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Q: What is the effect of bio-graphical characteristics on dependent variables?


Proven research shows that older employees tend to be absent less frequently than younger
ones (as time stabilizes them in their jobs and the thrill of an unauthorized day off no longer
tempts them.) However, once an older employee is actually absent - usually for sickness
leaves - the period of absenteeism is usually longer than that of a younger employee.
Women tend to be absent more frequently than men usually, especially when they are
responsible for the welfare of a family and have variables beyond their control to contend
If an employee doesn't come to work in a regular basis, there will be inevitable delays on the projects
and thus, this situation would increase operational costs and therefore decrease customer's satisfaction
and this will also effects its working abilities.
Lower absentism higher the turnover of an employee. If an employee have not do absentees and
performs better than of course organization relay on him and its turnover performance chances


Lower absenteeism increases organizations productivity.

Many studies and past experiences proven that mens are more productive for organizations than
More educated have more knowledge and that may helps organization to be more productive.
productivity vary by age the peak productivity potential occurs in ages 35-44 years. It also
relates with ability may be an employee with age 25-35 is more able to performe work
effectively but with age of 35-44 employees are more experienced than other they may
performs effectively and efficiently.
Productivity also increases with tenure of an employee. Training and than hiring the employees for
long term increases the job satisfaction which creates positive impact on working ablilities.

Job satisfaction

Some job surveys indicate that older workers are more satisfied with their jobs than younger
workers. The higher job satisfaction among older employees may be due to the perks that come
with maintaining a long career, including higher salaries, better benefits and success in the

There is no evidence indicating that an employees gender affects job satisfaction. But in some
researches indicates that mens are more satisfied with their jobs than women.
Higher rate of absenteeism indicates the less satisfaction of job which may cause low productivity lack
of interest in work and also increases time of work.
If an employee is satisfied with his/her job that means he/she will performe more effectively and
efficiently which increases the productivity.


In absence, the employee is still in service but he or she is not around the
workplace to do the job. This will automatically decreses the organizations turnover.

Mans are more regular than womens so their performance of regarding turnover is higher than
More knowledge gives more ideas to increase organization turnover.
Relationship between pay satisfaction and turnover intention as well as between job satisfaction
and turnover intention amongst young professionals rather than the aged employees.

Organization citizenship behavior

Older employees are expected to be more cooperative with their colleagues compared to their younger
counterparts. Indeed, older workers were previously found to have more positive psychological senses
of community and to be less competitively oriented compared to younger employees.
Recent research suggests that women are more likely to participate in the helping dimension of
organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) whereas men are more likely to participate in the civic
virtue dimension. female gender stereotype prescriptions, which dictate that women be nurturing and
socially oriented. Civic virtue, on the other hand, can be considered agentic behavior, which is more
consistent with prescriptions associated with the male gender stereotype.

Organization commitment