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Founded 1905

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF SINGAPORE

Department of Mechanical Engineering

MECHANICS OF
MATERIALS II
ME2114

Course Lecturer:

A/P CJ TAY

Founded 1905

SESSION 2013-14
Semester 2

ME2114 Mechanics of Materials II


Modular Credits: 3
Part I Lecture Notes

A/P CJ TAY

Recommended Books

Basic Text:
A.C. Ugural, Mechanics of Materials, McGraw-Hill, 1993
(Chapter 4, 12 & 13 for part I)
Supplementary Readings:
1. F. P. Beer and E. R. Johnston, Mechanics of Materials, McGraw-Hill, 3rd Ed.,
2003.
2. R. C. Hibbeler, Mechanics of Materials, Prentice Hall, 4th Ed., 2000.
3. J. M. Gere and S. P. Timoshenko, Mechanics of Materials, PWS Publishing
Company, 4th ed., 1997.
4. R. R. Craig, Jr., Mechanics of Materials, McGraw-Hill, 2nd ed., 2000.
5. A.L. Window ed., Strain gauge technology, London : Elsevier Applied
Science , 2nd ed., 1992.
6. J.W.Dally & W.F. Riley, Experimental Stress Analysis, McGraw-Hill, 3rd Ed.,
1991.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter 1
ELASTIC-PLASTIC BENDING OF BEAMS AND
TORSION OF CIRCULAR BARS
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7

BENDING OF BEAMS STRESS CONCENTRATION


BENDING OF BEAMS INELASTIC BENDING
TORSION OF CIRCULAR BARS ASSUMPTIONS
FIRST YIELD TORQUE
ELASTIC-PLASTIC TORQUE
FULLY PLASTIC TORQUE
RESIDUAL SHEAR STRESS DISTRIBUTION

Chapter 2
BUCKLING OF COLUMNS
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5

EULER BUCKLING OF SLENDER COLUMNS


SUMMARY
EFFECTIVE LENGTH
COLUMNS INITIALLY CURVED
COLUMNS WITH ECCENTRIC LOADS

Chapter 3
EXPERIMENTAL STRESS ANALYSIS
3.1. THEORY
3.2. TYPE OF BRIDGE CIRCUITS
3.3. APPLICATIONS OF STRAIN GAUGES
3.4. GRAPHICAL SOLUTION
3.5. TRANSDUCERS
3.6. TEMPERATURE EFFECT
4

3.7. THREE-LEAD-WIRE ARRANGEMENT


3.8. SPECIAL PURPOSES GAUGES
3.9. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF STRIAN
GAUGES

CHAPTER 1
BENDING OF BEAMS

1.1 BENDING OF BEAMS STRESS


CONCENTRATION
Bending stress formula

max

MC
I

is used only for a

constant cross-sectional area. For cross-section that changes


suddenly, the stress-strain distributions become nonlinear.
Examples of changes in cross-sections

The stress distribution for case (a) is :

The max stress occurs at base of grooves, max stress is


given by:
max k

MC
I

k stress concentration factor


The value of k and the stresses through the section are
determined by experiment or theory (sometime).

For a certain beam geometry, the stress concentration values


can be from the following Figs:

Beams with shoulder fillets (Fig. F1):

Beams with grooves (Fig. G1):

Example 1.1-1

Beams with shoulder fillets


A steel bar with shoulder fillets as shown in the following
figure is subjected to a bending moment of 5 kNm,
determine the maximum bending stress developed in the
steel. Given that r = 16 mm, h = 80 mm, w = 120 mm, t =
20 mm.

Solutions:
Given r = 16 mm, h = 80 mm, w = 120 mm
We have
r/h = 16/80 = 0.2 , w/h = 120/80 = 1.5

1
3
I

0
.
02

0
.
08
Second moment of area
12

10

m4

MC

Using max k I

From Fig. F1, the value of k is given by 1.45


Using M = 5 kNm, C = 0.04 m,
5 x0.04
max 1.45
340 MPa
7
8.53 x10
Stress distribution below the fillets :

Stresses away from the fillets are not affected by the stress
concentration and the max stress is given by:
max

MC
i.e. k = 1
I
5 x0.04

Hence max 8.53x10 7 234 MPa

11

Stress distribution away from the fillets :

12

Example 1.1-2

A simply supported beam with thickness of 10 mm is


loaded as shown in the Fig. Determine the length L of the
center portion of the beam so that the maximum bending
stress at section A, B, C is the same.

RE

RD

From vertical equilibrium


RD = RE = (350L)/2 = 175L
BM at section A or B

13

MA = 175L (0.3) = 52.5L


BM at section C

350 N/m

MC = 175L (0.3 + L/2)


- 350(L/2)(L/4)
= 52.5L + 43.75L2

For r = 8 mm, h = 40 mm, w = 60 mm


r/h = 8/40 = 0.2 , w/h = 60/40 = 1.5
14

From Fig. F1, the value of k is given by 1.45


Maximum bending stress at either section A or B

max at A k

M AC
52.5L 0.02
1.45
2.85 x107 L
1
I
0.01 0.043
12

Maximum bending stress at section C

M CC
52.5L 43.75L2 0.03
max at C

1
I
0.01 0.063
12
8.75 106 L 7.29 106 L2

Problem requires that

max at A max at C

i. e.
2.85 107 L 8.75 106 L 7.29 106 L2
L 2.72 m

15

1.2 BENDING OF BEAMS INELASTIC


BENDING

Stress

1.2.1 STRESS-STRAIN CURVE

u
yu
yl

Rupture

Strain

In general, deformation of material under load can be divided into


four stages:
I:

Linear elastic deformation


-small strains and displacements; Hookes law

II:

Non-linear deformation
-permanent "set" after unloading
16

III: Large deformation


-eg. in metal forming processes
IV: Rupture/Fracture

Up till now, mainly concerned with stage I. This section considers


stage II and transition from stage I to stage II (elastic-plastic
behaviour).

17

Why the need to study the elastic-plastic behaviour of structures?


It would be unwise if designers knew nothing of what would
happen to components that were grossly overloaded to the point
where marked yielding and plastic deformation had occurred;
One important aspect - in some circumstances, enhanced
performance can be achieved by prior plastic deformation
resulting in favourable residual stresses eg, in thick-walled
pressure vessel.
In elastic-plastic analysis, usually the actual - curves for the real
strain-hardening material introduces some complications in
analyses.
Because of this, semi-idealised behaviour is often assumed in
which (a) strain-hardening occurs linearly from initial yield, or (b)
strain-hardening is ignored.

18

strain-hardening assumed linear from initial yield


( bi-linear stress-strain curve)

Strain-hardening is ignored

19

1.2.2 ASSUMPTIONS
1. That any cross-section of the beam will remain plane during
bending as in elastic bending.
2. That the fibres are in a condition of simple tension or
compression.

RECTANGULAR SECTION

b
MY

MY

(a) Limit of total elastic action


In elastic bending of a beam, there is a linear stress distributed
over its cross-section. The extreme fibres reach the yield stress
when the bending moment is

20

M YY
I

1 3
bd
2
I
bd
M Y Y Y 12
Y
d
y
6
2

(a)

(b) Partial elastic-plastic action

Plastic zone
Mp

Mp > My
c

c
Y

When the bending moment is increased further beyond MY, some


of the fibres near the top and bottom surfaces begin to yield and
plastic deformation penetrates deeper into the beam as shown

21

above. The strain at outer fibres of beam may increase, but stress
will remain at Y .
Bending moment Mp in beam is given by:

M p b y dy
where b is width of beam at distance y from N.A.
For rectangular section beam (b = constant)
(Elastic portion):

Mp 2

y;

y b y dy

d /2

(Plastic portion):

= Y

Y b y dy

2 d /2
b y 3 c

y
= 2 Y Y b
c 3 0
2 c

Y bd 2
4

4c 2
d 2 c2
1 3d 2 Y b 4 3

(2.1)

When stresses at outermost fibres of beam just reach yield i.e. c =


d/2, the bending moment MY is
MY

d 2
Y bd 2
d2
(2.2)
Y b


4
12
6

Same as Eq. (a)


22

(c) Total plastic action

b
Mult

Mult

When stresses throughout the beam section reach yield as in


above, i.e. c = 0, the "ultimate B.M." or fully plastic moment is
d2
d 2 c2
M P Y b Y b M ult
4
4 3

From Eq. 2.1

The ratio

M ult
MY

d2
4 1 .5

d2
Yb
6

Yb

is the "shape factor";

it depends only on the shape of the cross-section of beam.

23

From beam bending equations (ME2113)

x E x E

y
R

and

1 M

R EI

R is the radius of curvature of the beam neutral axis

For a partially elastic-plastic beam at a distance c from the neutral axis, the stress
in the fibres has just reached the value Y

I.e.
o

When first yield has just occurred (at the extreme fibres)
the value of c is d/2. The radius of curvature of the beam at first yield is

1
Y
RY E d 2

(note: C = d/2)

24

x Y E
1 Y

R Ec

c
R

The moment-curvature relationship for the rectangular beam is


thus linear up to a value M = MY and beyond this point the
relationship is non-linear and asymptotic to Mult as shown in the
figure below.

Mult
Bending
Moment

My

Curvature

25

1.2.3 SYMMETRICAL I-SECTION


Y

b1/2

b1/2

d1

(a) When yielding is about to occur at extreme fibres (first


yield)

xx

MYY
I

bd 3 b1d13
Y

12
12
I

MY Y
d
y
2

26

(b) When top and bottom flanges have yielded


Y

b2

Plastic portion:

= Y

Elastic portion:

2 Y y
d1

27

b y dy

Recall M

M 2 0

d1
2

d1
2

stem
(elas
Y
tic
porti
1
on)


2
y b2 y dy Y b y dy
d

flange(plastic portion)

Y
d1

d
2
d1
2

d
2
d1
2

b2 y dy 2 Y b y dy
2

d1
2

d
2

y
y
b2 2 Y b
d1 3 0
2 d21
3

Substituting the value of y and simplifying we have


M Y

b b d 2 b d 2 d12
1 1

+
6
4

(c) Fully Plastic Condition


Y
Y

Y
28

d
d21

M ult 2 0 Y b2 y dy d21 Y b y dy =

bd 2 b1d12
Y

M
Shape factor, ult
MY

bd b d 12 d
4 bd b d 2
2

2
1 1

3
1 1

29

Example 1.2-1

The steel wide-flange beam has the dimensions as shown


in Fig. 3.1. If it is made of an elastic perfectly plastic
material having a tensile and compressive stress of
Y = 250 MPa. Determine the shape factor of the beam.

Fig. 3.1

30

a) Determine the maximum elastic moment MY :


I of X-section:
A2

118.75 mm

A1
N
56.25 mm

mm

A2

A1

200 12.53

12.5 2253
I
2
200 12.5 118.752
12
12

parallel axis theo, Ad^2


82.44 10 6

mm 4

31

Applying the beam bending formula:

M YY
Y
I
I
82.44 106
M Y Y 250
y
125
164.88 kNm

32

b) Determine the fully plastic moment Mp :

Force C2 Y top flange area


250 12.5 200
625 kN

33

Force C1 Y top web area


250 12.5 112.5
351.56 kN

Moment due to top flange and top web


625 118.75 351.56 56.25 kNmm
94 kNm

Hence Mp = 2 x 94 = 188 kNm

The "shape factor"

Mp
MY

188
1.14
164.88

Note: the ultimate moment (Mp) is only 14% higher than the
moment at first yield (MY).

34

Example 1.2-2
The beam x-section as shown in the following figure is
made of an alloy of titanium that has a stress-strain
relationship as shown. If the material behaviour is the same
in both tension and compression, determine the moment that
is applied to the beam to cause a strain of 0.05 at the
extreme top and bottom fibre of the beam.

35

The material exhibits elastic-plastic behaviour with linear


strain hardening. The strain distribution is given by:

From similar triangles


We have
anything below 0,01 strain is in elastic range

y 0.010

1.5 0.050
y 0.3 cm 3 mm
The stress and force distribution on the x-section are:

36

T= stress x area

252000 N=

37

1.2.4 ASYMMETRICAL SECTION (Y-Y is only


plane of symmetry)

symmetrical abt y axis

(a) When yielding is about to occur at top fibre


b1/2=30

b1/2=30
A1

A2

di=170

d = 200

A
10

h
A3

b=100

(a) Determine position of N.A. ie. "h" from bottom


70 15200 7 .5 10 17085 15 100 15 7 .5
h=
70 15 10 170 100 15
A1

A2

y1

= 90.2 mm

A1

y2

A2

A3

A3

Fibre furthest away from N.A. will yield first.


ymax = 200 - 90.2 = 109.8 mm

First yield moment, MY

(i.e. at top fibre)

Y INA
y max

38

y3

70 153
10 170 3
2
I NA
70 15 102.3
12
12
100 153
2
10 170 9.8
100 15 82.7 2
12
2.556 10 7 mm 4

MY

Y 2.556 10 7
109.8

2.328 10 5 Y

39

(b) Bending moment is increased until bottom fibre yields:

congruent triangle

Assume Y is the same in tension and compression.


Let y = depth of plastic flow.
From the condition that nett axial force on section is zero:

0 and F
A1

b dy

A3

A2

200 y

Y 70 15 Y 10 y 15 10 Y
10

1 200 y

A4

1
2

15 100 1 Y 15 0
2

A5

40

200 y 15
2

200 y

2
200 y 15
y
85
2
2
1
Y Y
200 y
y
100
2
2

Only unknown is y , so can be solved.


Y 70 15 Y 10 y 15 10

1
200 y
Y

2 2

85 y

2
y
10 Y
85 2

2 100 y
2

Y 85 2

100

1
15 0

y
2 100

y 2 245 y 6975 0

y = 32.9 mm

41

Note: The position of zero stress is now (200 - y )/2 = 83.6 mm


from the bottom (compared to 90.2 mm for elastic case)
In elastic-plastic loading mode, the N.A. moves to such a
position that the total force over the x-sectional area subjected to
the tensile stress system is equal to that experiencing compressive
stresses and the state of equilibrium remains undisturbed.

The corresponding B.M. is given by M

42

b y dy

Bending Moment calculation

Y- l
y

M Y 70 15 100 y 7.5 A1
2

y
y 15
Y 10 y 15
100 A2
2
2


y 2
y
10 Y 100 100 A3
2
2 3
2

y
y
2

10 1 100 15 100 15 A4
2
2
2
3

100 15 1 100 7.5


A5 rectangle
2

100 15

1 2
y

15 100 15
2
3
2

43

A5 triangle

(c) Fully Plastic Case

Since there can be no longitudinal resultant force in the beam,

A1 Y A2 Y

force above N.A = force below N.A

where A1 and A2 are the areas of the c/s above and below N.A.
respectively.
That is A1 = A2 =

1
A where A is the total area of the cross2

section. Thus for the fully plastic state, the neutral axis divides the
cross-section into two equal areas and the stress diagram is shown
above.

44

n line

Thus
7015 + 10n = 10(170 - n) + 10015
n = 107.5 mm
Note: The position of zero stress is now:
(170-n) + 15 = (170-107.5) + 15 = 77.5 mm from the bottom
(compare to 90.2 mm for elastic case).

Mult Y 70 15 7 .5 n Y 10 n
Y

2
170 n

10

Hence "shape factor

n
2

Y 100 15 170 n 7 .5

Mult
1.3
MY

45

1.2.5 RESIDUAL STRESSES


When a beam that has undergone plastic deformation is unloaded,
the unloading is assumed to be linearly elastic.
If applied moment (causing plastic deformation) is Mp and the
unloading moment is Me then for equilibrium,

Mp - Me = 0

(5.1)

(Me is negative as it is applied in the opposite direction)

Mp + M e = 0

(5.1)

Positive
Positive (tensile)
e
e

Negative (compressive)

Y
Mp

Mp

Me

Me
e

46

e
Mp

Mp

Me

Me

+
-

+
e - Y

Note:

Compressive where it was tensile (and vice versa).

47

e is calculated from the equilibrium condition ie.


Mp -Me = 0

(5.1)

For rectangular section, b x d


From Eq. 2.1

d 2 c2
M p Y b
3
4
Using

Me

d
2

1 3
bd
12

The elastic recovery moment M e is given by M e

ebd 2
6

Hence Eq. 5.1 becomes


d 2 c 2 ebd 2
Yb 0
4
3
6

ebd 2
6

d 2 c2
Yb
3
4

e 3 2c 2

Y 2 d 2

(5.2)

Hence we can find e Note: The maximum possible value of e is


when beam is fully plastic ie. c = 0. Then

48

e 3

Y 2

Example 1.2-3
The steel wide-flange beam shown in the following figure is
subjected to a fully plastic moment of Mp. If this moment is
removed, determine the residual stress distribution in the beam.
The material is elastic perfectly plastic and has a yield stress of y
= 250 MPa.

From example 3.1


I = 82.44 x 106 mm4
Mp = 188 kNm
Applying the beam bending formula:

49

M eY
I

188 10 125

82.44 106
285.1 MPa

e = 285.1 MPa

From similar triangles, we have

y
250

125 285.1
y 109.61 mm

e = 285.1 MPa

50

Superposition of the above stresses give the residual


stress distribution as shown below:

1.2.6 RESIDUAL CURVATURE


For a beam which has reached yield, unloading will NOT result in
the beam returning to its original (straight) condition.
We have,
Plastic curvature - Unloading curvature = Residual curvature

1
ie.

51

For an elastic case, Ey where is the radius of the N.A.


For the elastic-plastic beam, use the extremity of the elastic
stresses ie.

= Y

Ec

Mp

Mp

+ Y

During unloading, stresses behave elastically:

52

d/2

Me

Me

- e

E d / 2

Ec E d / 2

From Eq. (5.2)


3

2c 2

e Y 2
2 d

Hence

r E c d 3 d
1

Y 1 4c 2

Note: Amount of elastic (unloading) movement is known as


SPRINGBACK

53

Example 1.2-4
A square bar (25 x 25 mm) of an elastic-perfectly plastic material
is formed into part of a circle using a round mandrel. What
mandrel diameter would be required so that an elastic zone of 16 x
25 mm is attained? Determine the final curvature after springback
and the residual stress distribution in the bar. Assume Y = 250
MPa, E = 200 x 103 MPa.

+ Y

25
Beam
25

16

Mandrel

(a) On loading: recall for the elastic case EI Ey


For elastic-plastic beam, elastic core of 16mm x 25mm is
obtained.

Y
Ec

250
1

0
.
15625
m
200x103 0.008
54

p = 6.4 m
Hence mandrel diameter = 12.8 m
What is the elastic-plastic moment?

+Y

Sectional area of bar

M p 2 25 4.5 250 2.25 8


+

1
2
25 8 250 8
2
3

= 843.2 Nm

Sectional area of bar

(b) On unloading: stresses are wholly elastic

Mp d
e
2

55

843.2 12.5 10 3
=
25 4
10 12
12

= 323.8 MN/m2
1

Unloading curvature
e

E d / 2

323.8
200 10 3 0.0125

= 0.12952 m-1
1

Residual curvature = 0.15625 - 0.12952


r
= 0.02673 m-1
Hence r = 37.4 m
After springback, final diameter of formed curve is 74.8m

(c) Residual stress at y = 12.5mm is


250-323.8 = -73.8 MPa
(stress recovery is in the opposite direction, hence substraction)

e at y = 8mm

56

843.2 8 10 3
= -207.2 MPa
e =
4
25
10 12
12

(stress recovery is in the opposite direction, hence -ve)

Residual stress at y = 8mm is 250 - 207.2 = 42.8 MPa


- e

+Yy
+

25

25 16
(a) Loading

(b) Unloading
-73.8
+42.8

Beam
Mandrel

(c) Residual Stress

57

1.3 TORSION OF CIRCULAR BARS


ASSUMPTIONS

An ideal stress-strain relationship for the material as


shown below

Y Y

A plane cross-section of the shaft remains plane when in


the plastic state;
The radius remains straight after torque is applied.

58

Recall that when a torque T is applied on a circular bar, the


torque is given by:

T 0 2rdrr 2 0 r 2dr

59

(3.1)

The shear stress distribution is given by:

From similar triangles,

R R

r
when R Y ,

Y R

r
Y
R

60

1.4 FIRST YIELD TORQUE


If the torque is increased, yielding will first occur at the
outer most fibres.
Let TY be the torque at which the bar first reaches
yield:
From Eq. (3.1)
R

r4
R 2
R Y r 2
TY 2 r dr 2
r dr 2 Y
0
0 R
4 R 0

Y R3

(4.1)

1.5 ELASTIC-PLASTIC TORQUE


If the torque is further increased, the yielded region will
extend inwards resulting in an outer plastic annulus and an
inner elastic core.

61

The torque in the bar is then :

T=

2r dr r

(Elastic)

T=

Y 2r 2dr

(Plastic)

Y r
2
2

r
dr
c

Y 2r 2dr

c 3
R 2
2
T
Y r dr 2 Y r dr
0
c
c

4 2
Y c
Y R3 c3
2c
3
R3 c3
2 Y

3 12

62

(5.1)

1.6 FULLY PLASTIC TORQUE


If the torque is further increased until the bar is fully plastic

The torque TP is given by:


R

TP 2 Y r 2 dr
0

2
Y R3
3

(6.1)

Comparing with the first yield torque (Eq. 4.1) we have


TP
TY

2
Y R3
3

Y r3
2
4
1.33
3

i.e. the plastic torque is 33% greater than the first yield torque.
63

Example 1.6-1
The tubular shaft as shown in the figure is made of an aluminum
alloy that is assumed to have a an elastic plastic stress-strain -
relationship as shown in the figure.
Determine
(a) the torque applied to the shaft when first yield occurs,
(b) the fully plastic torque that can be applied to the shaft,
(c) the shear strain at the outer radius when yield first occurs
at the inner radius.

64

First yield plastic torque:


We have
Y

TY c
J

20 10 6

TY 0.05

0.05
2

0.034

TY 3.42 kNm

Fully plastic torque:


From Eq. (6.1)
R

TP 2 Y r 2 dr
0
2

0.05

0.03

20 106 r 2 dr
3 0.05

r
125.66 106
3

4.1 kNm

0.03

65

Shear strain at the outer radius:


Since the shear strain remains linearly distributed over
the x-section, the plastic strain at the outer fibres is:
50 mm

Plastic shear stress distribution

30 mm

Plastic shear strain distribution

From similar triangles


R 50 mm

r 30 mm
R r

50 mm
50 mm
0.286 103
0.477 103
30 mm
30 mm

66

Example 1.6-2

A solid circular shaft has a radius of 20 mm and length of


1.5 m. The material has an elastic plastic stress-strain -
relationship as shown in the figure. Determine the torque
needed to twist the shaft by an angle of 0.6 rad.

Given that:
angle of twist = 0.6, R = 0.02 m, L = 1.5 m

67

We have

R L
0.6 0.02 1.5
0.008 rad

68

From similar triangles


r 0.0016

R 0.008
0.0016
r
0.02
0.008
0.004 m
4 mm

69

Using Eq. (5.1)

R3 c3
T 2 Y

3
12

0.004 3
6 0.02
2 75 10

3
12

1.25 kNm

70

1.7 RESIDUAL SHEAR STRESS DISTRIBUTION


Case (a)
Consider a bar subjected to a fully plastic torque TP

Case (b)
If the bar in case (a) is unloaded, the bar unloads elastically.

71

For elastic unloading we have:


R

TP R
J

From Eq. (6.1)

2
TP
Y R3
3
2
3
3 Y R R 4
R
Y
4
3
R
2

Unloading from fully plastic torque is equivalent to superposing


case (a) and case (b).
The resultant is:

=
R

72

R- Y

Example 1.7-1
A solid shaft diameter 50 mm is twisted so that an elastic
core of diameter 20 mm remains. Assuming elasticperfectly plastic behaviour, calculate: (a) applied torque,
(b) residual stress distribution on unloading, (c) residual
twist.
Assume y = 150 MN/m2

(a) Torque Tp 2 y

G = 77x103 MN/m2

R 3
c3

3
12

0 .025 3
0 .013
2 150

3
12

= 4.83 kNm
(b) Elastic unloading gives
T p D 4.83 10 3 0.05
e

J 2
0.05 4 2
32

= 196.8 MN/m2

73

4.83 10 3 0 .01

r at r = 10mm is

32

0 .05 4

= 78.7 MPa
Residual at r = 25 mm is 150 - 196.8 = -46.8 MPa
Residual at r = 10 mm is 150 - 78.7 = 71.3 MPa

Residual Shear Stress Distribution


At r = 10 mm,

e- Y

74

= 71.3 MPa

At r = 25 mm,

= -46.8 MPa

(c) Residual Twist:


Recall

TL

GJ

Tr

and

L
r

GJ
Gr
Initial twist:

G0.01

or

i.e. T

J
r

Gr

150 106

77 109 0.01

= 0.195 rad/m
Elastic unloading:

G0.025

196.8 10 6
77 109 0.025

= 0.102 rad/m
Residual twist = Initial twist Twist due to elastic unloading

= 0.195 - 0.102 = 0.093 rad/m

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