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1.

Chapter 2
Data and Signals
(Part 2)
.

Chapter 3 (part 2)Topics

We have Three main topics:


1) Digital Signals
a) General View
b) Digital Signals as a Composite Analog Signal
c) Transmission of Digital Signals

2) Transmission Impairment
a) Attenuation
b) Distortion
c) Noise

3) Data Rate Limits


a) Noiseless Channel , Nyquist Bit Rate
b) Noisy Channel , Shannon Capacity
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1. Digital signals
a) General View
Information can be represented by a digital signal. For example, a 1 can be
encoded as a positive voltage and a 0 as zero voltage.

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1. Digital signals
a) General View
A digital signal can also have more than two levels. In this case, we can
send more than 1 bit for each level

1.4

1. Digital signals
a) General View
In general, if a signal has L levels, each level can carry log2L bits.

Example1
A digital signal has eight levels. How many bits are needed per level?
We calculate the number of bits from the formula

Each signal level is represented by 3 bits.

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1. Digital signals
a) General View

Bit Rate
The bit rate is the number of bits sent in 1s,and expressed
in bits per second (bps).

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1. Digital signals
b) Digital Signals as a Composite Analog Signal
Based on Fourier analysis, a digital signal is a composite
analog signal and The bandwidth is infinite.

1.7

1. Digital signals
c) Transmission of Digital Signals
A digital signal is a composite analog signal with an infinite
bandwidth.
We can transmit a digital signal by using one of two different
approaches:

I . Baseband Transmission
II. Broadband Transmission (using modulation)
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1. Digital signals
I . Baseband Transmission
Baseband transmission means sending a digital signal over a channel
without changing the digital signal to an analog signal.

1.9

1. Digital signals
I . Baseband Transmission

Baseband transmission requires a lowlow-pass channel

1.10

1. Digital signals
c) Transmission of Digital Signals
Low pass channel : a channel with a bandwidth that starts from zero ,i.e
,
starts from zero frequency to frequency f.

1.11

1. Digital signals
c) Transmission of Digital Signals
Examples on baseband transmission

1.12

1. Digital signals
I . Baseband Transmission
(a) Baseband transmission using a lowlow-pass channel with a wide
bandwidth .

In this case we preserve the shape of the digital


signal as possible.
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1. Digital signals
I . Baseband Transmission
(b)Baseband transmission using a lowlow-pass channel with a limited
bandwidth .
we approximate the digital signal with an analog signal. The level of
approximation depends on the bandwidth available.
1- Rough Approximation (by using the first harmonic)

2- Better Approximation (by using more harmonics )

1.14

1. Digital signals
I . Baseband Transmission
(b)Baseband transmission using a lowlow-pass channel with a limited
bandwidth .
According to Fourier analysis square wave (as digital signal wave shape)
can be decomposed into series of sine waves as shown below.

1.15

1. Digital signals
I . Baseband Transmission

1.16

1. Digital signals
I . Baseband Transmission
1- Rough Approximation (by using the first harmonic)

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1. Digital signals
I . Baseband Transmission
2- Better Approximation (by using more harmonics )

1.18

1. Digital signals
I . Baseband Transmission
In baseband transmission, the required bandwidth is
proportional to the bit rate ( it must be B >= N/2 );
if we need to send bits faster, we need more bandwidth.

1.19

1. Digital signals
Example 4

What is the required bandwidth of a low-pass channel if we need to send


1 Mbps by using baseband transmission ?
Solution
The answer depends on the accuracy desired.
desired
a. The minimum bandwidth, is B = bit rate /2, or 500 kHz.
b. A better solution is to use the first and the third
harmonics with B = 3 500 kHz = 1.5 MHz.
c. Still a better solution is to use the first, third, and fifth
harmonics with B = 5 500 kHz = 2.5 MHz.
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1. Digital signals
Example 5

We have a low-pass
pass channel with bandwidth 100 kHz. What
is the maximum bit rate of this channel?
Solution
The maximum bit rate can be achieved if we use the first harmonic.
As N<= 2B
The bit rate is 2 times the available bandwidth, or 200 kbps
kbps..

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1. Digital signals
II. Broadband Transmission (using modulation)

If the available channel is a bandpass channel, we cannot send


the digital signal directly to the channel;
we need to convert the digital signal to an analog signal before
transmission.

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1. Digital signals
c) Transmission of Digital Signals
Band pass channel : a channel with a bandwidth that does not start from
zero, i.e. starts from f1 to f2.

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1. Digital signals
c) Transmission of Digital Signals
Band pass channel : is more available than a low-pass
low
channel
,and the low-pass
pass channel can be considered a bandpass channel
with the lower frequency starting at zero.

1.24

1. Digital signals

1.25

1. Digital signals
II. Broadband Transmission (using modulation)

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2. Transmission Impairment

Signals travel through transmission media, which are not


perfect.. The imperfection causes signal impairment
perfect
impairment.. This
means that the signal at the beginning of the medium is not the
medium.. What is sent is not
same as the signal at the end of the medium
what is received
received..

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2. Transmission Impairment

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2. Transmission Impairment
a) Attenuation
Attenuation is the loss of a signals energy due to the
resistance of the medium.

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2. Transmission Impairment
Example 6

If a signal travels through a transmission medium and its power


is reduced to one-half
half , calculate the attenuation (loss of
power)?
Solution

In this case P2= P1 , then the attenuation is

A loss of 3 dB (33 dB) is equivalent to losing one-half


one
the power.
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2. Transmission Impairment
Example 7

A signal travels through an amplifier, and its power is increased


10 times, calculate the amplification(gain of power)?
Solution

In this case P2= 10 P1 , then the amplification is

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2. Transmission Impairment
Example 8

In the Figure below a signal travels from point 1 to point 4.


calculate the total decibel value over the link?
Solution

Total dB = 3 + 7
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3 = +1

2. Transmission Impairment
b) Distortion
changing in the transmitted signal form or shape

1.33

2. Transmission Impairment
c) Noise
Noise is the external energy that corrupts the transmitted
signal.
signal

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2. Transmission Impairment
c) Noise
Signal--toSignal
to-Noise Ratio (SNR): is the ratio of the signal power to
the noise power.

Because SNR is the ratio of two powers, it is often described in decibel


units, SNR dB.

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2. Transmission Impairment
c) Noise

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2. Transmission Impairment
Example 9

The power of a signal is 10 mW and the power of the noise is 1


W; what are the values of SNR and SNRdB ?
Solution

The values of SNR and SNRdB can be calculated as follows:

1.37

3. Data Rate Limits


3) Data Rate Limits

a) Noiseless Channel , Nyquist Bit Rate


b) Noisy Channel , Shannon Capacity
c) Using Both Limits

1.38

3. Data Rate Limits

A very important consideration in data communications


is how fast we can send data, in bits per second, over a
channel.. Data rate depends on three factors
channel
factors::
1. The bandwidth available
2. The level of the signals we use
3. The quality of the channel (the level of noise
noise))

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3. Data Rate Limits


a) Noiseless Channel , Nyquist Bit Rate
For a noiseless channel, the Nyquist bit rate formula
defines the theoretical maximum bit rate
Bit Rate = 2 bandwidth log2 L
Note :Increasing
Increasing the levels of a signal may reduce the
reliability of the system.
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3. Data Rate Limits


Example 10

Consider We have a noiseless channel transmitting a signal with


four signal levels (for each level, we send 2 bits). Calculate The
maximum bit rate can be transmitted?
Solution

The maximum bit rate can be calculated as

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3. Data Rate Limits


b) Noisy Channel , Shannon Capacity
For a noisy channel(which found in reality), the the
Shannon capacity formula defines the theoretical
maximum bit rate
Capacity = bandwidth log2 (1+SNR)
What happen if the channel is very noisy (SNR = 0)?

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3. Data Rate Limits


Example 12
A regular telephone line normally has a bandwidth
of 3000. The signal-to-noise
noise ratio is usually 3162. For
this channel the capacity is calculated as

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3. Data Rate Limits


Example 13
For a communication channel, Assume that SNRdB = 36 and the
channel bandwidth is 2 MHz.What
What is The theoretical channel
capacity ?
Solution

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3. Data Rate Limits


Another Solution
BY using the formula

Then the channel capacity will be

1.45

3. Data Rate Limits

c) Using Both Limits


Example
We have a channel with a 1-MHz
MHz bandwidth. The SNR
for this channel is 63. What are the appropriate bit rate
and signal level?
Solution
First, we use the Shannon formula to find the upper
limit.

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3. Data Rate Limits

c) Using Both Limits


The Shannon formula gives us 6 Mbps, the upper limit. For better
performance we choose something lower, 4 Mbps, for example.
Then we use the Nyquist formula to find the number of signal
levels.

The Shannon capacity gives us the upper limit; the Nyquist


formula tells us how many signal levels we need.
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3. Data Rate Limits


Note : In networking, we use the term bandwidth in two
contexts.
1- First, bandwidth in hertz, refers to the range of frequencies
in a composite signal or the range of frequencies that a channel
can pass.
2-Second,
Second, bandwidth in bits per second, refers to the number of
bits per second that a channel, a link, or even a network can
transmit.

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