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Autodesk Simulation Mechanical 2013 Part 1 Seminar Notes

5/30/2012

2012 Autodesk, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Autodesk Simulation Mechanical 2013 Part 1 Seminar Notes

Algor

Autodesk Simulation Mechanical 2013 Part 1 Seminar Notes

5/30/2012

III

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Autodesk Simulation Mechanical 2013 Part 1 Seminar Notes

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction ................................................ 1

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Overview................................................................................................................................1
Software Installation, Services, and Support .......................................................................1
Installing and Running Autodesk Simulation Mechanical or Multiphysics ................1
System Requirements ...................................................................................................2
Subscription Center .......................................................................................................4
Web Links ......................................................................................................................4
Tutorials .........................................................................................................................5
Webcasts and Web Courses ........................................................................................5
How to Receive Technical Support...............................................................................5
Updates..........................................................................................................................6
Background of FEA ...............................................................................................................7
What is Finite Element Analysis?..................................................................................7
Basic FEA Concepts .....................................................................................................7
How Does Autodesk Simulation Mechanical Work?................................................. 10
The General Flow of an Analysis in Autodesk Simulation Mechanical .................... 10
Stress and Strain Review .................................................................................................. 11
Equations Used in the Solution .................................................................................. 11
Limits of Static Stress with Linear Material Models ................................................... 12
Mechanical Event Simulation (MES) Overcomes Limitations .................................. 12
Hand-Calculated Example ......................................................................................... 13
Heat Transfer Review ........................................................................................................ 13
Equations Used in the Solution .................................................................................. 13
Linear Dynamics Review ................................................................................................... 14

Chapter 1: Using Autodesk Simulation Mechanical or


Multiphysics ..................................... 15
Chapter Objectives ............................................................................................................ 15
Navigating the User Interface ............................................................................................ 15
Commands ................................................................................................................. 17
Using the Keyboard and Mouse ................................................................................ 18
Introduction to the View Cube .................................................................................... 19
Additional View Controls ............................................................................................ 20
Legacy View Controls in Autodesk Simulation Mechanical and Multiphysics.......... 22
Steel Yoke Example........................................................................................................... 22
Opening and Meshing the Model............................................................................... 23
Setting up the Model................................................................................................... 24
Analyzing the Model ................................................................................................... 28
Reviewing the Results ................................................................................................ 28
Viewing the Displaced Shape .................................................................................... 29
Creating an Animation ................................................................................................ 29
Generating a Report ................................................................................................... 29

Chapter 2: Static Stress Analysis Using CAD Solid Models.... 33


Chapter Objectives ............................................................................................................ 33
Archiving a Model............................................................................................................... 33
Types of Brick Elements .................................................................................................... 34
Generating Meshes for CAD Models ................................................................................ 35
Creating a Mesh ......................................................................................................... 36
Model Mesh Settings Options ................................................................................. 37

Autodesk Simulation Mechanical 2013 Part 1 Seminar Notes

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Table of Contents

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Tips for Modeling with CAD Solid Model Software for FEA............................................. 39
Simplify CAD Solid Models with Autodesk Fusion ........................................................... 40
Working with Various Unit Systems .................................................................................. 41
Loading Options ................................................................................................................. 43
Load Cases................................................................................................................. 44
Constraint Options ............................................................................................................. 46
Modeling Symmetry and Antisymmetry..................................................................... 46
Design Scenarios ............................................................................................................... 47
Load and Constraint Group ............................................................................................... 49
Local Coordinate Systems ................................................................................................ 50
Defining Materials and Using the Material Library Manager ........................................... 51
Adding Material Libraries and Material Properties .................................................... 53
Examples of Loads and Constraints ................................................................................. 55
When to Use Displacement Boundary Elements ...................................................... 55
Using Local Coordinate Systems............................................................................... 55
Using Surface Variable Loads ................................................................................... 59

Exercise A: Frame Full to Quarter-Symmetry Model Comparison ...................... 63

Chapter 3: Results Evaluation and Presentation.............. 65


Chapter Objectives ............................................................................................................ 65
Background on How Results are Calculated.................................................................... 65
How to Evaluate Results ................................................................................................... 66
Displacement Results................................................................................................. 66
Stress Results............................................................................................................. 68
Reaction Force Results .............................................................................................. 70
Inquiring on the Results at a Node............................................................................. 70
Graphing the Results.................................................................................................. 71
Presentation Options ......................................................................................................... 73
Contour Plots .............................................................................................................. 73
Image File Creation .................................................................................................... 77
Animating FEA Results .............................................................................................. 78
Using the Configure Report Utility.............................................................................. 79

Exercise B: Yoke Evaluation of Results and Generation of a Report ................. 81

Chapter 4: Midplane Meshing and Plate Elements.............. 83


Chapter Objectives ............................................................................................................ 83
Meshing Options ................................................................................................................ 83
Element Options................................................................................................................. 87
Plate Theory and Assumptions .................................................................................. 87
Loading Options ................................................................................................................. 88
Example of Defining the Element Normal Point ........................................................ 89
Result Options .................................................................................................................... 92

Exercise C: Midplane Meshing and Plate Element Orientation .............................. 93

Chapter 5: Meshing .......................................... 95


Chapter Objectives ............................................................................................................ 95
Refinement Options ........................................................................................................... 95
Automatic Refinement Points..................................................................................... 95
Global Refinement Options ........................................................................................ 97

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Table of Contents
Creating Joints ................................................................................................................... 99
Creating Bolts ................................................................................................................... 101
Mesh Convergence Testing ............................................................................................ 103
Performing a Mesh Study......................................................................................... 104
Exercise D: Yoke and Clevis Assembly .................................................................. 105

Chapter 6: Introduction to Contact ......................... 107

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Chapter Objectives .......................................................................................................... 107


Uses for Contact .............................................................................................................. 107
Contact Options ............................................................................................................... 107
Setting up Contact Pairs........................................................................................... 107
Types of Contact ...................................................................................................... 108
Surface Contact Direction ........................................................................................ 111
Contact Example .............................................................................................................. 112
How to Model Shrink Fits: ........................................................................................ 112
Shrink Fit Example ........................................................................................................... 113
Case 1 Shrink Fit / No Sliding ............................................................................... 114
Case 2 Shrink Fit / Sliding ..................................................................................... 118
Result Options .................................................................................................................. 118

Exercise E: Yoke Assembly with Contact .............................................................. 119

Chapter 7: Introduction to Linear Dynamics................. 121


Chapter Objectives .......................................................................................................... 121
Modal Analysis ................................................................................................................. 121
Weight............................................................................................................................... 122
Load Stiffening ................................................................................................................. 123
Example of Natural Frequency (Modal) Analysis ........................................................... 124
Meshing the Model ................................................................................................... 125
Adding Constraints ................................................................................................... 126
Defining the Materials ............................................................................................... 126
Analyzing the Model ................................................................................................. 126
Reviewing the Results .............................................................................................. 126
Critical Buckling Analysis ................................................................................................. 127
Setting Up a Critical Buckling Analysis .................................................................... 128
Result Options .................................................................................................................. 129
Other Linear Dynamics Analyses.................................................................................... 129

Exercise F: Concrete Platform ................................................................................ 131

Chapter 8: Steady-State Heat Transfer...................... 133


Chapter Objectives .......................................................................................................... 133
3-D Radiator Example ..................................................................................................... 133
Meshing the Model ................................................................................................... 134
Setting up the Model................................................................................................. 135
Analyzing the Model ................................................................................................. 136
Reviewing the Results .............................................................................................. 136
Meshing Options .............................................................................................................. 137
Thermal Contact ....................................................................................................... 137
Element Options............................................................................................................... 139
Rod Elements ........................................................................................................... 139
2-D Elements ............................................................................................................ 139
Plate Elements.......................................................................................................... 140
Brick and Tetrahedral Elements............................................................................... 141

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VII

Table of Contents

Loading Options ............................................................................................................... 143


Nodal Loads.............................................................................................................. 143
Surface Loads........................................................................................................... 145
Element Loads.......................................................................................................... 150
Body-to-Body Radiation ........................................................................................... 152
Controlling Nonlinear Iterations ................................................................................ 156
Result Options .................................................................................................................. 157
Exercise G: Infrared Detector Model ....................................................................... 161

Chapter 9: Transient Heat Transfer ......................... 163

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Chapter Objectives .......................................................................................................... 163


When to Use Transient Heat Transfer ............................................................................ 163
Element Options............................................................................................................... 163
Loading Options ............................................................................................................... 164
Load Curves ............................................................................................................. 164
Controlling Nodal and Surface Controlled Temperatures ....................................... 165
Result Options .................................................................................................................. 166

Exercise H: Transistor Case Model ......................................................................... 167

Chapter 10: Thermal Stress ................................. 169


Chapter Objectives .......................................................................................................... 169
Multiphysics Overview ..................................................................................................... 169
Performing a Thermal Stress Analysis ........................................................................... 170

Exercise I: Disk Brake Rotor Heat-up and Stress ................................................ 173

Appendix A Finite Element Method Using Hand Calculations . 175


Model Description and Governing Equations ................................................................. 177
Hand-Calculation of the Finite Element Solution ............................................................ 179

Autodesk Simulation Mechanical Example .................................................................. 180

Appendix B Analysis Types in Autodesk Simulation


Multiphysics .................................. 183
Background on the Different Analysis Types ................................................................. 185
Choosing the Right Analysis Type for Your Application ................................................ 192
Combining Analysis Types for Multiphysics ................................................................... 196

Appendix C Material Model Options ........................ 197

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Autodesk Simulation Mechanical 2013 Part 1 Seminar Notes

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Introduction
Overview

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This course will introduce you to the analysis products available within the Autodesk
Simulation Mechanical software. These capabilities include static stress with linear material
models, heat transfer, and linear dynamics analyses. The course will focus exclusively on
models originating from CAD solid modeling programs. You will learn the various meshing
options available for creating solid and plate elements. The available load and constraint
options for each of the covered analysis types will also be presented. You will learn how to
evaluate the results of the analyses and how to create presentations of the results, including
images, animations and HTML reports. This course is a prerequisite to the more advanced
topic of Mechanic Event Simulation (MES) covered in the Part 2 training seminar.

Software Installation, Services, and Support

Installing and Running Autodesk Simulation Mechanical or Multiphysics

The simulation software is distributed on DVDs with the exception of software for the Linux
platform, which is distributed on CDs. In addition, the software may be downloaded from the
Autodesk website. When you place the software DVD into a DVD-ROM drive, a launch
dialog box having four options will appear. If you want to set up the software on a client
workstation, whether you will be using a license locked to a single computer or a network
license, press the "Install Products" button. If using a network license, you must already
have the license server software installed on a computer on the network. If you wish to create
pre-configured deployments for installing the product on multiple client workstations, choose
the "Create Deployments" command. If you want to set up the computer as a license server
to control the number of concurrent users through a network, or, if you wish to install optional
reporting tools, press the "Install Tools and Utilities" command. Finally, a fourth command
on the launch screen, "Read the Documentation," leads to a screen from which you can
access a ReadMe file and other installation and licensing guides.
During the product installation process, you will need to specify your name, the name of your
organization. You will also need to enter the product serial number and the product key.
Otherwise, you will be limited to a 30-day trial period. To customize the installation location
on your computer, the components to be installed, and/or to specify a network license server,
you will have to press the "Configuration" button that appears on one of the screens during
the installation process. Then, follow the prompts, provide the required information, and click
the "Configuration Complete" button to continue the installation process.

Any time after the installation, you will be able to start the software by using the available
shortcut found in the "Start" menu folder, "All Programs: Autodesk: Autodesk
Simulation 2013." The version number is included in the start menu folder name and
shortcut. The name of the shortcut will depend upon which package has been purchased
("Simulation Mechanical "Simulation Multiphysics"). In the dialog box that appears
when the program is launched, you will be able to open an existing model or begin a new
model. The simulation software will be used to create, analyze, and review the results of an
analysis within a single user interface, regardless of the analysis type.

Autodesk Simulation Mechanical 2013 Part 1 Seminar Notes

5/30/2012

Introduction

System Requirements
We recommend the following system specifications for a Microsoft Windows platform
running Autodesk Simulation software. These specifications will allow you to achieve the
best performance for large models and advanced analysis types.
32-Bit

64-Bit *

Dual Core or Dual Processor Intel 64


or AMD 64, 3 GHz or higher

Dual Core or Dual Processor Intel


64 or AMD 64, 3 GHz or higher

2 GB RAM or higher (3 GB for MES


and CFD applications)

8 GB RAM or higher

100 GB of free disk space or higher

512 MB or higher OpenGL


accelerated graphics card

DVD-ROM drive

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30 GB of free disk space or higher

256 MB or higher OpenGL accelerated


graphics card

DVD-ROM drive

Supported Operating Systems:

Microsoft Windows 7 (32-bit and 64-bit editions)


Microsoft Windows Server 2003 and Windows Server 2008
Microsoft Windows XP (32-bit and 64-bit editions)
Linux **

Other Requirements (All Platforms):

Mouse or pointing device


Sound card and speakers ***
Internet connection ***
Web browser with Adobe Flash Player 10 (or higher) plug-in ***

* We recommend usage of a 64-bit version of the operating system to run large models of any
analysis type and for Mechanical Event Simulation, CFD, and Multiphysics analyses.
While a 32-bit machine can be configured for larger system memory sizes, architectural
issues of the operating system limit the benefit of the additional memory.

** Linux may be used as a platform for running the solution phase of the analysis only. It
may be used for a distributed processing (or clustering) platform. However, pre- and
post-processing is done in the graphical user interface, which must be installed and run
on a Microsoft Windows platform.

*** These requirements are due to the use of multimedia in our product line and the
availability of distance learning webcasts, software demos, and related media.
Minimum system requirements and additional recommendations for Linux platforms may be
found on the Autodesk website:
http://usa.autodesk.com/support/system-requirements/

Autodesk Simulation Mechanical 2013 Part 1 Seminar Notes

5/30/2012

Introduction

Autodesk Simulation Help


Autodesk Simulation Help is available via Wiki Help. This resource contain the following
information:
Documentation for all of the model creation options within the user interface
Documentation for all of the Autodesk Simulation analysis types
Documentation for all of the result options available within the user interface
Essential Skills videos
Step-by-step examples that illustrate many modeling and analysis options
Meshing, modeling, and analysis tutorials

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How to Access the Help Files

Select the "Getting Started" tab. Click on the "Online Wiki Help" command. The
title page of the Autodesk Simulation Help will appear.

You can navigate through the Online Wiki Help via the table of contents to the left or by
using the "Search" or "Index" tabs.

Features of the WIKI Help

Moderated by Autodesk professionals Wiki Help combines our product help with expert
knowledge contributed by our passionate users.

We all learn differently, Autodesk Wiki Help accommodates these differences by


offering content in an array of formats including video instructions and articles. To make
this wide assortment of information available the Wiki help search tool extends beyond
the core Wiki help content, automatically searching the Autodesk support
knowledgebase, discussion forums, blogs and other community sites

Figure I.1: Autodesk Simulation In-Product Help


Autodesk Simulation Mechanical 2013 Part 1 Seminar Notes

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Introduction

Search the Help Files using Keywords

All of the pages in the Help files can be searched based on keywords.

The keywords are entered at the top of the "Search" tab on the left side of the Online Wiki
Help screen. Topics that match the search criteria are listed below.

Keywords are used to search the Help files. You may use single or multiple keywords.

Boolean operators (AND, OR, NEAR, and NOT) are available to enhance the search utility.
Also, phrases may be enclosed in quotes to search only for a specific series of words.

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Subscription Center

Along with your Autodesk Simulation software purchase, you have the option of purchasing
various levels of Subscription Center access and support. The Subscription Center is accessible
via the "key" icon near the right end of the program title bar and also via the "Help: Web
Links" menu.
Through the Subscription Center, you can download software updates, service packs, and addon applications. You can access training media, such as topical webcasts. Finally, you can also
submit technical support requests via the Subscription Center.

Web Links

Within the Getting Started tab of the ribbon, in the HELP panel, there is a "Web Links" pullout menu. The following content can be accessed via the web links within this menu:
Autodesk Simulation - product range
Subscription Center
Services and Support - information
Discussion Group
Training - course information
Autodesk Labs where you may obtain free tools and explore developing technologies
Manufacturing Community

Figure I.2: Autodesk Simulation "Web Links" pull-out menu

Autodesk Simulation Mechanical 2013 Part 1 Seminar Notes

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Introduction

Tutorials
Tutorials are available that demonstrate many of the capabilities of the Autodesk Simulation
software. Each analysis is presented through step-by-step instructions with illustrations to
assist the user. The tutorials are accessed from the "Getting Started: Help: Tutorials"
command. You can download the tutorial models from our online Data & Downloads
site, linkable from the top page of the tutorials. Install the models to a local folder of your
choice, such as My Documents\Autodesk Simulation Tutorial Models. We recommend that
you store your tutorial models in a location outside of the Program Files branch. The tutorials
will appear in your default web browser.

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Webcasts and Web Courses

Webcasts focus on the capabilities and features of the software, on new functionality, on
accuracy verification examples, and on interoperability with various CAD solid modeling
packages. These streaming media presentations are available for on-demand viewing from
the Subscription Center via your web browser. Similarly, web courses are also available for
on-demand viewing. Web courses are typically longer in duration than webcasts and focus on
more in-depth training regarding the effective usage of your simulation software. The topics
cover a wide variety of application scenarios.
For a list of available webcasts and web courses, follow the "Training" link from the home
page of the Subscription Center. Choose the "Autodesk Algor Simulation" or Autodesk
Simulation product in the "Browse the Catalog" list. This leads to the Autodesk
Simulation e-Learning page, in which the available webcasts and web courses are listed
according to topic.

How to Receive Technical Support

Technical support is reachable through three different contact methods. The means you can use
may depend upon the level of support that was purchased. For example, customers with
"Silver" support must obtain their technical support from the reseller that sold them the software.
"Gold" subscription customers may obtain support directly from Autodesk.
Three ways to contact Technical Support:
Reseller:

Subscription Center: Access the Subscription Center from the link provided in the program
interface. Click the Tech Support link on the left side of the page
and then click on the "Request Support" link.

Obtain phone, fax, and/or e-mail information from your reseller.

You can also access the Subscription Center directly, using your web browser, at
http://subscription.autodesk.com/. If you do not have Subscription Center access, submit a
request at http://usa.autodesk.com/adsk/servlet/item?siteID=123112&id=12338355, or dial
the business center directly at (800) 538-6401. Choose the option for subscription services.

Autodesk Product Support Phone: (866) 487-8680

When contacting Technical Support:

Have your account CSN number ready before contacting Technical Support.
Know the current version number of your software.
Have specific questions ready.
Remember, Technical Support personnel cannot perform, comment on, or make
judgments regarding the validity of engineering work.
Autodesk Simulation Mechanical 2013 Part 1 Seminar Notes

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Introduction

Updates
The software is updated with new functionality on a continual basis. The following three
types of releases are provided:
A major version: Indicated by the four-digit year of the software release (based upon
the Autodesk fiscal year, not the calendar year)

2.

A "subscription" version: Customers with a current maintenance subscription are


eligible for additional releases that may be made available between major product version
releases. These are designated by the addition of the word "Subscription" after the major
version number.

3.

A service pack: Incorporates minor improvements to a major or subscription release and


is indicated by the letters "SP" and a service pack number after the major or subscription
version number.

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1.

How to Determine the Software Version

Click on the "About" command in the" Help" panel. This dialog box will display the
version that you are using. In addition, the program title bar and the splash screen that
appears at each program launch will indicate the major version number of the software.
However, as with the start menu group name and program shortcut, it will not indicate the
subscription and service pack variants.
How to Obtain an Update

Update notifications are provided via the "Communication Center" within the user interface.
The Communication Center icon is located at the right side of the program window title bar.
The state of the Communication Center icon changes when new information is available. The
Communication Center provides up-to-date product support information, software patches,
subscription announcements, articles, and other product information through a connection to
the Internet. Users may specify how frequently the Live Update information will be polled
hourly, every four hours, daily, weekly, monthly, or never. When a program update
notification is received, the user will be given the option of downloading and installing it.

Autodesk Simulation Mechanical 2013 Part 1 Seminar Notes

5/30/2012

Introduction

Background of FEA
What is Finite Element Analysis?
Finite element analysis (FEA) is a computerized method for predicting how a real-world
object will react to forces, heat, vibration, etc. in terms of whether it will break, wear out or
function according to design. It is called "analysis", but in the product design cycle it is used
to predict what will happen when the product is used.

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The finite element method works by breaking a real object down into a large number (1,000s
or 100,000s) of elements (imagine little cubes). The behavior of each element, which is
regular in shape, is readily predicted by a set of mathematical equations. The computer then
adds up all the individual behaviors to predict the behavior of the actual object.
The "finite" in finite element analysis comes from the idea that there are a finite number of
elements in the model. The structure is discretized and is not based on a continuous solution.
In any discrete method, the finer the increments, or elements, the more precise is the solution.
Previously, engineers employed integral and differential calculus, which broke objects down
into an infinite number of elements.
The finite element method is employed to predict the behavior of objects with respect to
virtually all physical phenomena:

Mechanical stress (stress analysis)


Mechanical vibration (dynamics)
Heat transfer - conduction, convection, radiation
Fluid flow - both liquid and gaseous fluids
Electrostatic or MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems)

Basic FEA Concepts

Nodes and Elements

A node is a coordinate location in space where the degrees of freedom (DOFs) are defined.
The DOFs of a node represent the possible movements of this point due to the loading of the
structure. The DOFs also represent which forces and moments are transferred from one
element to the next. Also, deflection and stress results are usually given at the nodes.
An element is a mathematical relation that defines how the DOFs of one node relate to the next.
Elements can be lines (beams or trusses), 2-D areas, 3-D areas (plates) or solids (bricks and
tetrahedra). The mathematical relation also defines how the deflections create strains and stresses.

Autodesk Simulation Mechanical 2013 Part 1 Seminar Notes

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Introduction
Degrees of Freedom

The degrees of freedom at a node characterize the response and represent the relative
possible motion of a node.

The type of element being used will characterize which DOFs a node will require.

Some analysis types have only one DOF at a node. An example of this is temperature in
a thermal analysis.

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A structural beam element, on the other hand, would have all of the DOFs shown in
Figure I.3. "T" represents translational movement and "R" represents rotational movement
about the X, Y and Z axis directions, resulting in a maximum of six degrees of freedom.

Figure I.3: Degrees of Freedom of a Node

Element Connectivity Conventional Bonding

Elements can only communicate to one another via common nodes. In the left half of
Figure I.3, forces will not be transferred between the elements. Elements must have common
nodes to transfer loads from one to the next, such as in the right half of Figure I.4.

No Communication
Between the Elements

Communication
Between the Elements

Figure I.4: Communication through Common Nodes

Element Connectivity "Smart Bonding"


With the introduction of "Smart Bonding" it is now possible to connect adjacent parts to each
other without having to match the meshes (i.e., common nodes at part boundaries are no
longer mandatory). This feature is available for both CAD and hand-built models and is
applicable to the following analysis types:

Static Stress with Linear Material Models


Natural Frequency (Modal)
Transient Stress (Direct Integration)

Figure I.5, is a pictorial example of two adjacent parts that may be connected via smart
bonding. Smart bonding is disabled by default for both new and legacy models (that is, those
8

Autodesk Simulation Mechanical 2013 Part 1 Seminar Notes

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Introduction

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created prior to implementation of the smart bonding feature). The option may be changed
within the "Contact" tab of the Analysis Parameters dialog box. Note that where nodal
coordinates fall within the default or user-specified tolerance of each other, they will be
matched in the conventional manner. Other nodes along the bonded surfaces or edges those
at a relative distance greater than the tolerance will be connected by means of multipoint
constraint equations (MPCs). Also note that the "Use virtual imprinting" option within the
"Model" dialog box of the mesh settings options will minimize the likelihood that smart
bonding will be needed or will occur for CAD-based assemblies. This option attempts to
imprint smaller parts on larger parts where they meet, forcing them to have identical meshes.

Figure I.5: Connection via "Smart Bonding"

Types of Elements

The actual supported and calculated DOFs are dependent upon the type of element being
used. A node with translational DOFs can move in the corresponding directions and can
transmit/resist the corresponding forces. A node with rotational DOFs can rotate about the
corresponding axes and can transmit/resist the corresponding moments.
Briefly, the general element types are as follows (more details will be given in later chapters):

Line elements: A line connecting 2 nodes (such as beams, trusses, springs, thermal rods,
and others).

2-D elements: YZ-planar elements that are triangular or quadrilateral (3 or 4 lines


enclosing an area).

3-D plates or shells: Planar or nearly planar elements in 3-D space. Each must be
triangular or quadrilateral and they represent a thin part with a specified thickness.

Brick (solid) elements: Must be enclosed volumes with 4, 5, or 6 faces (triangular


and/or quadrilateral) and with 4, 5, 6 or 8 corner nodes.

DOFs for element types:

Truss: Translation in X, Y and Z.


Beam: Both translation and rotation in X, Y and Z.
2-D: Translation in Y and Z.
Plate: Five degrees of freedom out-of-plane rotation is not considered.
Brick: Translation in X, Y and Z.

Autodesk Simulation Mechanical 2013 Part 1 Seminar Notes

5/30/2012

Introduction

How Does Autodesk Simulation Mechanical Work?


The software transforms an engineering model with an infinite number of unknowns into
a finite model.

This is an idealized mathematical model.

The model is defined by nodes, elements, loads and constraints.

The user interface can be effectively used for the design, analysis and evaluation phases of a
typical design process.

The simulation software can be extremely useful during the initial concept and design phase to
identify areas that can be improved.

The simulation software can also be used to quickly evaluate a concept, saving time and
engineering resources.

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This does not necessarily replace the testing needed to evaluate a final design; however
the goal is to minimize the prototype and testing stages of design.

The General Flow of an Analysis in Autodesk Simulation Mechanical


Create a Mesh

Start the simulation program


Open your model in the FEA Editor environment
Select the analysis type
Create your mesh

Define the FEA Data

Assign the loads and constraints


Define the material
Define the analysis parameters

Run the Analysis

Review and Present Results

10

Review the desired result types


Save images and animations
Create presentations and HTML reports

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Introduction

Stress and Strain Review


Equations Used in the Solution

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F
A

A complex system can be broken into a finite number of regions (elements), each of which
follows the equations below:

dx
0

Where,

= stress,
= strain,
= displacement,

AE

F = force,
E = modulus of elasticity
L = length

A = area

When the interaction of each region with its neighbor (through the nodes) is considered, a
system of equations is developed:

{f} = [K] {x}

Known

where,

Unknown

{f} is the vector that represents all of the applied loads. [K] is the assemblage
of all of the individual element stiffnesses (AE/L) and {x} is the vector that
represents the displacements.

Since the applied load vector and element stiffnesses are known from the user input, the
equation can be solved using matrix algebra by rearranging the equation as follows for the
displacement vector:

x K 1f
Strains are computed based on the classical differential equations previously discussed. Stress can
then be obtained from the strains using Hookes Law. These basic equations do not require the use
of a computer to solve. However, a computer is needed when complexity is added, such as:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Geometric complexity (makes the elasticity equation impossible to solve).


Variation in material properties throughout the body.
Multiple load cases and complex or combined loading.
Dynamics.
Large systems (require many equations to solve).

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Introduction
In practice, the direct inversion is extremely difficult and sometimes unstable. In FEA,
matrices can be 50,000 x 50,000 or larger. As a result, other solution methods for this linear
equation have been developed. All of these methods use the basic principles of a
mathematical method called Gaussian Elimination. The details of this method will not be
discussed here, but may be obtained from any numerical programming text.

Since differentiation cannot be performed directly on the computer, approximation techniques


are used to determine the strain in the model. Since an approximation technique is used for
the strains, the finer the mesh, the better the approximation of the strain. For a linear static
analysis, stress has a linear relation to strain. Therefore, the stresses will have the same
accuracy as the strains.

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For more complex analyses, more terms are needed. The equation below is needed to
represent a true dynamic analysis:

f m x c x K x

where the additional matrices and vectors are,


m = mass,
c = damping,

x = acceleration (second derivative of displacement versus time)


x = velocity (first derivative of displacement versus time)

Limits of Static Stress with Linear Material Models

Deformations are small

Strains and rotations are small

Changes in stiffness through the model are small

Changes in boundary conditions are small

Changes in loading direction with deformations are small

Material remains in the linear elastic range

Mechanical Event Simulation (MES) Overcomes Limitations

MES supports:

Large deformations

Changing boundary conditions

Loads moving as the model moves or deforms

Nonlinear material behavior

Time-dependent loading

Large-scale motion

Event visualization capabilities:

12

Viewing results with respect to time using the Results environment

Animation tools

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Introduction
MES simulates:

Motion

Impact

Real-time observation of deformations, stresses and strains

Failure due to the following: material yielding, local and structural buckling, permanent
deformations - residual stress

MES capabilities are included within the Autodesk Simulation Mechanical product. It is also
included within the higher-level Autodesk Simulation Multiphysics product.

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For information and training regarding MES, refer to the Autodesk Simulation Mechanical
Part 2 training course.

Hand-Calculated Example

Refer to Appendix A for an example of displacement and stress results for a simple truss
structure. A theoretical solution using fundamental equations is presented. In addition, a
hand-calculated solution based on the finite element method is presented and its results
compared with those obtained by the FEA software.

Heat Transfer Review

Equations Used in the Solution

Heat transfer, as applied to FEA, is actually a conduction problem. The heat loads are
boundary conditions. The primary results are a temperature profile and the heat flux through
the body of the structure.
Conduction is the flow of heat in the body of the structure. This is what is being solved in an
FEA problem. The properties of conduction are controlled by the part definition. Only the
thermal conductivity (k) is needed for a steady-state analysis. For a transient analysis, the
mass density and specific heat will also be required. The governing equation is:

T
q kA

where: k = Thermal conductivity


A = Area
T = Change in temperature
L = Length
The two most common loads for a thermal analysis are convection and radiation loads. These
loads are applied to a surface. The equation for the heat flow due to convection is:

q hA Ts T
where: h = Convection coefficient
A = Area
Ts = Temperature of the surface
T = Ambient temperature
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Introduction

The equation for the heat flow due to radiation is:

q AV .F . T4 Tb4

where: = Emissivity which describes the surface finish for gray bodies. (If = 1.0, it
is a true blackbody.)
= Stefan-Boltzmann constant for radiation
A = Area

V.F. = View factor from the surface to the infinite source

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T = Ambient temperature (in units of absolute temperature)

Tb = Temperature of the node (in units of absolute temperature)

Linear Dynamics Review

Equation for Dynamic Analyses


The basic equation of dynamics is:

[m]{a}+[c]{v}+[k]{x}=0

where:

[m] = the mass matrix


{a} = the acceleration vector
[c] = the damping constant matrix
{v} = the velocity vector
[k] = the stiffness matrix
{x} = the displacement vector

A natural frequency analysis provides the natural vibration frequencies of a part or assembly
based on a linear eigenvalue solution. Because the above equation is solved in this linear
solution, only mass and stiffness are taken into account. No damping is used. In addition,
loads are ignored. As a result, actual displacement output is meaningless except to define the
shape of the natural frequency mode. Note that loads are taken into account for a natural
frequency with load stiffening analysis, assuming the loads produce membrane stresses that
affect the stiffness of the structure.
Constraints have a very significant effect on the solution. When no boundary conditions or
insufficient boundary conditions are used, rigid-body movement or modes will be found.
Unlike a static solution, this is acceptable in a modal analysis.

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Chapter

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Chapter Objectives

Using Autodesk Simulation Mechanical or


Multiphysics

Introduction to the user interface


o
o
o
o

Commands - Ribbon
Keyboard
Mouse
View Cube and other view controls

Complete an example of using Autodesk Simulation


o
o
o
o
o
o

Overview of opening an Autodesk Inventor CAD model and creating a mesh


Overview of adding loads and constraints to a model
Overview of defining material properties
Overview of performing an analysis
Overview of reviewing results
Overview of generating a report

Navigating the User Interface

In this section, we will introduce you to the Autodesk Simulation user interface. This
interface is the same for each of the available packages, including the Simulation Mechanical
and Simulation Multiphysics products. The only difference will be with regard to which
advanced features or capabilities are enabled.
We will begin with an overview of the major components of the graphical user interface.
Then we will discuss the Ribbon, keyboard, mouse, View Cube, and additional view controls.
Please note that the behavior of the keyboard, mouse and View Cube as discussed within
this manual are based on the default program settings for a clean installation of the product.
Many of the features to be discussed are customizable via tabs and settings within the
"Application Options" dialog box, reachable via the "Tools: Application Options"
command.

Figure 1.1 on the next page, along with the legend that follows it introduces the major
components of the user interface. This manual is based on Autodesk Simulation Multiphysics
2013. Users of other versions may encounter differences between their version and the
interface described herein.

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Chapter 1: Using Autodesk Simulation Mechanical or Multiphysics

Figure 1.1: Autodesk Simulation Mechanical or Multiphysics User Interface


Interface Legend:

A. Application Menu: Files can be opened and accessed from the Application Menu. Other commands that are
available here include Merge, Export and Archive.
B. Quick Access Toolbar (QAT): Provides quick access to commonly used commands and is fully customizable.
The QAT image shown here includes a number of commands in addition to the default set.
C. Ribbon Tabs: The Ribbon tabs are located just below the title bar and are used to select different sets of
logically grouped commands.
D. Ribbon Commands: The Ribbon provides access to many commands for drawing, meshing, setting up,
analyzing, manipulating, and reviewing the model. Different command sets are displayed for each of the
three environments of the user interface (FEA Editor, Results, or Report).
E. Title Bar: Displays the program name and version.

F. Product Center: Provides links to the Autodesk Subscription Center, Autodesk Exchange Apps, and
Communication Center. Type a keyword or phrase into the field on the left to search the Wiki help.
G. Browser: The browser (tree view) has unique contents for each environment. For the FEA Editor, it shows the
parts list and the units, various properties, and loads that will be used for the analysis. In the Results
environment, you see a list of results presentations and other post-processing-specific content. The components
of the analysis report will be listed in the browser within the Report environment. You can also close or
pin/unpin the browser.
H. Display Area: The display area is where the modeling activity takes place. The title bar of the window displays
the current environment and the model name. The FEA Editor environment is used to create the model, add the
loads and constraints, and perform the analysis. The Results environment is used to view results and to create
images, graphs, and animations. The Report environment will be used to produce a formal report of the analysis,
including desired results presentations. The ViewCube and Navigation Bar are also in the Display area by default.
I.

Miniaxis and Scale Ruler: The miniaxis shows your viewpoint with respect to the three-dimensional
working area. The scale ruler gives you a sense of the model size.

J.

Status Bar: The status bar displays important messages and command prompts.

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Chapter 1: Using Autodesk Simulation Mechanical or Multiphysics

Commands
Autodesk Simulation Mechanical and Multiphysics access program functions through the
ribbon, context menus, quick access toolbar (QAT), and Application Menu. The available
commands and menus vary for each program environment (FEA Editor, Results, and Report).
The Ribbon is positioned at the top and is customizable. You can move the panel positions
within the same Ribbon tab.

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The commands are logically grouped into panels and tabs. For example, the Mesh tab
includes Mesh, CAD Additions, Structured Mesh, and Refinement panels. Each panel will
have a specific set of commands. You can add these commands to the quick access toolbar so
that they can be easily accessed while any ribbon tab is displayed. To do this, right-click the
command in the panel and select "Add to Quick Access Toolbar," as shown in Figure 1.2.

Figure 1.2: Adding a Ribbon Command to the QAT

Most of the tabs, panels, and commands will not appear until an existing model is opened or a
new model is created. Figure 1.3 shows a typical context menu accessed by right-clicking in
the display area after selecting a surface on the model. Context menus can be used to add
loads and constraints, among other tasks.

Figure 1.3: Context Menu


In some cases there where will be too many commands to be all displayed on the panel. In
these situations you can click on the panel options button to gain access to further commands
as shown in Figure 1.4.

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Chapter 1: Using Autodesk Simulation Mechanical or Multiphysics

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Using the Keyboard and Mouse

Figure 1.4: Additional Panel Commands

The keyboard and mouse will both be used to operate within the user interface. The keyboard
will be used to enter the required data for loads, constraints, material properties, and so on. It
will also be used to modify the behavior of particular mouse operations. That is, certain
keyboard keys, when held down, will change the behavior of the mouse.

The software supports a number of different mouse configurations. This document assumes that
the default template for a new installation is in effect. However, user settings, or those retained
from a prior Autodesk Simulation installation, may cause the behavior to differ from that
described herein. To ensure that your mouse actions follow the descriptions in this book, access
the "Tools: Application Options: Mouse Options" dialog box and choose the "Autodesk
Simulation" template.
The left mouse button will be used to select items. How items are selected will depend upon
the selection mode chosen in the "Selection: Shape" pull-out menu or Ribbon. The type of
objects that are selected (such as lines, vertices, surfaces, parts, edges, or elements) will
depend upon the selection mode chosen in the "Selection: Select" pull-out menu or Ribbon.

Holding down the <Ctrl> key, while left-clicking on the object, will toggle the selection state
of the clicked object. That is, unselected objects will be added to the selection set and
previously selected items will be removed from the selection set. Holding down the <Shift>
key while left-clicking will only add clicked objects to the selection set (this will have no
effect on already selected items). Finally, holding both <Ctrl> and <Shift> while leftclicking will only remove clicked objects from the selection set (this will have no effect on
items that are not already part of the current selection set).

18

Pressing the right mouse button with the cursor hovering over items in the browser will access
a context menu with commands relevant to the item under the cursor. When items are
currently selected, either within the browser or display area, the right-click context menu will
display commands and options that are specifically relevant to the selected items. For
example, if a surface is selected, only surface-based commands will appear in the context
menu. You may right-click anywhere in the display area when items are selected to access
the context menu. However, to access the context menu within the browser area, you must
right-click with the cursor positioned on one of the selected headings.

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If a mouse has a wheel, rolling the wheel will zoom in or out on the model. Holding down the
middle mouse button or wheel and dragging the mouse will rotate the model. Pressing the
<Ctrl> key, while holding the middle button and dragging the mouse, will pan the model,
moving it within the display area. Pressing the <Shift> key while dragging the mouse with
the middle button down will zoom in and out, making the model larger as the mouse is moved
upward and smaller as it is moved downward. You will likely find the use of the middle
mouse button and wheel to be more convenient than choosing a command like "Rotate" or
"Pan," clicking and dragging the mouse, and then pressing <Esc> to exit the command.

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Finally, the X, Y, or Z key on the keyboard may be held down while dragging the mouse with
the middle button held down. Doing so will rotate the model, as before, but constraining the
rotation to be only about the corresponding X, Y, or Z global axis direction. You may also
use the left and right cursor keys on the keyboard while holding down X, Y, or Z to rotate
about these axes in fixed increments (15 degrees by default). The rotation increment is
customizable via the "Tools: Application Options: Graphics: Miscellaneous" dialog box.

Introduction to the View Cube

As is true for the mouse, the software also supports a number of different view configurations.
This document assumes that the default view options template and view navigation settings for a
new installation are in effect. However, user settings, or settings retained from a prior Autodesk
Algor Simulation or Autodesk Simulation installation, may cause the view orientations and
behavior to differ from those described throughout this document. To ensure that your view
commands follow the descriptions in this book, access the "Tools: Application Options:
Views Options" dialog box and choose the "Autodesk Simulation" template.
Next, access the "Graphics" tab of the same "Options" dialog box, select "Navigation Tools"
from the items listed on the left side of the dialog box, and click on the "View Cube" button.
Click the "Restore Defaults" button followed by "OK" to exit the View Cube Properties dialog.

Finally, click the "Steering Wheel" button. Click the "Restore Defaults" button followed by
"OK" to exit the "Steering Wheels Properties" dialog box. Click "OK" to exit the "Options"
dialog box.

Users of other Autodesk products, such as AutoCAD or Autodesk Inventor will likely
already be familiar with the View Cube and associated additional view controls.
The View Cube will be located in the upper right corner of the display by default but may be
relocated. The appearance will change depending upon whether the view is aligned with a
global plane and whether the cursor is near the cube or not. The View Cube, in its various
appearances, is shown in Figure 1.5.

(a) Cursor not near the


View Cube
(b) Cursor on View Cube
(view not aligned to a
standard face)
(c) Cursor on View Cube
(standard face view)
Figure 1.5: View Cube Appearance

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Chapter 1: Using Autodesk Simulation Mechanical or Multiphysics


The six standard view names, as labeled on the cube faces, are the Top, Bottom, Front, Back,
Left, and Right. These may be selected by clicking near visible face names on the cube, as
shown in Figure 1.5 (b) or by clicking the triangular arrows pointing towards the adjacent faces,
as shown in Figure 1.5 (c), which shows the cursor pointing to the arrow for the Bottom view.

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In addition, there are clickable zones at each corner and along each edge of the View Cube.
Clicking on a corner will produce an isometric view in which that particular corner is
positioned near the center and towards you. Clicking an edge will produce an oblique view,
rotated 45 degrees, Half-way between the views represented by the two adjacent faces.
When the cursor is near the View Cube, a "Home" icon will appear above it and to the left,
providing easy access to the home view. This is an isometric view having the corner between
the Front, Right, and Top Faces centrally positioned and towards you by default. The home
view may be redefined by right-clicking the Home icon and choosing the "Set Current View
as Home" command while viewing the model positioned as desired.
When one of the six standard views is active and the cursor is near the View Cube, two
curved arrows will appear above and to the right of the cube, as seen in Figure 1.5 (c). These
are used to rotate the model to one of the four possible variants of the particular standard
view. Each click of an arrow will rotate the model 90 degrees in the selected direction.
When the face being viewed is changed via the View Cube, the model may move to the
selected view in the manner that requires the least amount of motion. For example, say we
are first looking at the Right view, with the word "Right" positioned upright (that is in the
normal reading position). Now, if we click the downward arrow above the cube, the model
will rotate 90 degrees to reveal the top face. The Top view will be rotated 90 degrees
clockwise from the upright orientation (that is, the word "Top" will read in the vertically
downward direction). Activating the "Keep scene upright" option will cause the Front,
Back, Left, and Right views to automatically be oriented in the upright position (Top above,
Bottom below) when changing to any of these views. You may, however, rotate the view
after initial selection, if desired. Go to "Tools: Application Options: Graphics: Navigation
Tools: View Cube" to locate the "Keep scene upright" setting. It is activated by default.

The point of this discussion is that whenever a new face is selected using the View Cube, the
resultant view rotation may differ, depending upon the prior position of the model. If the resultant
orientation is not what is desired, simply click one of the curved arrows to rotate the view.

Immediately below the View Cube is a pallet of additional view controls.


This consists of seven tools, each of which may be individually enabled or
disabled. All are on by default. Figure 1.6 shows the view control pallet.
From top to bottom, the seven tools are as follows:

Steering Wheels
Pan
Zoom
Orbit
Center
Previous View
Next View
Look At

Each of these icons, except for the Previous and Next commands, function as
a toggleclicking it once to activate a command and again to deactivate it.
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Figure 1.6: Additional View Controls Pallet

Additional View Controls

Chapter 1: Using Autodesk Simulation Mechanical or Multiphysics


Several of the tools, such as Pan, Previous, and Next are self-explanatory
The "Zoom" tool includes a fly-out menu allowing the choice of one of four different
zooming modesZoom, Zoom (Fit All), Zoom (Selected), and Zoom (Window). The first of
these causes the model to become larger as the cursor is moved upward in the display area and
smaller when it is moved downward. The Fit (All) mode encloses the extents of the whole
model. After selecting objects in the display area, the Zoom (Selected) tool fits the selected
items into the display area. Finally, after selecting the Zoom (Window) tool, you click and
drag the mouse to draw a window defines the area you wish to expand to fill the display area.

The Look At tool includes a fly-out menu allowing the choice of one of three different
Look At modesLook At, Look At Surface, and Look At Point.
Look At Surface positions the view with the clicked surface parallel to, or tangent to,
the screen and zooms in or out to enclose the whole surface within the display area.

Look At Point places the surface to which the clicked point belongs parallel to, or
tangent to, the screen but encloses the view more tightly, with the clicked point
centered in the display area.

Look At places the surface to which the clicked point belongs parallel or tangent to
the screen but does not modify the current amount of zoom. The viewpoint rotates
and/or pans to center the clicked point, but the view is not zoomed in or out.

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The "Orbit" tool has two variants, selectable via a fly-out menuOrbit, and Orbit
(Constrained). The former allows the model to be rotated freely in any direction. The
Constrained option causes the model to rotate only about the global Z-axis, similar to pressing
the Z key while dragging the mouse with the middle button depressed.
The "Center" tool is used to center a point on the model within the display area. Click with
the mouse to specify the desired center point after selecting the Center command. This point
also becomes the display pivot point, about which the model pivots when being rotated.

The "Steering Wheel" tool is customizable and, in its default setting, produces the Full
Navigation Wheel shown in Figure 1.7. The full navigation wheel floats above the model
view, following the cursor position. It provides an additional access method for several
functions found elsewhere on the view tools pallet as well as a few additional functions.

Figure 1.7: Full Navigation Wheel


The "Rewind" button on the navigation wheel presents a timeline of thumbnails representing
various views that have been used during the modeling session. Simply release the mouse
button with the cursor positioned at the thumbnail representing the view to which you wish to
jump. This is more convenient than pressing the previous or next view buttons multiple times.
For additional information concerning these view controls, consult the Wiki Help.

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Chapter 1: Using Autodesk Simulation Mechanical or Multiphysics

Legacy View Controls in Autodesk Simulation Mechanical and Multiphysics


Traditional view controls and options are also provided via the View tab of the command
ribbon at the top of the screen. Options for displaying or hiding the mesh or model shading
may be found here as well as eight pre-defined, standard view orientations. The orientations
will depend upon the currently active Views Options template (previously discussed in the
"Introduction to the View Cube" section of this chapter).

There is also a "User-defined Views" dialog box that may be used to save, modify, or restore
custom views. Additional capabilities include a local zoom feature and display toggles for the
scale ruler, mini axis, and perspective mode.

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The "Local Zoom" feature displays a small rectangle that represents the area to be
magnified. A larger rectangle shows an overlay of the magnified region. You may click on
and drag the local zoom window to position it anywhere on the model within the display area.
The size of the local zoom area and magnified overlay and also the zoom level can be
customized via the "Application Menu: Options: Graphics: Local Zoom" dialog box.
For additional information concerning the legacy view controls, consult the Wiki Help.

Steel Yoke Example

This example is an introduction to static stress analysis with linear material models. The
example will give step-by-step instructions to create a mesh and analyze a three-dimensional
(3-D) model of a steel yoke under an applied force. There are three sections:
Setting up the model Open the model in the FEA Editor environment and create the mesh
on the model. Add the necessary forces and boundary conditions and define the model
parameters. Visually check the model for errors with the Results environment.
Analyzing the model Analyze the model using the static stress with linear material models
processor.
Reviewing the results View the displacements and stresses graphically using the Results
environment.
Use the Inventor solid model, yoke.ipt, located in the "Chapter 1 Example Model\Input File"
folder in the class directory (or extracted to your computer from the solutions archive) to
create a simple model of the steel yoke shown in Figure 1.8. The right half of the small hole
will be fixed. A force of 800 pounds will be applied to the left half of the large hole and
acting towards the left, as shown in the figure. The yoke is made of Steel (ASTM-A36).
Analyze the model to determine the displacements and stresses.

Figure 1.8: Steel Yoke Model

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Chapter 1: Using Autodesk Simulation Mechanical or Multiphysics

Opening and Meshing the Model


The FEA Editor environment is used to create a mesh for all solid models. You can open
CAD solid models from any of the CAD solid modelers that Autodesk Simulation
Mechanical supports. You can also open models of any of the universal CAD formats that are
supported. Here we are going to open an Autodesk Inventor CAD model. You do not
have to have Inventor installed on the simulation computer.

If not already started, press the Windows "Start" button


and access the "All Programs" pull-out menu. Select the
"Autodesk" folder and then the "Autodesk Simulation
2013" pull-out menu. Choose the "Autodesk Simulation
Mechanical 2013 (or Multiphysics 2013) command.
If the Open dialog box is not already displayed, click the
"Open" command in the Launch panel. Alternatively
you can select Open from the quick access toolbar or
Application Menu.
Select the "Autodesk Inventor Parts (*.ipt, *.iam) option
in the "Files of type:" drop-down box.
Select the file "Yoke.ipt in the Chapter 1 Example
Model\Input File directory.

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"Start: All Programs:


Autodesk: Autodesk
Simulation 2013: Autodesk
Simulation Mechanical 2013"
"Getting Started: Launch:
Open"
"Autodesk Inventor Files
(*.ipt, *.iam)"
"Yoke.ipt"
Open

Press the Open button.

"Linear: Static Stress with


Linear Material Models"
"OK"

A dialog box will appear asking you to choose the analysis


type for the model. From the pull-out menu, choose
"Linear: Static Stress with Linear Material Models" and
press the "OK" button.

The model will appear in the FEA Editor environment.

"Mesh: Mesh: Generate 3D


Mesh"
"View: Navigate: Orbit"

Mouse

<Esc>

Select the "Mesh tab. Click the Generate 3D Mesh"


command in the "Mesh" panel to create a mesh with the
default options.
Select the "View" tab. Click on the "Orbit" button in the
"Navigate" panel. You can also access Orbit from the
Navigation bar.
Click the left mouse button and drag the mouse to rotate the
model and inspect the mesh all around it. This mesh appears
to be acceptable. When done inspecting the mesh, position
the model so that you can see the inside of the small hole as
shown in Figure 1.9. These surfaces will be constrained.
Press <Esc> to exit the rotate command.

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Chapter 1: Using Autodesk Simulation Mechanical or Multiphysics

Figure 1.9: Yoke Rotated to Select Constrained Surfaces

Setting up the Model

The FEA Editor environment is also used to specify all of the element and analysis parameters
for your model and to apply the loads and constraints. When you initially come into the FEA
Editor environment with the yoke model, you will notice a red X on certain headings in the
browser. This signifies that this data has not yet been specified. You will need to eliminate
all of the red Xs before analyzing the model. After creating the mesh, the "Element Type"
heading in the browser is already set to "Brick" and the default "Element Definition"
parameters have been accepted. The material information is also imported from Inventor.

Adding Constraints

Constraints describe how a finite element model is tied down in space. If an object is welded
down so that it can neither translate nor rotate, the object is fully constrained.

"Setup: Constraints: General


Constraint"

Mouse

24

Select the "Setup" tab. Click on the "General


Constraint" command in the "Constraints" panel. The
dialog box shown in Figure 1.10 will appear. Also an
additional mini-toolbar will show up allowing the user to
change the selection shape and selection object on the fly.
Click on the surface on the right side of the small hole as
oriented in Figure 1.9.

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Figure 1.10: Surface Boundary Condition Dialog Box

"Fixed"

"OK"

Press the "Fixed" button. Note that all 6 of the checkboxes


in the "Constrained DOFs" section to the left are
activated. This means that the nodes on this surface will be
totally constrained.
Press the "OK" button to apply these boundary conditions.
Now there will be green triangles on the nodes of the
surface that was selected. This signifies a fully constrained
boundary condition.

Adding Forces to the Model

In this section, you will add the 800 lb force in the X direction to the large hole.

Mouse

"Loads: Forces"
Mouse

Click and drag using the middle mouse button to rotate the
model. Position it so that you can see the surfaces of the
large hole where the load is to be applied (that is, the single
half surface at the left side of the hole).
Click on the "Force" command in the "Loads" panel. The
dialog box shown in Figure 1.11 and the mini-toolbar will
appear.
Click on the surface on the left side of the large hole.

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Figure 1.11: Surface Forces Dialog Box

-800
"X"

"OK"

"View: Navigate: Orientation:


Top View"

Type "-800" in the "Magnitude" field to add a force of


800 pounds each in the negative X direction to the surface.
Select the "X" radio button in the "Direction" section to
add surface forces in the X direction.
Press the "OK" button to apply the surface force. Now
there will be green arrows on the surface that was selected.
They are pointed in the negative X direction.
Select the "View" tab. Click on the options button at the
bottom of "Orientation" command in the "Navigate"
panel. Select "Top View" from the pull-out menu. The
model should now look like Figure 1.12. The View Cube
can also be used to access the views.

Figure 1.12: Yoke after Boundary Conditions and Loads are applied

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Assigning the Parameters
Once the model has been constructed and the loads and constraints have been applied, use the
FEA Editor environment to specify material properties.
Right-click on the "Material" heading for Part 1.

Mouse
"Edit Material"

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"Steel (ASTM-A36)"

Select the "Edit Material" command. The "Element


Material Selection" dialog box will appear.
Highlight the "Steel (ASTM-A36)" item from the list of
available materials as shown in Figure 1.13.

Figure 1.13: Element Material Selection Dialog Box


"Edit Properties"
"OK"
"OK"
"Yes"

Press the "Edit Properties" button to view the material


properties associated with this steel.
Press the "OK" button to exit the "Element Material
Specification" dialog box.
Press the "OK" button to accept the information entered in
the "Element Material Selection" dialog box for Part 1.
Accept the warning to override default material defined
within Inventor.

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"Analysis: Analysis: Check
Model"
"Tools: Environments: FEA
Editor"
"View: Orientation: Isometric
View"

Select the "Analysis" tab. Click on the "Check Model"


command in the "Analysis" panel.
Select the "Tools" tab. Press the "FEA Editor" command
in the "Environments" panel.
Select the "View" tab. Click on the options button at the
bottom of the "Orientation" command in the "Navigate"
panel. Select "Isometric View" from the pull-out menu.

Analyzing the Model

Select the "Analysis" tab. Click on the "Run Simulation"


command in the "Analysis" panel. When completed, the
model will be displayed in the Results environment and the
Displacement Magnitude will be displayed, as shown in Figure
1.14 below. Note the maximum displacement value.

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"Analysis: Analysis: Run


Simulation"

Figure 1.14: Yoke Model as Displayed in the Results Environment

Reviewing the Results


"Results Contours: Stress: von
Mises"

Note the maximum von Mises value.

The maximum von Mises stress and maximum deflection should closely match the values in
the table below.

28

Maximum von Mises Stress


(psi)

Maximum Displacement
(in)

~1,900

~0.0004

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Viewing the Displaced Shape


Viewing the displaced shape is always the best way to get an overall understanding of how the
model reacted to the applied load. A displaced model alone or a displaced model overlaid with
an undisplaced model can be displayed.

"Transparent"

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Mouse

Click on the options button next to the "Show Displaced"


command in the "Displacement" panel. Then select
"Displaced Options" command.
Select the "Transparent" radio button in the "Show
Undisplaced Model As" section.
Press the "X" button in the upper right corner of the
"Displaced Model Options" dialog box to close it.

"Results Contours: Displaced


Options"

Creating an Animation

"Results Contours: Captures:


Start Animation"

Select the "Results Contours" tab. Click on the "Start


Animation" command in the "Captures" panel.

"Captures: Stop Animation"

Click on the "Stop Animation" command in the


"Captures" panel.

The preceding steps animated the results within the display area but did not create an
animation file that we can place in our report. In the following steps, we will export an
animation file that can be included in the report or copied to and played on any computer.

"Animate: Save As AVI"


"Displacement
Animation"
"Save"
"No"

Click on the "Animate" command in the "Captures"


panel. Then select "Save As AVI" option.
Rather than using the default file name, type
"Displacement Animation" into the "File name:" field.
Press the "Save" button to save the animation to an AVI
file format.
Press the "No" button when asked if you want to view the
animation.

Generating a Report

In this section, you will automatically create an HTML report using the Report Configuration
Utility.

"Tools: Report"

Select the "Tools" tab. Click on the "Report" command


in the "Environments" panel.

"Report: Setup: Configure"

Select the "Configure" command in the "Setup" panel.


This will open the dialog box shown in Figure 1.15.

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Figure 1.15: Report Configuration Utility

NOTE: Clicking on any of the checkboxes will toggle the inclusion state of the item (i.e. whether it is
to be included or excluded from the HTML report). When selecting included portions of the
report, to modify them. Click on the item name and not on the checkbox. This will select the
item without toggling the checkbox state.

Mouse

30

Activate the checkbox next to the "Logo" heading. This


will include the default Autodesk logo at the top of the
report.

Note that you may also customize the logo by browsing to and selecting your own image file.
Several different image file formats are supported. The logo size and alignment may also be
adjusted by right-clicking on it and choosing the "Format Image" command. You may also
select the image and then click and drag the handles that appear around the image border
while it is selected to resize it.

Mouse

Select the "Project Name" heading.

Mouse:
Yoke Design
Mouse:
Analysis of Yoke under
800 lbf Loading

Click and drag the mouse to select the text, "Design


Analysis" and type "Yoke Design" to replace it.
Click and drag the mouse to select the text, "Project Title
Here" and replace this text by typing "Analysis of Yoke
under 800 lbf Loading".

Mouse

Select the "Title and Author" heading.

Your Name

Type your name into the "Author" field.

Your Department

Type your department name into the "Department" field.

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Mouse
Person who checked model
Department of person who
checked the model
Passed all FEA tests
Mouse

Select the "Reviewer" heading.


Type the name of the person who checked the model into
the "Reviewer" field.
Enter the name of the department of the person who
checked the model into the "Department" field.
Type "Passed all FEA tests" into the "Comments" field.
Deselect the "Executive Summary" item by clicking on
the associated checkbox. This item will be excluded from
the report.

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NOTES: Text can be added as desired within the "Executive Summary" section using the built-in word
processor features. A variety of font and paragraph styles are included, such as bullet or
numbered lists, tables, tabs, and various text justification settings.
The following sections are automatically generated and cannot be modified. The analyst may
only include or exclude these items or alter their order of appearance within the report:

Summary
Analysis Parameters
Parts
Element
Material
Loads
Constraints
Probes
Rotating Frames (applicable to fluid flow analysis)
Results Presentations
Processor Log Files Group
Code Checking General
Code Checking Detailed

Mouse

"Tree: Add AVI File(s)..."

"Displacement Animation.avi"
"Open"

Deselect the "Results Presentations" checkbox. Rather


than including the default image of the results window, we
will include the previously generated animation.
Access the TREE pull-down menu and select the "Add
AVI File(s)..." command. This will allow you to include
an animation file within the report. Alternately, you can
right-click in the report tree area and choose the "Add AVI
File" command.
Browse to and select the previously created animation file
"Displacement Animation.avi".
Press the "Open" button. A "Displacement Animation"
heading will appear in the report tree and it will be selected.

The default text within the "Header Text:" field will match the filename. We will leave it as
is. Optional text may be placed in the report below the animation, if desired, by entering the
desired text into the "Caption" field. We do not need to include a caption for this example.

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Mouse

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"Generate Report"

Click and drag the "von Mises Stress Animation" heading in


the report tree and release it over the "Processor Log Files"
heading. This will reorder the report, placing the animation
immediately before the processor log files.
Press the "Generate Report" button. This will automatically
bring up the report, which will appear as shown in Figure 1.16
below. You can scroll through and review the full report.

Figure 1.16: Completed Report

NOTE: The default title image is the model as it currently appears within the FEA Editor environment. A
different image may be substituted for this one and/or the image may be resized using the report
configuration utility. To adjust the image size or alignment right-click on it and choose "Format
Image" command. You may also select the image and then click and drag the handles that appear
around the image border while it is selected to resize it.

A completed archive of this model (yoke.ach), including results, is located in the "Chapter 1 Example
Model\Results Archive" folder in the class directory or in the copy of the solutions folders on your
computer.

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