Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 5

0pinion Issuys

ffiF!1

lntroduciion
eOC

a C O 6 a C O O O OO

O O

Porogroph I

/ffi
are discursive essays in which you present your personai
opinion on a
/,r*
?:::?l::r:,y_r
topic. Your opinion must be stated cieariy and supiorted
{"' partlcular
by justifications. you
shoutd also present the opposing viewpoint(s) rn

introduce the subiect ond

siole your opinion cleorly

Moin Body
eo6.a"o"11.,"66E6e

Porogroph

c)

,..prut. plir"pn.

An opinion essay shouid consist of:


a) an introduction, in which you introduce the subject and state your opinion clearly;
b) a main body, consisting of two or more. paragraphs (each presenilng a separate
viewpoint supported by reasons/examples), inclu"ding plragraph
a
giving the opposing

first viewpoini
ond recsons/exomples

Porogroph 3*

viewpoint supported by reasons/examples; and


a conclusion, in which you restate your opinion using
different words.
You normally use present tenses in this type of writing,
and phrases such as I believe,
ln my opinion, I think, /t seems.fo me that, I strongty
dlsagree with, ercto express your
opinion. You should list your viewpornis with Fr'rst/y,
Furtlhermore, Moreover,A/so, etc,
and introduce the opposing viewpoint using Howeve r, on
the other hand, eIc.

opinion essays are normally wriiten in a formal style, therefore you


should avoid
using colloquial expressions, short forms or personal
exampies. you can find this type
of writing in the form of an article in newspapers,
magazines,

second viewpoini

etc.

cnd recsons/exomples
Porogroph 4t

,:ir

opposlng vrewpoinl

::-USflll exnression
xpressio.is; _foi'giving opihions:

ond reosons/exomples

c I believe/thini</feel (ttrar)

eone lusion
DO 0 o o e I o s o 3 A A O O A I

Finol Porogroph
restcie your opinion, using

dillereni words

o My opiruon is thar ...


o fu far as I am concerned, ...

I strongiy beeve ...


In my opinion/view, ...
e The way i see it, ...
c It sdemlappeiS to me (that),.
e fo,my mrnd;';,.,'' : :: :.:r-','
c I (dg'lot). agree thatlwith ...':'l

I (cmpleteg) gree thatrrith ...


I (sh'ongly) disagree thar/with ..
e I am totally against ...
o I couldn't agree rore that/with .-.
: I couidn't diiagree more thalwith...
""

o The number of porogrophs


in lhe moin body depends
on lhe number

af view-

poinls included:

use the linking words/phrases from the st berow to


fr in the tabre
that foows, as in the example.
in the first place, alsl, for example, to sum up) moreover)
firstly, although,
t9 begn with, all things considerecl, such as, therefore,
on the other haid,
however, apart from this, in other worcls, in particulur,
for instance, in
addition, because, taking everything into account,
furthermore, for one
thing, since, Iastly, secondly, nonetheless, while

1
1

To list

pomts: ' I

,
1,..

-: firstly, to begin with, for one thing,


To list points:
lastly, secondly

2 To add more ponts: also, moreover, apart from


this, in addition, fuhermore

To introduce opposing viewpoints: although, on


the other hand, however, nonetheless, while

4 To introduce

examples/reasons: for example,


such as, therefore, in other words, in parlicular, for
instance, because, since

To conclude: to sum up, all things considered,


taking everything into account

the

firrt place,

'-"-.#:-

0tinirn

11

12

a) Read the sentences

below.
Then, use appropriate wordsi

expressions

P (P

[sssys

to

ip

t/

FSSr&7

a) Imagine you have had a class discussion about the followin


question: "Should more people give up meat and becom

give your

vegetarians?" Read the viewpoints (1-5) and match them to th


reasons (A-E), as in the example.

opinion, as in the example.


A part-time job is the best option for
someone who is a working parent.

1 Eating meat is bad for you E 4

I completely ag'ee that a pnrtlime job


is tlte best option for someone wlto is
a working parent.

There are many healthy and


tasty aitematives available

Package holidays are ideal for people


who do not like to travel alone.

Ealing meat is cruel to


animals

and lentils are


delicious
and are good
,
'..\ sources of protein.

Becoming more aware of

Meat is an essential part of our


diet;we cannot do without

it I

Vegetarian food is oflen


boring and

tasteless I
: r

,.-/*-->-

D l-Animais are
kept in tenible
conditions just sc
they can be killec
and eaten-

envronmental concerns is the only


way to heip save our planet.
been linked to heart
disease and even
I

nere

many

Educationai standards in private


schools are usually higher than

lT::t::::"1*lllt

E
\

dishes that actuaily


taste nice.

i
'

Meat provides
us with the protein
and vitamins that we

C.
Boxing is an extremely violent sport

aren't

vegetarian

feed'

b)

Read the viewpoints again and say which you agree with'anr
which you disagree with. Make sentences using approprial
Iinking words/phrases.

c)

Complete the parts of the essay below, using your answers fron
parts a) and b) as well as your own ideas.

and should be banned.

Nowadays, we are often told what we should or should not eat. Horvever, I
personaliy believe

To begin with,

In addition,
On the other hand,

*l

7-

Unil 14n 0tinion [ssnys

I3

Read the extracrs below and say which are beginnings and which are
endings, \lhich *riting techniques have been used in each?

A e:ress,ng ihe reader directly

j
i
l
l
l
!

rsrirs

uslne direct speech/a quotation

a rhetorical question

for people with busy

n
tl

lives

fast food unhealthy


'

fast food expensive

for consumer and


environment

horv to handle defeat?

fast food easy solution

sports evenls because


Everi. dav rve hear of more and more violence at
you think that the
fans become enraged rvhen their-team loses' Don't
be to teach peopie
most effectiv. *uy ,o control such incidents would

I
I

xj

Viewpoints

tl tl

2 .I?

sum up, competition has a negative effect on children, as the


only
thing that really mattes is winning. Imagine horv you *ouid
feel if you

rvere airvays expected to be the best.

,1

high in fat and salt; not fresh

packaging non-biodegradable,

l: *yusion, I srrongg believe rhat taking parr in ,pon, ;;;

damages environment

many ingredients are genetically

'lili:i:1i:'l?:Tiil.'ll',ll,f"'ul, * o* coch alwavs savs, winning

modified
i
f

in-recent ytlt?,Fo:
Has the importance piaced on winning increased
:T-_l
to be the main aim of sport' However' i believe
L_t many people, this seeins
i
that;imply taking part is far more important than winning'

:4

14
;
i:
!

ordering fast food saves time and

enefgy

peopie who work long hours can


pick up phone and order takeaway

money spent on fast food

b) Which

Which potntsmustyou include in the

opinion

c) Use the notes in part a) to

your

reasons to justify your points of view

your friend's opinion

Which style is /?o/ suitabie for this essay

a)

talk about fast food, as in


the example.
e.g.

In the first pktce, fast .food is tery


mealthy....

essay?

of the

viervpoints
agree with the statement in
the rubric? Which disagree?

You have had a class discussion about the following statement:


Fast food ls a good alternative to cooking for yourself .
Now your teacher has asked you to write an essay expressing your opinion
and giving reasons for your point of view,

15

Read the rubric and underline the key words, then answer
the questions.

A Fast food is cheap, delicious and good for you.


B Fast food is a good solution for those who have no time to cook.
C Cooking is easier than ordering takeaway.

for

week is enough to buy groceries for


two weeks

1 What does the statement in the rubric mean?

""1

Reasons / Examples

formai or informal?

Read the rubric in Ex. 14 again and match the viewpoints (A - C)


to their reasons/examples (1 - 6). There are fwo justifications for

16 Read the rubric in Ex. 14 again,


then nrite your essay (120 - 180

words). Use your answers from


Ex. 14 and your notes from Ex.
15 to help you. You can use the
essay

in Ex.3 as a model.

each vieupoint.

g3

Essay

llOpnion
i-Or_l

Does the

Ia ar opinion

lnternet

vvrrtrng Guide

*rt

parricuJar subjecr. Look


at'rhe

cause

irp;.Gen*/r*ly

opinion on

the ptaa and ead


the model.

more harm than good?

i-FLA-l

iye-"Jil

Opening

people clain rhar rhe


Inremet
Yj.
tt
opinion, the Inremer
lt
u
invenons of the l"r, .."n,r, -r. "".""ii1usesalotofhann,
ll"- ". t. tort impotanr

Sare the topic md

some

,-

our opinion.

Vo.'sthelynmt
caus

it

harn? No

does

b,i";

a lo-t of

sood.

Body

il ;;ril";:; ::,H;,h;*T#:ilil; ;,

Justifr your opinion

giving fact ad
examples. Vhen
you introduce a

time rhak ro the Int


a ffod ro,"";

by

ide4 begin

lrte.net breakr
geograpHcaf social

can

and personal

barriers.

new paragraph

char

*, *ollo. inlrui"

fi n

rhey have

d i, i

im

r,,"

frr.;';";e

Some people

,"y r"r
it.

GeneralJy

,ff

by the lnternet.

,"3j",il1i;j;:l;jr

ff

you use

charrge

sp.rtong,

r, ,, a good enough
on]ii.opr. who look

..', n,il ! o *., h an d, e


of knowredge and .r,"
,"k.

n"

ou

be dangeous in rhe
wrons hands,
used properly,
t"""J-g.
a person's life compleleli""tl
penonaUy,

the

can

*ht:

i, .."r, , ;;:,;:O

hderhef properfy, it

will

Inreroer.

brngs mary negative


things

in*T,i.ff j::T_,,
iiu., ,uJ;;rffi;rd.::ce

haruel

people thank to

your

,h. t";tJ.oJ.tucul

"

r am cenain thar te *orid


and exciting pt"e ro'

t-f

hfd

Jseful Language

rn my opinion
as I see

it

it seems to me thai

,.

,.,.r, ,o ;."rr;; ,;.:,,:ff


r;
;;,
; ;'ffi
;;
:t; _
their shyness by making

opi e wh o

reason n0[ ro use

Innocenl surfers are

in

;;f li,ffi ::11;ffllfl1$; :ji:*

if

noTV do so

oyercome

I car

rnro our homes, however,1,.ln,*:":


I don,r believe

rrol usually

;;

The Intemet breal<s


b,amers _ geognphica_I,
social and
Firsrl

persona.l.

new

it is

clear that

I think / feel

agree

obviousiy
believe

disagree

147

clearly
as far as I'm concerned

personally
(un)f o rlunatety

of course

--=-l:se

vvntrnq Guide

rustEssay
^

asked

of the
the plar

i i!J__j

Dscuss whether smo-king


should be

prohibited

FI PLAN i
L. ---r*-J

publc p[acas.

iye!_Eai
Should Smokilg Be proffbjred
ia pubc places?

Cpening
What is the issue?
W:ere do I sand?

Whateyer smokers

while rhe smokes


Srrroklrg is attt_
social

enjoyment

should be
hanned

o.n

fr*il;,:;:

Body

.nLtTtelves.may

enjoy eir

: ;:, L'*,:'il:,{,",l

;;?ff

tigrt.n"r,

",; " ;

prohblion a{fe;+s

H, i::#:

are againsr rhe prohibirion


of

"

trti";i *i

nexr ro you in you,


,1t_^'1"r
rmporfant
facto fc

Arguuerts in
lavour of

non-smoker

liglts

atm osphere is seriousiy


.naange.i', g

i,;;;; ;

h ealrh.
conclusion, ir is obvious
rhar healh must come
personal pleasure. f
before
sonqiv L.r,_.,--_lll'- "''
siroutd
a., ro make ,roking

Closing

In

Xefer back ro rhe


ropic

rltfl ffi;*,Eovemmenb

0oveftfi$is shouj;

on the one hand


on the other hand
in contrast

up

r"oTu.i,.lol"*"u rhe mosrar


J.

;ffiTf; ;:_T::i.:]r_1i
;];;-*J' i.Jl":;ffS,Lf

u,, ii.
who spends

inconvenienc-

ha,tth

nsk to a"lhers

*r,

orviJ;i]ii"Jr
iJ-rrot..r,

if

personal liberhes

and estae yiews-

J.;

form a large pan of


the p"pri"ir"i""o
no one has
the rigJrr ro reu rhem
whee
i*"0..
Moreove
they state that
rieir smoke
rhe nonsmokes can always
"rrrroy,
moye to anorher
(smoke_free place.
On e othe hand. rhose q,ho
believe rhat smoking shoujd
prohibited in pubc
be
ptr.e, sry ti.alit;;;always
possibte ro
move away from smokes.
Vhar happem Jr'rr"O.r

Argunrents aqaihsl

t-Fsefi! tr-anguage

smoking is an anti-social
habj.

'.?ii'-T:iff*.1*'n'ho
:,
T:,3;H"il:
:1,-.;
smokers

Stare argumenB for


and
agarnst. Give exanrples.

prohihittorr

#L::lt"''

m0re0ver
furtherrnore

finatly

1Ztr\

in the first piace


firstly
secondly

rn conclusion

to sum
in short

up

Похожие интересы