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# Communication Networks

Exercise 2
22.10.2014
1. Consider a factory where tennis balls are manufactured. At the end of
the production chain a machine M1 prints the brand logo on each tennis
ball. Consider that the machine can stamp just one ball at a time. After
stamping a ball, the machine drops the ball on a tray and is ready to
stamp another ball. Then, another machine, M2, takes the balls from the
tray and fills empty cans with three balls per can. Finally, the machine
M2 pressurizes and seals each can. Draw a Petri Net that describes the
operation of the two machines, M1 and M2.
2. Calculate the end-to-end delay for the following:
(a) Consider the network topology illustrated in Figure 1. Host A sends
a 5000-bit file to Host B. The switch S1 operates in a store-and-forward
manner, i.e., it begins retransmitting immediately after it has fully
received the packet. The transmission rate is R = 10 Mbps (for all
devices), and the propagation speed is s = 2.5 108 . Ignore all
processing and queuing delays.
(b) Same as (a) for the network topology of Figure 2.
(c) Same as (a) (for the topology for Figure 1), but assume the switch S1
implements cut-through switching: it is able to begin retransmitting the packet after the first 200 bits have been received.
3. Circuit-switched Vs. Packet-switched network

100m

100m
S1

Host A

Host B

100m

100m
S1

100m
S2

Host A

Host B

## Figure 2: Network Topology for problem 2b

Consider the simple network topology of Figure 3, where Hosts A, B, and
C are connected to Host D through Router R. The capacities of the links
are as illustrated in the figure. Assume a scenario where hosts A, B and C
generate saturated traffic destined for Host D (i.e. Hosts A, B and C want
to send packets non-stop to Host D).
Host A

4 Mbps
R

4 Mbps
Host B

Host C

11 Mbps
Host D

4 Mbps

## Figure 3: Network Topology for problem 4

(a) Would you employ a circuit-switched or a packet-switched network
in order to utilize more efficiently the available capacity of the network? Explain your answer.
(b) What could be the maximum data rate on the link between R and D
in the case of (a) circuit switched network, and (b) packet-switched
network?
4. Even More on Circuit-switched Vs. Packet-switched networks
Compare the performance of circuit-switched and packet-switched networks in the following situations:
(a) Host A is sending data to Host B over N links connected by intermediate switches. Assuming a propagation speed of 2 108 meters per second, link distance of 100 meters per link, packet length
of 1000 bytes, and data rate of 10 Mbps for each link compute the
end-to-end delay for both circuit-switched network and store-andforward packet-switched network. What happens to the delay if
packet length is reduced to 100 bytes?
(b) Assume that N hosts are transmitting data to a server over a single bottleneck link with capacity of 10 Mbps, and that each host has
a bandwidth requirement of 1 Mbps for its transmission, but only
2

transmits 10 of the time. How many users can the network serve in
the circuit-switched case? Assuming that N = 50, what is the probability (i.e. percentage of time) that the network cannot serve all the
active users in the packet-switched case?
5. Designing Finite State Machines for Networking Problems
Consider the usage of Finite State Machines (FSMs) for recognizing simple input patterns. In the following we assume that FSMs are used to
analyze a stream of bits that contains 0s and 1s (that is, the input alphabet consists of one and zero, I = {0, 1})
(a) Design an FSM that computes the even parity bit for the stream of
bits accepted so far.
(b) Design an FSM that recognizes when three consecutive 1s are applied in the input. After receiving three consecutive 1s the FSM outputs the string FOUND and initializes (i.e., restarts) the counting
procedure.