104 views

Original Title: Centrifugal Compressor Map Prediction and Modification_new

Uploaded by preetham108

- Screw Compressor Basics
- WLB-225-3608-Overhaul-edited
- Hydrodynamic Bearing
- UDS-110-Propane refrigeration loop.pdf
- Technical Comparison Format - Process Gas Reciprocating Compressor.xls
- Polytropic Compression
- Compressor Tech August September 2013
- Dynamic Modeling of Compressors Illustrated by an Oil Flooded Twin Helical Screw Compressor 2011 Mechatronics
- Manufacturing of a GT compressor blade on a 5-axis milling machine
- vibration induced pipework failure.pdf
- Inspection and Test Plan for Reciprocating Compressor
- Modelling of Screw Compressor Capacity Control
- Natural Gas Reserves
- Reciprocating Compressors Numericals
- 04- Principles of Screw Compressor Design
- Piping Vibration Design Considerations
- Gas Turbines - Turbine Blades
- Vibration Related Failures of Small Bore Attachments
- SIL-determination
- Gearbox Design Principles

You are on page 1of 16

)

DOI: 10.4197 / Eng. 24-1.4

N.N. Bayomi*,**, R.M. Abdel-Maksoud** and M.I.F. Rezk***

*

King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, and ** Mech. Power

Dept., Faculty of Eng., Mataria, Helwan University, and ***Elsewedy for

wind energy generation-Elsewedy Electric, Cairo, Egypt

nnbayomi@hotmail.com

Abstract. Centrifugal compressors are utilized in various fields and are

used in vast applications. Their operational performance maps are

significant to be studied, modified and enhanced. Unfortunately, such

maps that describe experimental results do not cover each condition.

This is due to expenses as well as the uncovering operational zones.

Therefore, map prediction is important, however, it is very complex

because of its nonlinearity as well as unstable region that are not

easily to be assigned practically. Consequently, the present paper

introduced a methodology that predicts the centrifugal compressors

performance maps specified at stable and unstable conditions.

Enhancement and modification of the compressor performance map is

performed using the closed coupled valve and variable drive speed

where the later method was more preferable based on shifting of the

compressor map towards lower flow rate with less pressure drop.

Keywords: Centrifugal compressor, Compressor map, Rotating stall,

surge, Choke line.

1. Introduction

Centrifugal compressors have been used in vast industrial applications.

Knowledge of their operational performance maps is significant;

however such maps do not cover all the conditions due to expenses.

Therefore, map prediction is important, however, it is very complex

because of its nonlinearity as well as unstable regions that are not easily

to be assigned practically. From this insight, many researches adopte to

predict its performance. As a result of these studies the empirical loss

correlation method had been persistently developed by several

73

74

flow rate limits denoted by choke line. Choke line was determined by

Dixon[3]. Furthermore, compressor performance is limited by small flow

rates where operational instability occurs that are rotating stall and surge

that are vastly studied by researchers[4-6]. Compressor surge control was

introduced by other researchers[7-13].

The present work aimed to predict the stable and unstable

compressor performance map and accounts for compressor losses. This is

achieved by introducing a methodology. This is determined by prematching of the simulated actual with the experimental results to account

for different losses represented by previous empirical formulas.

Therefore, the uncovered zones in compressor map can be predicted. To

estimate the choke line, the present model utilizes the formula of Dixon[3]

for chocking at the diffuser. In addition, the stall line and surge line are

determined using the local stability method. The present work is

extended to avoid compressor instability by close coupled valve and

variable drive speed methods.

2. Methdology for Compressor Map Prediction

In this section, performance map prediction and modifications are

demonstrated. Performance map prediction is determined by the actual

Euler head at different speeds, the choke line and the instability lines. On

the other side, performance modification is attained using two types of

controllers that are the closed coupled valve and variable speed drive.

2.1 Performance Map Prediction

Foremost, theoretical Eulers head should be determined. The

theoretical Euler head can be written as:

(1)

Hth = U2Cu2 U1Cu1

The velocity triangles at the inlet and exit of typical centrifugal

compressor impeller impeller is shown in Fig. 1.

C2

U1

C1

C1

U2

Fig. 1. Velocity triangles for compressor impeller: a) Inlet velocity triangle, b) Outlet

velocity triangle.

75

nomenclature. The velocity triangles at the inlet and exit can be identified

using the data of the impeller dimension, the rotational speed. Air density

at the compressor inlet and exit is estimated using equation of state, the

ambient conditions and the blade dimensions. The Slip factor used for

velocity triangle calculation is specified by the following equation

introduced by Stanitz[14]:

( 0.63 )

= 1

(2)

actual Eulers head at different condition can be specified and is given by

the following equation:

Hact = Hth Lloss

(3)

losses, Lloss, will be estimated from the Table 1 by using the selection

losses equations from Oh et al.[2]. The ranges of the coefficients of these

equations are specified in Table 2. Substituting the certain values of these

coefficients is accomplished using trial and error till matching between

the actual Euler head and the experimental results will be performed.

Consequently, the uncovered zones in compressor map can be assigned.

Since the compressor operational condition is characterized principally

by the efficiency therefore, it is necessary to estimate the efficiency at

different conditions. The efficiency of the compressor can be defined by:

=

Hth

Hth + Lloss

(4)

H L

tot

= th

C

T

p 1

( 1)

+ 1

(5)

76

Table 1. Losses description equations for centrifugal compressor.

Compressor losses

Loss model

C (T T )

K BL p 2 2 1

W

U

1

2

2

1 2 +

U 2

W 1 W 1 z Dt 1

2

+ 2 1t

1

U 2 D 2

D 2

Fmc

Incidence Loss

W u21

2

3

Loss

U

0.0402 2 2 r 25

r2

0.2

U 2r 2 2 4

2 m

D2

w + 2

2Cf

W

D1 + D 2

2

Clearance Loss

0.6 W 2

b2

b2 Z

Leakage Loss

r1t2 r1h2

W 2

( r2 r1t ) 1 2

1

mcl U cl U 2

2m

Recirculation Loss

C (T T )

K BL p 2 2 1

U2

W

2

0.02 tan 2 1 2 +

U2

W 1 W 1 z Dt 1

D

1t

1

+ 2 D

2

2

2

Coefficient

KBL

Value

0.75 or 0.60 for conventional or splitter

impellers, respectively

Unit

-----

Fmc

0.7

-----

Cf

0.004

-----

0.0038

lc

-----

of Dixon[3]:

77

U22 ( 1)

+1

1

1

) 2

(

ao1

2 2( 1)

m

= o1ao1

1

A2

U22 2 + 1

1 + ( 1)

ao1

(6)

between the choke line flow rate and the different parameters, a new

treatment is herein presented to suit the actual prediction. This is

performed where is replaced by the polytropic index that equals to 1.2

as a correction in order to be suitable for precise prediction.

In order to determine the stall and surge line local stability analysis is

used. This method is used extensively by previous researchers such as

Abed El-Maksoud[8]. The local stability analysis method is herein used to

assess the system whether the system is stable (rotating stall) or unstable

(surge) at the left of the peak. Regarding the stability condition, stall

point is defined as stable condition, since the characteristics will be

asymptotically stable in low-flow small pressure rise region. Stall line

can be predicted just on the left the characteristic peaks. In case of surge,

the flow coefficient and pressure fluctuates with certain amplitudes and

such phenomenon is unstable. The local stability analysis method

depends on the roots of the Jacobean matrix of Moore and Greitzer

model[4] system description state equations. The two state equations of

the Moore - Greitzer model are:

d 1

d

1

= ( c ( ) ) and

=

d lc

d 4B2lc

(7)

defined by a fifth order polynomial of the flow coefficient, :

c ( ) = C14 + C23 + C3 2 + C4 + C5

(8)

system stalls or surges could be assigned. Stability analysis has been

implemented by several researchers to analyze the compression system.

The following equations present the treatment of stability analysis

method. Therefore, the Jacobean matrix of the Moore and Greitzer model

will be:

78

1 d c ( )

lc d

2

4 lc

2 lc

1

lc

(9)

1 d c ( )

<0

2

lc d 2 lc

1 d c ( )

2 lc

lc d

and

(10)

1 d c ( )

1

< 4

+

lc d 22l 42lc2

c

2.2 Performance Map Modification

The first controller introduced herein is the closed coupled valve,

CCV. It is named so as the valve is installed very close and coupled to

the compressor. According to Gravdahl[6], close coupled valve is to be

understood that the distance between the compressor outlet and the valve

is so small that no significant mass storage can take place. The

assumption of no mass storage between the compressor and the valve

allows for the definition of an equivalent compressor. The closed coupled

valve is introduced into the compression system to achieve a pressure

drop on the compressor pressure rise. Thus, reduces the characteristic

peak and shifts it towers lower flow rates, thus avoiding falling into

surge. Consequently the second state equation of model Eq. 7 can be

rewritten as:

d

1

=

ccv

(11)

d 4B2lc

speed drive. From the findings of Gravdahl[6], Variable speed drive is

herein used as a second method to achieve compression system

stabilization. This is approach is used as active surge control. The use of

79

exponentially stable and the use of the drive speed as control ensure

exponential convergence. The control manipulates the compressor map in

such a way that the compressor map is shifted to the left with lower flow

rates. The equation that describes this type of controller can be written as:

c (N) = C1 (N) 4 + C2 (N) 3 + C3 (N) 2 + C4 (N) + C5 (N)

(12)

the speed, N, that varies according to the onset of instability. The

controller is used to reduce the speed of the compressor so that the peak

of the performance characteristic is lowered and shifted towards the

lower flow rates similarly to the closed coupled valve. This behavior

avoids falling into surge. The following section deals with the results of

the present model and the assessment of the two controllers.

3. Results and Discussion

In order to determine the uncovered zones in the compressor map,

the present model results are matched to the experimental results. The

comparison is herein performed using three different ratios of Eckardt[7]

denoted in this finding by rotor A, B, and O and rotor of Bayomi[15].

Foremost, in order to conduct simulations, different variables of the

present model should be specified to estimate the different losses in the

present model. The ambient temperature and pressure are 287 K and 1

Bar, respectively. The specific heat at constant pressure, specific heat

ratio and gas constant for air are taken to be equal to 1005 J/kgK and

1.333 and 287 J/kgK, respectively. Using the experimental maps of these

rotors and their data of these rotors to matching these maps with the

present model to find out different uncovered zoned. Tables 3 and 4 show

the three Eckardt rotors and Bayomi rotor geometrical parameters,

respectively. Table 5 illustrates the performance experminal data of

Eckardt and Bayomi rotors.

Figure 2 demonstrates the results of model pre-matching with the

experimental results for Eckardt rotors A for different four speeds.

Consequently, the losses considered in Table 1 are valid at these speeds.

This makes the losses different rotational speeds could be determined.

Hence, the compressor stable operation at different speeds that is not

covered by the experimental results could be predicted.

80

Table 3. Eckardt rotors geometrical parameter.

Geometrical Parameter

Inlet Hub Diameter mm

Discharge Diameter mm

Discharge Width mm

Number of Blades

Length in axial direction mm

Blade Thickness mm

Inlet Blade Angle

Exit Blade Angle

Maximum Rotational Speed RPM

Eckardt

rotor A

280

120

400

26

20

130

3

30

30

16000

Eckardt

rotor B

280.3

191.8

400

26

20

84.2

3

30

40

16000

Eckardt

rotor O

280

90

400

26

20

130

3

30

90

16000

Geometrical Parameters

Impeller outer diameter mm

Inducer tip diameter ratio

Inducer hub diameter ratio

Inducer tip diameter mm

Inducer hub diameter mm

Exit width ratio

Blade thickness ratio

Impeller discharge width mm

Impeller blade thickness mm

Exit blade angle

Inducer tip angle

Inducer hub angle

Number of blades (7 splitter blades)

Design speed rpm

160

0.70

0.2375

112

38

0.0766

0.0163

12.256

2.608

60

60

40

7

55000

total predicted losses for Eckardt rotor B at different operating speed inbetween stalling point the choking point. Total losses plotted in this

figure could be utilized to determine the compressor efficiency. As one

may observe that total losses increase with the rotational speed and mass

flow rate.

After estimating the different losses, it is principally necessary to

estimate the compressor efficiency at different speeds. Efficiency of

Bayomi rotor is assigned by plotting the simulated results in Fig. 4 using

Eq. 4. The global observation is that the efficiency values appear to be

higher with the increase of rotational speed. Furthermore, efficiency

increases with reduction of mass flow rate till or at least near the peak of

map characteristic.

81

Table 5. Data for Eckardt's Bayomi's experimental data.

m

Pr

10,000 rpm

Eckardt

Impeller

A

Pr

14,000 rpm

Pr

16,000 rpm

1.4376

3.00

1.665

3.5

1.94

4.2

2.305

3.10

3.80

1.4064

1.3908

3.80

4.40

1.635

1.59

4.5

5.3

1.925

1.88

5.2

6

2.26

2.2

4.60

1.3596

5.20

1.56

6.1

1.805

6.8

2.08

5.00

1.328

12,000 rpm

14,000 rpm

16,000 rpm

2.315

1.359

2.869

1.531

3.304

1.750

3.695

2.031

2.675

1.359

3.391

1.531

3.913

1.750

4.260

2.000

3.135

1.328

3.913

1.484

4.521

1.718

4.826

1.984

3.675

1.281

4.521

1.421

5.086

1.656

5.391

1.938

4.270

1.250

45,000 rpm

50,000 rpm

55,000 rpm

2.300

1.4687

3.086

1.7340

4.0000

2.0546

4.9130

2.5000

2.565

1.485

3.413

1.7500

4.2610

2.0781

5.1956

2.5312

2.782

1.500

3.739

1.7812

4.5650

2.1015

5.3913

2.5312

3.043

1.531

3.956

1.7960

4.7830

2.1250

5.6086

2.5468

3.261

1.547

4.26

1.7960

5.0000

2.1250

5.8695

2.531

3.521

1.547

4.521

1.7570

5.2610

2.1406

6.0434

2.531

3.739

1.500

4.739

1.7810

5.5220

2.1250

6.3913

2.516

1.484

4.956

1.7340

5.6960

2.0937

6.5652

2.500

4.261

1.469

5.152

1.7109

5.9130

2.0859

6.7608

2.469

4.565

1.438

5.326

1.6875

6.0870

2.0781

6.9565

2.453

10,000 rpm

Bayomi

Impeller

2.50

40,000 rpm

Eckardt

Impeller

O

Pr

12,000 rpm

10,000 rpm

Eckardt

Impeller

B

12,000 rpm

14,000 rpm

16,000 rpm

1.25204

1.278

1.34733

1.332

1.42378

1.385

1.49026

1.434

1.10135

1.675

1.14678

2.039

1.22434

2.46

1.38057

2.674

1.0105

1.768

1.03266

2.161

1.10689

2.557

1.22988

2.998

0.91299

1.859

0.90080

2.2

0.97947

2.576

1.16451

3.031

0.82103

1.9

0.77449

2.22

0.85094

2.585

1.05149

2.999

0.70026

1.917

0.66258

2.214

0.73793

2.567

0.98612

2.991

0.57505

1.923

0.48087

2.153

0.56397

2.542

0.90080

2.969

0.43544

1.935

0.39556

2.161

0.48641

2.527

0.58724

2.868

0.32797

1.915

82

Fig. 2. The results of model pre-matching with the experimental results for Eckardt rotors

A at different speeds.

Fig. 3. Eulers head and total losses for Eckardt rotor B at different speeds.

results of Dixon equation is presented in Fig. 5. The results of

compressor mass flow rate, the compressor rotational speed is substituted

in Eq. 6. This plot illustrates good matching between experimental results

and mathematical results. Consequently, this equation can be used to

predict the choke line at different compressor speeds.

83

Fig. 5. Comparison of the experimental choke line and that estimated mathematically for

Eckardt rotor O.

Fig. 6. The stall line is always specified at the peak of the performance

map. Stall point is determined by performance peaks. This is the

traditional method mentioned by Gravdahl[6]. It is obvious that the

increase of shifts the surge line away from the peak. Consequently, the

parameter has an effect on the system and specifies whether the system

surges or stalls. More details about the results of the present work can be

found in Rezk[16].

84

Eckardt rotor B.

drive on Eckardt rotor A are shown in Fig. 7 at 10000 rpm. To access the

two controllers the two controllers have to achieve certain specified flow

rate reduction with minimal pressure drop reduction. It is clearly revealed

that variable speed drive achieves lower drop in the pressure ratio

compared with closed coupled valve.

Fig. 7. Comparison between closed coupled valve and variable speed drive behavior for

Eckardt rotor A at 10000 rpm.

85

4. Conclusions

From this work, the following conclusions can be drawn:

1. A new methodology is herein introduced to predict and modify

the compressor performance map by pre-matching with the experimental

results. Consequently, the different conditions that are not covered by the

experimental map can be identified.

2. The present methodology can be used to determine the impeller

losses and its efficiency.

3. To estimate the choke line, the predicted data of the present

model is substituted in the formula of Dixon[3] where the specific heat

ratio is replaced by polytropic index.

4. The stall line and surge line are specified by substituting of the

predicted compressor characteristic map of the present model in the

Moore - Greitzer model.

5. The closed coupled valve and variable drive speed methods are

herein used to extend the safety operating margin by shifting the

performance map to the left (i.e toward the low mass flow rate) on the

plenty of pressure ratio reduction. Such reduction appears to be less when

using variable drive speed.

Nomenclature

a

b

Cp

C1C4

D

Hact

Hth

lc

Lloss

m

N

Pr

r

T

W

U

Z

w

Impeller width (m)

Specific heat at constant pressure (kJ/Kg K)

Polynomial coefficients that determine the performance map of the compressor

(---)

Impeller diameter (m)

Actual Euler head (m2/s2)

Theoretical Euler head (m2/s2)

The compression system duct length (m)

Different Euler head losses (m2/s2)

Mass flow rate (kg/s)

Rotational speed (rpm)

Pressure ratio (---)

Impeller radius (m)

Temperature (K)

Relative velocity (m/s)

Blade velocity (m/s)

Number of the blades (---)

Impeller width (m)

Absolute flow angle (Degree)

86

CCV

c

subscript

1

2

h

cl

T

t

Abbreviation

CCV

Throttle valve coefficient (---)

Closed coupled valve coefficient (---)

Specific heat ratio (---)

Impeller efficiency (---)

Dynamic viscosity of air (N.s/m2)

Pressure ratio (---)

Air density (kg/m3)

The slip factor (---)

Non-dimensional time (---)

Flow coefficient (---)

Pressure coefficient (---)

Performance characteristic of the compressor (---)

Inlet

Outlet

hub

Clearance

Throttle

Tip

Closed coupled valve

References

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

[7]

[8]

[9]

Seleznev, K.P., Galerkin, Y.B. and Popova, E.Y., Simplified mathematical model of

losses in a centrifugal compressor stage. Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, 23(10):

471-476 (1987).

Oh, H.W., Yoon, E.S. and Chung, M.K., An optimum set of loss models for performance

prediction of centrifugal compressors. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical

Engineers, Part A: Journal of Power and Energy; 211: 331-338 (1997).

Dixon, S.L., Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Turbomachinery. Pergamon Press

Ltd, (1996).

Moore, F.K. and Greitzer, E.M., A theory of post-stall transients in a axial compressor

systems. Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 108: 68-76 (1986).

Erickson, C., Centrifugal Performance Modeling Development and Validation for a

Turbocharger Component Matching System. Kensas State University (2008).

Gravdahl JT. Modeling and control of surge and rotating stall in compressors. PhD thesis

Dept. of Engineering Cybernetics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology,

1998.

Eckardt, D., Flow field analysis of radial and backswept centrifugal compressor impellers.

ASME 25th Annual International Gas Turbine Conference and Exhibit and the 22nd Annual

Fluids Engineering Conference, March, Louisiana, USA (1980).

Abd El-Maksoud, R.M., Modeling of rotating stall and surge in axial flow compressors.

Ph.D., Mech. Power Eng. Dept., Faculty of Eng., Mataria, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt

(2004).

Shehata, R.S., Abdullah, H.A. and Areed, F.F.G., Variable structure surge control for

constant speed centrifugal compressors. Control Engineering Practice, 17: 815-833 (2009).

87

[10] Galindo, J., Serrano, J.R., Climent, H. and Tiseira, A., Experiments and modeling of

surge in small centrifugal compressor for automotive engines. Experimental Thermal and

Fluid Science, 32: 818-826 (2008).

[11] Gravdahl, J.T., Egeland, O. and Vatland, S.O., Drive torque actuation in active surge

control of centrifugal compressors. Automatica, 38: 1881-1893 (2002).

[12] Gravdahl, J.T., Willems, F., de Jager, B. and Egeland, O., Modeling of surge in variable

speed centrifugal compressors: Experimental validation. AIAA Journal of Propulsion and

Power, 20 (5): 849-857 (2004).

[13] Bhagen, B. and Gravdahl, J.T., Active surge control of compression system using drive

torque. Automatica, 44: 1135 -1140(2008).

[14] Stanitz, J.D., One-dimensional compressible flow in vaneless diffuser of radial and mixed

flow centrifugal compressor, including effects of friction, heat transfer, and area change,

NACA, TN-2610 (1952).

[15] Bayomi, N.N., An investigation on the casing treatment of the radial compressors. Ph.D,

Mech. Power Eng. Dept., Faculty of Eng., Mataria, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt

(1995).

[16] Rezk, M.I.F., Prediction of centrifugal compressor performance maps. MSc., Mech. Power

Eng. Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Mataria, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt (2009).

88

***

*

!"# $ ***

%

.

#$ "%" .
!

, +%
#
.)%& *)& (& $ '

0-"

/
#$ -

6
#7
2

4 5
/ 3*12
*

3 :"

39 ' #$ - 8"
, 5
/
.

< % ="

; 5 #$ $ 5
/

35
/
" .' 6
#7 61

#@ - 8"
'"
%
?%
>

"%" * % . < %

=1A
6
1
*
/B
#@

*$ B "!
?% 5%
< C

*E@ 4 >2"
=
%"
#@ "%" % D

.C
>2"

- Screw Compressor BasicsUploaded byFabbrox
- WLB-225-3608-Overhaul-editedUploaded byMKPhotog
- Hydrodynamic BearingUploaded byakashdad
- UDS-110-Propane refrigeration loop.pdfUploaded bymujeebmehar
- Technical Comparison Format - Process Gas Reciprocating Compressor.xlsUploaded byAlvin Smith
- Polytropic CompressionUploaded bySonal Power Unlimitd
- Compressor Tech August September 2013Uploaded byIulian Barascu
- Dynamic Modeling of Compressors Illustrated by an Oil Flooded Twin Helical Screw Compressor 2011 MechatronicsUploaded byTai Huu
- Manufacturing of a GT compressor blade on a 5-axis milling machineUploaded byace12021993
- vibration induced pipework failure.pdfUploaded byAlvin Smith
- Inspection and Test Plan for Reciprocating CompressorUploaded byNorman Morales
- Modelling of Screw Compressor Capacity ControlUploaded bySelvaraji Muthu
- Natural Gas ReservesUploaded byNorfolking
- Reciprocating Compressors NumericalsUploaded byHirdesh Sehgal
- 04- Principles of Screw Compressor DesignUploaded byshyam_anup
- Piping Vibration Design ConsiderationsUploaded byQual_08
- Gas Turbines - Turbine BladesUploaded byNedu Japsi
- Vibration Related Failures of Small Bore AttachmentsUploaded byJose Prado
- SIL-determinationUploaded byibaig80
- Gearbox Design PrinciplesUploaded byschumiizz2best
- TITAN 130 Complete Specs 2011Uploaded byDang Jinlong
- Rotordynamics.pdfUploaded byhihou
- DSTO-Gas Turbine Blade VibrationUploaded bySurya Dharma
- WP UniSim Design Blowdown UtilityUploaded bykglorstad
- UniSim Excel Interface Tool User NotesUploaded byAndrew Rodriquez
- Bearing Research News at KingsburyUploaded bylubangjarum
- Lopa for SilUploaded byelchancleta
- TechnicalPaperUploaded byroccoscrbd
- Compressor Sizing GuideUploaded bymol_kres
- QP Guideline for Safety Integrity Level ReviewUploaded byjeeva4384

- Probability CheatsheetUploaded byClases Particulares Online Matematicas Fisica Quimica
- OpenGL ES 2.0 Reference CardUploaded byMatouš Skála
- Py InterfaceManualUploaded bypreetham108
- 1b_ate_gp1.pdfUploaded bypreetham108
- 13.Fan Vel TrianglesUploaded bypreetham108
- Cfdnotes False Theory of FlightUploaded bypreetham108
- Finite Element Analysis of 2-D Representative Volume ElementUploaded bypreetham108
- CFD_practical123Uploaded bypreetham108
- Cfdnotes Cr Grid GenerationUploaded bypreetham108
- Liftin LinetheoryUploaded bypreetham108
- PythonUploaded byjanmejoydas
- Siemens PLM NX Whats New in 9 Fs Y12Uploaded bypreetham108
- CEA Training - ModifiedUploaded bypreetham108
- simulia-ucollegelondon[1]Uploaded bypreetham108
- Shf ImpellerUploaded bypreetham108
- eckardt[1]Uploaded bypreetham108
- PracticalAspectsofCC SurgeUploaded bypreetham108
- Chenglong Wang[1]Uploaded bypreetham108
- Ekkad's-Gas turbine coolingUploaded bypreetham108
- 19820019810Uploaded bypreetham108
- 19980211447Uploaded bypreetham108
- 19990116700Uploaded bypreetham108
- Transonic Rotor Cascade studiesUploaded bypreetham108
- Heat Transfer in Rotating passagesUploaded bypreetham108
- siemens-sodenbergUploaded byAvinash Sneharavi
- Cfdnotes Geom FlucUploaded bypreetham108

- Revision Notes on Heat TransferUploaded byAnonymous vRpzQ2BL
- 02_VEN_Systems.pdfUploaded byAnonymous mNQq7oj
- b 3907002Uploaded byOctavian Nistor
- Stresses in BeamUploaded byWijayanto Bekasi
- Strength Optimization of Induction Hardened Splined Shaft Material and Geometric AspectsUploaded bykazdano
- BUILDING_UTILITIES_3_ARCHITECTURAL_ACOUS.pdfUploaded byEric Magnaye
- Assign4 RANSUploaded byankitsaneet
- CAR Airconditioning Service Manual 3Uploaded byLeon Mills
- pipe sizing.pdfUploaded byKrishnasamy Sanjeevan
- Effect of Electolytes on Chemical Equilibria.pdfUploaded byAntony
- High Temp Flow in AnnulusUploaded byChze Hsing Ho
- Analysis of Natural Convention Heat Transfer Enhancement in Finned Tube Heat ExchangersUploaded byjournal
- FLOW EQUIPMENTS.pptUploaded byD RAMAKRISHNA
- Dc 53826Uploaded byAlejandro Castillo Vélez
- Shear Enhancement - Retaining WallsUploaded bystef
- Reporte Carga TermicaUploaded byPiry Gonzalez
- 1-s2.0-S0029549399002472-main(1)Uploaded byGanesh K C
- Thermal Ratcheting of a BeamUploaded bymilan44
- FLO-2D Limiting Froude Number GuidelinesUploaded byYobani Chavez
- Unit 3BUploaded byNirina Arimanana
- chapter10.pdfUploaded byStephanie Haynes
- 11-Human Thermal ComfortUploaded byaomareltayeb
- Allowable Stress DesignUploaded byAnonymous lEBdswQXmx
- rcc 2 marksUploaded byWilliam Whaite
- Exam2010 SolutionsUploaded bymirshoaib01
- Plate Buckling NotesUploaded bySharyn Polley
- Project 2 Structure 10-31-17Uploaded byMaria Higgins
- Iast.lect10Uploaded byYashika Bhathiya Jayasinghe
- 07_WKS_RefrigeratedGasPlantUploaded byAmeelaD
- Tables SaturationUploaded byGuilmar Moncayo Ponce