shown to vary as the thickness
squared.
Induced Drag:
For subsonic speeds the induced-drag coefficient may be obtained by the
following empirical expression:
C Di =

CL 2
Rm 2

For the high subsonic and transonic-speed regions, experimental or correlated test
results must be used in order to obtain reasonably accurate values of C Di. However, for
supersonic speeds the induced drag (or drag due to normal force) can be approximated
fairly closely as follows:
CDN CDi KCN2

C N2
CN

The above expression is quite accurate, particularly for straight wings or


triangular wings with supersonic leading edge.

At lower supersonic speeds where

subsonic leading edge is realized, leading-edge suction effect exists and results in a
lower drag-rise factor K as shown in Figure.
Interference Drag:
Interference effects on drag in the transonic- and supersonic speed regions are not
completely understood and hence are difficult evaluate. Theories such as the transonicand supersonic-area rules are available to predict trend and with some degree of accuracy
the actual magnitude of the drag of composite configurations (i.e., body plus wing, etc.).
The methods and procedures on the usage of these highly mathematical theories have
been greatly simplified with the aid of automatic computing equipment. In most aircraft
companies the area-rule methods are programmed on automatic computers and hence the
magnitude of the problem of drag (interference) evaluation is greatly reduced.
Quite frequently one must rely upon experimental results and correlation for an
accurate evaluation of this interference drag. Much more effort is still necessary before a
quick solution to this problem can be found.
2.12.

Interference Effects

2.12.1. Wing Body interference:


When a wing is mounted on a missile body the resulting total lift & normal force

is greater than that which would be obtained from the wing alone than of the body alone
because of the mutual interference effects of each component on the other. Considerable
study has been carried out to ascertain the exact magnitude of the wing body interference
both in normal force and moments. It is usually necessary that wind tunnel tests will be
carried out on any particular design contributions to establish the moment characteristics
since they tend to be non-linear especially if any sizeable angle of attack is obtained.
As shown in the above figure the wing body carry over is limited by a forward
boundary defined by the Mach angle from the LE root of the opposite panels. There is
however no corresponding aft limit. The lift carry over extends well aft of the region of
the wings & infact it may still be present in the aft control surfaces. This has a marked
effect on the load distribution over this portion of the body as well as influencing the
body bending & ultimate strength requirements.
2.12.2. Body Upwash
It is of great important in the analysis of flow conditions around bodies of
revolution with wing surfaces at angle of attack with increase of flow velocities normal to
the centre line of the body. Because of the continuity concept wherein the air must be
divided & passed around the body. It is necessary that the velocity of air close to the body
be increased due to the increased path length, which it must cover. It has been found that
the velocity at the surface of the body approaches a value twice that of the free stream
velocity (normal to the body centre line) at a location half way around the body relative
to flow direction.
This magnitude then falls off as the square of the distance from the surface of the
body in the plane through the centre line of the body normal to the flow direction. It can
be seen that this effect will have great important on the normal force created by the wing
surfaces placed on the body of revolution.
2.12.3. Wing-Tail interference (down wash)
When a missile with fore and aft wing locations is inclined at an angle of attack to
the air stream, the original flow deflection will be changed as the air leaves the forward
lifting surfaces. This modifies the effective angle of attack of the stream striking the tail
surfaces as compared with angle of attack, which would have existed if the forward
surfaces were not present. The wing-tail interference is referred to as down wash.

2.13.

Calculation of Impact Range

The distance between the launch and impact point is known as Impact Range. The entire
trajectory of the vehicle can be divided into five distinct phases.
The impact range, s s1 s2 s3 s4 s5
Phase (I) covers that part of the trajectory, which is powered ( s1 ).
Phase (II) extends from the burnout point, P to the Apogee point A ( s2 ).

Phase (III) is the mirror image of phase (II) and extends from the apogee to the point P.
On the trajectory, which is at an attitude equal to at which burnout occurs ( s3 ).
Phase (IV is the sector between point P and at point of Re-entry E ( s4 ).
Phase (V) is the Re-entry part of the trajectory ( s5 ).
s1 is calculated directly from the equations of motion of the vehicle as applicable to the
different segments of the trajectory, LP. A ground range s2 of Phase (II) may be found
from the relation
s2 = R2.
R Radius of the Earth.
2 is given by particular relation

r C

g 0 2 R 4 Ah2

g0 R 2 h

2 = sin

C & A constant
h angular momentum per unit mass
h = r 2&
r the distance from the centre of the earth to the body portion on the trajectory.
s3 = s2
s4 R 4

r C

g 0 2 R 4 Ah2

g0 R 2 h

4 = sin

s5 yE cot E
yE Re-entry altitude

E Re-entry angle (assuming that earth is flat)


2.14. Rocket Dispersion
There are two types of rocket dispersion such as,
i. In-plane dispersion

ii. Lateral dispersion


In the absence of perturbing forces giving rise to rocket dispersion, the trajectory of
the rocket would lie in the launch plane. But practically such factors are generally active
and they try to produce that cause. The dispersion of the rocket, which may be an inplane dispersion or lateral dispersion. This is also possible for rocket, which can suffer
both simultaneously. The distance between impacts on the launch plane is called lateral
dispersion or lateral scatter and the distance between the impact and the target within the
launch plane is called in-plane dispersion or range dispersion.

Lateral dispersion during powered flight


If the perturbing factors are at work (are reactive) the axis of rocket will in
general deviation from the tangent to the trajectory of the mass center c by an angle ,
known as angle of attack. Since the thrust feed is directed along the axis of the rocket,
this deviation gives rise to a thrust component sin normal to the trajectory. /the
trajectory thus departs from that intended, patting the rocket of the far get.
Perturbing factors causing angle of attack
1.Asymmetry of thrust force manufacturing defects in nozzle Gas flow
2.Perturbations when the rocket leaves the launcher.