test

© All Rights Reserved

Просмотров: 324

test

© All Rights Reserved

- Mathematical Proofs
- math 2 review with sample problems
- STATISTICS FOR MANAGEMENT 15 OCTOBER
- Sphere(Concepts With Examples)
- unit 1 test a review
- Triangle Congruence
- Logic of Phantasy 04
- Friedman, Michael - Geometry as a Branch of Physics. Background and Context for Eisnstein's 'Geometry and Experience'
- Mathematics and the Metaphysicians
- miaa 360 curriculum analysis
- Math Omkar Math 1
- Quant
- Texto Wheler.pdf
- Autocad Introduction
- Mock Exam Papers
- Tutorial 2
- The Creation Hypothesis of Nature without Big-Bang
- 0810.4339
- 2016 10 Mathematics Sample Paper Sa2 02
- T11.6

Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 27

Course of Study

This course supports the assessments for College Geometry. The course covers 4

competencies and represents 4 competency units.

Introduction

Overview

This course is designed for prospective secondary school mathematics teachers. It uses both

synthetic and analytic approaches.

In this course, you will be introduced to formal proofs using geometric properties, and have the

opportunity to explore basic concepts of transformational geometry. You will also become

familiar with the use of dynamic technologies and selected advanced topics in the study of

geometry.

Watch the following video for an introduction to the course:

Note: To download this video, right-click the following link and choose "Save as...": download

video.

Competencies

This course provides guidance to help you demonstrate the following 4 competencies:

Competency 218.1.1: Axiomatic Systems

The graduate applies the axiomatic nature of geometry to analyze the fundamental

concepts and principles of Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometries.

Competency 218.1.2: Properties and Relationships

The graduate applies synthetic and analytic methods to construct proofs and solves

problems involving the properties and relationships of two-dimensional objects.

Competency 218.1.3: Congruence and Similarity

The graduate proves theorems involving congruence and similarity of geometric objects

and applies them to solve problems.

Competency 218.1.6: Geometric Transformations

The graduate applies geometric transformations to explore and analyze objects and

solve problems.

Course Mentor Assistance

As you prepare to successfully demonstrate competency in this subject, remember that course

mentors stand ready to help you reach your educational goals. As subject matter experts,

mentors enjoy and take pride in helping students become reflective learners, problem solvers,

and critical thinkers. Course mentors are excited to hear from you and eager to work with you.

Successful students report that working with a course mentor is the key to their success. Course

mentors are able to share tips on approaches, tools, and skills that can help you apply the

content you're studying. They also provide guidance in assessment preparation strategies and

1 / 27

Course of Study

troubleshoot areas of deficiency. Even if things dont work out on your first try, course mentors

act as a support system to guide you through the revision process. You should expect to work

with course mentors for the duration of your coursework, so you are welcome to contact them

as soon as you begin. Course mentors are fully committed to your success!

The information in this section is provided to detail the resources available for you to use as you

complete this course.

Learning Resources

The learning resources listed in this section are required to complete the activities in this course.

For many resources, WGU has provided automatic access through the course. However, you

may need to manually enroll in or independently acquire other resources. Read the full

instructions provided to ensure that you have access to all of your resources in a timely manner.

Enroll in Learning Resources

You will need to enroll in or subscribe to learning resources as a part of this course. You may

already have enrolled in these resources for other courses. Please check the Learning

Resources tab and verify that you have access to the following learning resources. If you do

not currently have access, please enroll or renew your enrollment at this time.

Note: For instructions on how to enroll in or subscribe to learning resources through the

Learning Resources tab, please see the Acquiring Your Learning Resources page.

Geometers Sketchpad

Geometers Sketchpad is interactive geometry software that you will utilize throughout this

course of study. Geometers Sketchpad is used in many geometry classrooms throughout the

United States, so becoming familiar with this resource now will also prepare you to teach

geometry in the future.

Automatically Enrolled Learning Resources

You will be automatically enrolled at the activity level for the following learning resources.

Simply click on the links provided in the activities to access the learning materials.

uCertify

You will access a uCertify resource at the activity level within this course. The following will be

your primary learning resource throughout this course:

College Geometry 2

Other Learning Resources

You will use the following learning resources for this course.

Online Resources

You will access content from several important mathematics education websites at the activity

2 / 27

Course of Study

level throughout this course. You may also want to explore more of the resources available on

these sites:

Annenberg Learner

Math Open Ref

Regents Prep

Pacing Guide

The pacing guide suggests a weekly structure to pace your completion of learning activities. It is

provided as a suggestion and does not represent a mandatory schedule. Follow the pacing

guide carefully to complete the course in the suggested timeframe.

Pacing Guide: College Geometry

Note: This pacing guide does not replace the course. Please continue to refer to the course for

a comprehensive list of the resources and activities.

Axiomatic Systems

Studying geometry presents an opportunity to develop and apply reasoning skills using a

concrete topicyou will be able to draw and see the ideas connected to your reasoning. Dr.

Kenneth Ross of the Mathematical Association of America asserts: One of the most important

goals of mathematics courses is to teach students logical reasoning. . . . If reasoning ability is

not developed in the student, then mathematics simply becomes a matter of following a set of

procedures and mimicking examples without thought as to why they make sense.

Introductory Concepts

The foundational introductory concepts related to geometry must first be understood before it

can be studied. You will first be introduced to the foundations of geometric thought and notation.

This topic addresses the following competency:

Competency 218.1.1: Axiomatic Systems

The graduate applies the axiomatic nature of geometry to analyze the fundamental

concepts and principles of Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometries.

This topic highlights the following key concepts:

the validity of a deductive argument

undefined terms, postulates, theorems, and definitions

how knowledge is built in an axiomatic system

Study Introductory Concepts

It is important for you to be aware of the symbols and markings used to identify geometric

figures and their properties as part of understanding the axiomatic system. As you learn about

geometric figures throughout the course, sketch these figures in your geometry notebook and

include their notation.

3 / 27

Course of Study

chapter 1 (Introduction)

section 2.1 (Reasoning)

After you have read these sections of the resource, review all of the information on the following

pages from Regents Prep:

Undefined Terms: Point, Line and Plane

Notation

Types of Sentences (Logic)

Negation (Logic)

Conditional (Logic)

Biconditional (Logic)

Geometer's Sketchpad Lab: Introduction to Geometer's Sketchpad

Complete the following lab to become familiar with the software that can be used to explore

geometry in an inductive manner:

Geometers Sketchpad (GSP) Lab 1: Introduction to Geometers Sketchpad

The links below from the GSP Learning Center can be used throughout the course when

working with GSP, so you may want to bookmark them for your reference. You will find a

number of activities, with video instruction, on how to complete various activities with GSP:

Getting Started Tutorials

Sketchpad Tips

You can also use the following document as a reference, which outlines the basic functions of

GSP for use as you familiarize yourself with the program:

Summary of Geometers Sketchpad Tools

You may want to save this to your computer or print it out so you can use it as you complete the

labs throughout this course and in the related performance tasks.

Axiomatic Systems

Euclid developed his geometry from five axioms (postulates) assumed to be true. Alternatives to

the fifth postulate suggest alternatives to Euclids geometry, including a geometry more suited

to a spherical planet as opposed to a flat one. Prior to studying geometric concepts, you will

look at how to build knowledge deductively in an axiomatic system.

This topic addresses the following competency:

4 / 27

Course of Study

The graduate applies the axiomatic nature of geometry to analyze the fundamental

concepts and principles of Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometries.

This topic highlights the following key concepts:

triangle properties given an alternative to the parallel postulate

geometries and their unique characteristics

Explore and Study Alternatives to Euclidean Geometry

Become familiar with alternative geometries and their relationship to the parallel line postulate.

Make note of the types of non-Euclidean geometries and their features.

Read the following in College Geometry 2:

section 2.5 (Non-Euclidean Geometries)

After you have read this section of the resource, review all of the information on the following

pages. Take notes on the specific applications of these geometries:

Euclidean and Non-Euclidean Geometry

Euclidean, Hyperbolic, and Elliptical Geometries

Explore Triangles in Non-Euclidean Geometries

Experiment with the following applets, which allow you to draw a triangle and observe its interior

angle sum for triangles and other properties in hyperbolic and spherical geometry:

Hyperbolic Geometry Triangle

Spherical (Elliptic) Geometry Triangle (scroll down to the applet under the heading: The

Area of a Spherical Triangle Part 1)

For each applet, click and drag the vertices of the triangles given to change the triangle and

observe its angle sums. Draw an example of a triangle in each geometry (hyperbolic and

spherical) in your geometry notebook, and record your observations about how triangles differ in

Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometries. Share your observations in the College Geometry

Learning Community.

Also, engage with the following applets to visually explore how objects in these geometries

appear and interact:

Hyperbolic Geometry

Spherical Geometry

Axiomatic Systems

An axiomatic system begins with undefined terms and statements (axioms) that are assumed to

be true. Read the information contained in the following site to gain an understanding of

5 / 27

Course of Study

axiomatic systems:

Introduction to Axiomatic Systems

The following video also provides an introduction to axiomatic systems using an example that

will be used again in the next activity.

Note: To download this video, right-click the following link and choose "Save as...": download

video.

Undefined Terms, Verifying Axiom Independence, and Proving Theorems

Once axioms have been established, theorems can be deduced, which are proven using the

axioms and logical reasoning. These theorems can be used to prove more theorems, and the

system continues to grow. Euclids Elements represents a form of axiomatic system. A refined

axiomatic system is at the heart of modern mathematics.

Consider the following set of axioms:

Axiom 1: Exactly 4 students are in each group.

Axiom 2: Each student is in exactly 3 groups.

Axiom 3: No 2 students are together in more than 1 group.

In these axioms, students, groups, and in are undefined terms. Note that students and groups

are elements because they imply objects, and in is a relation because it denotes some

relationship between students and groups.

The three axioms are independent. That means each axiom cannot be proven using the other

axioms, and cases exist where one axiom is not satisfied, given that the other two are satisfied.

Independence of an axiom is shown by creating a model where the other axioms are true, while

the axiom being shown independent is false.

For example, the following model would satisfy the conditions of axiom 1 and axiom 2: Students

grouped as A, B, C, D; A, B, E, F; A, B, G, H; C, D, E, F; C, D, G, H; E, F, G, H. Each group has

exactly four students, and each student is in exactly three groups. However, this does not

satisfy axiom 3, as some of these students are together in more than one group (e.g. student A

is with student B in three groups). So axiom 3 is independent of axiom 1 and axiom 2. A similar

argument would need to be made to show that axiom 1 is independent of the other two, and

again to show axiom 2 is independent of the other two.

Theorems can be deduced from these axioms. For example:

Theorem 1: There are at least ten students.

This theorem can be proven using the axioms, as follows:

6 / 27

Course of Study

Since each group has exactly four students (axiom 1), one group looks like: A, B, C, D

(where each letter represents a student).

Each student is in exactly three groups (axiom 2), so there will be other groups with

student A in them. But since no two students are together in more than one group

(axiom 3), the other two groups with student A in them need to have the form: A, E, F, G

and A, H, I, J.

Thus, under these conditions, there needs to be at least ten students (A through J).

Notice that this has not proven that ten students are sufficient to accommodate all students in all

groups, only that there needs to be at least ten to accommodate student A. Determining how

many students are sufficient is an entirely different theorem to be explored.

Examples of Axiomatic Systems

Other examples of relatively simple axiomatic systems, theorems that can be deduced from

them, and the idea of independence can be found at the following web page:

Example of Axiomatic Systems

Note: A video lecture of this example is contained here.

Watch the following video sequence of a slight variation of the example above.

Note: To download this video, right-click the following link and choose "Save as...": download

video.

Note: To download this video, right-click the following link and choose "Save as...": download

video.

Note: To download this video, right-click the following link and choose "Save as...": download

video.

Now you have the competency necessary to complete Task 1.

Complete Task 1

Complete the following task in TaskStream:

Task 1

For details about this performance assessment, see the "Assessment" tab in this course.

There are multiple geometries possible depending on what is assumed to be true, but which

7 / 27

Course of Study

geometry is used to model the Earth? Is the planet flat or round? If you look at the floor of the

room you are in, it looks flat, even though you know the planet is round. On a relatively small

scale, the flat Euclidean Geometry models the world well, so it makes sense to explore basic

geometric figures and how they relate to each other using Euclidean geometry.

Lines and angles are the basic building blocks of geometric figures, and their

interrelationships provide the student opportunity for exploration, deductive reasoning, and

creation of formal proofs.

This topic addresses the following competency:

Competency 218.1.2: Properties and Relationships

The graduate applies synthetic and analytic methods to construct proofs and solves

problems involving the properties and relationships of two-dimensional objects.

This topic highlights the following key concepts:

analytic methods to calculate the midpoint and length of a line segment

analytic methods to determine if two lines are parallel, perpendicular, or neither

angles and angle relationships

problems involving parallel lines, transversals, and their angles

common line and angle constructions using a straight edge and compass

proofs involving parallel lines, transversals, and their angles

Explore Angle Classification and Relationships in Euclidean Geometry

Complete the Try This activities from Math Open Ref, noting the terminology and notation

used with the angles and how their angle measures relate. In your geometry notebook, sketch

and label an example of the angles formed when two parallel lines are intersected by a

transversal.

Angle (Review all the information on this page through the heading "Types of angle.")

Transversal (Review all the information on this page through the heading "Properties of

a transversal of parallel lines.")

Explore Points and Lines from an Analytic Perspective

Complete the Try This activities from Math Open Ref. As you explore, be aware of how the

relationships between the lines and points express themselves in coordinate geometry in

contrast to what you know about these relationships in axiomatic geometry. Record important

formulas and the properties they express in your geometry notebook.

Perpendicular Lines (Coordinate Geometry)

Parallel Lines (Coordinate Geometry)

Midpoint of a Line Segment (Coordinate Geometry)

Distance between two points (given their coordinates)

Slope of a Line (Coordinate Geometry)

8 / 27

Course of Study

Read the following in College Geometry 2:

section 2.2 ("Building Blocks of Geometry")

section 2.3 ("Starting Points")

section 2.4 ("Early Constructions and Proofs")

View the embedded videos on constructions and parallel lines relationships. This portion of the

text includes deductive proofs of theorems as well as geometric constructions. Note important

properties and theorems in your geometry notebook. As the compass and straightedge

constructions are presented throughout the text, practice the technique by creating an example

in your geometry notebook and performing the construction.

If you need further help with compass and straightedge constructions related to the reading, you

can find them animated from Math Open Ref:

Perpendicular bisector of a line segment (i.e., construct the midpoint of a segment)

Constructing a parallel through a point (angle copy method)

Constructing a parallel through a point (rhombus method)

Synthesize and Practice with Angle Relationships and Coordinate Geometry

Complete the exercises at the end of chapter 2 ("Basics of Geometry") in College Geometry 2.

Be sure to engage the setting "Learn Mode," while leaving all other settings as given. Then you

can "Start your test":

College Geometry 2

Access the following link from the Shodor website to practice with angle relationships by

practicing classifying angles and finding angle measures using the interrelationships among

angles made by transversals through parallel lines.

Angles

View the following video for explanation on how to use the link above:

Note: To download this video, right-click the following link and choose "Save as...": download

video.

Access the following link from the Regents Prep website to apply the formulas and properties

from coordinate geometry to problems; be sure to check your answers with the link at the

bottom of the page.

Multiple Choice Practice: Coordinate Geometry

Geometer?s Sketchpad Lab: Constructing Parallel and Perpendicular Lines

9 / 27

Course of Study

GSP Lab 2: Constructing Parallel and Perpendicular Lines

The links below from the GSP Learning Center can be used throughout the course when

working with GSP, so you may want to bookmark them for your reference. You will find a

number of activities, with video instruction, on how to complete various activities with GSP:

Getting Started Tutorials

Sketchpad Tips

You can also use the following document as a reference, which outlines the basic functions of

GSP for use as you familiarize yourself with the program:

Summary of Geometers Sketchpad Tools

You may want to save this to your computer or print it out so you can use it as you complete the

labs throughout this course and in the related performance tasks.

The Circle

In the previous topic, your explorations involved straight lines, how they intersect, and the

relationships among the angles they create. You used a curved line, the circle, to construct lines

and angles. Next you will look in depth at the circle itself.

This topic addresses the following competency:

Competency 218.1.2: Properties and Relationships

The graduate applies synthetic and analytic methods to construct proofs and solves

problems involving the properties and relationships of two-dimensional objects.

This topic highlights the following key concepts:

common constructions involving circles using a straightedge and compass

lines and angles associated with circles

analytic methods to prove theorems involving circles

synthetic methods to prove theorems involving circles

measurements related to circles

coordinate geometry to solve problems involving circles

Explore Circles and Related Geometric Figures

Familiarize yourself with parts of circles and lines associated with them by sketching labeled

drawings in your geometry notebook from these examples.

Parts of a circle - pictorial index

Explore Circles from an Analytic Perspective

10 / 27

Course of Study

Review all of the information on the following site through the heading Example. Then follow

the steps on Things to Try near the bottom of this page:

Basic Equation of a Circle

Note the location of the center of the circle and how the radius of the circle is expressed in the

equation. Sketch an example of a circle on the coordinate grid with its equation in your

geometry notebook.

Study Constructions and Circles

Read the following in College Geometry 2:

section 3.1 ("The Circle in Detail")

section 3.2 ("Area of a Circle")

section 3.3 ("Chords and Tangents")

section 3.4 ("Theorems of Circles")

section 3.5 ("Coordinate Geometry of Circles")

View the embedded videos on constructions and circle relationships. Make special note of the

formulas for area and circumference and how they differ.

If you need further help with compass and straightedge constructions related to the reading, you

can find them animated by from Math Open Ref:

Finding the center of a circle or arc

Tangents to a circle through an external point

Tangent to a circle through a point on the circle

Synthesize and Practice with Circle Properties

Complete and check your answers to the following multiple choice practice problems at Multiple

Choice Practice: Circles:

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 13, 15, 18, and 19

Geometer?s Sketchpad Lab: Circles

Complete the following lab:

GSP Lab 3: Circles

The links below from the GSP Learning Center can be used throughout the course when

working with GSP, so you may want to bookmark them for your reference. You will find a

number of activities, with video instruction, on how to complete various activities with GSP:

Getting Started Tutorials

Sketchpad Tips

11 / 27

Course of Study

You can also use the following document as a reference, which outlines the basic functions of

GSP for use as you familiarize yourself with the program:

Summary of Geometers Sketchpad Tools

You may want to save this to your computer or print it out so you can use it as you complete the

labs throughout this course and in the related performance tasks.

The most basic polygon is the triangle, yet studying it can allow us to learn much about other

polygons. Triangles may be considered a major building block of geometry. Once a single

triangle is understood, can we compare two triangles? What are the sufficient conditions to

know if two triangles are congruent? If they are not congruent, does that mean they are not

related at all? Congruency provides opportunities for reasoning and proof, comparison and

contrast. Similarity has applications in scale models and map reading.

Triangles

You have constructed line segments and angles. If you put these pieces together, you get

polygons. The simplest polygon is the triangle. Later on in this course, you will look at other

polygons, which can be divided up or dissected into triangles, and thus the properties of a

triangle can be used to find properties of other polygons.

This topic addresses the following competency:

Competency 218.1.2: Properties and Relationships

The graduate applies synthetic and analytic methods to construct proofs and solves

problems involving the properties and relationships of two-dimensional objects.

This topic highlights the following key concepts:

classification of triangles

line segments and properties associated with triangles

using a straightedge and compass to construct lines associated with triangles

proofs involving triangle properties

Explore Triangles and Triangle Properties

Study the different ways of classifying triangles, using angles and sides at the following link from

Math Open Ref:

Triangles

Be sure to click on each triangle to link to more detailed properties of these triangles and

interactive applets that allow exploration of each different triangle type. Note the two types of

classifications used for triangles (by sides or by angles) and properties associated with these

names in your geometry notebook. Review all of the information contained within each link of

each type of triangle.

12 / 27

Course of Study

Quiz: Triangles

Study Triangle Relationships

Read the following in College Geometry 2:

section 3.6 ("Triangles")

section 3.7 ("Types of Triangles")

section 3.8 ("General Triangle Properties")

section 3.9 ("Triangle Theorems")

View the embedded videos on constructions and triangle relationships. As a construction is

demonstrated, create a similar example repeating the construction in your geometry notebook.

The Triangle Centers page has links to animations of the constructions for the triangle centers

(also linked in the list below). Click into each of the four centers of a triangle from this site to

explore each center, its construction, and its properties. Note each center in your geometry

notebook.

If you need further help with compass and straightedge constructions related to the reading, you

can find them animated by from Math Open Ref:

Medians of a Triangle

Orthocenter of a Triangle (i.e., construct an altitude of a triangle)

Equilateral Triangle

Isosceles Triangle (given base and one side)

Isosceles Triangle (given base and altitude)

Circumcenter of a Triangle (i.e., construct perpendicular bisectors of a triangle)

Incenter of a Triangle (i.e., construct angle bisectors of a triangle)

Centroid of a Triangle (i.e., construct medians of a triangle)

Synthesisze and Practice with Angles, Circles, and Triangles

Complete the exercises at the end of chapter 3 ("Simple Two Dimensional Shapes") in College

Geometry 2. Be sure to engage the setting "Learn Mode," while leaving all other settings as

given. Then you can "Start your test":

College Geometry 2

Also complete the practice on triangle inequalities from the Regents Prep website:

Practice: Triangle Inequalities

Geometer?s Sketchpad Lab: Constructing Triangles

Complete the following lab:

GSP Lab 4: Constructing Triangles

13 / 27

Course of Study

The links below from the GSP Learning Center can be used throughout the course when

working with GSP, so you may want to bookmark them for your reference. You will find a

number of activities, with video instruction, on how to complete various activities with GSP:

Getting Started Tutorials

Sketchpad Tips

You can also use the following document as a reference, which outlines the basic functions of

GSP for use as you familiarize yourself with the program:

Summary of Geometers Sketchpad Tools

You may want to save this to your computer or print it out so you can use it as you complete the

labs throughout this course and in the related performance tasks.

Recall that higher order polygons can be divided into triangles. Knowing how to prove triangles

congruent allows you to prove various properties of other polygons using triangle congruency.

This topic addresses the following competency:

Competency 218.1.3: Congruence and Similarity

The graduate proves theorems involving congruence and s

Similarity of geometric objects and applies them to solve problems.

This topic highlights the following key concepts:

why combinations of congruent corresponding parts do or do not prove triangle

congruence or similarity

the Pythagorean theorem using multiple methods

special triangles (30-60-90, 45-45-90)

The interactive site Congruence Theorems allows for exploration of what congruent parts of

triangles are sufficient to guarantee two triangles are congruent. Read the instructions at the top

of the page and complete the activity six times for each of the cases of triangles using the

following parts:

3 sides (SSS)

3 angles (AAA)

2 angles and a side (ASA, AAS)

2 sides and an angle (SAS, SSA)

Note in your geometry notebook which combinations of corresponding triangle parts always

14 / 27

Course of Study

View the video below for explanation on how to use the activity in the link above:

Note: To download this video, right-click the following link and choose "Save as...": download

video.

Study Triangle Congruence and Similarity

Read the following in College Geometry 2:

section 4.1 ("Forms of Congruency")

section 4.2 ("Forms of Similarity")

View the embedded videos, web links, and Connect the Idea problems. Compare the results of

your exploration to the information in the Learning Resource: which corresponding congruent

parts are sufficient to prove two triangles congruent? Which are similar?

If you need further help with compass and straightedge constructions related to the reading, you

can find them animated from Math Open Ref:

Triangle, given all 3 sides (SSS)

Triangle, given two sides and included angle (SAS)

Triangle, given one side and adjacent angles (ASA)

Geometer's Sketchpad Lab: Triangle Congruence and SSA Case

Complete the following lab:

GSP Lab 5: Triangle Congruence and SSA Case

The links below from the GSP Learning Center can be used throughout the course when

working with GSP, so you may want to bookmark them for your reference. You will find a

number of activities, with video instruction, on how to complete various activities with GSP:

Getting Started Tutorials

Sketchpad Tips

You can also use the following document as a reference, which outlines the basic functions of

GSP for use as you familiarize yourself with the program:

Summary of Geometers Sketchpad Tools

You may want to save this to your computer or print it out so you can use it as you complete the

labs throughout this course and in the related performance tasks.

Explore the Pythagorean Theorem

15 / 27

Course of Study

section 4.3 ("Pythagorean theorem")

Compare the proof of the Pythagorean Theorem presented in the reading to the two interactive

puzzles at the following site:

Pythagorean Theorem

Discuss in your College Geometry Learning Community how these puzzles visually and

algebraically demonstrate the Pythagorean Theorem. Sketch each puzzles solution in your

geometry notebook, and include their algebraic equations that prove the Pythagorean Theorem.

Study More Triangle Theorems and Special Triangles

Read the following in College Geometry 2:

section 4.4 ("Theorems")

section 4.5 ("Particular Triangles Relationships")

Also review all of the information about these relationships on the Math Open Ref website:

30-60-90 Triangle

45-45-90 Triangle

Include sketches and examples of right triangles and special triangles in your geometry

notebook.

Synthesize and Practice Triangle Congruency, Similarity, and the Pythagorean Theorem

Complete the exercises at the end of chapter 4 ("Similarity and Congruency in triangles") in

College Geometry 2. Be sure to engage the setting Learn Mode, while leaving all other

settings as given, then you can Start your test:

College Geometry 2

Complete the extra practice with special right triangles by using the Khan Academy website:

Special right triangles

Tangrams

The tangram is an example of a dissection puzzle.

Explore the information about tangrams on the following page from Wolfram MathWorld:

Tangram

Explore using Tangrams in the following interactive demonstration from the National Library of

16 / 27

Course of Study

Virtual Manipulatives:

Tangram Demonstration

View the video below for explanation of using the link above.

video.

After studying triangles, we will advance to working with polygons with more sides. However,

what was learned about triangles can assist with these higher order polygons because they can

be divided into triangles when we draw diagonals through them.

You will now move on from the triangle to other polygons by increasing the number of sides and

angles within the figure. However, you can still use what you learned from triangles when you

study these higher order polygons because they can be subdivided into triangles. The higher

order polygons increase in complexity and provide many opportunities for further reasoning and

proof, applying what you have already learned about line, angle, and triangle relationships.

This topic addresses the following competency:

Competency 218.1.2: Properties and Relationships

The graduate applies synthetic and analytic methods to construct proofs and solves

problems involving the properties and relationships of two-dimensional objects.

This topic highlights the following key concepts:

the hierarchy of quadrilaterals

the properties of quadrilaterals

theorems involving properties of quadrilaterals

problems given a higher order polygon

Explore Quadrilaterals and Their Interrelationships

Explore the properties of the various quadrilaterals from this summary page by clicking on each

of the quadrilateral types (i.e., square, rectangle, parallelogram, trapezoid, rhombus, and kite)

and reviewing all information on each page. Sketch an example of each quadrilateral given,

noting its definition and properties, in your geometry notebook.

Quadrilateral

Study Quadrilaterals and Their Interrelationships

Read the following in College Geometry 2:

17 / 27

Course of Study

section 5.2 ("Types of Quadrilaterals")

View the embedded videos and complete the Connect the Idea problems. Pay special attention

to the quadrilateral hierarchy and the interrelationships among the quadrilaterals. Choose a

theorem about properties of a particular quadrilateral in the chapter and explain in your learning

community how you would prove that property.

Review and Practice Concepts about Quadrilaterals

Complete all exercises in the first link and problems 1, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, and 11 in the second

link, and check your answers:

Numerical Practice with Quadrilaterals

Proofs Involving Quadrilaterals

Verifying a Dissected Quadrilateral

Previously you learned about the tangram dissection puzzle. In the video below, you will see a

non-tangram dissection of a quadrilateral. You are given the measurements of the sides and

angles of each of the dissected pieces, and will use them to prove that the shape is a square.

Note: To download this video, right-click the following link and choose "Save as...": download

video.

Study Higher Order Polygons

Read the following in College Geometry 2:

section 5.3 ("Higher order polygons")

section 5.4 ("Calculating Angles")

View the embedded videos. Note the methods for calculating interior and exterior angle sums

for polygons and include an example in your geometry notebook. Notice how triangles are used

to calculate area of higher order polygons.

Geometer?s Sketchpad Lab: Quadrilaterals

Complete the following lab:

GSP Lab 6: Quadrilaterals

The links below from the GSP Learning Center can be used throughout the course when

working with GSP, so you may want to bookmark them for your reference. You will find a

number of activities, with video instruction, on how to complete various activities with GSP:

Getting Started Tutorials

Sketchpad Tips

18 / 27

Course of Study

You can also use the following document as a reference, which outlines the basic functions of

GSP for use as you familiarize yourself with the program:

Summary of Geometers Sketchpad Tools

You may want to save this to your computer or print it out so you can use it as you complete the

labs throughout this course and in the related performance tasks.

Review Perimeter and Area of Polygons

Review the following in College Geometry 2:

section 5.5 ("Calculating perimeters")

section 5.6 ("Ways of calculating area")

View the embedded videos. Notice how triangles are used to calculate area of higher order

polygons. Include an illustration in your geometry notebook.

Synthesize and Practice Concepts About Quadrilaterals and Higher Order Polygons

Complete the exercises at the end of chapter 5 ("Higher Order Polygons") in College Geometry

2. Be sure to engage the setting Learn Mode, while leaving all other settings as given, then

you can Start your test:

College Geometry 2

Check your answers against those provided.

You now have the competency necessary to complete Task 2.

Complete Task 2

Complete the following task in TaskStream:

Task 2

Here is a guide for Task 2:

Guide to College Geometry Task 2

For details about this performance assessment, see the "Assessment Preparation" box in this

course.

Visualization

The NCTM standards advocate that students be able to problem solve using visualization and

spatial reasoning, including representing three dimensional figures in two dimensions,

visualizing three dimensional objectives from two dimensional representations, and analyzing

cross sections of three dimensional figures. Visualization of three dimensional objectives in two

19 / 27

Course of Study

Visualization

Paper and computer screens are flat and two dimensional. Objects in the world are three

dimensional. Visualization techniques such as projections, views, cross sections, and nets

represent these three dimensional objects in two dimensions. You can use these techniques to

deepen your understanding of their properties.

This topic addresses the following competency:

Competency 218.1.2: Properties and Relationships

The graduate applies synthetic and analytic methods to construct proofs and solves

problems involving the properties and relationships of two-dimensional objects.

This topic highlights the following key concepts:

how to represent three-dimensional shapes in two dimensions

how to construct three-dimensional shapes from two-dimensional representations

the surface area and volume of three-dimensional objects

the surface area and volume formula of three-dimensional objects

the effect of scaling on perimeter, area, and volume

Explore and Study Two-Dimensional Representations of Three-Dimensional Shapes

From the following Annenberg Learner session, examine the shadows given in problems on this

page (problems C-5, C-6, and C-7), and predict the three-dimensional object that created them

before viewing the provided solutions. Include a sketch of an example and its shadows in your

geometry notebook.

Cross Sections

This exploration will be expanded upon in the performance assessment.

The link below from Math Open Ref will give you more practice on this topic. At this site, click

on the option Show cross-section and observe the shape of the cross-section for the

prism. Click and drag on the orange vertex of the cross-section and observe how the

cross-section relates to the prism. Change the prism types in the drop-down menu and repeat

the exploration, and doing so again after checking the option Allow oblique. Record in your

geometry notebook your observations on how a prism relates to its cross-sections.

Prism

Line and Rotational Symmetry

From the following Annenberg Learner session, review the information on this page and

complete the problems provided (Problems A1 and A2) before checking your solutions to the

ones provided:

20 / 27

Course of Study

Line Symmetry

Note in your geometry notebook what lines of symmetry regular polygons have. Sketch several

examples to help you remember.

From the following Annenberg Learner session, review the information at the top of the page

and then and then explore the Interactive Activity to investigate the symmetry of the shapes.

Try to determine what angle of rotation each shape will have about its center in order to be

symmetric.

Rotation Symmetry

Make a conjecture about a possible rule to determine the angle of rotational symmetry for a

regular polygon and record your conjecture in your geometry notebook

Study and Review Visualization

Read the following in College Geometry 2:

section 6.3 (Relations to 2D)

Make note of examples of different visualization techniques in your geometry notebook.

Representing Three-Dimensional Figures in Two Dimensions

A very practical problem that is particularly familiar to architects and builders is how to represent

three-dimensional figures using two-dimensional media, such as paper or computer software.

Read a brief introduction to various perspective drawings on the following website by reviewing

all information on the page, but not accessing any of the provided links:

3D Drawing

Solids of Revolution from Figures in Two Dimensions

Continue investigating shapes of revolution by using the following link to create solids of

revolution. Examine the shapes you create and their appearance from different perspectives.

3D Transmographer

The following video will show how to use the 3D Transmographer application while

experimenting with a few examples.

Note: To download this video, right-click the following link and choose "Save as...": download

video.

Identify an object you see in your daily life that can be viewed as a solid of revolution and write

about it in your geometry notebook.

Study, Synthesize, and Practice Ideas Using Surface Area, Volume, and Formula

21 / 27

Course of Study

Derivation

From the following Annenberg Learner session, familiarize yourself with three-dimensional

shapes, their names, and their parts, such as edges, faces, and vertices. Explore all information

on each of the pages, being sure to observe how a three dimensional object can be viewed

unfolded as a net of its surfaces and how this relates to the surface area of the objects. Be

sure to assess your understanding of these concepts with the Test Your Skills Quiz at the

end of the session.

Note: If any of the interactive pieces do not appear during your exploration, try refreshing the

page to have them load properly.

Interactives: Geometry 3D Shapes

Sketch several prisms and pyramids with their associated nets in your geometry notebook.

Share any questions you may still have about three dimensional figures with your learning

community.

Read the following in College Geometry 2:

section 6.1 ("Change from 2D")

section 6.2 ("Common 3D shapes")

section 6.4 ("Surface Areas")

section 6.5 ("Volumes")

View the embedded videos. Note the differences between prisms and pyramids, as well as their

formula derivations, and note these formulas in your geometry notebook.

Watch the following video showing an animation of the method discussed in the embedded

video for deriving the volume of a sphere:

Three Pyramids that Form a Cube

Discuss with your learning community how this demonstration relates the formulas for volume of

a prism and volume of a pyramid as given in section 6.5 of College Geometry 2.

Synthesize Surface Area, Volume, and Formula Derivation

Complete the exercises at the end of chapter 6 in College Geometry 2. Be sure to engage the

setting Learn Mode, while leaving all other settings as given, then you can Start your test:

College Geometry 2

Explore Scaling

22 / 27

Course of Study

If you have ever played with the enlargement or reduction features of a copy machine, you have

experimented with scaling. Enlarging or reducing a figure makes it visually larger or smaller, and

it has a predictable impact on its measurements, including length, area, and volume. Explore

scaling using the following applet. In this applet, you will change the size of a rectangle through

scaling, and observe how the perimeters, areas, and ratios of perimeter and areas change.

Drag the slider to change the scale factor on the rectangle and observe how these

measurements change. Start with a scale factor of 1, and then repeat your exploration by

increasing the scale factor multiple times. Note your observations in your geometry journal.

Scale Factor

Study and Review Scaling

Read the following in College Geometry 2:

section 7.4 ("Scaling Factors")

Note the scale factor theorems. Compare the theorem for scale factor and areas to what you

observed in the previous exploration, and add to your geometry notebook the theorem for scale

factor and volumes. Discuss in your Learning Community how you can use an example like

those given in section 7.4 to verify the scale factor theorems for area and volume.

Geometric Transformations

What happens to a figure if you slide it? Flip it? Turn it? Enlarge or reduce it? How is the

resulting figure (i.e. image) related to the original figure (i.e. pre-image)? Your own reflection

looking back at you in a mirror, the spinning of a wheel on sports car, the way a pattern repeats

in wallpaper or on quilt or Navajo rug, all represent geometric transformations. Geometric

transformations provide a means of exploring geometry from a different perspective and help

develop visualization skills.

Geometric Transformations

In this topic you will explore slides (translations), flips (reflections), turns (rotations), and size

changes (dilations). Furthermore, due to its concrete nature, geometry offers opportunities for

exploration of shapes and their properties. Throughout the course you have used dynamic

interactives and software to explore geometric concepts and make conjectures about the

patterns you observed, and applied this reasoning to the student project tasks. In the final task,

you will have the opportunity to conjecture using concrete models through paper folding,

compass and straight edge constructions, and dynamic geometry.

This topic addresses the following competency:

Competency 218.1.6: Geometric Transformations

The graduate applies geometric transformations to explore and analyze objects and

solve problems.

This topic highlights the following key concepts:

23 / 27

Course of Study

the object and its properties that result from a set of transformations

symmetry in terms of transformations

if two-dimensional objects will tessellate

the center and magnitude of dilation

examples and counterexamples to explore and verify assertions

inductive reasoning and patterns to develop conjectures

concrete models and dynamic technologies to draw conclusions about a conjecture

the process, reasoning, and results of geometric investigations

Explore Transformations

Review all of the information on the following links on transformations of polygons. Be sure to

manipulate and explore the interactive figures on each link:

Translation of a polygon

Rotation of a polygon

Reflection of a polygon

Dilation of a polygon

Note in your geometry notebook which properties of a polygon change and which do not under

each transformation. Follow your observations with the Try this suggestion on each link and

note how the transformation changes when you change the parameters and locations of the

figures involved.

Study Transformations

Read the following in College Geometry 2:

section 7.1 ("Preface")

section 7.2 ("Reflection, Translation, and Glide reflections")

section 7.3 ("Congruency Preserving Transformations")

section 7.5 ("Transformations that do no preserve scale")

section 7.6 ("Composite Transformations")

Reflect on how each transformation changes the figure and whether the resulting figures are

congruent or similar. Pay special attention to composite transformations: how an image can be

created from a pre-image using more than one transformation. Review your observations in

your geometry notebook and summarize the main concepts about transformations.

Review and Investigate Fundamental Isometries

Read the summary of the four basic isometries.

Isometries of the Plane

Explore Tessellations

Read the simulated student/mentor discussion of tessellations.

24 / 27

Course of Study

Note the definition of tessellation in your geometry notebook.

Create your own tessellation using the Tessellate activity:

Tessellate

The video below will show you how to use the Tessellate activity:

Note: To download this video, right-click the following link and choose "Save as...": download

video.

Geometer's Sketchpad Lab: Transformations

Complete the following lab:

GSP Lab 7: Transformations

The links below from the GSP Learning Center can be used throughout the course when

working with GSP, so you may want to bookmark them for your reference. You will find a

number of activities, with video instruction, on how to complete various activities with GSP:

Getting Started Tutorials

Sketchpad Tips

You can also use the following document as a reference, which outlines the basic functions of

GSP for use as you familiarize yourself with the program:

Summary of Geometers Sketchpad Tools

You may want to save this to your computer or print it out so you can use it as you complete the

labs throughout this course and in the related performance tasks.

Investigating Isometries with Geometer?s Sketchpad

Watch the following videos.

video.

video.

25 / 27

Course of Study

Note: To download this video, right-click the following link and choose "Save as...": download

video.

Review, Synthesize, and Practice your Ideas

Complete the exercises at the end of chapter 7 in College Geometry 2. Be sure to engage the

setting Learn Mode, while leaving all other settings as given, then you can Start your test:

College Geometry 2

Task 3: Transformations

You now have the competency necessary to complete Task 3.

Complete Task 3

Complete the following task in TaskStream:

Task 3

Here is a guide for Task 2:

Guide to College Geometry Task 3

For details about this performance assessment, see the "Assessment Preparation" box in this

course.

Final Steps

Congratulations on completing the activities in this course! This course has prepared you to

complete the assessments associated with this course. If you have not already been directed to

complete the assessments, schedule and complete them now.

The WGU Library

The WGU Library is available online to WGU students 24 hours a day.

For more information about using the WGU Library, view the following videos on The WGU

Channel:

Introducing the WGU library

video.

26 / 27

Course of Study

video.

If you need help with any part of the writing or revision process, contact the Center for Writing

Excellence (CWE). Whatever your needswriting anxiety, grammar, general college writing

concerns, or even ESL language-related writing issuesthe CWE is available to help you. The

CWE offers personalized individual sessions and weekly group webinars. For an appointment,

please e-mail writingcenter@wgu.edu.

Feedback

WGU values your input! If you have comments, concerns, or suggestions for improvement of

this course, please submit your feedback using the following form:

Course Feedback

ADA Policy

Western Governors University recognizes and fulfills its obligations under the Americans with

Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA), the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and similar state laws. Western

Governors University is committed to provide reasonable accommodation(s) to qualified

disabled learners in University programs and activities as is required by applicable law(s). ADA

Support Services serves as the principal point of contact for students seeking accommodations

and can be contacted at ADASupport@wgu.edu. Further information on WGU?s ADA policy

and process can be viewed in the student handbook at the following link:

Policies and Procedures for Students with Disabilities

27 / 27

Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)

- Mathematical ProofsЗагружено:sith_tiger
- math 2 review with sample problemsЗагружено:api-297398947
- STATISTICS FOR MANAGEMENT 15 OCTOBERЗагружено:api-19858442
- Sphere(Concepts With Examples)Загружено:MohammadFaizan
- unit 1 test a reviewЗагружено:api-295118241
- Triangle CongruenceЗагружено:Nichole Ira Salio Eukan
- Logic of Phantasy 04Загружено:Chun-hsiung Chen
- Friedman, Michael - Geometry as a Branch of Physics. Background and Context for Eisnstein's 'Geometry and Experience'Загружено:John Joseph Dorsch
- Mathematics and the MetaphysiciansЗагружено:John Evans
- miaa 360 curriculum analysisЗагружено:api-268934865
- Math Omkar Math 1Загружено:Adwin Anil Saldanha
- QuantЗагружено:Karthikeyan Chockalingam
- Texto Wheler.pdfЗагружено:alonso
- Autocad IntroductionЗагружено:nanivenkatgaurav
- Mock Exam PapersЗагружено:sureshthevan
- Tutorial 2Загружено:Meghan Gordon
- The Creation Hypothesis of Nature without Big-BangЗагружено:georgallidesmarcos
- 0810.4339Загружено:Yashwant
- 2016 10 Mathematics Sample Paper Sa2 02Загружено:p k singh
- T11.6Загружено:heyitsmemuah
- x1463825570fMath_IX_6-10Загружено:atul kumar
- Coordinate Circle ProbabilityЗагружено:Yoke Kean Ng
- Comm2345.docxЗагружено:Chin Faüsto
- Geometry.pdfЗагружено:Kashilal Indra
- chapter 7 and 8Загружено:api-385932886
- Solution Manual for Trigonometry 3rd Edition by YoungЗагружено:a731759159
- Epping Boys 2012 Year 10 Maths Yearly & Solutions.pdfЗагружено:kev
- W2LC41Загружено:Ace Roi
- posttest final.docxЗагружено:RICHMON ALLAN B. GRACIA
- Trigonometry 4.pptЗагружено:Franz Anfernee Felipe Generoso

- 1 2013.12 Update Training Overview v0.5.NotesЗагружено:manojkumar
- Approved B.tech. KUK Complete SchemeЗагружено:upender
- Sensores de BOSCHЗагружено:Coronel-Kilgore
- Excel for Civil EngineeringЗагружено:socmaster
- A Practical Approach to the Optimization of Gear Trains With Spur GearsЗагружено:anmol6237
- Viewing and Interpretation of RadiographsЗагружено:PP043
- rtl2 assessment 2Загружено:api-435791379
- Mental MathЗагружено:rippey
- Sandal MSDSЗагружено:arvind kaushik
- 4.PIЗагружено:Darwish Wahab
- MIcrosoft Intern Written Test _ CoderasylumЗагружено:Sanjeevkumar M Snj
- Senior Lecturer Lecturer in Chemical Engineering Vice Dr. Sydney ThomasЗагружено:Davide Boreaneze
- VLSI Design by K.lal KishoreЗагружено:niju
- LanguageЗагружено:Mohd Hafiz
- bcrЗагружено:Marvin Marquez
- 2002-3-Knoef-Herman Boerhaave.pdfЗагружено:João Guimarães
- En Ferritin Baosr6x203 UsЗагружено:Wiendha Liendriasari
- AnnЗагружено:Mukesh Manwani
- AUTOMIZATION OF KNITTING MACHINE IN TEXTILE INDUSTRY BASED ON ADVANCED MICROCONTROLLERЗагружено:IJIERT-International Journal of Innovations in Engineering Research and Technology
- Ogn Ops Chem 014 Coal as Fired Sampling ProcedureЗагружено:rani
- Faculty Advertisment and Application Form September 2017 NITGoaЗагружено:Madhavan Soundararajan
- Ganajur Scoping Study Final ReportЗагружено:Roberto Veas
- PAL 2014 MisikováЗагружено:Jozef Sedláček
- Bind_DNSЗагружено:Fahad Khan
- Greco RomanЗагружено:happy_friend
- News and Public Affairs - Issue: SensationalismЗагружено:simplyhue
- Presentation sildes on Seismic Design Code of NepalЗагружено:seismoblog
- Foucault and Capitalist RationalityЗагружено:Ali Rizvi
- SyllAnth5 Fall 2017Загружено:jay
- coap-iot-tutorial-130519145022-phpapp02.pdfЗагружено:Anto Padaunan