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Breaker Oil Analysis

A Noninvasive Approach to
Oil Breaker Maintenance
Rick Youngblood
Cinergy Corp.

Fredi Jakob
Weidmann ACTI

Breaker Maintenance
Scheduling
Prior 1996
Any Breaker Any Time

Lightly Loaded
Transfer Breakers
Transfer or Ring Buss
Line Switching

Breaker Maintenance
Scheduling
Oil Breaker Maintenance Triggered on

Time
Relays
Operation Counter
Oil Color
Oil Dielectric

Post 1996
Philosophy Evolution Began
Maintenance Engineers known to be
conservative
Management control shifted from Engineers
to Bean Counters
Availability of O&M and Capital Dollars
reduced

Today
Design changes eliminated switching
options
Loss of Transfer Buss and Breakers

Loading Policy grew to 125% of nameplate


Line loading prohibits line ties

Cinergy became part of the Midwest ISO


Maintenance scheduling no longer controlled
locally

2000 The New Approach


Cinergy Joined the Maintenance Evolution
Reliability Centered Maintenance 1998
Condition Based Maintenance 2000
Maintenance Engineers Forced to Work
Smarter to achieve reliability with less
Focus on new Ideas for Triggering
Maintenance through NONINVASIVE
means.

Next Generation Trigger


Devices
Smart Relays a good option

Schweitzer
Basler
MDAR
REL
TPU

Condition Based Trigger


Devices
I2T Monitors
Optimizer
Vanguard
Hathaway RTR84

Thermography
Ultrasonics

COMMON PROBLEM
Cost

Cost

Cost

Breaker Oil Analysis


Cinergy needed an Inexpensive
Noninvasive method to determine breaker
maintenance triggers
DGA worked, why shouldnt Oil Analysis?
Cinergy aware of other similar projects
Decision made to approach project
independently

Cinergy Approach
Cinergy had the technical expertise but
lacked the laboratory talent
Cinergy partnered up with Dr. Fredi Jakob
of Weidmann ACTI to provide laboratory
services for the project

Breaker Analysis
Cinergy divided oil breakers into:

Operating Modes
Mechanical Components
Electrical Components

Failure Modes
Mechanical Failures
Electrical Failures
Dielectric Failures

Electrical Failure Modes


Fault Interruption Components
Stationary and Moveable Contacts
Arcing Tips
Interrupting Grids and Baffle Plates

Dielectric Failure Mode


Loss of Dielectric Strength due to
Carbon
Water
Noncarbon Particulates
Metals

Common Factors Observed


Contributing to Electrical Failure
Oil Quality
Carbon Particles and Water

Grid Wear
Noncarbon Fibers

Contact Wear
Dissolved Metal in Oil

Oil Analysis Holds Key


Measurement of both Quantity and Size of
Grid Wear and Carbon Particles
Determination of Metal Types
Quantity Count of each Metal
Opacity of the Oil
Min. of 3 on a 1-5 Scale

Port Union # CB707


EquipDesc Sample#
CB 707
PORT
UNION
SUB ID#
38
36026
Flushed
Cond
N
AVG
N
GOOD
N
POOR
Carbons
Other
80
5
95
5
75
0

Pole

Serial#

2,1,3
Silicone
.3
.3
0.4
Opacity
4
4
5

Manufacturer

0139A948
6201
GECO
Iron
Tin
.3
0.6
.3
0.6
.3
0.6
2-5
5-15
603390
1968110
751860
1943240
3641300
16104940

KV

69
Copper
0.2
0.2
1.1
15-25
511260
297740
19907270

Model Gallons #Tanks Cycled

FK-72.53800
231
Silver
Fiber
1.6
5
0.8
0
59.4
10
25-50 50-100
43060
3380
36710
2420
8077040 166480

N
N
3N
Metals
10
0
15
>100
330
300
6320

Port Union CB #707


Remaining grid and
carbon particles after
removal of oil

Port Union CB #707 Pole #2


Evidence of metal loss
from arcing
Metal suspension and
absorption into oil

Port Union CB #707 Pole #1

Port Union CB #707 Pole #3

Cedarville CB411

District

Station Breaker#
CEDARVL
E SUB
CG29OCB
BRECON #29
411
#Tanks
Cycled Flushed
1N
Y
Carbons
Other
Opacity
70
0
5

EquipDesc Sample#

Pole

Serial#

Manufacturer

KV

Model

Gallons

CB 411
0141A297
FK-38CIR 51
3516
1
6202
GECO
34.5
22000
265
Cond
Silicone
Iron
Tin
Copper
Silver
Fiber
Metals
O
0.3
.3
0.6
0.2
4.9
10
20
2-5
5-15
15-25
25-50
50-100
>100
409450
1678880 1059540
69640
2000
310

Cedarville CB411
Single Tank 34.5KV
GECO with grids
dropped showing
contacts

Cedarville CB411
Contacts close up
showing arc tip
erosion and surface
burning

Evandale CB573
EquipDesc
CB 573
EVENDALE
SUB ID# 46
Cycled
N
N
N
Metals

Sample#

36302
Flushed
Y
Y
Y

Pole

3,2,1
Cond
P
P
P

Serial#
0139A236
4-204
Silicone
3.0
3.0
3.0

Carbons
Other
Opacity
20
65
5
5
10
65
5
5
30
50
0
5

Manufacturer

GECO
Iron
.3
.3
0.5
2-5
4406840
4727270
2321000

KV

34.5
Tin
0.6
0.6
0.6
5-15
16321820
16608250
10302550

Model
FK-34.51500
Copper
4.5
4.0
12.4
15-25
4487590
3737710
9110170

Gallons

#Tanks

91
Silver
24.7
20.3
95.0
25-50
188450
188910
1301480

3
Fiber
10
20
20
50-100
9770
14170
39010

>100
480
640
1240

Evandale CB573
Grid material lost due
to arc and wear
Grid material
deposited in oil

Evandale CB573
Contact fingers
showing the loss of the
silver arcing tips
New contact in the
middle for comparison

Evandale CB573
Bent contact as
compared to new
contact
Bending due to
misalignment of
movable contact and
grid assembly

Evandale CB573
Mating contact shown
with grooved arcing
tip from misalignment
with grid assembly
Large amounts of
silver deposited in oil
due to mechanical
wear

Use of DGA
DGA found to be a very beneficial addition
to final analysis
Gasses do evolve to head space but
proportionate ratios still exist
Arcing gas levels dependant on time
between last fault operation and sample
date
Hot metal gas rules still apply

Final Analysis
Estimates of internal damage can be
predicted
Particle size and quantity of both carbon
and noncarbon fibers relevant
Type and quantity of metals found in oil
very important
Knowledge of contact composition essential

Conclusion
Breaker oil analysis viable noninvasive test
to determine breaker maintenance
scheduling
Triggers for oil sampling being reviewed
and refined
Cinergy has moved from BETA testing to
production analysis

Breaker Oil Analysis


A Noninvasive Approach to
Oil Breaker Maintenance
Rick Youngblood
Cinergy Corp.

Fredi Jakob
Weidmann ACTI