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Consider a closed-loop transfer function

H(s) =

b 0 sm + b 1 sm

a0 s n + a1 s n

+ + bm 1 s + bm

B(s)

=

1 + + a

A(s)

n 1 s + an

(1)

where the ai s and bi s are real constants and m n. An alternative to factoring the

denominator polynomial, Rouths stability criterion, determines the number of closedloop poles in the right-half s plane.

Algorithm for applying Rouths stability criterion

The algorithm described below, like the stability criterion, requires the order of A(s) to

be finite.

1. Factor out any roots at the origin to obtain the polynomial, and multiply by

necessary, to obtain

a0 s n + a1 s n

+ + an 1 s + an = 0

1 if

(2)

2. If the order of the resulting polynomial is at least two and any coefficient ai is zero

or negative, the polynomial has at least one root with nonnegative real part. To

obtain the precise number of roots with nonnegative real part, proceed as follows.

Arrange the coefficients of the polynomial, and values subsequently calculated from

them as shown below:

sn

a0 a2 a4 a6

n 1

s

a1 a3 a5 a7

sn 2 b 1 b 2 b 3 b 4

sn 3 c 1 c 2 c 3 c 4

sn 4 d1 d2 d3 d4

(3)

..

.. ..

.

. .

2

s

e1 e2

1

s

f1

s0

g0

where the coefficients bi are

a1 a2 a0 a3

b1 =

(4)

a1

a1 a4 a0 a5

b2 =

(5)

a1

a1 a6 a0 a7

(6)

b3 =

a1

..

.

generated until all subsequent coefficients are zero. Similarly, cross multiply the

coefficients of the two previous rows to obtain the ci , di , etc.

c1 =

c2 =

c3 =

b 1 a3

a1 b 2

b1

b 1 a5

a1 b 3

b1

b 1 a7

a1 b 4

b1

(7)

(8)

(9)

..

.

d1 =

d2 =

c 1 b2

b1 c 2

c1

c 1 b3

b1 c 3

c1

(10)

(11)

..

.

until the nth row of the array has been completed1 Missing coefficients are replaced

by zeros. The resulting array is called the Routh array. The powers of s are not

considered to be part of the array. We can think of them as labels. The column

beginning with a0 is considered to be the first column of the array.

The Routh array is seen to be triangular. It can be shown that multiplying a row

by a positive number to simplify the calculation of the next row does not aect the

outcome of the application of the Routh criterion.

3. Count the number of sign changes in the first column of the array. It can be shown

that a necessary and sufficient condition for all roots of (2) to be located in the

left-half plane is that all the ai are positive and all of the coefficients in the first

column be positive.

Example: Generic Quadratic Polynomial.

Consider the quadratic polynomial:

a0 s 2 + a1 s + a2 = 0

(12)

s 2 a0 a2

s 1 a1 0

s 0 a2

(13)

There is one important detail that we have not yet mentioned. If an element of the first column

becomes zero, we must alter the procedure. Since this altered procedure is requires some explanation, we

postpone discussion of it to a pair of subsections below.

1

where the coefficient a1 is the result of multiplying a1 by a2 and subtracting a0 (0) then

dividing the result by a2 . In the case of a second order polynomial, we see that Rouths

stability criterion reduces to the condition that all ai be positive.

Example: Generic Cubic Polynomial.

Consider the generic cubic polynomial:

a0 s3 + a1 s2 + a2 s + a3 = 0

(14)

s3

s2

s1

s0

a0

a1

a1 a2 a0 a3

a1

a2

a3

(15)

a3

a1 a2 > a 0 a3 .

(16)

Next we consider the fourth-order polynomial:

s4 + 2s3 + 3s2 + 4s + 5 = 0.

(17)

Here we illustrate the fact that multiplying a row by a positive constant does not change

the result. One possible Routh array is given at left, and an alternative is given at right,

s4

s3

1 3 5

2 4 0

s4

s3

s2

s1

s0

1 5

6

5

s2

s1

s0

1

62

1

1

3

5

3 5

6 4 6 0 Divide this row by two to get

2 0

5

In this example, the sign changes twice in the first column so the polynomial equation

A(s) = 0 has two roots with positive real parts.

Necessity of all coefficients being positive.

In stating the algorithm above, we did not justify the stated conditions. Here we show

that all coefficients being positive is necessary for all roots to be located in the left halfplane. It can be shown that any polynomial in s, all of whose coefficients are real, can

be factored into a product of a maximal number linear and quadratic factors also having

real coefficients. Clearly a linear factor (s + a) has nonnegative real root i a is positive.

For both roots of a quadratic factor (s2 + bs + c) to have negative real parts both b and

c must be positive. (If c is negative, the square root of b2 4c is real and the quadratic

factor can be factored into two linear factors so the number of factors was not maximal.)

It is easy to see that if all coefficients of the factors are positive, those of the original

polynomial must be as well. To see that the condition is not sufficient, we can refer to

several examples above.

Example: Determining Acceptable Gain Values

So far we have discussed only one possible application of the Routh criterion, namely

determining the number of roots with nonnegative real parts. In fact, it can be used to

determine limits on design parameters, as shown below.

Consider a system whose closed-loop transfer function is

H(s) =

s(s2

K

.

+ s + 1)(s + 2) + K

(18)

s4 + 3s3 + 3s2 + 2s4 + K = 0.

(19)

s4

1

3 K

3

s

3

2 0

s2

7/3

K

s1 2 9K/7

s0

K

(20)

14/9 > K > 0.

(21)

If the first term in a row is zero, but the remaining terms are not, the zero is replaced by

a small, positive value of and the calculation continues as described above. Heres an

example:

s3 + 2s2 + s + 2 = 0

(22)

has Routh array

s3

1

1

2

s

2

2

s1 0

=

s0

2

(23)

sign, the row beginning with is not counted.

If the elements above and below the in the first column have the same sign, a pair

of imaginary roots is indicated. Here, for example, (22) has two roots at s = j.

On the other hand, if the elements above and below the have opposite signs, this

counts as a sign change. For example,

s3

3s + 2 = (s2

1)(s + 2) = 0

(24)

s3

s2

s1

s0

1

0

=

3 2/

2

3

2

(25)

Special Case: Zero Row. If all the coefficients in a row are zero, a pair of roots of

equal magnitude and opposite sign is indicated. These could be two real roots with equal

magnitudes and opposite signs or two conjugate imaginary roots. The zero row is replaced

by taking the coefficients of dP (s)/ds, where P (s), called the auxiliary polynomial, is

obtained from the values in the row above the zero row. The pair of roots can be found

by solving dP (s)/ds = 0.

Note that the auxiliary polynomial always has even degree. It can be shown that an

auxiliary polynomial of degree 2n has n pairs of roots of equal magnitude and opposite

sign.

Example: Use of Auxiliary Polynomial

Consider the quintic equation A(s) = 0 where A(s) is

s5 + 2s4 + 24s3 + 48s2

50.

(26)

s5 1 24

s4 2 48

s3 0 0

25

50

(27)

P (s) = 2s4 + 48s2

50

(28)

which indicates that A(s) = 0 must have two pairs of roots of equal magnitude and

opposite sign, which are also roots of the auxiliary polynomial equation P (s) = 0. Taking

dP (s)

= 8s3 + 96s.

ds

(29)

s5

1

s4

2

3

s

8

2

s

24

s1 112.7

s0

50

24

48

96

50

0

25

50

Coefficients of dP (s)/ds

(30)

There is a single change of sign in the first column of the resulting array, indicating that

there A(s) = 0 has one root with positive real part. Solving the auxiliary polynomial

equation,

2s4 + 48s2 50 = 0

(31)

yields the remaining roots, namely, from

s2 = 1, s2 =

25,

(32)

s = 1, s = j5.

(33)

(s + 1)(s

1)(s + j5)(s

j5)(s + 2) = 0.

(34)

Relative stability analysis. Rouths stability criterion provides the answer to the

question of absolute stability. This, in many practical cases, is not sufficient. We usually

require information about the relative stability of the system. A useful approach for examining relative stability is to shift the s-plane axis and apply Rouths stability criterion.

Namely, we substitute s = z

( = constant) into the characteristic equation of the

system, write the polynomial in terms of z, and apply Rouths stability criterion to the

new polynomial in z. The number of changes of sign in the first column of the array

developed for the polynomial in z is equal to the number of roots which are located to the

right of the vertical line s =

. Thus, this test reveals the number of roots which lie to

the right of the vertical line s =

. 2

This italicized text and most of the numerical examples are from Section 6-6 of Ogata, Katsuhiko,

Modern Control Engineering, Englewood Clis, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1970, pp. 252258. The rest of the

text, including the descriptions of the examples is mine.

2

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