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JKAU: Eng. Sci., Vol. 24 No. 1, pp: 73-88 (2013 A.D. /1434 A.H.

)
DOI: 10.4197 / Eng. 24-1.4

Centrifugal Compressor Map Prediction and Modification


N.N. Bayomi*,**, R.M. Abdel-Maksoud** and M.I.F. Rezk***
*
King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, and ** Mech. Power
Dept., Faculty of Eng., Mataria, Helwan University, and ***Elsewedy for
wind energy generation-Elsewedy Electric, Cairo, Egypt
nnbayomi@hotmail.com
Abstract. Centrifugal compressors are utilized in various fields and are
used in vast applications. Their operational performance maps are
significant to be studied, modified and enhanced. Unfortunately, such
maps that describe experimental results do not cover each condition.
This is due to expenses as well as the uncovering operational zones.
Therefore, map prediction is important, however, it is very complex
because of its nonlinearity as well as unstable region that are not
easily to be assigned practically. Consequently, the present paper
introduced a methodology that predicts the centrifugal compressors
performance maps specified at stable and unstable conditions.
Enhancement and modification of the compressor performance map is
performed using the closed coupled valve and variable drive speed
where the later method was more preferable based on shifting of the
compressor map towards lower flow rate with less pressure drop.
Keywords: Centrifugal compressor, Compressor map, Rotating stall,
surge, Choke line.

1. Introduction
Centrifugal compressors have been used in vast industrial applications.
Knowledge of their operational performance maps is significant;
however such maps do not cover all the conditions due to expenses.
Therefore, map prediction is important, however, it is very complex
because of its nonlinearity as well as unstable regions that are not easily
to be assigned practically. From this insight, many researches adopte to
predict its performance. As a result of these studies the empirical loss
correlation method had been persistently developed by several
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74

N.N. Bayomi et al.

researchers[1-2]. On the other side, map performance is restricted by high


flow rate limits denoted by choke line. Choke line was determined by
Dixon[3]. Furthermore, compressor performance is limited by small flow
rates where operational instability occurs that are rotating stall and surge
that are vastly studied by researchers[4-6]. Compressor surge control was
introduced by other researchers[7-13].
The present work aimed to predict the stable and unstable
compressor performance map and accounts for compressor losses. This is
achieved by introducing a methodology. This is determined by prematching of the simulated actual with the experimental results to account
for different losses represented by previous empirical formulas.
Therefore, the uncovered zones in compressor map can be predicted. To
estimate the choke line, the present model utilizes the formula of Dixon[3]
for chocking at the diffuser. In addition, the stall line and surge line are
determined using the local stability method. The present work is
extended to avoid compressor instability by close coupled valve and
variable drive speed methods.
2. Methdology for Compressor Map Prediction
In this section, performance map prediction and modifications are
demonstrated. Performance map prediction is determined by the actual
Euler head at different speeds, the choke line and the instability lines. On
the other side, performance modification is attained using two types of
controllers that are the closed coupled valve and variable speed drive.
2.1 Performance Map Prediction
Foremost, theoretical Eulers head should be determined. The
theoretical Euler head can be written as:
(1)
Hth = U2Cu2 U1Cu1
The velocity triangles at the inlet and exit of typical centrifugal
compressor impeller impeller is shown in Fig. 1.
C2
U1

C1

C1

U2

Fig. 1. Velocity triangles for compressor impeller: a) Inlet velocity triangle, b) Outlet
velocity triangle.

Centrifugal Compressor Map Prediction and Modification

75

All symbol definitions in the different equations are listed in the


nomenclature. The velocity triangles at the inlet and exit can be identified
using the data of the impeller dimension, the rotational speed. Air density
at the compressor inlet and exit is estimated using equation of state, the
ambient conditions and the blade dimensions. The Slip factor used for
velocity triangle calculation is specified by the following equation
introduced by Stanitz[14]:

( 0.63 )
= 1

(2)

Consequently, the theoretical Eulers Head can be calculated. The


actual Eulers head at different condition can be specified and is given by
the following equation:
Hact = Hth Lloss

(3)

In order to assign actual Euler head, eight common different head


losses, Lloss, will be estimated from the Table 1 by using the selection
losses equations from Oh et al.[2]. The ranges of the coefficients of these
equations are specified in Table 2. Substituting the certain values of these
coefficients is accomplished using trial and error till matching between
the actual Euler head and the experimental results will be performed.
Consequently, the uncovered zones in compressor map can be assigned.
Since the compressor operational condition is characterized principally
by the efficiency therefore, it is necessary to estimate the efficiency at
different conditions. The efficiency of the compressor can be defined by:
=

Hth
Hth + Lloss

(4)

Using actual Eulers head to get pressure ratio


H L
tot
= th

C
T

p 1

( 1)
+ 1

(5)

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N.N. Bayomi et al.


Table 1. Losses description equations for centrifugal compressor.
Compressor losses

Loss model

Blade Loading Loss

C (T T )

K BL p 2 2 1
W
U
1

2
2
1 2 +
U 2
W 1 W 1 z Dt 1
2

+ 2 1t
1

U 2 D 2
D 2

Fmc

Incidence Loss

W u21
2
3

Impeller Disk Friction


Loss

U
0.0402 2 2 r 25
r2
0.2
U 2r 2 2 4

2 m

Skin Friction Loss

D2
w + 2

2Cf
W
D1 + D 2
2

Clearance Loss

0.6 W 2
b2
b2 Z

Leakage Loss


r1t2 r1h2

W 2

( r2 r1t ) 1 2
1

mcl U cl U 2
2m

Recirculation Loss

C (T T )

K BL p 2 2 1
U2
W
2
0.02 tan 2 1 2 +
U2
W 1 W 1 z Dt 1

D
1t

1
+ 2 D

2
2
2

Table 2. Coefficients used in present methodology.


Coefficient
KBL

Value
0.75 or 0.60 for conventional or splitter
impellers, respectively

Unit
-----

Fmc

0.7

-----

Cf

0.004

-----

0.0038

lc

-----

The choking of mass flow can be expressed by the famous equation


of Dixon[3]:

Centrifugal Compressor Map Prediction and Modification

77

U22 ( 1)
+1

1
1
) 2
(
ao1
2 2( 1)
m

= o1ao1

1
A2

U22 2 + 1
1 + ( 1)

ao1

(6)

Since the above equation represents a theoretical relationship


between the choke line flow rate and the different parameters, a new
treatment is herein presented to suit the actual prediction. This is
performed where is replaced by the polytropic index that equals to 1.2
as a correction in order to be suitable for precise prediction.
In order to determine the stall and surge line local stability analysis is
used. This method is used extensively by previous researchers such as
Abed El-Maksoud[8]. The local stability analysis method is herein used to
assess the system whether the system is stable (rotating stall) or unstable
(surge) at the left of the peak. Regarding the stability condition, stall
point is defined as stable condition, since the characteristics will be
asymptotically stable in low-flow small pressure rise region. Stall line
can be predicted just on the left the characteristic peaks. In case of surge,
the flow coefficient and pressure fluctuates with certain amplitudes and
such phenomenon is unstable. The local stability analysis method
depends on the roots of the Jacobean matrix of Moore and Greitzer
model[4] system description state equations. The two state equations of
the Moore - Greitzer model are:

d 1
d
1
= ( c ( ) ) and
=

d lc
d 4B2lc

(7)

The following equation determines the compressor map that is


defined by a fifth order polynomial of the flow coefficient, :
c ( ) = C14 + C23 + C3 2 + C4 + C5

(8)

Applying stability condition on Moore and Greitzer model, hence


system stalls or surges could be assigned. Stability analysis has been
implemented by several researchers to analyze the compression system.
The following equations present the treatment of stability analysis
method. Therefore, the Jacobean matrix of the Moore and Greitzer model
will be:

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N.N. Bayomi et al.

1 d c ( )

lc d

2
4 lc

2 lc

1
lc

(9)

For stalling condition:

1 d c ( )

<0

2
lc d 2 lc
1 d c ( )

2 lc
lc d

and

(10)

1 d c ( )

1
< 4
+

lc d 22l 42lc2
c

Otherwise, the system surges.


2.2 Performance Map Modification
The first controller introduced herein is the closed coupled valve,
CCV. It is named so as the valve is installed very close and coupled to
the compressor. According to Gravdahl[6], close coupled valve is to be
understood that the distance between the compressor outlet and the valve
is so small that no significant mass storage can take place. The
assumption of no mass storage between the compressor and the valve
allows for the definition of an equivalent compressor. The closed coupled
valve is introduced into the compression system to achieve a pressure
drop on the compressor pressure rise. Thus, reduces the characteristic
peak and shifts it towers lower flow rates, thus avoiding falling into
surge. Consequently the second state equation of model Eq. 7 can be
rewritten as:
d
1
=
ccv
(11)
d 4B2lc

The second controller introduced in this sub-section is the variable


speed drive. From the findings of Gravdahl[6], Variable speed drive is
herein used as a second method to achieve compression system
stabilization. This is approach is used as active surge control. The use of

Centrifugal Compressor Map Prediction and Modification

79

the rotational speed as a control variable renders the equilibrium globally


exponentially stable and the use of the drive speed as control ensure
exponential convergence. The control manipulates the compressor map in
such a way that the compressor map is shifted to the left with lower flow
rates. The equation that describes this type of controller can be written as:
c (N) = C1 (N) 4 + C2 (N) 3 + C3 (N) 2 + C4 (N) + C5 (N)

(12)

In the above equation the pressure coefficient, c , is dependent on


the speed, N, that varies according to the onset of instability. The
controller is used to reduce the speed of the compressor so that the peak
of the performance characteristic is lowered and shifted towards the
lower flow rates similarly to the closed coupled valve. This behavior
avoids falling into surge. The following section deals with the results of
the present model and the assessment of the two controllers.
3. Results and Discussion
In order to determine the uncovered zones in the compressor map,
the present model results are matched to the experimental results. The
comparison is herein performed using three different ratios of Eckardt[7]
denoted in this finding by rotor A, B, and O and rotor of Bayomi[15].
Foremost, in order to conduct simulations, different variables of the
present model should be specified to estimate the different losses in the
present model. The ambient temperature and pressure are 287 K and 1
Bar, respectively. The specific heat at constant pressure, specific heat
ratio and gas constant for air are taken to be equal to 1005 J/kgK and
1.333 and 287 J/kgK, respectively. Using the experimental maps of these
rotors and their data of these rotors to matching these maps with the
present model to find out different uncovered zoned. Tables 3 and 4 show
the three Eckardt rotors and Bayomi rotor geometrical parameters,
respectively. Table 5 illustrates the performance experminal data of
Eckardt and Bayomi rotors.
Figure 2 demonstrates the results of model pre-matching with the
experimental results for Eckardt rotors A for different four speeds.
Consequently, the losses considered in Table 1 are valid at these speeds.
This makes the losses different rotational speeds could be determined.
Hence, the compressor stable operation at different speeds that is not
covered by the experimental results could be predicted.

80

N.N. Bayomi et al.


Table 3. Eckardt rotors geometrical parameter.
Geometrical Parameter

Inlet Tip Diameter mm


Inlet Hub Diameter mm
Discharge Diameter mm
Discharge Width mm
Number of Blades
Length in axial direction mm
Blade Thickness mm
Inlet Blade Angle
Exit Blade Angle
Maximum Rotational Speed RPM

Eckardt
rotor A
280
120
400
26
20
130
3
30
30
16000

Eckardt
rotor B
280.3
191.8
400
26
20
84.2
3
30
40
16000

Eckardt
rotor O
280
90
400
26
20
130
3
30
90
16000

Table 4. Bayomi rotor geometrical parameter.


Geometrical Parameters
Impeller outer diameter mm
Inducer tip diameter ratio
Inducer hub diameter ratio
Inducer tip diameter mm
Inducer hub diameter mm
Exit width ratio
Blade thickness ratio
Impeller discharge width mm
Impeller blade thickness mm
Exit blade angle
Inducer tip angle
Inducer hub angle
Number of blades (7 splitter blades)
Design speed rpm

160
0.70
0.2375
112
38
0.0766
0.0163
12.256
2.608
60
60
40
7
55000

After pre-matching is achieved, Fig. 3 illustrates Eulers head and


total predicted losses for Eckardt rotor B at different operating speed inbetween stalling point the choking point. Total losses plotted in this
figure could be utilized to determine the compressor efficiency. As one
may observe that total losses increase with the rotational speed and mass
flow rate.
After estimating the different losses, it is principally necessary to
estimate the compressor efficiency at different speeds. Efficiency of
Bayomi rotor is assigned by plotting the simulated results in Fig. 4 using
Eq. 4. The global observation is that the efficiency values appear to be
higher with the increase of rotational speed. Furthermore, efficiency
increases with reduction of mass flow rate till or at least near the peak of
map characteristic.

81

Centrifugal Compressor Map Prediction and Modification


Table 5. Data for Eckardt's Bayomi's experimental data.
m

Pr

10,000 rpm

Eckardt
Impeller
A

Pr

14,000 rpm

Pr

16,000 rpm

1.4376

3.00

1.665

3.5

1.94

4.2

2.305

3.10
3.80

1.4064
1.3908

3.80
4.40

1.635
1.59

4.5
5.3

1.925
1.88

5.2
6

2.26
2.2

4.60

1.3596

5.20

1.56

6.1

1.805

6.8

2.08

5.00

1.328
12,000 rpm

14,000 rpm

16,000 rpm

2.315

1.359

2.869

1.531

3.304

1.750

3.695

2.031

2.675

1.359

3.391

1.531

3.913

1.750

4.260

2.000

3.135

1.328

3.913

1.484

4.521

1.718

4.826

1.984

3.675

1.281

4.521

1.421

5.086

1.656

5.391

1.938

4.270

1.250
45,000 rpm

50,000 rpm

55,000 rpm

2.300

1.4687

3.086

1.7340

4.0000

2.0546

4.9130

2.5000

2.565

1.485

3.413

1.7500

4.2610

2.0781

5.1956

2.5312

2.782

1.500

3.739

1.7812

4.5650

2.1015

5.3913

2.5312

3.043

1.531

3.956

1.7960

4.7830

2.1250

5.6086

2.5468

3.261

1.547

4.26

1.7960

5.0000

2.1250

5.8695

2.531

3.521

1.547

4.521

1.7570

5.2610

2.1406

6.0434

2.531

3.739

1.500

4.739

1.7810

5.5220

2.1250

6.3913

2.516

1.484

4.956

1.7340

5.6960

2.0937

6.5652

2.500

4.261

1.469

5.152

1.7109

5.9130

2.0859

6.7608

2.469

4.565

1.438

5.326

1.6875

6.0870

2.0781

6.9565

2.453

10,000 rpm

Bayomi
Impeller

2.50

40,000 rpm

Eckardt
Impeller
O

Pr

12,000 rpm

10,000 rpm

Eckardt
Impeller
B

12,000 rpm

14,000 rpm

16,000 rpm

1.25204

1.278

1.34733

1.332

1.42378

1.385

1.49026

1.434

1.10135

1.675

1.14678

2.039

1.22434

2.46

1.38057

2.674

1.0105

1.768

1.03266

2.161

1.10689

2.557

1.22988

2.998

0.91299

1.859

0.90080

2.2

0.97947

2.576

1.16451

3.031

0.82103

1.9

0.77449

2.22

0.85094

2.585

1.05149

2.999

0.70026

1.917

0.66258

2.214

0.73793

2.567

0.98612

2.991

0.57505

1.923

0.48087

2.153

0.56397

2.542

0.90080

2.969

0.43544

1.935

0.39556

2.161

0.48641

2.527

0.58724

2.868

0.32797

1.915

82

N.N. Bayomi et al.

Fig. 2. The results of model pre-matching with the experimental results for Eckardt rotors
A at different speeds.

Fig. 3. Eulers head and total losses for Eckardt rotor B at different speeds.

The experimental results of Eckardt rotors O and the simulated


results of Dixon equation is presented in Fig. 5. The results of
compressor mass flow rate, the compressor rotational speed is substituted
in Eq. 6. This plot illustrates good matching between experimental results
and mathematical results. Consequently, this equation can be used to
predict the choke line at different compressor speeds.

Centrifugal Compressor Map Prediction and Modification

83

Fig. 4. Efficiency curves of Bayomi rotor at different rotational speeds.

Fig. 5. Comparison of the experimental choke line and that estimated mathematically for
Eckardt rotor O.

Surge line variation with different values of is demonstrated in


Fig. 6. The stall line is always specified at the peak of the performance
map. Stall point is determined by performance peaks. This is the
traditional method mentioned by Gravdahl[6]. It is obvious that the
increase of shifts the surge line away from the peak. Consequently, the
parameter has an effect on the system and specifies whether the system
surges or stalls. More details about the results of the present work can be
found in Rezk[16].

84

N.N. Bayomi et al.

Fig. 6. Effect of parameter variation on surge line location on performance map of


Eckardt rotor B.

The results of employing closed coupled valve and variable speed


drive on Eckardt rotor A are shown in Fig. 7 at 10000 rpm. To access the
two controllers the two controllers have to achieve certain specified flow
rate reduction with minimal pressure drop reduction. It is clearly revealed
that variable speed drive achieves lower drop in the pressure ratio
compared with closed coupled valve.

Fig. 7. Comparison between closed coupled valve and variable speed drive behavior for
Eckardt rotor A at 10000 rpm.

Centrifugal Compressor Map Prediction and Modification

85

4. Conclusions
From this work, the following conclusions can be drawn:
1. A new methodology is herein introduced to predict and modify
the compressor performance map by pre-matching with the experimental
results. Consequently, the different conditions that are not covered by the
experimental map can be identified.
2. The present methodology can be used to determine the impeller
losses and its efficiency.
3. To estimate the choke line, the predicted data of the present
model is substituted in the formula of Dixon[3] where the specific heat
ratio is replaced by polytropic index.
4. The stall line and surge line are specified by substituting of the
predicted compressor characteristic map of the present model in the
Moore - Greitzer model.
5. The closed coupled valve and variable drive speed methods are
herein used to extend the safety operating margin by shifting the
performance map to the left (i.e toward the low mass flow rate) on the
plenty of pressure ratio reduction. Such reduction appears to be less when
using variable drive speed.
Nomenclature
a
b
Cp
C1C4
D
Hact
Hth
lc
Lloss
m
N
Pr
r
T
W
U
Z
w

Mach number (---)


Impeller width (m)
Specific heat at constant pressure (kJ/Kg K)
Polynomial coefficients that determine the performance map of the compressor
(---)
Impeller diameter (m)
Actual Euler head (m2/s2)
Theoretical Euler head (m2/s2)
The compression system duct length (m)
Different Euler head losses (m2/s2)
Mass flow rate (kg/s)
Rotational speed (rpm)
Pressure ratio (---)
Impeller radius (m)
Temperature (K)
Relative velocity (m/s)
Blade velocity (m/s)
Number of the blades (---)
Impeller width (m)
Absolute flow angle (Degree)

86

N.N. Bayomi et al.

CCV

c
subscript
1
2
h
cl
T
t
Abbreviation
CCV

Greitzer coefficient (---)


Throttle valve coefficient (---)
Closed coupled valve coefficient (---)
Specific heat ratio (---)
Impeller efficiency (---)
Dynamic viscosity of air (N.s/m2)
Pressure ratio (---)
Air density (kg/m3)
The slip factor (---)
Non-dimensional time (---)
Flow coefficient (---)
Pressure coefficient (---)
Performance characteristic of the compressor (---)
Inlet
Outlet
hub
Clearance
Throttle
Tip
Closed coupled valve
References

[1]

[2]

[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]

[7]

[8]

[9]

Seleznev, K.P., Galerkin, Y.B. and Popova, E.Y., Simplified mathematical model of
losses in a centrifugal compressor stage. Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, 23(10):
471-476 (1987).
Oh, H.W., Yoon, E.S. and Chung, M.K., An optimum set of loss models for performance
prediction of centrifugal compressors. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical
Engineers, Part A: Journal of Power and Energy; 211: 331-338 (1997).
Dixon, S.L., Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Turbomachinery. Pergamon Press
Ltd, (1996).
Moore, F.K. and Greitzer, E.M., A theory of post-stall transients in a axial compressor
systems. Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 108: 68-76 (1986).
Erickson, C., Centrifugal Performance Modeling Development and Validation for a
Turbocharger Component Matching System. Kensas State University (2008).
Gravdahl JT. Modeling and control of surge and rotating stall in compressors. PhD thesis
Dept. of Engineering Cybernetics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology,
1998.
Eckardt, D., Flow field analysis of radial and backswept centrifugal compressor impellers.
ASME 25th Annual International Gas Turbine Conference and Exhibit and the 22nd Annual
Fluids Engineering Conference, March, Louisiana, USA (1980).
Abd El-Maksoud, R.M., Modeling of rotating stall and surge in axial flow compressors.
Ph.D., Mech. Power Eng. Dept., Faculty of Eng., Mataria, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt
(2004).
Shehata, R.S., Abdullah, H.A. and Areed, F.F.G., Variable structure surge control for
constant speed centrifugal compressors. Control Engineering Practice, 17: 815-833 (2009).

Centrifugal Compressor Map Prediction and Modification

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[10] Galindo, J., Serrano, J.R., Climent, H. and Tiseira, A., Experiments and modeling of
surge in small centrifugal compressor for automotive engines. Experimental Thermal and
Fluid Science, 32: 818-826 (2008).
[11] Gravdahl, J.T., Egeland, O. and Vatland, S.O., Drive torque actuation in active surge
control of centrifugal compressors. Automatica, 38: 1881-1893 (2002).
[12] Gravdahl, J.T., Willems, F., de Jager, B. and Egeland, O., Modeling of surge in variable
speed centrifugal compressors: Experimental validation. AIAA Journal of Propulsion and
Power, 20 (5): 849-857 (2004).
[13] Bhagen, B. and Gravdahl, J.T., Active surge control of compression system using drive
torque. Automatica, 44: 1135 -1140(2008).
[14] Stanitz, J.D., One-dimensional compressible flow in vaneless diffuser of radial and mixed
flow centrifugal compressor, including effects of friction, heat transfer, and area change,
NACA, TN-2610 (1952).
[15] Bayomi, N.N., An investigation on the casing treatment of the radial compressors. Ph.D,
Mech. Power Eng. Dept., Faculty of Eng., Mataria, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt
(1995).
[16] Rezk, M.I.F., Prediction of centrifugal compressor performance maps. MSc., Mech. Power
Eng. Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Mataria, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt (2009).

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