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C281 - College Geometry

Course of Study

This course supports the assessments for College Geometry. The course covers 4
competencies and represents 4 competency units.

Introduction
Overview
This course is designed for prospective secondary school mathematics teachers. It uses both
synthetic and analytic approaches.
In this course, you will be introduced to formal proofs using geometric properties, and have the
opportunity to explore basic concepts of transformational geometry. You will also become
familiar with the use of dynamic technologies and selected advanced topics in the study of
geometry.
Watch the following video for an introduction to the course:

video.
Competencies
This course provides guidance to help you demonstrate the following 4 competencies:
Competency 218.1.1: Axiomatic Systems
The graduate applies the axiomatic nature of geometry to analyze the fundamental
concepts and principles of Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometries.
Competency 218.1.2: Properties and Relationships
The graduate applies synthetic and analytic methods to construct proofs and solves
problems involving the properties and relationships of two-dimensional objects.
Competency 218.1.3: Congruence and Similarity
The graduate proves theorems involving congruence and similarity of geometric objects
and applies them to solve problems.
Competency 218.1.6: Geometric Transformations
The graduate applies geometric transformations to explore and analyze objects and
solve problems.
Course Mentor Assistance
As you prepare to successfully demonstrate competency in this subject, remember that course
mentors stand ready to help you reach your educational goals. As subject matter experts,
mentors enjoy and take pride in helping students become reflective learners, problem solvers,
and critical thinkers. Course mentors are excited to hear from you and eager to work with you.
Successful students report that working with a course mentor is the key to their success. Course
mentors are able to share tips on approaches, tools, and skills that can help you apply the
content you're studying. They also provide guidance in assessment preparation strategies and

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troubleshoot areas of deficiency. Even if things dont work out on your first try, course mentors
act as a support system to guide you through the revision process. You should expect to work
with course mentors for the duration of your coursework, so you are welcome to contact them
as soon as you begin. Course mentors are fully committed to your success!

Preparing for Success

The information in this section is provided to detail the resources available for you to use as you
complete this course.

Learning Resources
The learning resources listed in this section are required to complete the activities in this course.
For many resources, WGU has provided automatic access through the course. However, you
may need to manually enroll in or independently acquire other resources. Read the full
instructions provided to ensure that you have access to all of your resources in a timely manner.
Enroll in Learning Resources
You will need to enroll in or subscribe to learning resources as a part of this course. You may
already have enrolled in these resources for other courses. Please check the Learning
Resources tab and verify that you have access to the following learning resources. If you do
not currently have access, please enroll or renew your enrollment at this time.
Note: For instructions on how to enroll in or subscribe to learning resources through the
Learning Resources tab, please see the Acquiring Your Learning Resources page.
Geometers Sketchpad is interactive geometry software that you will utilize throughout this
course of study. Geometers Sketchpad is used in many geometry classrooms throughout the
United States, so becoming familiar with this resource now will also prepare you to teach
geometry in the future.
Automatically Enrolled Learning Resources
You will be automatically enrolled at the activity level for the following learning resources.
Simply click on the links provided in the activities to access the learning materials.
uCertify
You will access a uCertify resource at the activity level within this course. The following will be
your primary learning resource throughout this course:
College Geometry 2
Other Learning Resources
You will use the following learning resources for this course.
Online Resources
You will access content from several important mathematics education websites at the activity

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Course of Study

level throughout this course. You may also want to explore more of the resources available on
these sites:
Annenberg Learner
Math Open Ref
Regents Prep

Pacing Guide
The pacing guide suggests a weekly structure to pace your completion of learning activities. It is
provided as a suggestion and does not represent a mandatory schedule. Follow the pacing
guide carefully to complete the course in the suggested timeframe.
Pacing Guide: College Geometry
Note: This pacing guide does not replace the course. Please continue to refer to the course for
a comprehensive list of the resources and activities.

Axiomatic Systems
Studying geometry presents an opportunity to develop and apply reasoning skills using a
concrete topicyou will be able to draw and see the ideas connected to your reasoning. Dr.
Kenneth Ross of the Mathematical Association of America asserts: One of the most important
goals of mathematics courses is to teach students logical reasoning. . . . If reasoning ability is
not developed in the student, then mathematics simply becomes a matter of following a set of
procedures and mimicking examples without thought as to why they make sense.

Introductory Concepts
The foundational introductory concepts related to geometry must first be understood before it
can be studied. You will first be introduced to the foundations of geometric thought and notation.
This topic addresses the following competency:
Competency 218.1.1: Axiomatic Systems
The graduate applies the axiomatic nature of geometry to analyze the fundamental
concepts and principles of Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometries.
This topic highlights the following key concepts:
the validity of a deductive argument
undefined terms, postulates, theorems, and definitions
how knowledge is built in an axiomatic system
Study Introductory Concepts
It is important for you to be aware of the symbols and markings used to identify geometric
figures and their properties as part of understanding the axiomatic system. As you learn about
geometric figures throughout the course, sketch these figures in your geometry notebook and
include their notation.

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Course of Study

Read the following in College Geometry 2:

chapter 1 (Introduction)
section 2.1 (Reasoning)
After you have read these sections of the resource, review all of the information on the following
pages from Regents Prep:
Undefined Terms: Point, Line and Plane
Notation
Types of Sentences (Logic)
Negation (Logic)
Conditional (Logic)
Biconditional (Logic)
Geometer's Sketchpad Lab: Introduction to Geometer's Sketchpad
Complete the following lab to become familiar with the software that can be used to explore
geometry in an inductive manner:
Geometers Sketchpad (GSP) Lab 1: Introduction to Geometers Sketchpad
The links below from the GSP Learning Center can be used throughout the course when
working with GSP, so you may want to bookmark them for your reference. You will find a
number of activities, with video instruction, on how to complete various activities with GSP:
Getting Started Tutorials
You can also use the following document as a reference, which outlines the basic functions of
GSP for use as you familiarize yourself with the program:
Summary of Geometers Sketchpad Tools
You may want to save this to your computer or print it out so you can use it as you complete the
labs throughout this course and in the related performance tasks.

Axiomatic Systems
Euclid developed his geometry from five axioms (postulates) assumed to be true. Alternatives to
the fifth postulate suggest alternatives to Euclids geometry, including a geometry more suited
to a spherical planet as opposed to a flat one. Prior to studying geometric concepts, you will
look at how to build knowledge deductively in an axiomatic system.
This topic addresses the following competency:

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Course of Study

Competency 218.1.1: Axiomatic Systems

The graduate applies the axiomatic nature of geometry to analyze the fundamental
concepts and principles of Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometries.
This topic highlights the following key concepts:
triangle properties given an alternative to the parallel postulate
geometries and their unique characteristics
Explore and Study Alternatives to Euclidean Geometry
Become familiar with alternative geometries and their relationship to the parallel line postulate.
Make note of the types of non-Euclidean geometries and their features.
Read the following in College Geometry 2:
section 2.5 (Non-Euclidean Geometries)
After you have read this section of the resource, review all of the information on the following
pages. Take notes on the specific applications of these geometries:
Euclidean and Non-Euclidean Geometry
Euclidean, Hyperbolic, and Elliptical Geometries
Explore Triangles in Non-Euclidean Geometries
Experiment with the following applets, which allow you to draw a triangle and observe its interior
angle sum for triangles and other properties in hyperbolic and spherical geometry:
Hyperbolic Geometry Triangle
Spherical (Elliptic) Geometry Triangle (scroll down to the applet under the heading: The
Area of a Spherical Triangle Part 1)
For each applet, click and drag the vertices of the triangles given to change the triangle and
observe its angle sums. Draw an example of a triangle in each geometry (hyperbolic and
spherical) in your geometry notebook, and record your observations about how triangles differ in
Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometries. Share your observations in the College Geometry
Learning Community.
Also, engage with the following applets to visually explore how objects in these geometries
appear and interact:
Hyperbolic Geometry
Spherical Geometry
Axiomatic Systems
An axiomatic system begins with undefined terms and statements (axioms) that are assumed to
be true. Read the information contained in the following site to gain an understanding of

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axiomatic systems:
Introduction to Axiomatic Systems
The following video also provides an introduction to axiomatic systems using an example that
will be used again in the next activity.

video.
Undefined Terms, Verifying Axiom Independence, and Proving Theorems
Once axioms have been established, theorems can be deduced, which are proven using the
axioms and logical reasoning. These theorems can be used to prove more theorems, and the
system continues to grow. Euclids Elements represents a form of axiomatic system. A refined
axiomatic system is at the heart of modern mathematics.
Consider the following set of axioms:
Axiom 1: Exactly 4 students are in each group.
Axiom 2: Each student is in exactly 3 groups.
Axiom 3: No 2 students are together in more than 1 group.
In these axioms, students, groups, and in are undefined terms. Note that students and groups
are elements because they imply objects, and in is a relation because it denotes some
relationship between students and groups.
The three axioms are independent. That means each axiom cannot be proven using the other
axioms, and cases exist where one axiom is not satisfied, given that the other two are satisfied.
Independence of an axiom is shown by creating a model where the other axioms are true, while
the axiom being shown independent is false.
For example, the following model would satisfy the conditions of axiom 1 and axiom 2: Students
grouped as A, B, C, D; A, B, E, F; A, B, G, H; C, D, E, F; C, D, G, H; E, F, G, H. Each group has
exactly four students, and each student is in exactly three groups. However, this does not
satisfy axiom 3, as some of these students are together in more than one group (e.g. student A
is with student B in three groups). So axiom 3 is independent of axiom 1 and axiom 2. A similar
argument would need to be made to show that axiom 1 is independent of the other two, and
again to show axiom 2 is independent of the other two.
Theorems can be deduced from these axioms. For example:
Theorem 1: There are at least ten students.
This theorem can be proven using the axioms, as follows:

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Since each group has exactly four students (axiom 1), one group looks like: A, B, C, D
(where each letter represents a student).
Each student is in exactly three groups (axiom 2), so there will be other groups with
student A in them. But since no two students are together in more than one group
(axiom 3), the other two groups with student A in them need to have the form: A, E, F, G
and A, H, I, J.
Thus, under these conditions, there needs to be at least ten students (A through J).
Notice that this has not proven that ten students are sufficient to accommodate all students in all
groups, only that there needs to be at least ten to accommodate student A. Determining how
many students are sufficient is an entirely different theorem to be explored.
Examples of Axiomatic Systems
Other examples of relatively simple axiomatic systems, theorems that can be deduced from
them, and the idea of independence can be found at the following web page:
Example of Axiomatic Systems
Note: A video lecture of this example is contained here.
Watch the following video sequence of a slight variation of the example above.

video.

video.

video.

Task 1: Axiomatic Systems

Now you have the competency necessary to complete Task 1.
For details about this performance assessment, see the "Assessment" tab in this course.

Lines, Angles, and Circles

There are multiple geometries possible depending on what is assumed to be true, but which

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geometry is used to model the Earth? Is the planet flat or round? If you look at the floor of the
room you are in, it looks flat, even though you know the planet is round. On a relatively small
scale, the flat Euclidean Geometry models the world well, so it makes sense to explore basic
geometric figures and how they relate to each other using Euclidean geometry.

Lines and Angles

Lines and angles are the basic building blocks of geometric figures, and their
interrelationships provide the student opportunity for exploration, deductive reasoning, and
creation of formal proofs.
This topic addresses the following competency:
Competency 218.1.2: Properties and Relationships
The graduate applies synthetic and analytic methods to construct proofs and solves
problems involving the properties and relationships of two-dimensional objects.
This topic highlights the following key concepts:
analytic methods to calculate the midpoint and length of a line segment
analytic methods to determine if two lines are parallel, perpendicular, or neither
angles and angle relationships
problems involving parallel lines, transversals, and their angles
common line and angle constructions using a straight edge and compass
proofs involving parallel lines, transversals, and their angles
Explore Angle Classification and Relationships in Euclidean Geometry
Complete the Try This activities from Math Open Ref, noting the terminology and notation
used with the angles and how their angle measures relate. In your geometry notebook, sketch
and label an example of the angles formed when two parallel lines are intersected by a
transversal.
Angle (Review all the information on this page through the heading "Types of angle.")
Transversal (Review all the information on this page through the heading "Properties of
a transversal of parallel lines.")
Explore Points and Lines from an Analytic Perspective
Complete the Try This activities from Math Open Ref. As you explore, be aware of how the
relationships between the lines and points express themselves in coordinate geometry in
contrast to what you know about these relationships in axiomatic geometry. Record important
formulas and the properties they express in your geometry notebook.
Perpendicular Lines (Coordinate Geometry)
Parallel Lines (Coordinate Geometry)
Midpoint of a Line Segment (Coordinate Geometry)
Distance between two points (given their coordinates)
Slope of a Line (Coordinate Geometry)

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Study and Review Angle Relationship

Read the following in College Geometry 2:
section 2.2 ("Building Blocks of Geometry")
section 2.3 ("Starting Points")
section 2.4 ("Early Constructions and Proofs")
View the embedded videos on constructions and parallel lines relationships. This portion of the
text includes deductive proofs of theorems as well as geometric constructions. Note important
properties and theorems in your geometry notebook. As the compass and straightedge
constructions are presented throughout the text, practice the technique by creating an example
in your geometry notebook and performing the construction.
If you need further help with compass and straightedge constructions related to the reading, you
can find them animated from Math Open Ref:
Perpendicular bisector of a line segment (i.e., construct the midpoint of a segment)
Constructing a parallel through a point (angle copy method)
Constructing a parallel through a point (rhombus method)
Synthesize and Practice with Angle Relationships and Coordinate Geometry
Complete the exercises at the end of chapter 2 ("Basics of Geometry") in College Geometry 2.
Be sure to engage the setting "Learn Mode," while leaving all other settings as given. Then you
can "Start your test":
College Geometry 2
Access the following link from the Shodor website to practice with angle relationships by
practicing classifying angles and finding angle measures using the interrelationships among
angles made by transversals through parallel lines.
Angles
View the following video for explanation on how to use the link above:

video.
Access the following link from the Regents Prep website to apply the formulas and properties
from coordinate geometry to problems; be sure to check your answers with the link at the
bottom of the page.
Multiple Choice Practice: Coordinate Geometry
Geometer?s Sketchpad Lab: Constructing Parallel and Perpendicular Lines

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Course of Study

Complete the following lab:

GSP Lab 2: Constructing Parallel and Perpendicular Lines
The links below from the GSP Learning Center can be used throughout the course when
working with GSP, so you may want to bookmark them for your reference. You will find a
number of activities, with video instruction, on how to complete various activities with GSP:
Getting Started Tutorials
You can also use the following document as a reference, which outlines the basic functions of
GSP for use as you familiarize yourself with the program:
Summary of Geometers Sketchpad Tools
You may want to save this to your computer or print it out so you can use it as you complete the
labs throughout this course and in the related performance tasks.

The Circle
In the previous topic, your explorations involved straight lines, how they intersect, and the
relationships among the angles they create. You used a curved line, the circle, to construct lines
and angles. Next you will look in depth at the circle itself.
This topic addresses the following competency:
Competency 218.1.2: Properties and Relationships
The graduate applies synthetic and analytic methods to construct proofs and solves
problems involving the properties and relationships of two-dimensional objects.
This topic highlights the following key concepts:
common constructions involving circles using a straightedge and compass
lines and angles associated with circles
analytic methods to prove theorems involving circles
synthetic methods to prove theorems involving circles
measurements related to circles
coordinate geometry to solve problems involving circles
Explore Circles and Related Geometric Figures
Familiarize yourself with parts of circles and lines associated with them by sketching labeled
drawings in your geometry notebook from these examples.
Parts of a circle - pictorial index
Explore Circles from an Analytic Perspective

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Review all of the information on the following site through the heading Example. Then follow
the steps on Things to Try near the bottom of this page:
Basic Equation of a Circle
Note the location of the center of the circle and how the radius of the circle is expressed in the
equation. Sketch an example of a circle on the coordinate grid with its equation in your
geometry notebook.
Study Constructions and Circles
Read the following in College Geometry 2:
section 3.1 ("The Circle in Detail")
section 3.2 ("Area of a Circle")
section 3.3 ("Chords and Tangents")
section 3.4 ("Theorems of Circles")
section 3.5 ("Coordinate Geometry of Circles")
View the embedded videos on constructions and circle relationships. Make special note of the
formulas for area and circumference and how they differ.
If you need further help with compass and straightedge constructions related to the reading, you
can find them animated by from Math Open Ref:
Finding the center of a circle or arc
Tangents to a circle through an external point
Tangent to a circle through a point on the circle
Synthesize and Practice with Circle Properties
Complete and check your answers to the following multiple choice practice problems at Multiple
Choice Practice: Circles:
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 13, 15, 18, and 19
Geometer?s Sketchpad Lab: Circles
Complete the following lab:
GSP Lab 3: Circles
The links below from the GSP Learning Center can be used throughout the course when
working with GSP, so you may want to bookmark them for your reference. You will find a
number of activities, with video instruction, on how to complete various activities with GSP:
Getting Started Tutorials

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You can also use the following document as a reference, which outlines the basic functions of
GSP for use as you familiarize yourself with the program:
Summary of Geometers Sketchpad Tools
You may want to save this to your computer or print it out so you can use it as you complete the
labs throughout this course and in the related performance tasks.

Triangles, Congruence, and Similarity

The most basic polygon is the triangle, yet studying it can allow us to learn much about other
polygons. Triangles may be considered a major building block of geometry. Once a single
triangle is understood, can we compare two triangles? What are the sufficient conditions to
know if two triangles are congruent? If they are not congruent, does that mean they are not
related at all? Congruency provides opportunities for reasoning and proof, comparison and
contrast. Similarity has applications in scale models and map reading.

Triangles
You have constructed line segments and angles. If you put these pieces together, you get
polygons. The simplest polygon is the triangle. Later on in this course, you will look at other
polygons, which can be divided up or dissected into triangles, and thus the properties of a
triangle can be used to find properties of other polygons.
This topic addresses the following competency:
Competency 218.1.2: Properties and Relationships
The graduate applies synthetic and analytic methods to construct proofs and solves
problems involving the properties and relationships of two-dimensional objects.
This topic highlights the following key concepts:
classification of triangles
line segments and properties associated with triangles
using a straightedge and compass to construct lines associated with triangles
proofs involving triangle properties
Explore Triangles and Triangle Properties
Study the different ways of classifying triangles, using angles and sides at the following link from
Math Open Ref:
Triangles
Be sure to click on each triangle to link to more detailed properties of these triangles and
interactive applets that allow exploration of each different triangle type. Note the two types of
classifications used for triangles (by sides or by angles) and properties associated with these
names in your geometry notebook. Review all of the information contained within each link of
each type of triangle.

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Quiz yourself on your understanding:

Quiz: Triangles
Study Triangle Relationships
Read the following in College Geometry 2:
section 3.6 ("Triangles")
section 3.7 ("Types of Triangles")
section 3.8 ("General Triangle Properties")
section 3.9 ("Triangle Theorems")
View the embedded videos on constructions and triangle relationships. As a construction is
demonstrated, create a similar example repeating the construction in your geometry notebook.
The Triangle Centers page has links to animations of the constructions for the triangle centers
(also linked in the list below). Click into each of the four centers of a triangle from this site to
explore each center, its construction, and its properties. Note each center in your geometry
notebook.
If you need further help with compass and straightedge constructions related to the reading, you
can find them animated by from Math Open Ref:
Medians of a Triangle
Orthocenter of a Triangle (i.e., construct an altitude of a triangle)
Equilateral Triangle
Isosceles Triangle (given base and one side)
Isosceles Triangle (given base and altitude)
Circumcenter of a Triangle (i.e., construct perpendicular bisectors of a triangle)
Incenter of a Triangle (i.e., construct angle bisectors of a triangle)
Centroid of a Triangle (i.e., construct medians of a triangle)
Synthesisze and Practice with Angles, Circles, and Triangles
Complete the exercises at the end of chapter 3 ("Simple Two Dimensional Shapes") in College
Geometry 2. Be sure to engage the setting "Learn Mode," while leaving all other settings as
given. Then you can "Start your test":
College Geometry 2
Also complete the practice on triangle inequalities from the Regents Prep website:
Practice: Triangle Inequalities
Geometer?s Sketchpad Lab: Constructing Triangles
Complete the following lab:
GSP Lab 4: Constructing Triangles

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The links below from the GSP Learning Center can be used throughout the course when
working with GSP, so you may want to bookmark them for your reference. You will find a
number of activities, with video instruction, on how to complete various activities with GSP:
Getting Started Tutorials
You can also use the following document as a reference, which outlines the basic functions of
GSP for use as you familiarize yourself with the program:
Summary of Geometers Sketchpad Tools
You may want to save this to your computer or print it out so you can use it as you complete the
labs throughout this course and in the related performance tasks.

Congruence and Similarity

Recall that higher order polygons can be divided into triangles. Knowing how to prove triangles
congruent allows you to prove various properties of other polygons using triangle congruency.
This topic addresses the following competency:
Competency 218.1.3: Congruence and Similarity
The graduate proves theorems involving congruence and s
Similarity of geometric objects and applies them to solve problems.
This topic highlights the following key concepts:
why combinations of congruent corresponding parts do or do not prove triangle
congruence or similarity
the Pythagorean theorem using multiple methods
special triangles (30-60-90, 45-45-90)

Explore Triangle Congruence

The interactive site Congruence Theorems allows for exploration of what congruent parts of
triangles are sufficient to guarantee two triangles are congruent. Read the instructions at the top
of the page and complete the activity six times for each of the cases of triangles using the
following parts:
3 sides (SSS)
3 angles (AAA)
2 angles and a side (ASA, AAS)
2 sides and an angle (SAS, SSA)
Note in your geometry notebook which combinations of corresponding triangle parts always

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create congruent triangles and which do not.

View the video below for explanation on how to use the activity in the link above:

video.
Study Triangle Congruence and Similarity
Read the following in College Geometry 2:
section 4.1 ("Forms of Congruency")
section 4.2 ("Forms of Similarity")
View the embedded videos, web links, and Connect the Idea problems. Compare the results of
your exploration to the information in the Learning Resource: which corresponding congruent
parts are sufficient to prove two triangles congruent? Which are similar?
If you need further help with compass and straightedge constructions related to the reading, you
can find them animated from Math Open Ref:
Triangle, given all 3 sides (SSS)
Triangle, given two sides and included angle (SAS)
Triangle, given one side and adjacent angles (ASA)
Geometer's Sketchpad Lab: Triangle Congruence and SSA Case
Complete the following lab:
GSP Lab 5: Triangle Congruence and SSA Case
The links below from the GSP Learning Center can be used throughout the course when
working with GSP, so you may want to bookmark them for your reference. You will find a
number of activities, with video instruction, on how to complete various activities with GSP:
Getting Started Tutorials
You can also use the following document as a reference, which outlines the basic functions of
GSP for use as you familiarize yourself with the program:
Summary of Geometers Sketchpad Tools
You may want to save this to your computer or print it out so you can use it as you complete the
labs throughout this course and in the related performance tasks.
Explore the Pythagorean Theorem

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Read the following in College Geometry 2:

section 4.3 ("Pythagorean theorem")
Compare the proof of the Pythagorean Theorem presented in the reading to the two interactive
puzzles at the following site:
Pythagorean Theorem
Discuss in your College Geometry Learning Community how these puzzles visually and
algebraically demonstrate the Pythagorean Theorem. Sketch each puzzles solution in your
geometry notebook, and include their algebraic equations that prove the Pythagorean Theorem.
Study More Triangle Theorems and Special Triangles
Read the following in College Geometry 2:
section 4.4 ("Theorems")
section 4.5 ("Particular Triangles Relationships")
Also review all of the information about these relationships on the Math Open Ref website:
30-60-90 Triangle
45-45-90 Triangle
Include sketches and examples of right triangles and special triangles in your geometry
notebook.
Synthesize and Practice Triangle Congruency, Similarity, and the Pythagorean Theorem
Complete the exercises at the end of chapter 4 ("Similarity and Congruency in triangles") in
College Geometry 2. Be sure to engage the setting Learn Mode, while leaving all other
settings as given, then you can Start your test:
College Geometry 2
Complete the extra practice with special right triangles by using the Khan Academy website:
Special right triangles
Tangrams
The tangram is an example of a dissection puzzle.
Explore the information about tangrams on the following page from Wolfram MathWorld:
Tangram
Explore using Tangrams in the following interactive demonstration from the National Library of

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Virtual Manipulatives:
Tangram Demonstration
View the video below for explanation of using the link above.

video.

Quadrilaterals and Higher Order Polygons

After studying triangles, we will advance to working with polygons with more sides. However,
what was learned about triangles can assist with these higher order polygons because they can
be divided into triangles when we draw diagonals through them.

Quadrilaterals and Higher Order Polygons

You will now move on from the triangle to other polygons by increasing the number of sides and
angles within the figure. However, you can still use what you learned from triangles when you
study these higher order polygons because they can be subdivided into triangles. The higher
order polygons increase in complexity and provide many opportunities for further reasoning and
proof, applying what you have already learned about line, angle, and triangle relationships.
This topic addresses the following competency:
Competency 218.1.2: Properties and Relationships
The graduate applies synthetic and analytic methods to construct proofs and solves
problems involving the properties and relationships of two-dimensional objects.
This topic highlights the following key concepts:
the hierarchy of quadrilaterals
the properties of quadrilaterals
theorems involving properties of quadrilaterals
problems given a higher order polygon
Explore Quadrilaterals and Their Interrelationships
Explore the properties of the various quadrilaterals from this summary page by clicking on each
of the quadrilateral types (i.e., square, rectangle, parallelogram, trapezoid, rhombus, and kite)
and reviewing all information on each page. Sketch an example of each quadrilateral given,
noting its definition and properties, in your geometry notebook.
Study Quadrilaterals and Their Interrelationships
Read the following in College Geometry 2:

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section 5.2 ("Types of Quadrilaterals")
View the embedded videos and complete the Connect the Idea problems. Pay special attention
to the quadrilateral hierarchy and the interrelationships among the quadrilaterals. Choose a
theorem about properties of a particular quadrilateral in the chapter and explain in your learning
community how you would prove that property.
Complete all exercises in the first link and problems 1, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, and 11 in the second
Numerical Practice with Quadrilaterals
Verifying a Dissected Quadrilateral
Previously you learned about the tangram dissection puzzle. In the video below, you will see a
non-tangram dissection of a quadrilateral. You are given the measurements of the sides and
angles of each of the dissected pieces, and will use them to prove that the shape is a square.

video.
Study Higher Order Polygons
Read the following in College Geometry 2:
section 5.3 ("Higher order polygons")
section 5.4 ("Calculating Angles")
View the embedded videos. Note the methods for calculating interior and exterior angle sums
for polygons and include an example in your geometry notebook. Notice how triangles are used
to calculate area of higher order polygons.
Complete the following lab:
GSP Lab 6: Quadrilaterals
The links below from the GSP Learning Center can be used throughout the course when
working with GSP, so you may want to bookmark them for your reference. You will find a
number of activities, with video instruction, on how to complete various activities with GSP:
Getting Started Tutorials

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You can also use the following document as a reference, which outlines the basic functions of
GSP for use as you familiarize yourself with the program:
Summary of Geometers Sketchpad Tools
You may want to save this to your computer or print it out so you can use it as you complete the
labs throughout this course and in the related performance tasks.
Review Perimeter and Area of Polygons
Review the following in College Geometry 2:
section 5.5 ("Calculating perimeters")
section 5.6 ("Ways of calculating area")
View the embedded videos. Notice how triangles are used to calculate area of higher order
polygons. Include an illustration in your geometry notebook.
Synthesize and Practice Concepts About Quadrilaterals and Higher Order Polygons
Complete the exercises at the end of chapter 5 ("Higher Order Polygons") in College Geometry
2. Be sure to engage the setting Learn Mode, while leaving all other settings as given, then
you can Start your test:
College Geometry 2

Task 2: Properties and Relationships

You now have the competency necessary to complete Task 2.
Here is a guide for Task 2:
Guide to College Geometry Task 2
For details about this performance assessment, see the "Assessment Preparation" box in this
course.

Visualization
The NCTM standards advocate that students be able to problem solve using visualization and
spatial reasoning, including representing three dimensional figures in two dimensions,
visualizing three dimensional objectives from two dimensional representations, and analyzing
cross sections of three dimensional figures. Visualization of three dimensional objectives in two

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dimensions allows for development of surface area and volume concepts.

Visualization
Paper and computer screens are flat and two dimensional. Objects in the world are three
dimensional. Visualization techniques such as projections, views, cross sections, and nets
represent these three dimensional objects in two dimensions. You can use these techniques to
deepen your understanding of their properties.
This topic addresses the following competency:
Competency 218.1.2: Properties and Relationships
The graduate applies synthetic and analytic methods to construct proofs and solves
problems involving the properties and relationships of two-dimensional objects.
This topic highlights the following key concepts:
how to represent three-dimensional shapes in two dimensions
how to construct three-dimensional shapes from two-dimensional representations
the surface area and volume of three-dimensional objects
the surface area and volume formula of three-dimensional objects
the effect of scaling on perimeter, area, and volume
Explore and Study Two-Dimensional Representations of Three-Dimensional Shapes
From the following Annenberg Learner session, examine the shadows given in problems on this
page (problems C-5, C-6, and C-7), and predict the three-dimensional object that created them
before viewing the provided solutions. Include a sketch of an example and its shadows in your
geometry notebook.
Cross Sections
This exploration will be expanded upon in the performance assessment.
The link below from Math Open Ref will give you more practice on this topic. At this site, click
on the option Show cross-section and observe the shape of the cross-section for the
prism. Click and drag on the orange vertex of the cross-section and observe how the
cross-section relates to the prism. Change the prism types in the drop-down menu and repeat
the exploration, and doing so again after checking the option Allow oblique. Record in your
geometry notebook your observations on how a prism relates to its cross-sections.
Prism
Line and Rotational Symmetry
From the following Annenberg Learner session, review the information on this page and
complete the problems provided (Problems A1 and A2) before checking your solutions to the
ones provided:

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Line Symmetry
Note in your geometry notebook what lines of symmetry regular polygons have. Sketch several
From the following Annenberg Learner session, review the information at the top of the page
and then and then explore the Interactive Activity to investigate the symmetry of the shapes.
Try to determine what angle of rotation each shape will have about its center in order to be
symmetric.
Rotation Symmetry
Make a conjecture about a possible rule to determine the angle of rotational symmetry for a
regular polygon and record your conjecture in your geometry notebook
Study and Review Visualization
Read the following in College Geometry 2:
section 6.3 (Relations to 2D)
Make note of examples of different visualization techniques in your geometry notebook.
Representing Three-Dimensional Figures in Two Dimensions
A very practical problem that is particularly familiar to architects and builders is how to represent
three-dimensional figures using two-dimensional media, such as paper or computer software.
Read a brief introduction to various perspective drawings on the following website by reviewing
all information on the page, but not accessing any of the provided links:
3D Drawing
Solids of Revolution from Figures in Two Dimensions
Continue investigating shapes of revolution by using the following link to create solids of
revolution. Examine the shapes you create and their appearance from different perspectives.
3D Transmographer
The following video will show how to use the 3D Transmographer application while
experimenting with a few examples.

video.
Identify an object you see in your daily life that can be viewed as a solid of revolution and write
Study, Synthesize, and Practice Ideas Using Surface Area, Volume, and Formula

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Derivation
From the following Annenberg Learner session, familiarize yourself with three-dimensional
shapes, their names, and their parts, such as edges, faces, and vertices. Explore all information
on each of the pages, being sure to observe how a three dimensional object can be viewed
unfolded as a net of its surfaces and how this relates to the surface area of the objects. Be
sure to assess your understanding of these concepts with the Test Your Skills Quiz at the
end of the session.
Note: If any of the interactive pieces do not appear during your exploration, try refreshing the
page to have them load properly.
Interactives: Geometry 3D Shapes
Sketch several prisms and pyramids with their associated nets in your geometry notebook.
Share any questions you may still have about three dimensional figures with your learning
community.
Read the following in College Geometry 2:
section 6.1 ("Change from 2D")
section 6.2 ("Common 3D shapes")
section 6.4 ("Surface Areas")
section 6.5 ("Volumes")
View the embedded videos. Note the differences between prisms and pyramids, as well as their
formula derivations, and note these formulas in your geometry notebook.
Watch the following video showing an animation of the method discussed in the embedded
video for deriving the volume of a sphere:

Interact with the very brief demonstration here:

Three Pyramids that Form a Cube
Discuss with your learning community how this demonstration relates the formulas for volume of
a prism and volume of a pyramid as given in section 6.5 of College Geometry 2.
Synthesize Surface Area, Volume, and Formula Derivation
Complete the exercises at the end of chapter 6 in College Geometry 2. Be sure to engage the
setting Learn Mode, while leaving all other settings as given, then you can Start your test:
College Geometry 2
Explore Scaling

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If you have ever played with the enlargement or reduction features of a copy machine, you have
experimented with scaling. Enlarging or reducing a figure makes it visually larger or smaller, and
it has a predictable impact on its measurements, including length, area, and volume. Explore
scaling using the following applet. In this applet, you will change the size of a rectangle through
scaling, and observe how the perimeters, areas, and ratios of perimeter and areas change.
Drag the slider to change the scale factor on the rectangle and observe how these
measurements change. Start with a scale factor of 1, and then repeat your exploration by
increasing the scale factor multiple times. Note your observations in your geometry journal.
Scale Factor
Study and Review Scaling
Read the following in College Geometry 2:
section 7.4 ("Scaling Factors")
Note the scale factor theorems. Compare the theorem for scale factor and areas to what you
observed in the previous exploration, and add to your geometry notebook the theorem for scale
factor and volumes. Discuss in your Learning Community how you can use an example like
those given in section 7.4 to verify the scale factor theorems for area and volume.

Geometric Transformations
What happens to a figure if you slide it? Flip it? Turn it? Enlarge or reduce it? How is the
resulting figure (i.e. image) related to the original figure (i.e. pre-image)? Your own reflection
looking back at you in a mirror, the spinning of a wheel on sports car, the way a pattern repeats
in wallpaper or on quilt or Navajo rug, all represent geometric transformations. Geometric
transformations provide a means of exploring geometry from a different perspective and help
develop visualization skills.

Geometric Transformations
In this topic you will explore slides (translations), flips (reflections), turns (rotations), and size
changes (dilations). Furthermore, due to its concrete nature, geometry offers opportunities for
exploration of shapes and their properties. Throughout the course you have used dynamic
interactives and software to explore geometric concepts and make conjectures about the
patterns you observed, and applied this reasoning to the student project tasks. In the final task,
you will have the opportunity to conjecture using concrete models through paper folding,
compass and straight edge constructions, and dynamic geometry.
This topic addresses the following competency:
Competency 218.1.6: Geometric Transformations
The graduate applies geometric transformations to explore and analyze objects and
solve problems.
This topic highlights the following key concepts:

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the transformations that relate two objects

the object and its properties that result from a set of transformations
symmetry in terms of transformations
if two-dimensional objects will tessellate
the center and magnitude of dilation
examples and counterexamples to explore and verify assertions
inductive reasoning and patterns to develop conjectures
concrete models and dynamic technologies to draw conclusions about a conjecture
the process, reasoning, and results of geometric investigations
Explore Transformations
Review all of the information on the following links on transformations of polygons. Be sure to
manipulate and explore the interactive figures on each link:
Translation of a polygon
Rotation of a polygon
Reflection of a polygon
Dilation of a polygon
Note in your geometry notebook which properties of a polygon change and which do not under
each transformation. Follow your observations with the Try this suggestion on each link and
note how the transformation changes when you change the parameters and locations of the
figures involved.
Study Transformations
Read the following in College Geometry 2:
section 7.1 ("Preface")
section 7.2 ("Reflection, Translation, and Glide reflections")
section 7.3 ("Congruency Preserving Transformations")
section 7.5 ("Transformations that do no preserve scale")
section 7.6 ("Composite Transformations")
Reflect on how each transformation changes the figure and whether the resulting figures are
congruent or similar. Pay special attention to composite transformations: how an image can be
created from a pre-image using more than one transformation. Review your observations in
your geometry notebook and summarize the main concepts about transformations.
Review and Investigate Fundamental Isometries
Read the summary of the four basic isometries.
Isometries of the Plane
Explore Tessellations
Read the simulated student/mentor discussion of tessellations.

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What Are Tessellations

Note the definition of tessellation in your geometry notebook.
Create your own tessellation using the Tessellate activity:
Tessellate
The video below will show you how to use the Tessellate activity:

video.
Geometer's Sketchpad Lab: Transformations
Complete the following lab:
GSP Lab 7: Transformations
The links below from the GSP Learning Center can be used throughout the course when
working with GSP, so you may want to bookmark them for your reference. You will find a
number of activities, with video instruction, on how to complete various activities with GSP:
Getting Started Tutorials
You can also use the following document as a reference, which outlines the basic functions of
GSP for use as you familiarize yourself with the program:
Summary of Geometers Sketchpad Tools
You may want to save this to your computer or print it out so you can use it as you complete the
labs throughout this course and in the related performance tasks.
Investigating Isometries with Geometer?s Sketchpad
Watch the following videos.

video.

video.

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video.
Review, Synthesize, and Practice your Ideas
Complete the exercises at the end of chapter 7 in College Geometry 2. Be sure to engage the
setting Learn Mode, while leaving all other settings as given, then you can Start your test:
College Geometry 2

You now have the competency necessary to complete Task 3.
Here is a guide for Task 2:
Guide to College Geometry Task 3
For details about this performance assessment, see the "Assessment Preparation" box in this
course.

Final Steps
Congratulations on completing the activities in this course! This course has prepared you to
complete the assessments associated with this course. If you have not already been directed to
complete the assessments, schedule and complete them now.

The WGU Library

The WGU Library
The WGU Library is available online to WGU students 24 hours a day.
For more information about using the WGU Library, view the following videos on The WGU
Channel:
Introducing the WGU library

video.

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video.

Center for Writing Excellence: The WGU Writing Center

If you need help with any part of the writing or revision process, contact the Center for Writing
Excellence (CWE). Whatever your needswriting anxiety, grammar, general college writing
concerns, or even ESL language-related writing issuesthe CWE is available to help you. The
CWE offers personalized individual sessions and weekly group webinars. For an appointment,

Feedback
WGU values your input! If you have comments, concerns, or suggestions for improvement of
this course, please submit your feedback using the following form:
Course Feedback