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MAHAGENCO

MAHARASHTRA STATE
POWER GENERATION CO. LTD.
KHAPERKHEDA TPS EXPANSION PROJECT - 1 X 500 MW
BHUSAWAL TPS EXPANSION PROJECT - 2 X 500 MW

NOTE ON
CONDENSER COOLING WATER/ AUXILIARY
COOLING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

DOC. NO. K5V14-000-DBN-M-0005


K6V02-000
November - 2006

Consultants
Development Consultants Private Limited
Vashi, Navi Mumbai

DOCUMENT CONTROL SHEET

Project

Client

KHAPERKEDA TPS EXPANSION PROJECT 1 X 500 MW


BHUSAWAL TPS EXPANSION PROJECT 2 X 500 MW

MAHARASHTRA STATE POWER GENERATION CO.LTD.

Document Title

NOTE ON
CONDENSER COOLING WATER/ AUXILIARY COOLING WATER
TREATMENT SYSTEM

Document No.

K5V14-000-DBN-M-0005
K6V02-000

Rev. No.

K5V14/ K6V02

DCL Job No.

ENDORSEMENTS

14-11-2006

Preliminary

BMG

REV.
NO.

DATE

DESCRIPTION

PREP. BY
SIGN.
(INITIAL)

PB

MSPD

REK

REVW. BY SIGN. (INITIAL)

DEVELOPMENT CONSULTANTS PRIVATE LIMITED


CONSULTING ENGINEERS
FORM NO. : DCF/MR - 04, REV. 02
KOLKATA MUMBAI DELHI CHENNAI

HC

BGZ
APPRVD BY
SIGN. (INITIAL)

MAHAGENCO
KHAPERKHEDA TPS EXPANSION PROJECT 1 X 500 MW
BHUSAWAL TPS EXPANSION PROJECT 2 X 500 MW
NOTE ON
CONDENSER COOLING WATER/
AUXILIARY COOLING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM
INDEX
CLAUSE NO.

DESCRIPTION
PAGE NO.

1.0.0

INTRODUCTION

2.0.0

SCHEMES OF COOLING WATER TREATMENT

3.0.0

METHODS OF PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF


SCALE

4.0.0

CW TREATMENT FOR KHAPERKHEDA AND


BHUSAWAL

5.0.0

DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATION

TABLES
TABLE-1- Raw water Analysis for Kharperkheda and Bhusawal Expansion Projects

Khaperkheda TPS Expansion Project 1 X 500 MW


Bhusawal TPS Expansion Project 2 X 500 MW
CCW AND ACW SYSTEM DBN

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MAHAGENCO

MAHARASHTRA STATE POWER GENERATION CO. LIMITED


KHAPERKHEDA TPS EXPANSION PROJECT 1X500 MW
BHUSAWAL TPS EXPANSION PROJECT 2 X 500 MW
NOTE ON
CONDENSER COOLING WATER AND AUXILIARY COOLING WATER SYSTEM

1.0.0

INTRODUCTION

1.1.0

General
Khaperkheda Thermal Power Station Expansion Project will have one unit of
500 MW rating. The station has four (4) existing units each of capacity 210 MW.
Bhusawal Thermal Power Station Expansion Project will have two units of 500
MW rating each. The station has one (1) existing unit of 62.5 MW rating and
two (2) existing units each of capacity 210 MW.

1.2.0
1.2.1

Condenser Cooling water (CCW) and Auxiliary Cooling Water System.


The 500 MW expansion project at Khaperkheda will have the following cooling
water system. The details have been covered in the DBR for CCW/ACW system.
The CCW and ACW pumps have been specified accordingly as part of the Main
Plant Package.
CCW system: 4 x 33.3 % CW Pumps each of 19,500 m 3/hr rated capacity for
circulating cooling water through the condenser and the
Natural Draft cooling tower.

Khaperkheda TPS Expansion Project 1 X 500 MW


Bhusawal TPS Expansion Project 2 X 500 MW
CCW AND ACW SYSTEM - DBN

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ACW system :

3 X 50% ACW pumps each of 2600 m3/hr rated capacity to


circulate equipment cooling water through miscellaneous
auxiliary coolers of the power plant , and through the Natural
Draft Cooling Tower.

Cooling Tower :

One Natural Draft Cooling Tower of the following duty.


Rated capacity - 63500 m3/hr.
Total Heat Loud 586 x 106 kcal /hr
Design cooled water temp 32oC.
Design Hot water Temp 42oC.
Design Ambient wet bulb temp 26.5oC
Design Approach 5.5oC.

1.2.2

Each 500 MW unit of the 2 X 500 Mw expansion project at Bhusawal will have
the following cooling water system.
CCW system: 4 x 33.3 % CW Pumps each of 20,500 m 3/hr rated capacity for
circulating cooling water through the condenser and the
Natural Draft cooling tower.
ACW system: 3 X 50% ACW pumps each of 2600 m 3/hr rated capacity to circulate
equipment cooling water through miscellaneous auxiliary
coolers of the power plant, and through the Natural Draft
Cooling Tower.
Cooling Tower:

One Natural Draft Cooling Tower of the following duty for


each unit.
Rated capacity - 66500 m3/hr.
Total Heat Loud 586 x 106 kcal /hr

Khaperkheda TPS Expansion Project 1 X 500 MW


Bhusawal TPS Expansion Project 2 X 500 MW
CCW AND ACW SYSTEM - DBN

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Design cooled water temp 32.5oC.
Design Hot water Temp 42oC.
Design Ambient wet bulb temp 27.0oC
Design Approach 5.5oC.
1.2.3

In both the above cases, the makeup water supply for the CCW/ACW system
envisages supply of treated (classified and softened) water. The raw water will be
available from Pench Project / Koradi Pond 3 in case Khaperkheda Expansion
project and from the Tapi river in case of Bhusawal Expansion project.

1.2.4

This note aims at studying the feasible schemes of CW system make-up water
treatment, as being adopted in large thermal power plants and their specific
applications with respect to the cooling water systems envisaged in the Expansion
projects at Khaperkheda and Bhusawal..

2.0.0

SCHEMES OF COOLING WATER TREATMENT

2.1.0

Open recirculating type cooling water systems using evaporative cooling system is
subjected to operating problems from the following sources.

2.2.0

a)

Suspended solids and Biogrowth

b)

Corrosion

c)

Scaling

The open recirculating system is continuously exposed to the sun and air, which is
encouraging for biological growth. In addition, the suspended solids provide food
sites for such growth. While dosing of oxidizing agents like chlorine / ozone is
carried out in all such water systems, it is also necessary to keep the suspended
solids level under control. The suspended solids can enter into the system. Through

Khaperkheda TPS Expansion Project 1 X 500 MW


Bhusawal TPS Expansion Project 2 X 500 MW
CCW AND ACW SYSTEM - DBN

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the make-up water and level gets multiplied in the circulating system by cycle of
concentration. In addition, the suspended solids may be indirected into the system
from the atmosphere.
Generally, the recommended practice for the cooling water system is to keep the
suspended solids within 200 ppm. This is achieved by pre-treating the make-up
water received from the source through clarifiers, which can restrict the suspended
solids in the treated raw water to 20 ppm. A side stream filtration is also adopted
with the car system, where about 2 % of the circulating water is filtered continuously
and sent back to the system.
In case of filtered (when the make-up water is softened), make-up water, such sidestream filtration is not used.
2.3.0

The major problem encountered in the recirculating type cooling water system is
that due to scale formation in the system, due to high cycles of concentration
adopted in the circulating system. The most likely scale forming substance in C.W
system is calcium carbonate, followed by silicate.
This aspect is further elaborated in the following clauses. The selection of a suitable
scheme in Khaperkheda / Bhusawal Extension projects may be made after studying
the available alternatives.

3.0.0

METHODS OF PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF SCALE


The principal methods of control of scale in evaporative cooling systems are:

Removal of scale forming minerals by pre-treatment of makeup


water.

Khaperkheda TPS Expansion Project 1 X 500 MW


Bhusawal TPS Expansion Project 2 X 500 MW
CCW AND ACW SYSTEM - DBN

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Limiting the concentration of scale forming minerals by bleed


control.

Replacing scale-forming minerals with soluble salts by acid


dosing.

Controlling the scale forming process using


Scale-inhibiting chemicals.
Modifying the scale forming minerals by physical methods

3.1.0

Pre-treatment of make-up water


The most obvious way of preventing scale is to remove the main scale forming
constituents from the makeup water by some form of softening. This involves
replacement of most of the calcium and magnesium ions with sodium ions.
Base Exchange softening removes practically all hardness salts and minimise
scaling. It is most applicable when dealing with cooling systems in hard water
areas. Its main disadvantage is that the water produced in the cooling system
is likely to be corrosive and will require the application of a corrosion inhibitor.
For small systems, Base Exchange softening may be the only practical
process.
The Base Exchange softening process removes most of the hardness,
whereas it is only necessary to remove the bicarbonate hardness. Because
the scale forming components of makeup water are replaced, a high
concentration factor can be allowed in the cooling water, thus saving on
makeup, chemical treatment and bleed.

3.2.0

Control of Concentration Factor

Khaperkheda TPS Expansion Project 1 X 500 MW


Bhusawal TPS Expansion Project 2 X 500 MW
CCW AND ACW SYSTEM - DBN

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Increasing costs of supply, treatment and disposal of water make it desirable
to operate evaporative cooling at the highest practicable concentration factor
in order to minimise water consumption. The savings in water diminish at
higher concentrations and it is rarely worth going beyond 6 concentrations
since the incremental savings can be outweighed by the risk of increased
biofouling and accumulation of airborne contaminants. Whilst there are many
systems where the concentration factor is limited to below 6 by unavoidable
leaks, it is usually necessary to control the concentration factor by bleeding a
proportion of concentrated water from the system under some form of
automatic control. Untreated hard waters may need to be controlled at much
lower concentration factors depending on the water characteristics and the
capabilities of the scale inhibitor used.
3.3.0

Acid Dosing

A well - tried and effective method of scale control is acid dosing, usually
sulphuric. This reduces bicarbonate hardness by chemicals reaction, forming
calcium and magnesium sulphates in its place. These are appreciably more
soluble than the carbonates, and can be controlled by bleed. It is usual to
control the system water in a pH range and alkalinity compatible with the water
treatment programme in use.
It is desirable to incorporate pH control equipment, which regulates the supply
of acid automatically. Equipment of varying degrees of sophistication for this
purpose is available. pH control by acid dosing is not usually suitable for small
cooling systems, mainly due to handling problems and the cost of control
equipment.

Khaperkheda TPS Expansion Project 1 X 500 MW


Bhusawal TPS Expansion Project 2 X 500 MW
CCW AND ACW SYSTEM - DBN

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3.4.0

Scale Inhibiting Chemicals

The use of scale suppressants, often called threshold scale inhibitors, to delay
precipitation and modify or disperse the precipitating species, is a wellestablished method in C.W. Systems of Power Plants. They may be used in
unsoftened hard waters, provided the concentration of hardness salts is
prevented from becoming excessive by properly controlled bleed. These are
particularly useful for enabling increased concentration factors without
involving softening of the make-up water.
Polyphosphates have been used for many years and have given satisfactory
results where temperatures are moderate. Scaling is not completely prevented
and slow reversion to orthophosphate, which has no scale prevention
properties, may lead to the formation of calcium phosphate deposits.
The drawbacks associated with polyphosphate scale control have been
overcome by the organic scale inhibitors, which are now in widespread use.
These materials include organophosphonates, and polymers such as
polyacrylates. They act in a similar way to polyphosphate but may be selected
and modified to optimize their performance for particular operating conditions
and improved scale control at very low dosages. They are, however, limited in
the concentrations of hardness and alkalinity and the pH values at which scale
control can be maintained. Well-established and proven operation of the CW
system as per the recommendation of the supplier of the water treatment
programme needs to be followed. Generally a limit of Calcium hardness up to
500 ppm as CaCO3 should be maintained for satisfactory results. The limit of
Silica to be maintained is 150-175 ppm in the circulating system, in order to
Khaperkheda TPS Expansion Project 1 X 500 MW
Bhusawal TPS Expansion Project 2 X 500 MW
CCW AND ACW SYSTEM - DBN

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avoid silicate scale.. Normally silica is not the guiding factor in cases where
raw water from rivers is used for make-up to the system/
4.0.0
4.1.0

CW TREATMENT FOR KHAPERKHEDA AND BHUSAWAL


The CW Treatment practice followed traditionally by Maharashtra State Electricity
Board in all power plants is to use softened water as make-up. This involves
clarification filtration and softening of the full quantity of CW makeup requirement.
This system, though costly, is foolproof against scaling problem and no treatment /
monitoring of the CW system (by acid dosing and dosing of scale / corrosion
inhibiting chemicals) is involved.
At present the same CW system treatment for the expansion projects has been
envisaged for Khaperkheda and Bhusawal. The CW and ACW systems have been
specified for supplying softened water in the circulating system. Since softened
water is envisaged for make-up supply, the scheme of ACW system is based on
direct supply of cooling water to all the auxiliary coolers, without involving any
closed loop demineralised water-cooling systems for the auxiliary coolers.
The raw water analysis of Khaperkheda and Bhusawal is enclosed as Table-1 for
reference.

4.2.0

The CW Treatment practice being followed in other power plants in India is to use
clarified water as make-up supply, use of side-stream filtration and adopting suitable
chemical treatment programme for the CW system. Such programmes are available
from suppliers like NALCO, Ion Exchange, Thermax etc.
For the power station s in India adopting chemical treatment programme in India,
the standard practice is to have closed loop-cooling systems using demineralised
water for auxiliary cooling systems.

Khaperkheda TPS Expansion Project 1 X 500 MW


Bhusawal TPS Expansion Project 2 X 500 MW
CCW AND ACW SYSTEM - DBN

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The 500 MW plants of NTPC as well as the super-critical power plant at Sipat are
following the above concept and BHEL also supply their BTG equipment for all such
stations with closed loop ECW systems using demineralised water. In this case the
heat loads from the ECW systems is taken care of by the auxiliary cooling water
(ACW) system through plate type heat exchangers.
The above system for auxiliary equipment cooling is required in order to avoid any
chance of fouling in a large number of small heat exchanger, which cannot be
attended easily. The plate heat exchangers are provided with one standby, which
can be easily isolated and maintained. For the condenser cooling system,
onlinetube cleaning system is available as an aid towards maintenance of clean
condition of the CW system.
5.0.0
5.1.0

DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATION


From the raw water analysis of Khaperkheda and Bhusawal it may be observed that
calcium hardness is very high at Bhusawal, therefore, a cycle of concentration of 2
also will create scaling problem, even with chemical treatment programmes. High
cycle of concentration like 5 cannot be adopted in this case without softening the
raw water. It may be noted that the existing unit 2 was initially designed for once
through cooling system. However, in once through cooling mode itself severe
CaCO3 scaling was experienced. The cooling system was converted into
recirculating type cooling system with softened make-up water as per the study
carried out by DCPL on this subject in 1981.
Based on the same discussion it may be concluded that softened water supply for
CW make-up is the only feasible choice for Bhusawal expansion project.

Khaperkheda TPS Expansion Project 1 X 500 MW


Bhusawal TPS Expansion Project 2 X 500 MW
CCW AND ACW SYSTEM - DBN

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5.2.0

In case of Khaperkheda it is noted that the calcium hardness as well as silica


content in the raw water will allow operation of the CW system with clarified makeup water, along with side-stream filtration and a chemical treatment programme.
However, as pointed out in 5.1.0 in the case for auxiliary Equipment Cooling system
closed loop ECW system using deminerlised water and ACW system using plate
Heat Exchangers for removing heat from the ECW systems is called for. The
closed loop ECW systems for STG and Boiler Auxiliaries, along with the plate Heat
Exchangers from a part of the Main Plant (Boiler and Turbine Generator) Package.
For Khaperkheda, the main plant package has already been decided and specified
for direct softened cooling water supply for the auxiliary coolers and no closed loop
ECW system has been envisaged. (In the original draft specification for the Main
plant package for Khaperkheda such closed loop system was envisaged. However,
in view of availability of softened water for make-up, this system was not considered
further)
In view of the present status of the project as discussed above, it is recommended
to adopt softened make-up water supply for CCW and ACW system for
Khaperkheda Expansion project also.

Khaperkheda TPS Expansion Project 1 X 500 MW


Bhusawal TPS Expansion Project 2 X 500 MW
CCW AND ACW SYSTEM - DBN

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