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ISSN : 2278 1021

International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer and Communication Engineering


Vol. 1, Issue 5, July 2012

CLOUD COMPUTING BASICS


J.SRINIVAS1, K.VENKATA SUBBA REDDY2, Dr.A.MOIZ QYSER3
Assistant Professor, Dept. of CSE, M. J College of Engg & Tech, Hyderabad, India
Assistant Professor, Dept. of CSE, M. J College of Engg & Tech, Hyderabad, India
Professor, Dept. of IT, M. J College of Engg & Tech, Hyderabad, India
Jagirdar.srinivas1@ gmail.com, kvsreddy20122@ gmail.com,aamoiz3@gmail.com
ABSTRACT Cloud Computing is a versatile technology that can support a broad-spectrum of applications. The low cost of cloud
computing and its dynamic scaling renders it an innovation driver for small companies, particularly in the developing world. Cloud
deployed enterprise resource planning (ERP), supply chain management applications (SCM), customer relationship management (CRM)
applications, medical applications and mobile applications have potential to reach millions of users. In this paper, we explore the different
concepts involved in cloud computing. Leveraging our experiences on various clouds, we examine clouds from technical, and service
aspects. We highlight some of the opportunities in cloud computing, underlining the importance of clouds and showing why that technology
must succeed. Finally, we discuss some of the issues that this area should deal with.
Keywords Cloud Computing, SaaS, Paas, IaaS.

I. INTRODUCTION
This section gives an introduction to Cloud computing.
"Cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient, ondemand network access to a shared pool of configurable
computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage,
applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and
released with minimal management effort or service provider
interaction [1].
Cloud computing has emerged as a popular solution to
provide cheap and easy access to externalized IT (Information
Technology) resources. An increasing number of
organizations (e.g., research centres, enterprises) benefit from
Cloud computing to host their applications. Through
virtualization, Cloud computing is able to address with the
same physical infrastructure a large client base with different
computational needs [2][5]. In contrast to previous
paradigms (Clusters and Grid computing), Cloud computing is
not application-oriented but service-oriented; it offers ondemand virtualized resources as measurable and billable
utilities [6], [7]. Fig. 1 shows a basic cloud computing
environment. The remainder of this paper deals with
characteristics, opportunities, issues and challenges of cloud
Computing. At the end we discuss about the future scope of
Cloud.
II. ESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS
In this section we describe the essential characteristics that
a cloud must possess. Any cloud is expected to have these five
characteristics that are being described below.

A. On-demand self-service

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A consumer can unilaterally provision computing


capabilities, such as server time and network storage, as
needed automatically without requiring human interaction
with each services provider.

Fig. 1 A Cloud Computing Environment

B. Broad network access


Capabilities are available over the network and accessed
through standard mechanisms that promote use by
heterogeneous thin or thick client platforms (e.g., mobile
phones, laptops, and personal digital assistants (PDAs)).

C. Resource pooling
The providers computing resources are pooled to serve
multiple consumers using a multi-tenant model, with different
physical and virtual resources dynamically assigned and

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ISSN : 2278
1021
International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer and Communication Engineering
Vol. 1, Issue 5, July 2012

reassigned according to consumer demand. There is a sense of


location independence in that the subscriber generally has no
control or knowledge over the exact location of the provided
resources but may be able to specify location at a higher level
of abstraction (e.g., country, state, or data centre). Examples
of resources include storage, processing, memory, network
bandwidth, and virtual machines.

D. Rapid elasticity
Capabilities can be rapidly and elastically provisioned, in
some cases automatically, to quickly scale out and rapidly
released to quickly scale in. To the consumer, the capabilities
available for provisioning often appear to be unlimited and
can be purchased in any quantity at any time.

E. Measured Service
Cloud systems automatically control and optimize resource
use by leveraging a metering capability at some level of
abstraction appropriate to the type of service (e.g., storage,
processing, bandwidth, and active user accounts). Resource
usage can be monitored, controlled, and reported providing
transparency for both the provider and consumer of the
utilized service.
III. CLOUD DEPLOYMENT STRATEGIES
This section explains the basic cloud deployment strategies.
A cloud can be deployed using any of the below mentioned
strategies

improving security and resiliency because user access and the


networks used are restricted and designated.

C. Community cloud
A community cloud is controlled and used by a group of
Organizations that have shared interests, such as specific
security requirements or a common mission. The members of
the community share access to the data and applications in the
cloud.

D. Hybrid Cloud:
A hybrid cloud is a combination of a public and private cloud
that interoperates. In this model users typically outsource non
business-critical information and processing to the public
cloud, while keeping business-critical services and data in
their control.

IV. CLOUD DELIVERY MODELS


This section of the paper describes the various cloud delivery
models. Cloud can be delivered in 3 models namely SaaS,
PaaS, and IaaS.
A. Software-as-a-Service (SaaS):

A. Public Cloud
In simple terms, public cloud services are characterized as
being available to clients from a third party service provider
via the Internet. The term public does not always mean free,
even though it can be free or fairly inexpensive to use. A
public cloud does not mean that a users data is publicly
visible; public cloud vendors typically provide an access
control mechanism for their users. Public clouds provide an
elastic, cost effective means to deploy solutions.

In a cloud-computing environment. SaaS is software that is


owned, delivered and managed remotely by one or more
providers and that is offered in a pay-per-use manner [8].
SaaS in simple terms can be defined as Software deployed as
a hosted service and accessed over the Internet. [9] .SaaS
clouds provide scalability and also shifts significant burdens
from subscribers to providers, resulting in a number of
opportunities for greater efficiency and, in some cases,
performance. The typical user of a SaaS offering usually has
neither knowledge nor control about the underlying
infrastructure [10]

B. Private Cloud

B. PLATFORM-AS-A-SERVICE (PAAS):

.A private cloud offers many of the benefits of a public


cloud computing environment, such as being elastic and
service based. The difference between a private cloud and a
public cloud is that in a private cloud-based service, data and
processes are managed within the organization without the
restrictions of network bandwidth, security exposures and
legal requirements that using public cloud services might
entail. In addition, private cloud services offer the provider
and the user greater control of the cloud infrastructure,

This kind of cloud computing provides development


environment as a service. The consumer can use the
middlemans equipment to develop his own program and
deliver it to the users through Internet and servers. The
consumer controls the applications that run in the
environment, but does not control the operating system,
hardware or network infrastructure on which they are running.
The platform is typically an application framework. 4.3.

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ISSN : 2278
1021
International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer and Communication Engineering
Vol. 1, Issue 5, July 2012

Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS): Infrastructure as a service


delivers a platform virtualization outsourced service. The
consumer can control the environment as a service. Rather
than purchasing servers, software, data center space or
network equipment, consumers instead buy those resources as
a fully operating system, storage, deployed applications and
possibly networking components such as firewalls and load
balancers, but not the cloud infrastructure beneath them.
V. OPPORTUNITIES:
In this section we explain the vast opportunities the cloud
computing field offers to IT industry. Cloud Computing is
concerned with the delivery of IT capabilities as a service on
three levels: infrastructure (IaaS), platforms (PaaS), and
software (SaaS). By providing interfaces on all three levels,
Clouds address different types of customers [11]:
A. End consumers
These consumers mainly use the services of the SaaS layer
over a Web browser and basic offerings of the IaaS layer as
for example storage for data resulting from the usage of the
SaaS layer.
B.

Business customers

These consumers access all three layers - the IaaS layer in


order to enhance the own infrastructure with additional
resources on demand, the PaaS layer in order to be able to run
own applications in a Cloud and eventually the SaaS layer in
order to take advantage of available applications offered as a
service.

service only use the volume of IT resources they actually


need, and only pay for the volume of IT resources they
actually use. At the same time, they take advantage of the
scalability and flexibility of a Cloud. Cloud computing
enables easy and fast scaling of required demand computing
resources on demand.
VI. CHALLENGES & ISSUES
In this section we explain the challenges & issues cloud
computing has to face. As a lot of economics is tied to this
field it will be better that these issues are resolved as early as
possible. Fig. 2 depicts the summary of the survey conducted
by us on the basic issues of the cloud computing. The clients
primary concern is taken in to account. Hence only the
percentage of 4, 5 is being shown. The following are the
issues that a cloud computing environment has to still resolve:
A. Security
When using cloud-based services, one is entrusting their
data to a third-party for storage and security. Can one assume
that a cloud-based company will protect and secure ones data
(Cloud computing presents specific challenges to privacy and
security. back it up, check for data errors, defend against
security breaches) if one is using their services at a very low
cost? Or often for free? Once data is entrusted to a cloud
based service, which third-parties do they share the
information with? Cloud-sourcing involves the use of many
services, and many cloud based services provide services to
each other, and thus cloud-based products may have to share
your information with third parties if they are involved in
processing or transferring of your information. They may
share your information with advertisers as well. Security
presents a real threat to the cloud.

C. Developers and Independent Software Vendors


Independent Software Vendors that develop applications
that are supposed to be offered over the SaaS layer of a Cloud.
Typically, they directly access the PaaS layer, and through the
PaaS layer indirectly access the IaaS layer, and are present on
the SaaS layer with their application. In general, for all
different kinds of Cloud customers, a Cloud offers the major
opportunities known for X-as-a-Service offerings. From the
perspective of the user, the utility-based payment model is
considered as one of the main benefits of Cloud Computing.
There is no need for up-front infrastructure investment:
investment in software licenses and no risk of unused but paid
software Thus, capital expenditure is turned licenses, and
investment in hardware infrastructure and related maintenance
and staff. into operational expenditure. Users of a Cloud

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Fig 2. Graph depicting the concerns of clients on cloud computing issues

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ISSN : 2278
1021
International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer and Communication Engineering
Vol. 1, Issue 5, July 2012
TABLE1

legal, regulatory and policy environments of the country of


domicile of the cloud service, as well as the country in which
the server infrastructure is based. This is complicated by the
fact that some data in transit may also be regulated.

ECONOMY IMPACT TABLE DUE TO CLOUD OUTAGES

F. Bandwidth, quality of service and data limits


Cloud computing requires broadband of considerable
speed Whilst many websites are usable on non-broadband
connections or slow broadband connections; cloud-based
applications are often not usable. Connection speed in
Kilobyte per second (or MB/s and GB/s) is important for use
of cloud computing services. Also important are Quality of
Service (QoS); indicators for which include the amount of
time the connections are dropped, response time (ping), and
the extent of the delays in the processing of network data
(latency) and loss of data (packet loss).

G. Major suppliers
Only handful providers are available in the market which is
still holding back many SMEs to join a cloud.
B. Performance
Cloud computing Suffers from severe performance issues.
The cloud provider must ensure that the performance of the
service being provided remains the same all through. There
may be peak time break downs, internal flaws, and technical
snags arising. Load balancer, data replicators, high end servers
must me installed when needed.
C. Availability
Even though cloud promises to be a 24X7X365 service,
cloud outages occur frequently. Outages can be scheduled or
unscheduled. Table 1 provides details about the downtime in
hours and the economic impact of cloud outages of various
cloud providers from 2007 to 2012.

D. Cost:
Cloud computing can have high costs due to its
requirements for both an always on connection, as well as
using large amounts of data back in-house.

E. Regulatory requirements
What legislative, judicial, regulatory and policy
environments are cloud-based information subject to? This
question is hard to ascertain due to the decentralized and
global structure of the internet, as well as of cloud computing.
The information stored by cloud services is subject to the

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VII.
CONCLUSION
Weve looked at the basics of cloud. There are interests and
concerns in the cloud. From a technology point of view, there
are interesting technical problems to solve. From a service or
consumer point of view, there are essential usability, stability,
and reliability problems to solve. We are at a crossroads with
cloud technology. On one hand, there are many stories of
problems with clouds, from data loss, to service interruption,
to compromised sensitive data. To stay relevant, to remain
meaningful, to grow in the service space, the cloud providers
must step up their game and produce robust cloud
implementations. On the other hand, the world is poised to
explode with a billion new devices that will be desperate for
the very technology that clouds almost offer today. It is
possible that the wave of users, applications and demand will
just wash over the cloud landscape, regardless of how robust
they are. If the cloud providers are too slow to provide safe,
secure, reliable data storage and application services, they
may miss one of the greatest opportunities of this century.
VIII.
FUTURE SCOPE
The issues that are highlighted in this paper will be a hot
spot for researchers in future. Areas like security, Load
balancing , Standardization will be the major research topics.

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ISSN : 2278
1021
International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer and Communication Engineering
Vol. 1, Issue 5, July 2012

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ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Mr.J.Srinivas obtained his Bachelor's degree


in computers science & Information
Technology from JNTU, Hyderabad in 2005
and received the Masters Degree in Software
Engineering from JNTUH, in 2010. His
research interests include Cloud Computing
,Software Engineering, Web Technologies, Data mining.
Currently he is working as Assistant Professor in Computer
Science & Engineering Department at Muffakham Jah College
of Engineering & Technology, Banjarahills, Hyderabad.

Mr.K.Venkata Subba Reddy obtained his


Bachelor's degree in Information Technology
from University of Madras in 2002 and
received the Masters Degree in Software
Engineering from Bharath University,
Chennai in 2005, He is currently pursuing
Ph.D.,in Computer Science and Engineering, at Acharya
Nagarjuna University, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India. His
research interests include Software Engineering, Web
Technologies, Cloud computing. He is a life member of ISTE
and a member of CSI. Currently he is working as Assistant
Professor in Computer Science & Engineering Department at
Muffakham Jah College of Engineering & Technology,
Banjarahills, Hyderabad.

Dr. Ahmed Abdul Moiz Qyser received his


B.E. (CSE) from Osmania University,
M.Tech. (Software Engineering) from
JNTU, Hyderabad, and Ph.D. from
Osmania University. His research focus is
Software Process Models and Metrics for
SMEs. He is presently working as Professor
Head in
Department of Information Technology, Muffakham Jah
College of Engineering and Technology, Hyderabad, India.
He is also a visiting Professor to the industry where he teaches
Software Engineering and itsrelated areas. He is the author of
several research papers in the area of Software Engineering.
He is an active member of ACM, CSI and ISTE

This work is partly supported by the R & D Cell of


Muffakham Jah College of Engineering & Technology,
Hyderabad, India.Hence we would like to thank Principal &
Management of MJCET.

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