Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 3

12 PRINCIPLES OF HIGH QUALITY ASSESSMENT

1. CLARITY & APPROPRIATENESS OF LEARNING TARGETS


Assessment should be clearly stated and specified and centered on what is truly important.
"Teaching emphasis should parallel testing emphasis."

LEARNING TARGETS
Students mastery of the content.
Students ability to use their knowledge.
Students ability to demonstrate what they
have learned.
Students ability to create.
Students emotional attainments.

Knowledge
Reasoning
Skills
Products
Affects

2. APPROPRIATE ASSESSMENT METHODS


Assessment should utilize assessment methods suitable for a particular learning target.

ASSESSMENT METHODS
Objective Supply
Objective Select
Essay
Performance-based
Oral-question
Observation
Self-report

LEARNING TARGETS
Knowledge
Knowledge
Reasoning
Skills, products
Knowledge, reasoning
Knowledge, skills
Affects

3. BALANCE
Assessment methods should be able to assess all domains of learning and hierarchy of
objectives.

DOMAINS OF LEARNING:
Cognitive
Affective
Psychomotor

Evaluation
Synthesis
Analysis
Application

HIERARCHY OF OBJECTIVES
(BLOOM)
(ANDERSON)
Create
Evaluate
Apply
Analyze

Comprehension
Knowledge

Understand
Remember

4. VALIDITY
Assessment should be valid. There are several types of validity that are to be established.

TYPES OF VALIDITY
Content Validity
Face Validity
Concurrent Validity
Predictive Validity
Discriminant Validity
Construct Validity
5. RELIABILITY
Assessment should show consistent and stable results. There are methods which can be
used to measure and establish reliability.

RELIABILITY CAN BE MEASURED USING:


Test-retake or Retest Method
SPLIT-HALF
Parallel-form/Equivalence test
Test of Stability

Measurement of stability & Equivalence

Kuder-Richardson

Giving the same examination after several


minutes to several years.
This is used to establish internal
consistency using Pearson r formula.
Giving the same examination within the
day.
Giving the same examination content but
not in the same manner or form after
several minutes to several years.
Giving the same examination content but
not in the same manner or form within the
day.
Establishment of reliability using KR 21
and KR 20 formulas.

6. FAIRNESS
Assessment should give equal opportunities for every student. There should be no
discrimination of any kind (racial, age, gender, etc.)
7. AUTHENTICITY
Assessment should touch real life situations and should emphasize practicability.
8. PRACTICALITY & EFFICIENCY

Assessment should save time, money, etc. It should be resourceful.


9. ASSESSMENT IS A CONTINUOUS PROCESS.
Because assessment is an integral part of the teaching-learning process, it should be
continuous.

ASSESSMENT FORMS:

PLACEMENT ASSESSMENT

Done before instruction to assess


the needs of the learners to determine
their capacities and capabilities.

FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT

Done during instruction


to monitor students progress and
to reinforce learning.

DIAGNOSTIC ASSESSMENT

Done to see the problems and


learning difficulties of the students.

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

Done after instruction to assess


students achievement and to see
the result of the teaching-learning
process.

10. ETHICS IN ASSESSMENT


Assessment should not be used to derogate the students. One example of this is the right to
confidentiality.
11. CLEAR COMMUNICATION
Assessment's results should be communicated to the learners and the people involved.
Communication should also be established between the teacher and the learners by way of
pre- and post-test reviews.
12. POSITIVITY OF CONSEQUENCE
Assessment should have a positive effect. It should motivate students to learn and do more
and should give way to improve the teacher's instruction.