Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 4

Universal declaration of human rights

What are human rights?


Human rights are rights inherent to all human beings, no matter nationality,
place of residence, ethnic origin, colour, religion, language. We all have equal
human rights which should not be discriminated. These rights are all
interrelated, interdependent and indivisible.
Universal human rights are guaranteed by law, in the forms of treaties,
international law , general principles and other. HRs should not be taken
away, except in specific situations and according to due process. For example,
the right to liberty may be restricted if a person is found guilty of a crime by a
court of law.
History
During world war II The United Nations Charter committed all member states
to promote "universal respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms for
all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion'' and when the
atrocities committed by Nazi Germany became apparent after the war, it was
concluded that the United Nations Charter did not sufficiently define the rights
to which it referred. Declaration was drafted over two years by the Commission
on Human Rights chaired by Eleanor Roosevelt.
The Declaration was proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly in
Paris on 10 December 1948 by a vote of 48 in favor, none against. That day is
celebrated as HR day. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a
milestone document in the history of human rights. The Declaration arose from
the experience of the Second World War and it sets out, for the first time,
fundamental human rights to be universally protected.
In year 2008 the UN marked the 60th anniversary of Declaration.
This is the World Hr day, and we can see fundamental principles such as...

Structure
The structure was influenced by the Code Napolon, including a preamble and
introductory general principles. It consists of 30 articles.
The Declaration was compared to the portico of a Greek temple, with a
foundation, steps, four columns, and a pediment. Articles 1 and 2 are the
foundation blocks, with their principles of dignity, liberty, equality, and
brotherhood. The seven paragraphs of the preamblewith the reasons for the
Declarationrepresent the steps. The main body forms four columns. The first
column constitutes rights of the individual such as the right to life and the
prohibition of slavery. It alse refers to the fundamental legality of human rights
with specific remedies for their defense in case of violation. The second column
constitutes the rights of the individual in civil and political society. The third
column consists of spiritual, public, and political freedoms such as freedom of
association, thought, conscience, and religion. And finally The fourth column
sets out social, economic, and cultural rights. The last three articles of the
Declaration provide the pediment which binds the structure together.
Declaration was adopted for the purpose of defining the meaning of the words
"fundamental freedoms" and "human rights". So the Universal Declaration is a
fundamental constitutive document of the United Nations.
The Declaration has served as the foundation for two UN human rights
covenants: the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. The principles
are mentioned in international treaties such as the International Convention
on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, the International
Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, the United
Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, the United Nations Convention
Against Torture.
The Guinness Book of Records describes the Declaration as the world's "Most
Translated Document.

How Does International Law Protect Human Rights?


Human rights create rights and duties. States must respect, protect and fulfil
human rights. The domestic legal system provides the principal legal
protection of human rights guaranteed under international law. So when
domestic legal proceedings fail to address human rights abuses, procedures for
individuals and groups can complain at the regional and international levels to
help ensure that human rights are respected at the local level.
It has served as the foundation for national laws, international laws, treaties
and institutions promoting human rights.

Criticism
Islamic countries
Most Islamic countries have signed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
However, Saudi Arabia claimed that it violated Sharia law (means the moral
code and religious law of a prophetic religion). Members of the Organisation of
the Islamic Conference supported the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in
Islam; document that says people have "freedom and right to a dignified life in
accordance with the Islamic Sharia law''.
"The Right to Refuse to Kill"
Groups such as Amnesty International and War Resisters wanted to add "The
Right to Refuse to Kill" into the Universal Declaration..
Women
American feminist Catharine MacKinnon has asked the question "[A]re women
considered human?", hereby focusing on male-centric terms such as
brotherhood in Article 1 and himself and his family in Article 23.

Bangkok Declaration
The Bangkok Declaration is an expression of the Asian values perspective,
which offers an extended critique of human rights universalism.