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- WORKSHOP PRACTICE SERIES fro Argus B0cks Hardening, Tempering and 3. Sereweutting in the Lathe Martin Cleeve Taps and Dies Gain 13. Workshop Drawing Tubal 14. Making Small Workshop 2. The Art of Welding Tools WA, Vause S. Bray 20. Metalwork and Machining Hints and Tips ‘Ovet many years in a workshop, the knowledge and ability to perform a wide number of relatively minor jobs becomes second nature to a skilled engineer, but the amateur, no ‘matter how great his natural talent, rarely has the opportunity to experience the same wide: range of tasks. This book, by the experienced engineer lan Bradley, contains useful advice and for beginners on workshop practices including arbors and mand i ishing metal surfaces, G-clamps, surface gauges, tools, the wobbler, case-hardening, and machining square SBN 0-85242- ONTENTS -REFACE \APTER 1 HAPTER 2 HAPTER 3 HAPTER 4 HAPTER 5 HAPTER 6 HAPTER 7, HAPTER 8 IAPTERS. |APTER 10 \APTER 11 \APTER 12 HAPTER 13 HAPTER 14 ‘APTER 15 DEX Arbors and Mandrels Belt Jointing and Splicing Shaft Collars Finishing Metal Surfaces G-clamps Surface Gauges and Rule Holders Cutting Holes in Sheet Metal and Plate Making Special Nuts Hand Turning Tools ‘The Wobt Case-Hardening Machining Square Material Cross-drilling jig Fly cutting Screw jacks Page B 19 24 39 53 60 69 78 83 86 89 92 95 PREFACE ‘According should be himself. Some of advanced ni publicati Hungerford, 1988 Fig. 2 jgainst the arbor shoulder. (E) repre- advisable to ease off the apex of the ae san arrangement in which the work screw's coned surface as that is the beneeemenmnenen restrained from rotation by means of _base which first makes contact with the ey, a nut and washer being used to coned recess. In this way, the screw will he component endwise. act to better mechanical advantage Finally (F) demonstrates an arbor expanding the arbor, asthe flea ometimes used, having a tapered seat- portion of the latter's quite short upon which’ the work is mounted i secured by a nut and washer, fric_MANDRELS jon only securing it againstrotation. _ Mandrels are two types, plain and expanding. Both are used for mounting EXPANDING ARBORS work so that it may be turned between ere are many types of expanding centres, Probably the most accurate are moderate wringing pressure, the com- bors designed for machining work the piain mandrels, a typical example n engage for a sufficient dis- rin the chuck or between centres, being {ance to obton' satisfactory nold. The . p that true running is assured. prise @ hardened and. ground’ shat, projecting end of the mandrel sho The istration Fie. 1 depts ol “ine arbor ilustiated in Fig. 2 was accurately centred, ving eshew oes Genive died, as for some operations forms of mandrel that “may ‘Hmado for machining 9st of Sein: bore formed War ei eeaae om ape the support of the tallstock may be employed. The arbor (A) is the plalpestiron change. eiveele, andy ee formed, upon required. After turning to sige, and type wehave been discussing, the wolfound thot soe ve eet kes before the mandrelis removed from the being held by fiction only. At (8) olpptained with the opoicavon oh en, (esi istrated in Fig. 4. They com: \cised ring as an aid to mount- chuck, it should be marked with a form of expanding arbor is joserate clamping pressure. ing the work. A flats also machined on centre-punch dot exactly opposite to Tho details of the arbor are given inthe unground portion at each end te the centre ofthe face of the No. jaw. (C) is a mandrel on which the work fig, 3."The turning operations needed Serve a an sbument palin Gris Where these mandrels have to be ively secured by being screw@re ali straightforward, but two points screw of the lathe carrie: used te rng mounted in different chucks, it will be jer. At (D) the work ray well have some emphasis. In the the mandrel, necessary to use the 4-jaw independent 5 = place the bore of the fitting should As the accuracy of mandrels mounted chuck rather than to rely on the sel. ¥e turned to a push fit in the compo- between centres is wholly dependent is it is desired to mount, and on the correct alignment of these cere Fio.3 ondly when making the expander tres, it follows that they should be in on its working should be checked good order and that the centre setin the fore it is parted off from the parent headstock is running true. A soft centre laterial by screwing on the arbor with 1g in the headstock Semponent in place. If more than as it is quite a simple matter to set over }oderately light pressure is needed tothe top-slide and turn the centre true if Pck the component to the arbor, it is need be. Work mall end ony identification ring L \ Recessed centres -- 4 Flots‘ot each end for lathe corrier retained in position as they slide in 'e corresponding numbered keyways, “the work faces of the jaws are step: iJ to enable work of various sizes to jase of the arbor ding jaws and these expand as they forced along the inclined keyways. ‘Work is secured to the mandrel by figping it over the appropriate jaws, the large end of the body is then ly struck with a copper hammer eased by driving the sleeve care: ‘opposite director ted part-sectioned i expanding type, but cover a wide range of work number of solid mandrels, |. To reduce the amount of equipment needed various forms of expanding mandrel have been pro- , and it is probable that the exam. may be one of the Le Count le reduced to an acceptable minimum. The Le Count mandrels, bought many years ago surface and with an ssponding to that of A register peg ted to the mandrel to prevent, the sleeve during adjustment. ‘The threaded end of the mandrel car- approach the base of the too! to for inclined planes. The three keys or ja 1g holding range of from % in. to Tin., the larger of also have undercut faces so that th in a recess machined in keep-plate maintains the 1*5 in position. COVER PLATE VIE SPECIAL ARBORS. addition to the arbors that have of types that are Mewhat specialised. the two "wed arbors depicted in Fig. 7 are of single variety and were made to Id some components in the vice of 2 laping machine. For this reason the BING NUT Fig.7 shank of the arbor has a pair of flats Tnachined upon it to ensure that it can be gripped securely and accurately in the vice jaws. The purpose of the arbors in Fig. 8 and Fig. 9 will be reader from observing washers mounted on them. It be seen that the bodies of these arbors Fig. 8 are slotted. This is to allow the bodies. ‘squeezi HAPTER 2 washers to be char acceptable accuracy. The arbor illustrated in Fi devised to enable pun washers obtainable commer chamfered in order 10 improve th ‘appearance. The arbor consists of parts, a body (A) and a tapered mem! {6) upon which the washers are mot Fig. 9 spite the widespread use of the rope for driving machinery of all ound belting st wi ted. The end of the body is faced sau ‘that washer were produced in both Jat and round form. Subsequently, 3s and_rubber-canv: 9 used for belt making, nection with flat bel ibber-canvas round belts are endless form. Perhaps the round belt t use in the amateur shop, ‘of the equipment and the amount ‘the power to be transmitted makes nd Belt Jointing Clearly, after hing the correct diameter of belt the drive, I that the The commonly accepted method of aking the joint is to use a hook formed ELT JOINTING AND SPLICING from steel wite and to insert this in to the belt as shown in the illustration inched over greatly reduced if not compietety elien- inated. roa (CS Slots _cut itto belt Fig. Hook inserted into belt and clinched Over {nto t 13 Fig. 2 I No. 60 of used_D fox _beforé jointing if cement offer joinfing when sewing os well |, of course, be appreciated that ‘ourse cannot be adopted on belts ‘Yain, diameter, otherwise july weakened and out. the manner depicted by the illust the fastener may p Belt Splicing If a strong silent joint is needed then the belt should be scarfed depicted in the illustration Fig. 3. Fig.3 4 is consists of a block lied at an angle to suit the size of the amp depends on the belt being a it For many purposes the finished I be strong enough. However, ‘The sewing can be either double or ingle, the size of the holes being selec: 4 fo suit the form adopted. When akin: move any surface grease that may st, The contact surfaces are then ite-brushed to roughen them before Sewing machine belts being one ample. However, if mo ving cutting the belt is neede only practical solution known to the hor to remaking the joint is to Ploy the metal hook arrangement strated in Fig. 1 Flat belting is probably the (0 have been used. Orig- sometimes from laminated or folded ‘canvas to which a bonding solution has Flat belts can be made need be, though in the jateur workshop the width is not ly to exceed three inch been ap employed with the older type of lathe or ther machine driven from lineshafting through a countershaft, the primary drive employing or perhaps a 2in, wide belt. Wi lapped and cemented advantages. It is when properly madi ing life of considerable longth. An example in the author's workshop lasted 20 years, despite being liberally 16 coated with cutting oil, and it was t wood plane, and pressure can applied to the cemented joint in demonstrated by Fig. 8 yn its back when 2 jockey pulley is and the stitching is carried out ited. accordance with the diagram Fig. 9. Link fasteners similar to those illus- After the ends of the belt have been ated in Fig. 7, and in section in Fig. 8, cut square, a pencil line is drawn across Fe sometimes used to join wide belts the ends at a distance fro ‘ate to be run over compar device consists of a series of hook formed from a continuous length steel, that can be set equal to about one-and-a-hal Fig.9 provided for the purpose. acts as a gauge to ensure sequently be diffic hide pin, The Alligator the sizes ust small shops, sstener, according upper surface, seen in the illus allow the correct length of fastener any particular application to be brokt nt wearing qui 2mple, when jointing a one-inch belt 2uge copper or iron wire is used Belt Rubber-Canvas Pad either in contact with its running face! thickness of the belt and it is on these stitch is inserted from the contact si lines that the stitch holes are pierced face of the belt as shown at (e), the en e awl. For a one- HAPTER 3 jese ends are aga ther end to accommodate the two crossed, (g) and then brought iches used. ‘upper surface of the belt as indicated resented in the drawing Fig. 9 (h). 8 Must be evenly Next, pull on the ends of the stitch when the stitches are in turn until the ends of the belt af ‘two ends of the belt drawn closely together and the wire li straight and flat. Care must be taken. draw evenly on the stitches so that th sides of the belt are brought corre into line. The free ends of ‘are then secured by twi together and afterwards c off short. When the two place, a piece of card is surface of the belt and the joint] HAFT COLLARS lamp collars are largely used as For this purpose, these machine ine fittings, usually for providing spindles are often fitted with a pair of intersected collars, which are locked by using a couple of spanners or tommy adjustment then as represented at (b) the e crossed before being returned to the upper surface at become elongat while the second stitch is put in. This thus causing the joint to gape. Pinch screw Bl Acai iilled topping gery a much waste of Non-adjustable sha take one of the forms i at A, B and C respe corresponding _adj depicted at D. Collars of t for the purpose of tal ing as it were open side Relief hole trap tag or perhaps finger Fig. 2 Bock | too! post { oes ® a Top-slide~ Fig. 3 20 would not occur if the actions of adju ment and locking were independent \dapted for fitting to pli plest of machining oper should be car As depicted inthe operat comes in contact with the col ings Fig. 3 and Fig. 4. It sh that the machined face of the coll Used as the final thrust surface a: formed truly square with the bore the back surface of the collar after part- be screw-cut before To facilitate machi 1d out at a sin height, packing being used for the portions of clamp collars used are indicated in the After the collar has been correctly Hole | Hole ‘ta. | centre | Screw Viein- | im [OBA Bain [ain | 68a “in. | Fin, | 288 Yuin. | tain. | 20Acan] of the screw seating any machining is undertaken, however, the centr ‘An Alternative Method It preterred, 10 carefully fed int the work while the an cert owed 10 side along the sale methine ‘vice mounted onan ang late next operation iS 10 cut inta the plate can be used, This set-up has ine rigid and easy to one ofa. clrcular metal sow, oar an arbor that can eter We by ™ jrount ut between centres o° gripped in the Bruck and supported by the tailstock centre ‘With regard to the clamping screw, it js advisable that, as a matter of safety, the head should not project above the ion is to continue the slit to meet the drill hole, This is per- haps most easily done with a fine hack- ‘work reset in the sossible to carry and’ the fing jured quite apart from th ‘adjustmnent entailed. the depth is reache is up to the seri mined by ref the appro slides are adjusted to bring the end of the cutter into contact with the work at set to 22f0. The machi is now carried out by a process of the collar. For the tapping operation ‘tap is atipped in the headstock ch 2 1 RIGHT HaND| KNIFE TOOL | dieection of oo oe side clearance oll loe front clearance direction of \_ 5 80 cut CHAPTER 4 FINISHING METAL SURFACES 6: flat land Obviously, good finish on tur » RING. 2 =— ool cutting edge, and of a form to suit work in hand, may be expected to duce a work finish of a high standar | flat land nd | 2 the serut judges, the satisfaction of completing a ly and the amount of cut should be to good workmanship. minimal, up to. a maximum of 0.008 in. k surfaces produced by machin- ing processes are obvious areas that shaping machine where it can give @ good account of its surfaces that result from turning work in the lathe are examples that need consideration. ied when using device, \: ev ring tool was nown 3s 19 Tool, areas that were ‘bridges a terge surface of ihe work, bearings. Prosent 19 any ridging produced practice, but not necessarily in com- | tuning operations. The moll underakings, is of some antiquity and the aad Produced by it are nowadays leved by other means. When using a Spring toal the work must be turned TURNED WORK if we except screw threads, surfaces produced by turning fall into two cate- Fig. 1, can be applied equally well boring tools, when @ smooth finish the work is essential bearing material are examples in the i second category. will show that @ screw thread of with a sharp point 3 24 28 to 2 point where medium and Abrosive Seeve | cH fine abrasive cloth can be used. Bes drasive to cutmore freely. POLISHING INTERNAL SURFACES is sometimes necessary to polish the surface of work bored in a comy k can be large diameter and wreated narrow, appl ‘loth on the end of an inde: Indeed, dangerous. Instead, the devi Fig. 9 can be used mou! viously mentioned will serve as an piece of aloxite or emery cloth is stock chuck. example. It is seldom that the finish ped around a flat ir 0 the rim by turning alone i sufficiently good to pass must consists of an arb longi ly and_ provided ‘wedge to expand it, As seen ‘end-on view of the dev is wrapped around the and 1 the shank of the arbors diameter. illustrated in Fig. 3. Here a | Emery Cloth stgctric hand drill the device consists of 8 rubber set on an arbor and able to be exPanded by means of a nut rur tre nded by means of aout run flange rivete that moves, eee The rubber hub is caught exmnten the washers and is caused to row surfaces such as the edges of Fig. 4 Md by the nut, so gripping the abra- the practice known as ‘draw-filing’ 26 2 SCRAPING ‘The process of scraping is used for two burposes Fire it may be employed to le at each end and, having set it at e cut, has its tang angles to the axis of the work, removed by sawing. Its then set on. ‘draws it backwards and forwards along _ board and is prevented from mover the surface. If the work surface is cur- endwise by wooden keeps. sci ved, as depicted in Fig. 7, 2 ‘down at each end. Since the file its file must be used and appl double sided, and the work to work as indicated in the illust treated may be both ferrous and ng ferrous, the file should be marked ‘THE FILING BOARD paint on one side s¢ ‘When the surface of small components _ be kept for brass is being treated it is often better to take the work to the file rather than to adopt face plate where any high spots are ;, indicated by blue marking that has pre- been applied to the surface Hf k is placed on the surface ‘of the filo ing offo'smell portion of tro surface in ‘and is pushed along it in the direction of the process. As the operation proceeds, 1 Side view Hollow ground | '—View on face / Front ground slightly radicl 29 SCRAPER and as @ result, the area of blue mark- commercially made tools. The ling that is transferred to the work gra-_ scraper itself is depicted in the ilust dually increases, the flatness of the surface gradually improves ur marking is seen to cover the the area. The work is then considered flat. The second use is for decora poses, ie. applying 2 finish scraper the front of the file is i attractive and may embody other rounded as depicted in Fig. 11 and advantages, but before discussing the _hollow-grinding is then imparted to process of scraping a8 a p\ tive procedure w the tool form that Making a Flat S QILSTONE, help to put a fine edge to the scraper, FROSTING At one time, inspecting of the beds of ows seen in honing on a ping with a tool of the type that has been described. “These patterns need much practice nd not a little skill to produce them, so is perhaps hardly surprising that few smateur workers are prepared to give time to mastering 1 should, perhaps, explain that the pro- ess, apart {rom providing a pleasing more easily. Today, Yer many ofthe surfaces refered to are finished by a grinding pro- fae while it is the meting lides that J their surfaces broken up by the yn. As this takes place re not seen no pattern is process ia effective but simple ornamen te, ,eeded one. may -perhap: lets attention o the device of fros- The method employed is as seen in the diagram Fig. 14. The flat scraper applied to the ts cutting edge maintained at an angle and a series of Passes are made across the surface. Short strokes crossing each other are 1@ way shown, and the angle hich the scraper is used is much the Direction of 15 pass Direction of and pass 32 same as that employed when its cut ‘edge is being sharpened. If the ‘frosting’ is to be carried our! free-hand, ple fence machine to ensure that the kept on a straight line. When carr of decoration the surface self has the abrasive com- ENGINE TURNING ‘A method once used for decors ‘metal surface Tu as may be seen Fig. 16 In this way impregnated with and the pattern produced is of / When the work has lar abraded marks on the work wh surface has first been made smooth machining or by filing, impragi pound such as one of the lapping may be used as a consisting of carborundum gr pended in oil. The size of the gr is a cork dolly provided the ork is not extensive. Wey has only a short k up if subjected to sustained ng. FINISHING BOLTS, NUTS AND ‘SCREWS An otherwise wel work is sometimes sp ished piece of It follows, therefore, that the quality of ish, self. Hexagon-head bolts should be treated in the manner depicted by the illustration Fig. 18. The end-face of the The procedure adopted will, of course, depend upon the way t Fig. 18 Face ° File all surfaces 3 Card (ord soced unde {ile protect the fotect the Foce ® i LEI | Fig. 19 ument head screws, sometimes countersunk-round head screws, 10 be treated in the same way as ‘round-head screws described. ing itself has been machined to provide a can usually be made by the applic lead for the screwing die. of emery cloth in the manner depi Round-head screws are sometimes by the illustration Fig. 20. used to secure pieces of mechanism — Some screws together. For the most part round- heads, in particular headed screws seem to have their head threads as opposed surfaces rather better machined than other screws so any correction to them alone. In others, howe Fig. 20 ishing Nuts Since nuts are, for the 19st part, made from bright drawn their flat surfaces need to be same way as those of ad bolts and screws. Fortu- may be treated in batches if are mounted on suitable bolts 2s / ies of flat faces presented horizontally for the filing process. interposed between the table to prevent the latter being mé and a little light machine oil is appl CHAPTER 5 G-CLAMPS they are fastened to one another. While there is no lack of large clamps in model making and work nature, so the obvious sol the worker to make them himself. The common pattern of clamp ever, a cheaper variety was av these had frames of malleable ‘even of cast iron. The clamps we capable of much useful servi In most cases, there is a foot é et ga oP) 13 le therefore, in the Interest of good workmanship, ose a piece of packing between the Work and the foot, since the latter is Seldom smooth enough to avoid mark- Ing the work, Large G-clamps are le use in ‘Sennection with the small components neountered in model mi a, appare FOMPS to be had in the tool shops. Tonunstely they are easily made either fom Serap parts, such as large nuts, or Suitable pieces of material. q [ +4 Bale a Be, take up valuable space and protection for the work can eqi better be assured byt some packing between the end of the ‘screw and the part itself. The one on the left is a clamp made from one old % in. rth square nut; nuts of this type can the local black engineer. In order to provide information enabl- 37 ing readers to make such small G- clamps for themselves details are given in Fig. 2. The method of making them is, very simple ~ a piece of material such has been completed and the Allen screw inserted, the clamp is ready. ‘The miniature G-clamps are in many led tool- makers’ clamps that need two hands to adjust them, because they are provided with two clamp screws instead of the single clamp screw fitted to the . There are many occa: ‘when the user has only one hand fre secure a clamp, and it is then th: ‘small G-clamp is invaluabl will be readily apparent. Each Recessitated the use of a stret and secure the vertical smbers while being though two G-clamps are shown, four clamps were order to secure the horizontal mer during operations. CHAPTER 6 SURFACE GAUGES AND RULE HOLDERS The composite le of this chapter need , the rule holder to enable the surface gauge to be set to any red dimension by holding the rule ly upright. fe for the most part supply. Rule hold- 5, for some reason or anather, do not ‘seem to be so and if he needs one the worker must therefore make the device for himself. In the past both the author ‘and others have described several le holder, and some of these form subjects for detailed descrip. on later, THE SURFACE GAUGE The surface gauge appears in several ms, three of these being seen in the 283. rst is a ‘gauge having a found base and a fixed is simple tesign makes it ver con one s it very suitable for cor sity workshops, presumably as a us exercise for engineering students: example shown was made by t author using a drawing that appeared led ‘Workshop Practice for aboratory’ by A. W. Barker and A. H. Chapman, published in 1927. Fig. 1 a spindle = scriber_ @ lock —® alternative hole. for, scriber rocking fine lever Fig.6 the same functions as the components illustrated in Fig. 6, depicting the type of surface gauge made by Browne & or L. S. Starret of America. The ‘self be sufficient use and disposi- ion of the various parts that make up the complete surface gauge. Perhaps a word or two should be said about the jon hinges that are fitted to control the spindle and the scriber. Obvi- ously some restraint needs to be imposed on both these details when setting the gauge, or adjustment of the 42 A scriber the draw b rotate stiffly. ‘The Register Pi that the bases of two of gauges are fitted with pins pushed down to act as gui base. These enable a worker ple, to scribe lines act mounted on the lathe. To Fig. 8 pins are made to protrude so that they engage the edge of the lathe bed as, trated in Fig. 8 AMINIATURE SURFACE GAUGE While it is perfectly possible to use the ie standard surface gauge or the head of the Cambridge device to ‘old the scriber directly, some may onsider that thi has advantage The litle scribing block depicted in vaigd 825 produced with these obser- beans in view. Its working parts are to 1 ape in Fig. 10. They comprise a base ough which passes a spindle (4) Fig. 7 draw bolt rocking >) lever reve) locking o wheel ° spring fm order to ensure some restraint that Prevent the scriber from shifting ng the adjustment process the Fig. 9 "on Fig. 11 e ane" 40 rer 2 7 ee AM 4 @!— sosscwne apis" | REGISTER PINS DISTANCE, piece SPRING CLIP Fig. 13 ‘own 3 inch which are only %e in wide, can be set in the holder. In’ view of the apparent non- fotails made from The general the device are is pi by means of the threaded indle (2) and its knurled finger grip ‘given in Fig. 18. The sequence of 47 Ll). tae te snl © / // 7 =F r marking off and machin- from the front face of the cube through to the opposite side of the cube so that it may also act as a 43 (6) Counterbore base of seating to fo a flat face using a spotface cutter! along s : ‘The seating fo must now be machined to meet diameter of the previously dr hole, that is to say, measured from the front fa To do this the block need: ‘operation must stop. (3) Set the block on the cro: 316K 40.0r:32 tpl waze feo Fig. 19 packed up mounted on the lathe mandrel. To form the undercut abutment against which the rule rests 1e Flying horizontally and facing the headstock. Carry out the machining either with an angular cutter or a fly cutter at an angle. ly-cutter is used must be ground and is increased by % in. ie work is now brought up so that the tool's cutting edge exactly tou- ches the previously machi face. A final cut is now taken with 2 very slow feed right across the work surface. Remember that the lathe saddle should be firmly clamped during the machining operations, and that if there is @ power feed to the cross-slide this should be used. AN ADJUSTABLE RULE HOLDER The rule holder and 21 was giver years ago and cl time when the parts involved ‘marki simple process but sometimes a com- 49 profession not always in the smal shop. The rule holder illustrated the fore may be not without interest 1 some readers. Fig. 22 ‘The device consists of but three major parts, the base A provided with four feet A1 and a pillar A2 to support the rule clamp B and an anchorage C for the fine adjustment components. The base A is made from a piece of mild stool 3 in. thick and 2 in. by 2 inch. The four feet, the dimensions of which are iven in the drawing Fig. 22, are made jal and are secured Fig 20 " is secured by a nut vaeride ot the plicated one. In the latter event a rule “The rule holder itselt is designed to be adjustable not only for the height at hich the rule itself isto be set, but also for the width of reading from which other dimensions could be read off so much the better Today, when largely performed with a vernier height gauge, an expensive tool not often found ‘in the amateur workshop, and ‘zdusted by the adjusting screw both seen in Fig. 23. The dimen- ‘ions of the holder and its component Parts allow rules from ¥2 in. wide to 1 in. 50 is operated by the adjustment laced in a recess on the top For some e anchorage ( reason or other the elevati given a left hand thread. The advan- tages of this are not easily understood taking some further might prove unpro anyone contemplating the making of no doubt make use of instruction on making the rule holder Fig. 24 6 forthe good reson that myset cid not oy This is cross-pinned to an ordinary sewing pin /0 about the clamp bolt C2. My method of dealing with the m of producing accurately the body of the bolt so that, when the latter is placed in the anchorage and secured clamp bolt can be turned off leaving the i desired clamping effect in operation. With regard to the end plate B4, make sure that the countersinks for the fixing end plate clamped firmly in place wi screws allow the screw heads to be allisseen toworksmoothly, 82 CHAPTER 7 CUTTING HOLES IN SHEET METAL AND PLATE Many pieces of metalwork involve the ter’s braces; they have, in some cases, cutting of holes of various shapes and sizes in the parts that comprise the how to go about it. in the past there have been many to cut circular holes in of one form or another. were intended for use in 2), the last device being producing 2 complete plug at one operation. Both tools ate provided with pilots, holes for which must be drilled before 53 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 the tools themselves can be us is around these pilots that the rotated to cut any aperture tha supporting a hub that se mount for a length of hacksaw bl Tools of this type are often called ns O ®@ © © © this requirement: it follows the lines of (5) Screw down the nut A till the punch product capable of awide penetrates the work. Itis quite easy to assess when the punch has done 50 because resistance to the nut's immediately the One advantage of this is the wide range of hol cover; a representati range from Yin, dia. to 6 in. dia The advent of the power the base D, which may be caught in the of this type are capable of operating on vice if necessary, or restrained from mild steel sheet up to 16 s.w.g. (0.062 of a tommy bar _in,). The example made by the author, however, being made from mild steel and not hardened, had a limit of about 24s.w.g. (0.0247 in.) will be self-evident from the way are constructed. Black & Decker al supply these tools in sizes from ¥ ein. dia Which the work Punch B, which is work by the nut A. ‘TREPANNING IN THE LATHE that forms part of the base assembly. _In order to conserve valuable materi The sequence of operations when is sometimes advisable to employ Using the punching device is depicted in trepanning operation that can be per- 5 and these are as follows: lathe, a technique off the work and centre punch. FORMING HOLES IN SHEET MET/ Large holes in sheet met it The amateur does not to produce such h The too! illustrated in Fig. 4 sa 55, ‘Such holes can either be rectangular ‘or curved and in addition some may be scribing the curved 1e aperture, ing operation. 57 nly the hacksaw followed by: crrial by sawing along the left diagonal line (d), In be protected against teeth marks ‘om sawing by the insertion of brass plugs cut from oddments of suitable Tod, CHAPTER & (ings are needed, a front of the lathe ar toolpost at the snd a drill chuck MAKING SPECIAL NUTS Turn the major and eters using a knife tool Fig. 2 Some pieces of 1914 Triumph motorcycle! If only the nn nut could be made from hexagon mild steel stock found engineering design. The Penn nut, to give assembly. Nuts either be finger-contr or turned with @ spanner, four examples being shown in Fig. 1 ponent of the nut is greater than the distance across th hexagon. One has, therefore, to form Fig. 3 where the angular details of these the hexagon for oneself by one means. tools are shown. ‘or another, The chamfering tool, Fig. 2, was designed to cut on either side and intended to be used for cycle prior to 1914. He had a num! these machines so can testify ners to be more readily used. as a general fitment, probably on The nut depicted at C is of rather score of expense, though more than histori amateurs have made use of have been developed «: ‘The machining of the century for use engines then begi surfaces of limited area. The parting-off tool, Fig, 3, has an angled front cutting edge enabling work to be parted off 19 centres from finished work to a base board mounting, for example. 6 ing of the undercut between the hes gon portion of the nut and the was! Gomponent. A narrow parting tool is used for the purpose having its front face ground radi order to produce a rounded finish in the bottom of the undercut. Diagram C. Fig. 5, demonstrates the of the hand-graver in order to form the radial or curved edge to the washer component of the Penn aut. The ment of hand tools in the course in metal is a matter of some since the practice can in ram D, Fig. 5. Form the hexagon 1 using @ filing rest or milling attachment. Some means of using the lathe as a dividing engine has to be 62 Fig. 4 to ensure uniormiy the facets of the hexagon rape method of doing seve atcha changewheel to the tall of the lathe mandrel and to engage the wheel with detent set on some fixed portion of the headstock assembly such as the malt casting. The number of changewheel must be di needed a 60 toath whi and the detent set to engage tenth tooth. The whole subject of di in the lathe is too extensive to dealt with in the present book, but simple process such as described is ‘matter of common sense. Chamfer both sides of the hex: using tool mounted in the rear post, then part off. Using the Nut Tap When but two. drilling machine using a simpl © Fig. 5 to hold the nuts and employing a nut ‘ap caught in the drilling machine chuck, The nut tap differs from the hi for a number of nuts to nthe shank itself. ‘As has been said, the operation needs ® simple fixture to hold the nuts from congregat Fig. 6 ing. The fixture itself is depicted in 6. It is laid on the table of the ing machine and clamped in place fed under the tap. The fixture is provided with adjustable jaws CHAPTER 9 Y HAND TURNING TOOLS ‘ At one time all turning in the lathe was carried out with hand tools supported ona rest that enabled them to be set at the correct height. If we except chasers, only left hand grasps the shank of the The graver ‘square section tool steel, ground at deg. to provide a diamond: point and furnished with a tthe turner can conteol Representative dimen: 1m various gravers in my made from a piece ‘The hand graver was in common use whenever certain operations in the example, if, on a piece of work, workshop, are given in Fig. 1 and in the accompanying schedule, The graver may be used with its cut- edge set either above the centre of upon the centre brass. The first cor edge forms 2 curved surface on the corner of the work. ‘The second condition is illustrated in As may be imagined only light cuts be taken with a hand t the speed at which the tui nis undertaken can be high. Should ‘chatter’ develop, ever, the rotational speed of the work must be reduced. Werk i ‘Sharpening the Graver As with any other hand tool the graver must be really sharp to operate successfully. ‘The rough off-hand grinding procedure is best undertaken with the graver blade set in a V-block so that the point of the tool can be presented correctly to the of course, itself clamped in the k, is correctly presented to the of the graver. This must be removed by honing the tool on a smooth oil stone in the manner illustrated by Fig. 4. ATYPICAL HAND-TURNING OPERATION ‘The amateur is often called upon to produce a ball end on a piece of work that has otherwise been machined by Lathe centre line needed to be broken or a rat : had to be machined then the turer Fig. 7 7 Te Te [ooleal would use a graver and finish the work {¢ |oe by hand. 1 | 6 [435] | 7 [8] itis used by the amateur principally = for rounding the corners of turned work 2 [3%'|438| [00 [po and requires both hands to operate 1 Assuming the user is right-hand 3 |3%"|3'e"| 56] 00 | D0 be £0 c a / Plan View End View. ordinary turning methods. In fachine on the end of the component blank as depicted by the dotted outline inFig. 5. ‘The graver can then be app! way previously described. The sions of the blank are best obtai Fig. 6 and Fig. 7 depict the two stages j-4turning a ball on the end of a jank. The procedure should be e second stage. In this way it will be able to assure accuracy by setting 66 isevent [HAND GRAVER ipping chuck and supporting the end of the shank by the tailstock. ATOOL FOR FINISHING BALL ENDS. It will probably be appreciated that ball end turned by a hand tool is likely to lack accurate roundness, state of affairs, how died to some extent, being given an accoptal by making use of the to Fig. 8 The tool itself is piece of silver bored to the fit ished size of the ball to be produced. It use itis swung around the work a Fig. 6 indicated by the arrows seen in the illustration. ‘As depicted the tool has no top rake to its cutting edge, so is si on brass, Chamifering the en me 10-15 degrees woul: 9 steel. wt CATCHING OR STRIKING A CENTRE There are other tools for hand-turning metal but they are more and more museum pieces and it ely to be Before leaving the subject, there is one use of a graver which may be of service in small shops, that of forming a centre operation is striking a shallow centre ‘can be fed. The resistance to further movement) it Sop its advance; the graver is then Dushed into the workpiece by a little extra pressure. Some practice on advantageous \echniques (| formed by i AW, INDEPENDEN’ HU hand turning an internal taper the result can never be apffel recommended the use of a 10 control the cone angle as seen the bit being held in the tailstock. apffel also suggests that a pointed sorted by the hand rest, can be with advantage to enlarge the taper before making use of the ‘D’ bit. Care, however, needs to be taken here to avoid ‘chatter’. The tool in question is depicted at (b. ‘A word about the “ itself. In case I> CHAPTER 10 THE WOBBLER Both forms are readily made for one. to be <= appears in two forme, the unit that may be clamped post and used without any addi- 7 | tor after being brought into contact with ball assembly C located in the shank Fp the work and retained by the cover plate. Fig. 9 there are readers who do not know the down t ‘of 60 degrees. In or cutting edge, the body of the biti filed formed female centre. Fig. 1 with its axis at lathe centre height and the short end of the needle assembly in contact with a centre punched on the work and previously set to run as true as possible by eye. If the lathe turned by hand the long end of the needle will describe a circle whose magnitude is determined by the amount of error in the work setting itself. The e) f the needle move- ment is estimated by bringing up the p tailstock with a centre mounted in it in the manner depicted in Fig. 3. Itwill be apparent that because of the difference in 'engths between the short ~Ty achieve @ work setting of seme ‘accuracy. An Alternative Wobbler It will be appre by making the ratio of gto the short lengths of the | needle high, accuracy of a practical value can be established. | ‘When greater accuracy is needed the Fig. 70 , TaILsfock piece of equipment depi can be used in id in Fig. ‘America, who made the in the writer's possession, and avery simple 5 and comprise a bo inches long drilled and reamed a entre: its outer end. A spring is fitted I of the plunger and abuts against the inside of the body. Figs. 6 and 7 illustrate the way in is then engaged with its pointed end placed in a centre drilled or punched in to depress the internal spring and the wobbler in place. A icator is then mounted in the tool- with an ‘elephant’s foot’ attached ith the body of the wobbler as work as possible. The dial “516° DIK Xx 6'LONG CONE. 60° — n The work can then be considered as running true to close limits of accuracy. The making of this particular wob! should present little i can be made from a length of steel drilled and reamed axial ‘accommodate the plunger should be an easy sliding fit, but with- on it shouldering for the Spring and the centre driling of the outer end. DUAL_NDICATOR Pt WOBBLER, ‘ELEPHANT’S_ FOOT. J<— DIAL INDICATOR ‘The 60 degree cone at the nose of the: body is best turned to a sharp point and, for prefereni pered locally to inhibit wear. MAKING THE SELF-CONTAINED *WOBBLER’ hank A The shank of the device ig, 2is made from a piet steel stock marked off ift with the detailed drawing ns given are for 8 for use in the Myford ML 10 steel stock can the topslide without packing. It is then set square with the face of the chuck mounted directly on using @ parallel such as a rule for the depicted in the diagram Fig. 9, care being taken to see that the work is |no |= machined by normal turning methods js the work bolted to the faceplate ind set to run as true as possible by ‘means of a surface gauge. When the ‘eating has been formed the work is 'eversed on the faceplate, so that the ‘learance behind the ball seating can be Jecnines. Fig. 8 On the completion of this part of the operation the shank is sawn and filed to shape and the holes for the 6BA screws. ing the counterbores for the springs until after the cap B has been REMOVE Jaws EROW Ve a + /¢ Fig. 10 none : seta! Lease” Cg ls iE holes. Preventeo &Y ‘employed and fed in for a depth that !® Fig. 11 COUNTERORILLING allow the No. 43 tapping bot The action of a tap in a hole, unless Fig. 12 The spring-seating counterbores in the shank A can now be formed. In the detailed drawing these are given as depend on what compre: are available. Ideally the counter wide range of si be used with advantage in other work- ies. ‘aking of counterbores from is needs the use of an angular ‘aking counterbores from suggested that when hat a range of useful sizes can it up. The first step is to remove Fig. 13 Fig. 14 depth stop. A block fixed to the drill | shank abuts against this stop and also point is now roughly heeds to be ground sequence Fig. 12 is that show! 43. Here the fence makes contact with the front of the V-block which is moved ‘At this stage the dril will not eut and will not do $0 unless the cutting lips a "backed off” In order to do so the angie lar rest is set at an angle of some 5-7 degrees (Fig. 12 C) and each lip in turn {ground on the side of the wheel. For this purpose again the dril is set up i the V-block with a fence clamped to the jest to prevent the grinding ing past the centre line of the pplication of the neces 13, The ¥ a simple bridge clamp ind a screw to act as # condition that must be estimated by eye, and the corner of the wheel must less than 80 grit. But to return to the wobbler itself. Alt The needle used in the wobbler lustrated is a discarded steel kni needle approx. about one inch from the point. CHAPTER 11 CASE-HARDENING Case-hardening, as its name imy @ process whereby steel parts are given leness the cutting jough useful for dealing of the process is depicted diagramma- tically in Fig. 1. A typical example is a machine spindl metals. case-hardening ge from the con- tinal use of the spanner The cutting outer layer into a carbon stee! capable of being hardened when quenched i the heated state. are usually employed wi to be case-hardened in steels are of high strength and contain are various proprietary case-hardening compounds in common use, of which Kasenit and Antol are, perhaps, the best known. Excellent results have been be a by-product of the nnghame button-making industry. Before use it should be parched by heating on # stove u litresembles ground coffee. nickel or nickel and chromium. There 1e advantage of this substance is \duces an attractive, mottled a fine play of colours. ., Bone dust does not cause are of importance in the gun-making trade, where the breech parts and lock plates are case- hardened after they have been elab- orately hand-engraved, operations used for prot fittings, such as. service nuts damage when in constant use. At the outset, it is advisable to shield the rew threads by plugging the nut with eclay. ‘The hardening operation that follows is known as the open-hearth process. The part is placed on a firebrick in the brazing hearth and coated with a thick layer of a fusible compound, such as Kasenit or Antol ‘When heated with the blowpipe, the compound mots and forma an adhe sive c0% oral further compound should be made, and the heating continued, before the part is quenched for ing an attractive, silvery surface ‘on the wor An alternative method is to melt the case-hardening compound in a cast- iron pot and to soak workshop an old petrol engine casting was used for the pur- pose. It was provided with a nickel wire ‘oop to enable it to be withdrawn from hen the operation was le the part to be treated was fitted with a wire sling in order to facilitate its removal from the pot and the subsequent plunging into cold water. ‘The pot was placed inside the furnace and surrounded by pieces of coke in order to heat er and airstide of the furnace were adjusted in order to ensure steady com- bustion. ‘As shown in Fi enclosed during the soaking and in this way any fumes were taken up the flue and 3 the correct method of piung- ork into water is shown. From this t CONTAINER 79 Fig. 3 The more usual method of case- hardening is to heat the components in a box firmly packed with the hardening compound, Castiron lidded boxes are be: this purpose, and the electrical switct Fig. 4 20 length of conduit tubing the opening provided The components for hardening are firmly packed in the bone dust or other compound, so direct contact with the parts, but it also. aives some support to slender compos 1e depth of and broken across, will show clearly the extent of the hardened layer. <— ¢ Fig. 6 The simplest way of heating the packed box is in an open domesti or stove. The coal oF ¢: maintained at an even throughout, The box is buried in the glowing ‘embers for a period of from one to two hours to obtain a hardened layer sev- eral thousandths of an inch in depth. On removal from the fire, the contents of the box are at once tipped into a bucket Fig. 6 heating chamber wide by 2¥2 in. in 81 proprietary name Vitreosil The consumption of the furnace is approximately 800 watts, and a temper- if required, be 19 chamber is ulated heating ele- heating chamber and the outer cas- is closely packed with insulating vent heat loss. ting chamber, lening box to 1ed at a cherry-red heat, ter med ‘worm-red’ by the old-time gua- makers. meter can be peratures of from 600 deg.C, to 1000 ea. at intervals of approximately 100 {ke following are the temperature changes corresponding to the colours 82 |. the sort of temperat, shown by heated steel: dark-red, 700 deg.C.; cherry-red, 790 deg.: bright. cherry, 900 deg. ‘A cherry-red heat is satisfactory for case-hardening and also for hardening tools made of silver steel when ‘quenched in water or oil. Bone dust is best used in the muffle since, unlike some compounds, it has no corrosive action on the wiring or other metal parts. In addition to the use of the muffle for hardening and case-hardening, it also jes @ convenient means of tem metallurgical work; they employed in various industri somewhat expensive. It be worth investigating the Ins offered to hobbyists for jewellery enamelling, which will reach required *with= out difficulty and which may cost much less than small commercial muffig ure naces. However, the muffies made in the workshop at small cost have given satisfactory service for many years past, CHAPTER 12 MACHINING SQUARE MATERIAL The machining of square-section material has often to be undertaken ity production is , the equipment available Fig. usually undertaken usi independent chuck; this involves a somewhat. time-consuming operation to set up the work accurately, accepta- ble perhaps for a single component but lerable when numbers are the 4jaw For accurate work the square material needs to be set truly in the 4-jaw chuck 83 by means of a dial indicator applied to all four faces of t The chuck is then adjusted until the indica- gives an identical reading when then taken and noted, The devices to be de: produced to overcome the dit and to provide a method of square-section components ac ing type; this ‘opened and closed quickly enabl chuck jaws and are caused to contract B \ four corners of the square mat. it firmly. The three 9 for the liner to grip the quence of operations for male ing the there is Sepeted in Fig 3 The diagrams should be self-explanatory but perhaps a word should be said in It will be noticed that, in the frst of these two diagrams, a to be punched on the collar opposite the number 1 jaw of the chick before 10 SUIT __ CHUCK gl Fig. 3 the final boring is carried out. This will alway le the liner when removed to be replaced in the chuct the assurance that work set truly. ‘The diagram D shows th ither by a milling operation or, as performed by the by means of a sawing process using a shaping machine ‘The process involves the making and use of a special saw frame that can be mounted in the clapper box of the shap- IT IN MILLING MACHINE © ich has means of it on the return stroke. ;, for the most part, that allows the [a OR SHAPER length of their adjusted. When provision is ess must be kept wi work. Otherwise the saw frame will prove detrimental. 85. 86 CHAPTER 13 CROSS-DRILLING JIG between the extension rod and the base plug is engendered to ensure that adjusting the work stop is made as easy 8 possible. An isometric view of the the work clamp plate (2) held down on the work by two knurled nuts (3). The ing parts: a yoke stops and an ext clam de lock | CHAPTER 14 ‘The V Bk There is really no need to describe it block, however, may not be oul machine is a bush is tapped accurately and fitted with a Screw hay fered head that can be adjusted 1o make contact with the angular faces of the V SatA. Alter the the clamp plate is temporarily attached to the V block so that the two holes for the 2 BA studs can be drilled and ‘cutting of small gears required by clockmakers. tapped. Perhaps the simpler of the two meth- pendent. chuck in order cutter of the type suggested is ods is that illustrated in Fig. 5 at B. It work se the dimensioned. sketch may also be the most accurate. Her vertical employed and brought with the V black. Packing duced un: securely inthe V. 4s Fig. 1 88 Er Flycutter” Myford machine Fig. 4 along the tool as a jen. screws which secure the tool in place. sett attached to ver. somings seen st Aa i square lett hand Knife tools 91 CHAPTER 15 SCREW JACKS ‘Screw jacks in various sizes have long been essential tools in the engineering industry. Even in the small workshop uae vat Fig. 1 Base atten 92 they can well find a place. At one time jacks of a size suitable to the requirements of the sm: Brown & Sherpe and LS. Starett in America, Their products were capable have long since made use of jacks, produced many years ag: in order to take butone exemple, to support work overhanging in the vice of the power hacksaw; work that would otherwise tend to be displaced due to the weight of the saw frame and its inconsider- ks are easily made. machined from a short the scrap box screw portion of Allen cap-screw a steel ball of a convenient size has been pressed. ‘When work has to be milled in the lathe it is sometimes convenient to mount the component on the topslide, catch- ing it, if itis a small one, under the tool a ler ‘component to be. In such a case a st thick, or more, rep| 7 TOPSLIDE and is usually adjusted by means of packings to bring it level. These packings generally have a high nuisance value owing to their propen- sity for tumbling about if they are replaced k shown in Fig. 2. As will be seen there are but two parts, @ Fig. base having a threaded pillar machined on it and a barrel nut by which the height of the jack is adjusted. Convenient sizes for the two parts 51 in, di against the base itself in whi is made a press fit. This is preferabl fitting @ stud in the base unless the ‘accuracy of the tapping can be guaran- teed to ensure that the stud stands vertical ‘The jack marked ‘A’ in Fig. 2 was made in the first instance to assist in the in components. But in this connection it kept. As may be imagined from its con- struction, the jack was made out of pieces from the scrap box. ‘The jack marked ‘B’ i ‘shows the methods of work- 9 on the topslide discussed INDEX Adjustable rule holder Ball end turning Belts Bone dust Case-hardening Catching a centre ‘cular holes i Draws Engine turning Expanding arbors Filing board Finishing bolts, nuts and screws Flat belting Flat scrapers, Fiat surface finishing Fly cutting Forming holes Frosting G-clamps 8 Hand turning tools Internal polishing Jacks, screw Kasenit Lacing belts LeConet mandrel Link fasteners Machining square mat Mandrels Nuttap Penn nut Punching device Rubber belting Rule holders Scraping ‘Screw jacks Scribing block Surface gauges Trepanning Turned finish Uni rsal surface gauge V-block machining Wobblers —_— ©