Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 117

BASIC HYDRAULICS

Prepared by: Teh Ewe Thong

Definition of hydraulics
Generation of forces and motion using
hydraulic fluids
Hydraulic fluid represents the medium of
power transmission

(note pg: 7)

Hydro-mechanics
1. Hydrostatics

2. Hydrodynamics

(note pg: 13)

APPLICATIONS
Stationary hydraulics

Production and assembly


machines of all types
Transfer lines
Lifting and conveying devices
Presses
Injection moulding machines
Rolling lines
Lifts

(note pg: 8-10)

APPLICATIONS
Mobile hydraulics

Construction machinery
Tippers, excavators, elevating
platforms
Lifting and conveying devices
Agricultural machinery

(note pg: 8-9)

Advantages of hydraulics
Transmission of large forces using small
components, i.e. great power intensity
Precise positioning
Start-up under heavy load
Even movements independent of load, since
liquids are scarcely compressible and flow
control valves can be used
Smooth operation and reversal
Good control and regulation
Favourable heat dissipation
(note pg:10)

Disadvantages of hydraulics
Pollution of the environment by waste oil
(danger of fire or accidents)
Sensitivity to dirt
Danger resulting from excessive pressures
(severed lines)
Temperature dependence (change in viscosity)
Unfavourable efficiency factor

(note pg:10)

Comparisions
Hydraulics

Pneumatics

Leakage

Contamination

No disadvantages apart from


energy loss

Environmental
influences

Sensitive in case of temperature


fluctuation, risk of fire in case of leakage.

Explosion-proof, insensitive to
temperature.

Energy storage

Limited, with the help of gases.

Easy

Energy transmission

Up to 100 m, flow rate v = 2 6 m/s, signal


speed up to 1000 m/s.

Up to 1000 m, flow rate v = 20 40


m/s, signal speed 20 40 m/s.

Operating speed

v = 0.5 m/s

v = 1.5 m/s

Power supply costs

High (1)

Very high (2.5)

Linear motion

Simple using cylinders, good speed


control, very large forces.

Simple using cylinders, limited


forces, speed extremely, loaddependent.

Rotary motion

Simple, high turning moment, low speed.

Simple, inefficient, high speed.

Positioning accuracy

Precision of up to 1 m can be achieved


depending on expenditure.

Without load change precision of


1/10 mm possible.

Stability

High, since oil is almost incompressible, in


addition, the pressure level is considerably
higher than for pneumatics.

Low, air is compressible.

Forces

Protected against overload, with high


system pressure of up to 600 bar, very
large forces can be generated F < 3000
kN.

Protected against overload, forces


limited by pneumatic pressure and
cylinder diameter F < 30 kN at 6
bar.

BASIC PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES


Hydrostatic pressure Open vessel
ps = h..g
ps
h

= hydrostatic pressure (gravitational pressure)


= level of the column of liquid
= density of the liquid
= acceleration due to gravity

[Pa]
[m]
[kg/m3]
[m/s2]

(note pg:14)

Examples:

Column

Reservoir

Elevated tank

(note pg:15)

BASIC PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES


Hydrostatic pressure closed vessel
Pascals law: pressure exists when a force F is imposed on
an enclosed fluid with a surface A, The pressure exerts an
equal effect on all points of the surfaces.
F
P=
A

N/m2

A
(note pg:17)

Example:
A cylinder is supplied with 100 bar pressure, its effective piston surface is
equal to 7.85 cm2. Find the maximum force which can be attained.
Given that: p = 100 bar = 1000 N/cm2
A = 7.85 cm2

F
P

Example:

F=15000N

A=

D 2
4

D2 =

4(20)

D=

4(20)

= 5.05cm

BASIC PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES


Power transmission:
The same pressure applies at every point in a closed
system

(note pg:22)

Example:

(note pg:23)

BASIC PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES


Displacement transmission:

(note pg:25)

Example:
Calculate S2
Given:
A1 = 40 cm2
A2 = 1200 cm2
S1 = 15 cm

(note pg:26)

BASIC PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES


FLOW RATE:
Flow rate is the term used to describe the volume of liquid
flowing through a pipe in a specific period of time. For
example, approximately one minute is required to fill a 10
litre bucket from a tap. Thus, the flow rate amounts to 10
l/min.

(note pg:29)

BASIC PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES


Flow measuring instruments:

(note pg:277)

BASIC PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES


CONTINIUTY EQUATION
If the time t is replaced by s/v (v = s/t) in the formula for
the flow rate (Q = V/t) and it is taken into account that the
volume V can be replaced by As, the following equation
is produced:
Q=Av
Q = Flow rate
v = Flow velocity
A = Pipe cross-section

[m3/s]
[m/s]
[m2]

(note pg:31)

Example:
Calculate the oil flow velocity in a pipeline
Given that:
4.2dm 3
Q = 4.2 l/min =
= 0.0710-3m3/s
60s

A = 0.28

cm2

= 0.28

10-4m2

Example:
Calculate the flow rate needed for
the following movement
Given that: A = 8 cm2
s = 10 cm
t = 1 min
Q

(note pg:32)

BASIC PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES


CONTINIUTY EQUATION
The flow rate of a liquid in terms of volume per unit of time which flows
through a pipe with several changes in cross-section is the same at all
points in the pipe (see diagram). This means that the liquid flows
through small cross-sections faster than through large cross-sections.
The following equation applies:
Q1 = A1v1

Q2 = A2v2

Q3 = A3v3

etc.

As within one line the value for Q is always the same, the following
equation of continuity applies:
Q1 = Q2 = Q3
A1v1 = A2v2 = A3v3 = etc...

(note pg:34)

PRESSURE MEASUREMENT

(note pg:37)

TYPE OF FLOW
Two types of flow
Laminar, Re < 2300
Turbulent, Re > 2300
Re = v x d / v
v is flow velocity in m/s
D is pipe diameter in m
v is kinetic viscocity in m2/s

(note pg:39)

Energy Loss By Turbulent Flow

Hydraulic fluid
Types:
Mineral based
For low risk of fire
Phosphate-ester based (Synthetic oil)
For high risk of fire

(note pg:70)

Hydraulic fluid
Tasks for hydraulic fluids
pressure transfer,
lubrication of the moving parts of devices,
cooling, i.e. diversion of the heat produced by
energy conversion (pressure losses),
cushioning of oscillations caused by pressure
jerks,
corrosion protection,
scuff removal,
signal transmission.
(note pg:70)

Hydraulic fluid
Hydraulic oil classes (DIN 51524 and 51525):
Hydraulic oil HL
Hydraulic oil HLP
Hydraulic oil HV.

(note pg:71)

Hydraulic fluid
Hydraulic fluids with low inflammability (HF liquids):

(note pg:72)

Hydraulic fluid
Viscosity:
The word viscosity can be defined as
resistance to flow. The viscosity of a
liquid indicates its internal friction,
The international system of standards
defines viscosity as kinematic viscosity
(unit: mm2/s or Cst).

Hydraulic fluid
ISO standard for Viscosity Grade:

Hydraulic fluid
VG selection:
If viscosity is too low (very fluid), more leakages occur.
The lubricating film is thin and, thus, able to break away
more easily resulting in reduced protection against wear.
High viscosity results in increased friction leading to
excessive pressure losses and heating particularly at
throttle points. This makes cold start and the separation
of air bubbles more difficult and, thus, leads to cavitation.

Hydraulic fluid
VG selection:

Hydraulic system

Hydraulic system

Power supply section


The power supply section provides the energy required by
the hydraulic system. The most important components in
this section are:
drive
pump
pressure relief valve
coupling
reservoir
filter
cooler
heater

Power supply unit (Power Pack)


Example:

Hydraulic Pump
The pump converts the mechanical energy in a drive unit into hydraulic
energy (pressure energy).
Types:

Gear pump
Gear pumps are fixed displacement pumps since the displaced volume
which is determined by the tooth gap is not adjustable.

Axial Piston Pump

Characteristic values for the most common constant pumps

Practical:

Pump characteristic

Reservoir / Tank
The tank in a hydraulic system fulfils several tasks.
It:
acts as intake and storage reservoir for the
hydraulic fluid required for operation of the
system;
dissipates heat;
separates air, water and solid materials;
supports a built-in or built-on pump and drive
motor and other hydraulic components, such as
valves, accumulators, etc.

Reservoir / Tank

Filters

Filters are of great significance in hydraulic systems for the reliable


functioning and long service life of the components.
The effects of polluted oil:

Filter arrangement

Filter Grades

Filter Grades

Filter designs

Valve Symbols
Directional Control Valves
Switching position

Flow path

Flow path blocked

Connection ports
(note pg:92)

2 - Way valve

Number of switching positions


Number of ports

2 - Way valve

Connection ports
P

; Pressure supply port

; Return port (Tank)

A,B

; Power/Output/working ports

; Leakage port
A

4
P

2 - Way valve

Methods of actuation:

(note pg:93)

Hydraulic actuators
Linear actuators:
single-acting and
double-acting cylinders.
Rotary actuators:
Hydraulic motors

(note pg:228)

Single acting cylinder


In single-acting cylinders, only the piston side is supplied
with hydraulic fluid. Consequently, the cylinder is only able
to carry out work in one direction.

(note pg:228)

Single acting cylinder


Types:

(note pg:230)

Double-acting cylinder

In the case of double-acting cylinders, both piston surfaces can be


pressurized. Therefore, it is possible to perform a working movement in both
directions.

(note pg:231)

Double-acting cylinder

Double acting cylinder


Types:

(note pg:233)

Double acting cylinder


End position cushioning

(note pg:235)

Hydraulic motors

They convert hydraulic energy into mechanical energy and


generate rotary movements (rotary actuator). If the rotary
movement only covers a certain angular range, the actuator is
referred to as a swivel drive.

(note pg:250)

Hydraulic motors
Types:

(note pg:253)

Valves
Nominal sizes:

(note pg:148)

Valves
Design:
Poppet valves
slide valves

(note pg:151)

Valves
Poppet valves:

(note pg:152)

Valves
slide valves

(note pg:154)

Valves
Comparison of valve constructions:

(note pg:155)

Valves
Control edges:

(note pg:160)

Valves
Annular grooves:
With the grooves, the piston of valve spool is
supported on a film of oil. On actuation, only the
fluid friction needs to be overcome.

(note pg:161)

Directional control valves


2/2-way valve:

(note pg:180/184)

Directional control valves


3/2-way valve

(note pg:188)

Directional control valves


4/2-way valve

(note pg:190)

Directional control valves


4/3-way valve with pump by-pass (re-circulating)

(note pg:195)

4/3-way valve with pump by-pass (re-circulating)

(note pg:191)

Directional control valves


4/3-way valve, mid position closed

(note pg:197)

Pressure valves
Pressure relief valves
Pressure regulator
2-way pressure
regulator
3-way pressure
regulator

(note pg:164)

Pressure valves
Pressure relief valves

(note pg:166)

Pressure valves
Pressure relief valve, internally controlled, cushioned:
Cushioning pistons and throttles are often installed in
pressure relief valves to eliminate fluctuations in
pressure. The cushioning device shown here causes:
fast opening
slow closing of the valve.

(note pg:168)

Pressure valves
Pressure relief valve, externally controlled

(note pg:170)

Pressure valves
Pressure relief valves are used as:
Safety valves
A pressure relief valve is termed a safety valve when it is attached
to the pump, for example, to protect it from overload. The valve
setting is fixed at the maximum pump pressure. It only opens in case
of emergency.
Counter-pressure valves
These counteract mass moments of inertia with tractive loads. The
valve must be pressure-compensated and the tank connection must
be loadable.
Brake valves
These prevent pressure peaks, which may arise as a result of mass
moments of inertia on sudden closing of the directional control valve.
Sequence valves
These open the connection to other consuming devices when the
set pressure is exceeded. There are both internally and externally
controlled pressure relief valves. Pressure relief valves of poppet or
slide design may only be used as sequence valves when the
pressure is compensated and loading at the tank connection has no
effect on the opening characteristics.
(note pg:168/9)

(note pg:169/171)

Pressure valves
Pressure regulators:
Pressure regulators reduce the input pressure to a specified output
pressure. They are only used to good effect in systems where a number
of different pressures are required.

2-way pressure regulator

(note pg:172/3)

Pressure valves
3-way pressure regulator

(note pg:176)

Non-return valves / Check valves


Non-return valves block the flow in one direction and
permit free flow in the other.

(note pg:201)

Pump protection

(note pg:203)

Other applications:

(note pg:204)

Non-return valves / Check valves


Piloted non-return valve

Flow blocked from B to A

Flow from A to B

Flow from B to A with X signal

Exercise:
A scissor lift is used to lift heavy loads to the platforms of varying
heights. The loaded lift must be able to remain at given height over
a long period of time. The lift is powered by a double acting
cylinder.
Position sketch

Load

Piloted non-return valve:

Flow control valves

Flow control valves are used to reduce the speed of a cylinder or


the r.p.m. of a motor.
Flow control valves are classified as either:
flow control valves or
flow regulating valves.

Flow control valves


One-way flow control valve

Flow control valves


Two-way flow control valve
To maintain a constant speed in the case of a changing load. the
pressure drop p via the throttle point can be kept constant.

Flow control valves


Two-way flow control valve

Accumulator
Accumulators perform special functions in
hydraulic systems:
To act as an emergency power source, e.g. to
complete a working stroke in case of drive or
pump failure.
To compensate for leakage losses.
To compensate for variations in fluid volume due
to changes in temperature.
Absorption of shock waves and pressure peaks
due to switching actions and applications.

Accumulator
Design:

Diaphragm accumulator

Bladder accumulator

Bladder accumulator
Operation:

Accumulator applications
Reduce vibration and shock:

Accumulator applications
Installation for emergency power source:

Thank you

Оценить