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jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf
(vGwfajrmufe,fajr)

'kw,
d t}urd n
f v
D mcHrw
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a'guw
f m qvdik ;f vserf e_ ;f qmacgi;f
(Lian H. Sakhong)
ESihf
pdik ;f arm (ef) aqhvD

pkaqmif;wifjyonf?
xkwaf 0ol
jynfaxmifpkwdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;'Drdkua&pDtzJG@csKyf
(vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)
xdkif;EdkifiH
2003 ckEpS f
yxrt}udrf
tkyaf & 1000 tkyf

UNLD Press
Chiang Mai, THAILAND
2003

With generous support from:


Natioanl Reconciliation Program (NRP)
rmwdum

tydik ;f (1) nDvmcHziG v


hf pS jf cif;
- obmywdtzGirhf ed @f ceG ;f .......................................................................... 1
- em,utzJ@G 0if p0fqikd pf pfrw d q
f ufpum; ............................................. 6
- wufa&mufvm=uaom tzJ@G csKyf.tzJ@G 0iftoD;oD;rS
acgi;f aqmifrsm;/ ud, k pf m;vS,rf sm;/ tcsi;f csi;f
rdwqf ufjcif;ESihf rde@f ceG ;f ¹ru
G =f um;jcif;/ ....................................................... 7
tydik ;f (2) nDvmcHo@kd wifoiG ;f aompmwrf;rsm;/
2:1 UNLD (LA) Policy Making & External Affairs
Committee's Report ..................................................................... 25
2:2 Ethnic Nationalities Initiative for Tripartite Dialogue:
Part (1): Report on Activities of ENSCC ................................... 38
Part (2): ENSCC Policy Paper .................................................... 45
Part (3): Statement & Declarations ..............................................53
2:3 Report on State Constitutions Drafting Process ..................... 61
2:4 UNLD (LA) Organizing & Alliance Affairs
Committee's Report ....................................................................... 74

tydik ;f (3) nDvmcHo@kd wifoiG ;f aompmwrf;rsm;tay: jyefvnfaqG;aEG;


a0zefoHk;oyfjcif;ESifhtwnfjyKjcif;/
3;1 UNLD(LA) Policy Making and External Affairs Committee's
Report tay: jyefvnfaqG;aEG;jcif; (qvdi
k ;f vserf e_ ;f ) .................. 82
3;2 jynfe,frsm;zJ@G pnf;yHt k ajccHOya'a&;qJaG &;vkyif ef;pOf tay:
aqG;aEG;jcif; (qvdik ;f vserf e_ ;f )....................................................... 91
3;3 pnf;&H;k a&;ESirhf [mrdwaf &;&mvkyif ef;tpD&ifcpH mtay:
aqG;aEG;jcif; (cGe;f ref;udb k ef;)....................................................... 103
3;4 ,ae@vuf&EdS ikd if aH &;tajctaersm;udk oH;k oyfcsupf mwrf;
wifoiG ;f jcif; (ref;!Ge@f armif) ..................................................... 107
3;5 vuf&EdS ikd if aH &;tajctaersm;ukd aqG;aEG;jcif;/ (p0fqikd pf pf) ........ 112
3;6 obmywde*d ;kH csKyrf ed @f ceG ;f (cGe;f ref;udb
k ef;) ....................................... 117
tydik ;f (4) UNLD (LA) .zJ@G pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'udt
k wnfjyKjcif; / A[dt
k vkyf
tr_aqmifaumfrwDrsm;udka&G;cs,fwifajr‡mufjcif;ESifh nDvmcH
xkwjf yefa=unmcsurf sm;?
4;1 zJ@G pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'udk jyifqifjznfph u
G tf wnfjyKjcif; ............... 133
4;2 aumfrwD0ifrsm;udak &G;cs,w f ifajrm‡ ufjcif;/ ................................. 140
4;3 'kw, d t}urd n f vD mcHxw k jf yefa=unmcsurf sm; ......................... 146
jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf
(vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)
'kw,
d t}urd n
f v
D mcH
2003 ckEpS f azaz:0g&v
D (9) &ufrS (12) &uf?
tcef;tem;tpDtpOfrsm;
yxrae@ (February 9, 2003)
12:00-13:00 ae@v,fpmoH;k aqmifjcif;?
13:30-14:30 yxrae@ 'kw,
d t}udrn f v D mcHusi;f yjcif;?
1) nDvmcHziG v
hf pS af =umif;a=unmjcif;?
2) obmywdtzGirhf ed @f ceG ;f cGe;f ref;udb
k ef;
3) em,u=o0g'rde@f ceG ;f p0fqikd pf pf
4) em,u=o0g'rde@f ceG ;f cGe;f wuf'b D ;l &D
nDvmcHziG yhf GJ 'kw,
d ydik ;f
14:30-15:30 UNLD(LA) tzJ@G csKyf.tzJ@G 0ifygwt
D oD;oD;rSacgi;f aqmif
rsm;tcsi;f csi;f rdwq f ufjcif;ESihf rde@f ceG ;f ¹rGu=f um;jcif;?
15:30-16:00 acwW&yfem;jcif;/
16:00-17:30 1) rl0g'a&;&mESihf Edik if jH cm;a&;&maumfrwDrS wifoiG ;f aom
oH;k yGiq
hf ikd af qG;aEG;yJjG zpfay:vma&;tay: }udK;yrf;vkyaf qmif
csurf sm;ESihf ENSCC zJ@G pnf;jcif;pmwrf;wifoiG ;f jcif;/
(qvdik ;f vserf e_ ;f )
2) ,ae@vuf&EdS ikd if aH &;tajctaeudo k ;kH oyfcsupf mwrf;udk
wifoiG ;f jcif;/ (ref;!Ge@f armif)
3) vuf & S d E d k i f i H a &; tajctaersm;ud k aqG ; aEG ; jcif ; /
(em,up0fqikd pf pf)
4) vuf&EdS ikd if aH &; tajctaersm;udk qufvufaqG;aEG;jcif;/
5) nDvmcHwckv;kH twGuf tcef;tem;obmywdEiS hf tcef;
tem;rSL;rsm;udak &G;cs,jf cif;/
'kw,
d ae@ (Monday, February 10, 2003)
09:00-10:30 pnf;&H;k a&;ESihf r[mrdwaf &;&maumfrwD. vkyif ef;tpD&ifcpH m
wifoiG ;f jcif;ESihf ‚if;pmwrf;tay:aqG;aEG;jcif;/ rSww f rf;wif
jcif; (cGe;f ref;udb
k ef;)
10:30-11:00 acwW&yfem;jcif;/
11:00-12:30 rl0g'a&;&maumfrwD. jynfe,frsm;zJ@G pnf;yHt k ajccHOya'a&;
qJGa&;vkyfief;tpD&ifcHpmwifoGif;jcif;/ ‚if;pmwrf;tay:
aqG;aEG;jcif;/ rSww f rf;wifjcif;/ (qvdik ;f vserf e_ ;f )
12:30-14:00 ae@v,fpmoH;k aqmifjcif;?
14:00-15:30 &Hk;vkyfief;ESifh jyef=um;a&;aumfrwD. vkyfief;tpD&ifcHpm
wifoiG ;f jcif;/ aqG;aEG;jcif;/ rSww f rf;wifjcif;/ (cdik rf sKd ;cdik Ef iS hf
pdik ;f arm(ef))
15:30-16:00 acwW&yfem;jcif;/
16:00-17:30 vkyfief;wm0eftoD;oD;rS wifoGif;aompmwrf;rsm;tay:
tajccHI aqG;aEG;a0zefo;kH oyfjcif;ESihf vmrnfh 2 ESpw f m
umvtwGuf pDrcH surf sm;csrw S vf yk af qmifjcif;?
wwd,ae@ ( February 11, 2003)
09:00-10:30 UNLD(LA) . zJG@pnf;yHktajccHOya'udk jyefvnfoHk;oyf
jyifqifjcif;? (zJG@pnf;yHkjyifqifjznfhpGuf&ef obmywdtzJG@rS
wifoGif;aomtqdkjyKcsufpmwrf;udk cGef;ref;udkbef;rS OD;
aqmifaqG;aEG;&ef)
10:30-11:00 acwW&yfem;jcif;/
11:00-12:30 UNLD(LA) . zJ@G pnf;yHt k ajccHOya'udk qufvufaqG;aEG;
jcif;/ twnfjyK jyXmef;jcif;?
12:30-14:00 ae@v,fpmoH;k aqmifjcif;?
14:00-15:30 em,u}uD;rsm;/ obmywdtzJ@G 0ifrsm;/ t+rJwrf;obmywd
tzJ@G 0ifrsm;/ twGi;f a&;rSL;tzJ@G EiS v
hf yk if ef;aumfrwDtoD;oD;
twGuf a&G;cs,w f m0efay;tyfjcif;?
15:30-16:00 acwW&yfem;jcif;/
16:00-17:30 tvkyt f r_aqmiftzJ@G CEC . a&S@vyk if ef;pOfrsm;aqG;aEG jcif;/
pwkwaW e@ ( February 12, 2003)
09:00-10:00 rSww f rf;wifjcif;ESiqhf ;kH jzwfcsurf sm;udtk wnfjyKjcif;/
10:00-11:00 nDvmcHxw k jf yefa=unmcsuu f kd xkwjf yefjcif;/
11:00-11:30 acwW&yfem;jcif;/
11:30-12:30 A[dt k vkyt f r_aqmif CEC . yxrt}udrt f pnf;ta0;
usi;f yjcif;/
12:30-14:00 ae@v,fpmoH;k aqmifjcif;/
14:00-15:30 A[dt k vkyt f r_aqmif CEC tpnf;ta0;qufvufusi;f y
jcif;/
15:30-17:00 tcrf;tem; +yD;qH;k jcif;/

*************
tydik ;f (1)

nDvmcHziG v
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zqyvygww D @kd / aemuf+y;D awmh yrnwygww D @kd EiS n
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tm%mirf;irf;wuf+yD;awmh usaemfwdk@wdkif;&if;om;rsm; wef;wla&;udk
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2
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om;nDtudak wG&hJ pnf;vH;k nD!w G rf [_ m wpwp+ydKae+yD; tJ'gukd jyefwnf
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hJ wdik ;f yJ tJ'aD &G;aumufyGJ
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+yD;wmeJ@ olu (yxp) jynfaxmifpt k pd;k & vd@k ac:ygw,f? tJ'D rSm 4 yHk 3 yHk
ausmef @J usaemfw@kd jynfe,ftiftm;ESiahf ygi;f vdu k &f if b,fvjkd zpfjzpf 'Dru kd a&pD
usus qufvuf+y;D awmhaqG;aEG;=u&ifawmh rv$rJ aoGusaemfw@kd jynfaxmifpk
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usaemfw@kd 'kw,
d tcsuu f bmudq k v kd w
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d
t}udrf az: jyvdjk cif;jzpfygw,f?
aemufwqufwnf;taeeJ@ 1962 ckaemufyikd ;f 26 ESpw f mumv ywfv;kH
usaemfw@kd wikd ;f &if;om;awG bmrSppk nf;cGirhf &cJb h ;l ? tJ'w D ek ;f uqd&k if usaemfw@kd
awmifwef;om;rsm; pnf;vHk;nD!Gwfa&;tzJG@qkd+yD;awmh zJG@pnf;cJhw,f?
aemufusawmh 1988 ygwpD rkH mS usaemfw@kd wdik ;f &if;om;ygwt D oD;oD;rS (23)
ygwu
D ae+yD; jynfaxmifpw k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyfrmS wpk
wpnf;xJrmS pkpnf;Edik cf yhJ gw,f? tJ'g wwd,t}urd f usaemfw@kd wdik ;f &if;om;
tm;vHk;&Jh nD!Gwfr_udk pkpnf;EdkifcJhw,f? tJ'Dusaemfwdk@ UNLD &Jh
tm;uae+yD;awmh nD!w G af &;udk pkpnf;+yD; rl0g'oabmxm;awGcsrw S Ef ikd +f yD;
awmh usaemfwdk@rl0g'oabmxm;vnf; yxryifvHkwkef;unD!Gwfr_eJ@
twlwyl ?J 61 ck awmif}uD;nDvmcH 'kw, d t}udrrf mS vJ twlwyl ?J wwd,
t}udrjf zpfwhJ UNLD &Jrh 0l g'vnf; twlwyl ?J oH;k }udrpf vH;k &Jh rl0g'vJww l ,f?
usaemfwdk@wdkif;&if;om;tm;vHk;awGvnf; usaemfwdk@nD!Gwfr_&w,f?
usaemfw@kd 'Dru kd a&pDa&;/ jynfaxmifpw k nf aqmufa&;qdw k hJ awmufav#muf
usaemfw@kd wikd ;f &if;om;awGuikd v f mwJh rl0g'yJ jzpfygw,f?
tJ'ga=umifh usaemfw@kd wikd ;f &if;om;awG[m yxrqH;k nD!w G af &;
wnfaqmufEikd +f yD; t"du 'Dru
kd a&pDtiftm;pkjzpfaewJh NLD eJ@ usaemfw@kd
UNLD n‡dEd_if;+yD;awmh aemufqHk;rSm 1990 ck =o*kwfv (29) &ufrSm
Adv
k af tmifausmvf rf;a=unmcsuf udk yl;wJx G w
k jf yefEikd cf w
hJ ,f? usaemfw@kd

3
jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)

Adkvfatmifausmfvrf;a=unmcsufudkjyef=unfhr,fqdk&if t"dutcsufu
bmvJqdkawmh “wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;onf vlrsdK;a&;wef;wlnDr#r_/
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k yf ikd jf yXmef;cGit hf jynft
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4
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w,f? Tripartite oH;k yGiq hf ikd u
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d "f gwf
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S f aqmif&u G o f mG ;=uygp@kd ajym=um;&if; ed*;kH csKyyf gw,f?
aus;Zl;wifygw,f?

*************

5
jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)

em,utzJ@G 0if p0fqikd pf pf rdwq


f ufpum;?

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f kd
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***************

6
'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf;

rd r d u d k , f u d k r d w f q uf j cif ; ES i f h rd r d y gwD t a=umif ; ud k tusOf ; csKyf


wifjyjcif;?

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=uaom ud,
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cGe;f ref;udb
k ef; (u,ef;trsKd ;om;pnf;vH;k nD!w
G af &; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G )
Democratic Organization for Kayan National Unity

usaemfw@kd ygw0D ifa&m jynfov l x l ak &m txJrmS &Sad ew,f? tcsKd @uawmh
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&Sw
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&jcif;jzpfygw,f?
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owfrw S jf cif;r&Syd gb;l ? t"duygw0D ifxq
k w
kd mu jynfwiG ;f rSmckeu usaemf

7
jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)

wifjywJh 14430OD;eJ@ t"duxm;ygw,f? aemuf+y;D awmh txJrmS &Sw d hJ OuUX}u;D


wd@k 'kOuUXwd@k / taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL; wJzG uftaxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;wd@k
A[dk tvkyt f r_aqmifw@kd +rKd @e,fpnf;&H;k a&;aumfrwDw@kd ukd usaemfw@kd tiftm;
vd@k owfrwS yf gw,f?
'ga=umifhusaemfhygwDtaetxm;eJ@ajym&r,fqdk&ifawmh usaemfwdk@
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t"du jynfwiG ;f rSmbJ &Syd gw,f? jynfwiG ;f eJ@qufpyfru _ v
kd J t+rw J rf; }uKd ;pm;
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ed*Hk;csKyftaeeJ@ usaemfwifjyvdkwmu usaemfhygwDtaetxm;[m
txJut"du jzpfygw,f? usaemfw@kd A[dpk nf;&H;k a&;aumfrwDwckEiS o hf m
zJ@G pnf;xm;+yD;awmhvyk af qmifomG ;w,f qdw
k t
hJ a=umif;udk wifjyvdyk gw,f?
aus;Zl;wifygw,f?

*************

OD;',fe&D ,fatmif (vm;[ltrsKd ;om;zG@H +zdK;wd;k wufa&;ygw)D


Lahu National Development Party

usaemfwdk@tiftm;[m jynfwGif;rSmyJ&Sdygw,f? jynfyrSmurajymy


avmufwJh tiftm;a&mufvm=u+yD;/ a&mufwJhae&mrSm usaemfwdk@EdkifiH
twGuf vkyaf qmifae=uw,fqwkd t
hJ aetxm;rSm usaemfw@kd }udK;pm;vkyf
aqmifae=uwmyg?
usaemfwdk@ “vm;[ltrsdK;om;zGH@+zdK;a&;ygwD” (Lahu National
Development Party) [m,ae@txd e0w/ etz wd@k zsuo f rd ;f vdu
k w
f yhJ gwD
awGxrJ mS rygao;ygb;l ? vuf&w dS nf&adS eao;wJh (10) ygwx D rJ mS ygaeygao;
w,f? bmjzpfv@kd tzsuo f rd ;f rcH&yJ useaf eao;ovJv@kd usaemfjyefqef;ppf
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h phJ um;udk usaemf owd&
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8
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ygr,fqykd ?J 'ge@J ou l “vm;[lygw/D 0ygwaD wG[m 0jynfujzpfw,f? 'ga=umifh


rd@k v@kd cifAsm;wd@k zsuzf su/f rzsuzf suf ol@[mol&adS erSmyg” vd@k ajymvdu
k f ygowJ?h
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a=umifyh gv@kd qdv k w kd myg?
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pm&if;aumuf,+l yD; rSwyf w kH ifay;aewJt h pDtpOfrmS yJ&ydS gao;w,f? wjznf;
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awmhwm[m ,ae@txdygy?J yxrawmh ud, k yhf gwwD ckwnf; tzdEydS cf &H
w,fv@kd xifcrhJ w d ,f? aemufawmh ygwt D m;vH;k cH&w,fqw kd m od&ygw,f?
vuf&t dS ajc taerSmawmh etzuEdik if aH &;ygwaD wG vGwv f yfciG &hf w
dS ,f/ bm/
nm/ b,fvykd J ajymaeajymae tuef@towfe@J vy_ &f mS ;Edik w f m[m trsKd ;om;
'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (NLD) wygwyD &J ydS gw,f? useyf gwt D m;vH;k b,fvrkd S
v_y&f mS ;vd@k r&ygb;l ?
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hf mud, k f
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ucdik ;f wmvky&f wmyg/ ud, k zhf gom udbk mrSrvkyEf ikd yf gb;l / usaemfw@kd ukd em;vnf
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9
jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)

pnf;&H;k a&;w&m;a[mvd@k r&ygb;l / wm;jrpfxm;w,f? usaemfw@kd ygwD tr_


aqmifawGtaeeJ@ b,fuykd o J mG ;oGm; bmoGm;vkyof vJqu kd kd axmufvrS ;f
a&;vl (informer) awGuvdu k =f unfah ew,f? tJ'aD wmh Edik if aH &; ygww
D csKd @
,ae@txd &Sdaeao;ayrJhvnf; bmrSvkyfvdk@r&wJhtwGuf r&Sdawmhwm
eJ@twlwyl v J @kd usaemfqckd siyf gw,f?
tckvdktajctaersdK;rSm jynfya&mufusaemfwkd@ UNLD tzJG@0if
acgi;f aqmif}u;D rsm;taeeJ@ 'Drukd &ufwpfzuf'&,fjynfaxmifpk wnfaqmuf
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ygw,f? acgi;f aqmif}uD;rsm;tm;vH;k uvnf; cH,x l m;=ur,fqw kd musaemf
vH;k 0 ,H=k unfygw,f? a&S@quf+y;D jynfwiG ;f rSm&Sad ecJh &Sad eqJjzpfwhJ usaemfw@kd &hJ
rdcifygwrD sm; jyefvnfvy_ &f mS ;cGi&hf vmatmif usaemfw@kd }udK;pm;vkyaf qmif
=u&rSm jzpfygw,f? vl}uD;rif;rsm;taeeJ@ oEdXM gecf sxm;+yD;om;vd@k usaemf
,H=k unfygw,f?
tckvwfwavmtcsdefrSm usaemfhtaeeJ@ v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,f
rsm;tzJ@G (MPU) rSm'k-OuUXwm0efuykd g yl;wJw G m0efxrf;aqmifaeygw,f?
MPU OuUXuawmh cGe;f wuf'b D &l jD zpfygw,f? jynfyudak &mufvm=uwJh MPs
ESpq f ,fih g;OD;&Syd gw,f? ouU&mZf 2000 twGi;f MPU udk tdik , f mvefEikd if +H rKd @
awmf'yfyvifrmS w&m;0ifz@GJ pnf;Edik cf yhJ gw,f? MPU &Jt h "duvkyif ef;uawmh
jynfwiG ;f rSmtusO;f cscaH e&wJh Edik if aH &;v_y&f mS ;olrsm; txl;ojzifh v$waf wmf
ud, k pf m;vS,rf sm;&Jt h ajctaeudk urBmuod&+dS yD; *&k%moufvmatmif/
usaemfw@kd &'hJ rD u kd a&pDvy_ &f mS ;r_}u;D udk axmufcv H matmif jyKvyk af ejcif;yJjzpfyg
w,f? aemuf+yD;usaemfw@kd &hJ MPU taeeJ@ 1990 a&G;aumufy&GJ vm'fukd
taumiftxnfaz:Edik af &;twGuf vdt k yfaewJh etztay: urBmzh t d m;udk
&&Sd atmifvkyfaqmifaeygw,f? EdkifiHwum Lobby udkvkyfaeygw,f?
txl;ojzifh Inter-Perliamentary Union (IPU) vd@k ac:wJh urBmv h w $ af wmfrsm;
tzJG@csKyftpnf;ta0;awGudk usaemfwdk@wufa&muf+yD; EdkifiHtoD;oD;rS
v$waf wmfu, kd pf m;vS,rf sm;udk wOD;csi;f aomf‚if;/ wzJ@G csi;f aomf‚if;/ awG@q+kH y;D
usaemfw@kd jynfwiG ;f a&;ta=umif;pHu k kd ajymjycGi&hf ovdk axmufct H m;ay;r_
udvk nf; xdu k o f ifo
h avmuf&aeygw,f?
urBmhukvor*~taxGaxGnDvmcH (United Nations General
Assembly) ESpp
f Of atmufwb
kd mESihf Ed0k ifbmvrsm;twGi;f usi;f yygw,f?

10
'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf;

jrefrmEdkifiHtay:csrSwfwJh ukvor*~qHk;jzwfcsufrsm; (UN Resolution)


wESpx f uf wESpyf rkd tkd m;aumif;atmif "Strong" jzpfatmif od@k r[kwf csxm;
wJh Resolutions atmuftqifrh usatmif usaemfw@kd vyk af eygw,f? +yD;cJw h hJ
2002 ck atmufwb kd m/ Ed0k ifbmnDvmcH}uD;rSm usaemfEpS yf gw=f umyg0ifchJ
ygw,f? EdkifiHtawmfrsm;rsm;rS udk,fpm;vS,fawGudkawG@qHkcGifh&cJhygw,f?
jrefrmEdik if eH @J ygwf oufwhJ qH;k jzwfcsuu f kd EU vd@k ac:wJh Oa&myEdik if rH sm;or*~rS
uruxjyKa&;qJG +yD; usaemfw@kd tzJ@G ukd zwf&j_ yifqifjznfph u G cf iG jhf yKygw,f?
tJ'ga=umifh vlenf;pk (Minority) tpm; Armr[kwaf omwdik ;f &if;om;rsm;
(Non-Burman Nationalities) qdw k hJ tac:ta0:udx k nfo h iG ;f az: jycGihf &cJyh g
w,f? xd@k tjyif Socialist International (SI) tpnf;ta0;awGuv kd nf;
rSerf eS wf ufa&muf+yD; Lobby vkyaf eygw,f? Edik if w H umrSm&Sad ewJh jrefrm
rdom;pktzJ@G tpnf;rsm; (Burmese Communities) / jrefrmEdik if v H w G af jrmuf
a&; taxmuftuljyKtzJ@G tpnf;rsm; (Free Burma support groups),
NGOs ac: tpd;k &r[kwaf om toif;tzJ@G rsm;/ bmoma&;toif;tzJ@G rsm;
(Church groups), v$waf wmfu, kd pf m;vS,rf sm;/ tpd;k &0ef}u;D rsm; ponfw@kd
udvk nf; tcgtm;avsmpf mG awG@qI kH tjrifcsi;f zvS,v f #uf taxmuftul
rsm;udk vufc&H ,laeygonf?
usaemfaemufq;kH wifjyvdw k muawmh tck'rD mS a&mufae=uwJh acgi;f
aqmif}u;D rsm;tm;vH;k usaemfw@kd Eikd if rH mS apmapmu obmywd}u;D trde@f &cdS hJ
wJh twdik ;f ESpyf iG q
hf ikd pf um;0dik ;f (Bipartite Dialogue) rSonf oH;k yGiq hf ikd f
pum;0dik ;f (Tripartite Dialogue) jzpfvmEdik af &;twGuf rdrw d @kd wwfEikd w f hJ
bufuvkyaf qmif=u&if; ppfreS w f zhJ uf'&,f jynfaxmifp}k uD;qDo@kd OD;wnf
csw
D uf=uygp@kd v@kd wdu k w f eG ;f &if; ed*;kH csKyfygw,f? aus;Zl;wifygw,f?

*************

11
jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)

OD;omEd;k (&cdik 'f rD u


kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf)
Arakan League for Democracy

usaemfw@kd ALD qd&k if &efuek +f rdK@/ w+rdK@e,ftygt0if &cdik jf ynfe,f rSm


(17) +rdK@e,f aygi;f vdu k &f if (18) +rdK@e,fnv
D mcHukd ppfawG+rdK@rmS (3) &uf
wdik w
f ikd u
f si;f y+y;D awmh CC Central Committee (42) OD; tJ't D xJu v#Kd @0u S rf J
qENe@J (15) OD;udk CEC Central Executive Committee a&G;+y;D awmh usaemfw@dk
aqmif&u G =f uw,f? a&G;aumufyrGJ mS (15) +rdK@e,ftm;vH;k usaemfw@kd ALD
rS ,SO+f ydKifwahJ e&mrSm usaemfw@kd (11) ae&mtEdik &f &Syd gw,f? rJqEN ae&mu
tm;vH;k (26) ae&m&Syd gw,f? usaemfw@kd ALD u (11) ae&m&+yD;awmh
bl;oD;awmif armif;awmrSm rlqviftrsdK;om; ygwDawGu (4) ae&m
&ygw,f? aemuf +rdKac: crD;qdw k yhJ gwu
D ausmufawmf+rdK@e,frq J EN e,fajr
wae&m&ygw,f? aemuf NLD u (9) ae&m&ygw,f? tm;vH;k aygi;f vdu k &f if
(26) ae&mjzpfygw,f?
tJ'Dawmh usaemfwdk@ ALD ygwD &cdkifjynfrSmjynfolvlxktrsm;qHk;
axmufcHwJh ygwDwckjzpfaewJhtcsdefrSm usaemfwdk@a&G;aumufyJGa=unm
pmwrf;yg tajccHEikd if aH &;OD;wnfcsuu f kd usaemfw@kd aqmif&uG vf mwJt h csed rf mS
e0wu a=unmcsut f rSwf 1§90 xkwjf yefcyhJ gw,f? a&G;aumufyt GJ +yD;rSm
e0wudk axmufco H vm;/ uef@uu G o f vm;qd+k y;D ar;vmygw,f? usaemfw@kd u
a&G;aumufyaGJ =unmpmwrf;rSm ygwt hJ wdik ;f yJ tm%m&Sipf epfukd usaemfw@kd
vH;k 0raxmufcb H ;l ? tm%m&Sipf epfay:vmr,fq&kd ifvJ usaemfw@kd umuG,f
r,f/ &Sad e&ifvw
J ukd zf surf ,f qdw
k thJ csuaf wG rlxrJ mS yg ygw,f?
tJ'Dawmh 1§90 uawmh ppftm%m&Sifpepfoufqdk;&Snfzdk@twGuf
a=unmwJha=unmcsufjzpfygw,f? tJ'Dvdkusaemfwdk@jywfjywfom;om;
a&G;aumufyJGa=unmcsufpmwrf;xJrSmygwJh tajccHay:rSm&yfwnf+yD;
uef@uu G af wmh ALD zsuo f rd ;f cH&ygw,f? 'gayrJh “b,fozl suzf suf 'd@k rysu”f
'd@k ukd jynfoal wGaxmufcx H m;wJyh gwjD zpfwt hJ wGuf jynfoq l rD mS usaemfw@kd
wifjyxm;wJh Edik if aH &;OD;wnfcsuf &yfwnfcsuf vkyif ef;pOfawGukd taumif
txnfaz:oGm;r,f opPm&Sd&Sd wm0efododeJ@ usaemfwdk@taumiftxnf
az:oGm;r,f qdw k qhJ ;kH jzwfcsut f & jynfwiG ;f rSmvkyEf ikd w
f v
hJ u
l vkyf ygwzD suf
ayrJv h J 'd@k tjyifxuG v f @kd vyk Ef ikd wf v
hJ u
l vkyf qd+k yD;awmh usaemfw@kd wm0efc+GJ yD;

12
'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf;

tJ'w
D m0eft& twGi;f a&;rSL;OD;at;omatmif jynfwiG ;f rSmvkyzf @kd usecf w
hJ ,f?
aemuf+yD; OuUX}uD; a'guw
f mapmr&atmifu jynfwiG ;f rSmvkyw f ,f?
usaemfhudkawmh twGif;a&;rSL;wOD;taeeJ@ jynfyrSmoGm;+yD;oHwref
a&;&mavmurSm vGwv f wG v
f yfvyfvyk zf @kd twGuf wm0efay;wJt h wdik ;f 94
ckEpS f azaz:0g&vD (14) &ufae@rmS ygwaD cgi;f aqmifwcsKd @ukd OD;aqmif+yD;awmh
usaemfw@kd jynfyudx k uG vf mw,f? usaemfw@kd tckq&kd if b*Fvm;a'h/ tdE, Nd /
=opa=w;vs/ rav;&Sm;/ xdkif;/ tar&duef/ e,fomvef pwJhEdkifiHawGrSm
pnf;&Hk;a&;aumfrwDawG wm0efcHawGwcsdK@ a'oaumfrwDawGzGifh+yD;awmh
aqmif&u G af eygw,f?
jynfwiG ;f rSmvJyJ OD;at;omatmifu wdik ;f &if;om;awGe@J vufw+GJ y;D CRPP
rSmtvGe}f uD;rm;wJh twGi;f a&;rSL;wm0efukd aqmif&u G af ewmudk tm;vH;k
od=uwJt h wdik ;f ygy?J a'guw f mapmr&atmifq&kd ifvJ 'Davmuf touf}u;D +y;D rS
jynfaxmifpkwckvHk;rSm wm0eft}uD;rm;qHk;jzpfwJh v$wfawmf wm0ef
OuUXwm0efukd aqmif&u G af ewmvJ tm;vH;k od=uwJt h wdik ;f ygy?J a&SŒudvk J
usaemfw@kd UNLD acgi;f aqmifawGe@J jynfwiG ;f rSmvufw+GJ y;D awmh usaemfw@kd
zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpw k nfaqmufa&; 'Dru kd a&pDjynfaxmifpk ay:xGe;f a&;
twGuf r[mrdwaf cgi;f aqmifawGe@J vufw+GJ yD;awmhjynfwiG ;f rSm twuf
ºuGq;kH aqmif&u G af eovdk jynfyrSmvJ u|eaf wmfw@kd pnf;&H;k +yD;awmh ALD
(Exile) qdk+yD;awmh r[mrdwf acgif;aqmif}uD;rsm;ESifh vufwJG+yD;awmh
aqmif&u G f aeygw,f? a&SŒudv k nf; usaemfw@kd atmify&GJ onftxd opPm&S&d dS
wm0efoo d ed @J atmify&GJ onftxdaqmif&u G o f mG ;r,fv@kd uwdjyK&if; ed*;kH csKyf
ygw,f? tm;vH;k udk aus;Zl;wifygw,f?

*************

ylxefvseaf ygif (Zdrk ;D trsKd ;om;uGe*f &uf)


Zomi National Congress

usaemfw@kd ZNC pwifz@GJ pnf;wJt h csed u


f p+yD; ygwzD suo f rd ;f wJt h xd aygh
usaemf UNLD obmywdtzJ@G xu J jzpfygw,f? udv k serf e_ ;f wd@k u twGi;f
a&;rSL; tzJ@G xrJ mS tJ'w
D ek ;f uvky=f uygw,f? wcsKd @uusaemfu h akd r; =uygw,f?
ZdkrD;vlOD;a& b,favmuf&SdovJvdk@ar;awmh ygwDwnfaxmifwJh tcgrSm

13
jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)

usaemfrh mS cH,cl sut


f rsKd ;rsKd ;&S=d uw,f? usaemfch , H cl sut
f aeeJ@ wcsKd @awGu
csi;f qdk oufouf/ Zdrk ;D qd&k ifoufouf/ udu k ;D qd&k ifoufouf jrif=uw,f?
usaemft
h jrif ygwrD 0l g't&qd&k if usaemfw@kd ukd Arm/ t*Fvyd af wGu
usaemfw@kd ukd csi;f vd@k ac:w,f? ukvm;awGu udu k ;D ac:w,f? usaemfw@kd u
Zdk uaeqif;oufvmwJt h wGuaf =umifh Zdrk ;D vd@k usaemfw@kd ajymaejcif; jzpfw,f?
'ga=umifh ZNC (Zomi National Congress) axmifwmjzpfw,f? csi;f ESihf
oufoufr[kwyf gz;l ? csi;f uvJZrkd ;D Zdrk ;D uvJcsi;f yJv@kd yxrqH;k usaemf ajym
=um;vdyk gw,f?
usaemfwdk@jynfwGif;rSm a&G;aumufyJG0ifygw,f? (4) ae&m0if+yD; (2)
ae&m&=uw,f? usaemfw@kd tjyifxu G +f y;D rS 'D UNLD zJ@G pnf;zd@k vyk w
f t
hJ cg =unfh
&if usaemfw@kd ygwt D aeeJ@ tjyifxu G vf mwJh twGi;f xJygwrD zsuo f rd ;f cife@J
zsuof rd ;f wJt
h xdygw0D ifrsm;uomv#if tjyifrmS vJ usaemfw@kd ZNC-LA
taeeJ@ usaemfwdk@&yfwnfw,f? pnf;&Hk;a&;qdk+yD;rS tJ'DtrsdK;om;xJrSm
pnf;&Hk;a&;rvkyfawmhyJeJ@ jynfwGif;udktaxmuftuljyK,if;eJ@ 'DjynfyrSm
usaemfw@kd wdik ;f &if; om;awG vlrsKd ;pkacgi;f aqmifawG 'Dru kd a&pDa&;twGuf
b,fae&mrSm taxmuftuljyKwmvJqw kd OhJ pPmu t"dujzpfw,fqw kd mudk
usaemfajym=um;vdyk gw,f?
usaemfwdk@jynfyrSm ygwD0ifoufoufr&SdawmhyJeJ@ jynfwGif;rSm ygwD
0ifawGuyJ v_y&f mS ;w,f? yl;aygi;f v_y&f mS ;zd@k q&kd if ygwu D t
kd axmuftuljyKzd@k
tjyifrmS tm;vH;k udzk w d af c:+yD;rS usaemfw@kd twlvyk af qmifjcif;jzpfygw,f?
aemufqHk;taeeJ@ usaemfajymvdkwmuawmh 'DjynfyrSmtvkyfvkyf&if;eJ@
tzJ@G tpnf;tcsi;f csi;f txJrmS a&m usaemft h zJ@G tpnf;ud=k unfv h u
kd af wmh
pdwx f rJ mS bm&So
d vJqakd wmh usaemfw@kd jynfya&mufwmyJjzpfjzpf b,fae&m
jzpfjzpf tzJ@G tpnf;twGi;f rSmyJjzpfjzpf ud, k rhf mS 'Dru
kd a&pDr&Syd eJ @J 'Dru kd a&pD
vdck siwf ,fv@kd ajymawmh &,fp&maumif;w,f? tm%m&Sipf epfuu kd sio hf ;kH &if;
eJ@ tm%m&Siu f kd wdu
k yf gw,fqw kd hJ &,fp&maumif;vdrrhf ,fv@kd usaemf,q l
w,f?
usaemfw@kd 91 ckEpS f Result udt
k ajccH+yD;rS wdik ;f jynfopfxal xmif a&;/
trsdK;om;&if=um;apha&; trsdK;om;EdkifiHa&;udk vkyfaqmif=uygw,fvdk@
usaemf em;vnfw,f? usaemfem;vnfwt hJ wdik ;f yJ usaemfw@kd ygwu
D vufcH
aqmif&uG yf gw,f? txl;yJaus;Zl;wifygw,fcifAsm;?
*************
14
'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf;

Edik x
f eG ;f a0 (rGet
f rsKd ;om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf)
Mon National Democratic Front

usaemfwdk@taeeJ@ jynfaxmifpkwdkif;&if;om;awG[m tm;vHk;nDnD


!Gw! f w
G rf &Szd ;l qd&k ifawmh usaemfw@kd wae@us&if cH=u&rSmyJ? tcktajctae
t& =unfhr,fqdkvdk@&Sd&if usaemfwdk@jynfaxmifpkwdkif;&if;om;awG[m
ab;=uyfeH=uyf tajctaea&mufatmif wjznf;jznf;eJ@ qifudkusHK;xJ
oGi;f ovdok iG ;f aew,f? od@k aomfusaemfw@kd 'gawGurkd r_ygz;l ?
rGeftrsdK;om;'Drdkua&pDtzJG@csKyf[m rGefjynfe,frSmwzJG@yJ &Sdygw,f?
rGeEf ikd if aH &;vJ wzJ@G y&J ydS gw,f? tJ'gqkd vltiftm;ajym&r,fq&kd if rSe;f qwGuf
=unfh=uyg? tJ'Dawmh usaemfwdk@EdkifiHjcm;udka&mufaewJh rGeftrsdK;om;
'Dru kd a&pDtzJ@G trsm;}uD;&Syd gw,f? =opa=w;vs/ puFmyl/ rav;&Sm;/ xkid ;f /
tar&duef/ uae'g/ aemfa0/ zifvef/ e,l;ZDvef/ *syef/ awmifu;kd &D;,m;
a[mfvefrmS &S=d uygw,f? 'Dawmh usaemfw@kd tcsi;f csi;f tm;vH;k vufwaGJ e=u
+yD;om;yg?
usaemfwdk@ jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiH[m zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpkEdkifiH
rjzpfrcsif; u|efawmfwdk@urrSdwfrokef tifwdkuftm;wdkufvkyfaqmifrSmyJ
qdw
k m tm;vH;k aomwdik ;f &if;om;awG odxm;zd@k vt kd yfygw,f? rGeaf wG[m
jynfe,faygif;pk jynfaxmifpkyJac:ac: zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpkyJac:ac:
tJ't D ajctae ra&mufrcsi;f tpGr;f ukeu f , kd pf rG ;f &So
d I &atmifwu kd cf u
kd f
,lrmS yJ? tJ'gu usaemfw@kd &&hJ nf&,
G cf suyf ?J t"duusaemfw@kd wdik ;f &if;om;
tm;vH;k [m wpnf;wvH;k xJ&adS ezd@k vdt k yfygw,f? tJ'gukd usaemftav;
teuf wdu k wf eG ;f vdyk gw,f?
'kwd,tcsufuawmh usaemfwdk@tvkyfrsm;rsm;vkyfzdk@vdktyfygw,f?
usaemft h oufu (72) ESp&f ydS g+y?D tajctaet& usaemfw@kd [mvkyt f m;yJvkd
w,f? pum;}uD;yJrajymeJ@? oif;csKd if;xJa&mufygap wu,fv@kd xvkyEf ikd rf ,f
qd&k ifxvkyt f ;kH rSmyJ? usaemfw@kd tvkyv f yk Ef ikd v
f @kd 'Dpifjrifah y:a&mufvmwm
r[kwzf ;l vm;? 'Dawmhtvkyu f kd rSerf eS u
f efuefvyk yf g/ apmufcsvyk yf g/ &d;k &d;k om;
om;vkyyf g/ 'grS usaemfw@kd Eikd if [H m zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpk jzpfvmEdik rf ,fqw kd m
pJ+G rJpmG ,H=k unfxm;w,f? tm;vH;k udak us;Zl;wifygw,f?
*************

15
jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)

ref;!Ge@f armif (jynfaxmifpu


k &iftzJ@G csKyf)
Union Karen League

usaemfwdk@u&iftrsdK;om;EdkifiHa&;e,fy,frSm autifef,leJ@ ,ck


jynfaxmifpu k &iftzJ@G / autife, f u
l vufeufuikd af wmfveS af &; vkyw f hJ
tcgrmS usaemfw@kd uOya'twGi;f rSm xdr;f odr;f +y;D vky&f wJt h vkyaf wG &Syd gw,f?
usaemfw@kd &efuek w
f ikd ;f / yJc;l wdik ;f / {&m0wDwikd ;f / tJ'D wdik ;f awGutkd ajccHvyk w f hJ
tcgrmS u&iftrsKd ;om;xk[m u&ifjynfe,frmS &Sw d hJ u&iftrsKd ;om;xke@J
q,fqru &Sad ewJt h cgrmS u&iftrsKd ;om;awG&hJ tcGit hf vrf;ESihf tusKd ;pD;yGm;
awGukd jynfaxmifpu k &iftzJ@G u ordik ;f a=umif;t&aygah v usaemfrwdik cf ifu
awmh autife, f el @J autdik af t tawG;tac: t,ltqawGrwdik cf ifu
udpaP wGjzpfygw,f?
usaemf 'DtzJ@G csKyfukd 1956 ckEpS af vmufu a&mufvmcJw h t hJ cgrmS awmh
usaemfwdk@u tJ'Dvdkoabmrxm;awmhyJeJ@ usaemfwdk@trsdK;om;aygif;
pnf;a&;udk txJrmS tm&Hpk u kd yf gw,f? 'ga=umifrh @kd v@kd usaemfw@kd jynfaxmifpk
u&iftrsKd ;om;awG v$ix hf m;wJt h vHonfyifv#if 1958 ckEpS rf mS zsuo f rd ;f cH
&wJh taetxm;rsdK;&SdonfhtwGuf usaemfwdk@ UKL jynfaxmifpku&if
trsKd ;om;tzJ@G csKyt f vHukd usaemfw@kd tjcm;a&G;cs,rf r_ vkyyf eJ @J u&iftrsKd ;om;
tvHuykd J usaemfw@kd ygwt D vHtjzpfe@J olw@kd zsuv f @kd r&atmifq+kd y;D usaemfw@kd
vkycf whJ m &Syd gw,f? aemuf+yD;awmh ygwpD nf;&H;k a&;taeeJ@awmh usaemfw f @kd
u&iftrsdK;om;awG jynfywdkif;jynfrSm trsm;}uD;&SdwJhtwGuf usaemfwdk@
trsm;}u;D tzJ@G 0iftjzpf &,lEikd yf gw,f? od@k aomfvu J saemfw@kd u tJ'u D mvrSm
awG;xm;wJhtawG;tac: wckuawmh usaemfwdk@[m 'DudpPr+yD;ao;bl;?
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wd@k tzJ@G 0ifawGuv kd ufc&H if usaemfw@kd tzG@J 0ifawG&efjyKcH&r,ft h aetxm;udk
usaemfw@kd wu G rf w d thJ wGuf t"duusw+hJ rdK@e,fawGrmS pnf;&H;k a&;aumfrwD
avmufyJ zJ@G ygw,f?
tJ'Dawmh csKyf+yD;awmhvl}uD;rif;wdk@udk usaemfwifjycsifwmuawmh
jynfaxmifpu k &iftzJ@G taeeJ@ 'DrmS vJ KNU &Sw d thJ wGuf Oya'wGi;f udpu P kd
usaemfwf @kd tm&Hpk u kd +f yD;awmh ud,
k thf rsKd ;om;udk xdr;f odr;f apmifah &Smufcw
hJ hJ
tvkyf udv k yk cf yhJ gw,f? 1991 Adv k u f av;wdu k yf GJ aemufyikd ;f rSm usaemfe@J
usaemft
h wGi;f a&;rSL; wwd,t}urd af jrmuf axmifxaJ &mufcyhJ gw,f? axmif
16
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taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;uae xkwyf pfccH &hJ ygw,f? ppftpd;k &aumfr&Siu
f
xkwwf mjzpfygw,f? tJ'D aemuf KNU acgi;f aqmifrsm;u usaemfq h u D kd
ppfom;apvGwq f ufo, G u
f m usaemfawmcdv k mygw,f?

***************

pdik ;f 0if;az (o#r;f wdik ;f &if;om;rsm; 'Dru


kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf)
Shan Nationalities League for Democracy

usaemfw@kd SNLD ygwu D awmhtajctaet&yf&yfa=umifh aomf ‚if;/


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rSmyJ/ o#r;f jynfe,frmS (23) ae&mtEdik &f ygw,f? ygwq D ikd ;f bkwaf xmifwhJ
ae&m tawmfrsm;ygw,f? o#r;f jynfwcGiv f ;kH wGirf uyJ yJc;l wdik ;f / awmu|tJ if;
+rdK@e,f txdyg qdik ;f bkwaf xmifygw,f? usaemfw@kd SNLD [mjynfwiG ;f rSm
UNLD eJ@ yl;aygi;f vkyaf qmifvmovdk vGwaf jrmufe,fajrrSmvnf; UNLD
(LA) eJ@ SNLD -MP wOD;taejzifh yl;aygi;f vkyaf qmifvmwm jzpfygw,f?
usaemfw@kd &hJ jynfaxmifpt k a&;/ 'Dru kd a&pDta&;eJ@ wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;&Jh
ta&;eJ@ ywfouf+y;D awmh usaemfw@kd ygwo D nf ,cktcsed t f xd rm;rm;rwfrwf
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aus;Zl;wifygw,f?

*************

17
jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)

yl&rf[;l (csi;f trsKd ;om;'Dru


kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf)
Chin National League for Democracy

usaemfemrnfuawmh Pu Hrang Hu jzpfygw,f? usaemfu csif;


trsKd ;om;'Dru kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf CNLD (Exile) &J'h -k OuUX wm0efux kd rf;aqmif
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udk tm;vHk;od=uwJhtwdkif; usaemfwdk@ygwDta=umif;udk odr,fvdk@vnf;
ar#mv f ifyh gw,f? usaemfajymp&muawmh 'Davmufygy?J aus;Zl;wifygw,f?

*************

OD;apmp (em*trsKd ;om;'Dru


kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf)
Naga National League for Democracy

1990 a&G;aumufyJGrSm em*qdkvJ em*awmifwef;wdk;wufa&;tzJG@


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wJh txJrmS ygomG ;yg+yD? tck't D zJ@G tpnf;[m usaemfw@kd jynfya&muf+yD;awmh
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k hJ Sincerety and
Honesty 'DESpfckudkawmh usaemfwdk@tajcjyKvkyf&ygvdrfhr,f? aemufwck
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rl0g'udk usaemfw@kd wikd ;f &if;om;awG 'g Unity is Strength acgi;f pOfe@J usaemfw@kd
qef@usiaf e&r,f? qdak wmh usaemfw@kd wikd ;f &if;om;awGu 'Dtiftm;udk usaemf

18
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&if;eJ@ usaemfe*d ;Hk csKyfygw,f?

*************

rac:cGeq
f m (ucsijf ynfe,ftrsKd ;om;'Dru
kd a&pDueG *f &uf)
Kachin State National Congress for Democracy (KNCD)

'gawGu r[m0g'udw k u kd ,f if;eJ@ r[m ucsiq f w


kd [
hJ mrsKd ; rjzpfomG ;
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ucsijf ynfe,ftrsKd ;om;'Dru kd a&pDueG *f &uf qd+k y;D awmh usaemfw@kd wnfaxmif
cJyh gw,f? 1990 a&G;aumufyrGJ mS usaemfw@kd (3) ae&m&ygw,f? 1991 ckEpS f
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19
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twGuaf wmh usaemfw@kd Team-work vdyk gw,f? aus;Zl;wif&adS =umif; ed*;kH csKyf
tyfygw,fcifAsm;?

*************

rSwcf su?f nDvmcHo@kd aemufusraS &muf&v dS m=uaom em,u Teddy Buri


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*************

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20
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21
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*************

rSww
f rf;wifjcif;?

tcef;tem;rSL; a'guw f mqvdik ;f vserf e_ ;f u jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if &H hJ


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p0fa&$odkuf.ZeD;onf/ UNLD(LA) . em,u}uD; Dr. Chao Tzang
Yawnghwe . rdcif/ r[ma'0Donf ouU&mZf 2003 ckEp S f Zefe0g&vD (20)
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ESihf 'Dru kd a&pDta&;ESihf wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; Edik if aH &;wef;wla&;twGuf
wduk yf 0GJ ifae=uaom wdik ;f &if;om;'Dru kd a&pDtiftm;pkrsm;ud, k pf m; txl;
0rf;enf;a=uuJaG =umif;/ r[ma'0Du, G v f eG o
f nft h wGuf Dr. Chao Tzang
Yawnghwe rS UNLD(LA) 'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHodk@ rwufa&mufEdkif
a=umif;udk nDvmcHrS rSww f rf;wif&ef yef=um;tyfygonf?

*************
tydik ;f (2)

nDvmcHo@kd wifoiG ;f aompmwrf;rsm;


POLICY MAKING AND EXTERNAL AFFAIRS
COMMITTEE'S REPORT

Submitted by
Dr. Lian H. Sakhong
(General Secretary)

Introduction

The UNLD was established in 1989 as an umbrella political


organization for the non-Burman nationalities in Burma. From
the very beginning, the UNLD political platform called for the
establishment of a genuine federal union based on democratic
rights for all citizens, political equality for all nationalities and
the right of self-determination for all member states of the
Union.
The member parties of the UNLD contested the 1990
general election under the slogan of “democracy and equality”
and won 35% of the popular vote and 16% of parliamentary
seats (67 seats) in the national parliament of the Union of
Burma. The election results established the UNLD as the
second largest political party in Burma.
Organized democratic opposition in Burma has been
difficult to sustain in the face of the military regime’s tactics
of terror, torture, intimidation, and censorship. Like many other
opposition political parties, the UNLD has been suffering from
all kinds of the regime’s tactics of harassment. Especially after
the 1990 general election, the military government targeted
the UNLD as a most dangerous opponent, second only to NLD,
which therefore must be crushed. The UNLD was banned
and declared illegal in 1992.
Although the UNLD and seventeen of its member parties
had been declared dissolved and illegal, they are still very much
alive and in operation both inside Burma and in liberated areas,
and are doing everything possible to continue the struggle for
democracy and federalism. Inside Burma, the UNLD and its
member parties are operating in close coordination with the
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NLD under the leadership of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi. The
cooperation between the UNLD and NLD is especially
effective in “the Committee Representing the People
Parliament” (CRPP) in which Dr. Saw Mra Aung, one of the
most prominent leaders of the UNLD, is serving as a
chairperson. Unfortunately, the military junta arrested him
because of his strong leadership role in the Committee
Representing the People Parliament.

The UNLD-LA and Its First Conference

The UNLD in exile was officially re-established as the UNLD


(LA) in 1998 by its original members, most of whom had been
forced to flee the country. The Inaugural Conference of the
UNLD (LA) was held, from January 15-19, 2001, with the
aims and objectives of:
1. Official Re-Establishment of UNLD
2. Adoption of UNLD Political Agenda
- Concept & Principles on the Federal Constitution
- Concept & Principles on State Constitutions
- Concept & Principles on Political Dialogue
- Concept & Principles on a National Convention
3. Strengthening & Expansion of UNLD
4. Building Understanding with Allied Forces
- Preparation for Tripartite Dialogue
- Preparation for State Constitutions
At the conference, the UNLD (LA) reconfirmed its
original aims and objectives, which read as follows:
1) To establish a genuine federal union.
2) To guarantee democratic rights, political equality and
self-determination for all nationalities of the Union.
3) To build a firm unity of all nationalities in the Union
based the principles of equality and justice.
4) To promote the development of all member states of
the Union.
5) To abolish all types totalitarianism in Burma.

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6) To establish internal peace and tranquillity through


dialogue.
The UNLD Inaugural conference re-confirmed the seven
principles of federalism for the future constitution of the Union
of Burma, which had been adopted by the UNLD conference
held in 1990 at the YMCA Hall in Rangoon.
These seven principles are:
(1) The constitution of the Federal Union of Burma shall be
formed in accordance with the principles of federalism
and democratic decentralization;
(2) The Union Constitution shall guarantee the democratic
rights of all citizens of Burma including the principles
contain in the United Nation’s declaration of universal
human rights;
(3) The Union Constitution shall guarantee political equality
among all ethnic national states of the Federal Union of
Burma;
(4) The Federal Union of Burma shall be composed of
National States; and all National States of the Union shall
be constituted in terms of ethnicity, rather than
geographical areas. There must be at least eight National
States, namely, Chin State, Kachin State, Karen State,
Kaya (Karenni) State, Mon State, Myanmar or Burman
State, Rakhine (Arakan) State, and Shan State;
(5) The Union Assembly shall consist of two legislative
chambers: the Chamber of Nationalities (Upper House)
and the Chamber of Deputies (Lower House).
(i) The Chamber of Nationalities (Upper House) shall
be composed of equal numbers of elected
representatives from the respective National States;
and
(ii) The Chamber of Deputies (Lower House) shall be
composed of elected representatives from the
respective constituencies of the peoples.

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The creation of Chamber of Nationalities based on equal


representation of the member states of the Union is intended
to safeguard the rights of National States and minorities in the
Union government. It is also intended as a symbol of equality
among all the nationalities of the Union. All National States of
the Union of Burma shall be represented equally in the
Chamber of Nationalities at the Union Assembly.
(6) In addition to the Union Assembly, all member states of
the Union shall form Legislative Assemblies for their own
respective National States. There must be a clear
separation of Union Assembly, or Federal Parliament,
from the Legislative Assemblies of the member states of
the Union. The residual powers, that is, all powers, except
those given by member states to the federal center, or
the Union, must be vested in the Legislative Assembly of
each National State. In this way, the Union Constitution
automatically allocates political authority of legislative,
judiciary, and administrative powers to the Legislative
Assembly of each National State. Thus, all member states
of the Union can freely exercise the right of self-
determination through the right of self-government within
their respective National States.
(7) The sovereignty of the Union shall be vested in the people
of the Union of Burma, and which shall be exercised by
the Union Assembly. Moreover, the federal government
shall have authority to decide on action for:
(i) monetary policy,
(ii) defense,
(iii) foreign relation, and
(iv) Such other authorities as may be temporarily
vested in the federal government of the Union
by member states of the Union.
The UNLD Inaugural conference elected a panel of
patrons and the members of the UNLD presidium and the
UNLD secretariats as following:

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Advisors:
1. Dr. Chao Tzang Yawnghwe, (Shan)
2. Pu Lian Uk, M.P., (Chin)
3. Teddy Buri, M. P., (Kayang)
4. Daniel Aung, M. P., (Lahu)
5. Dr. Maran La Raw, (Kachin)
6. U Khin Maung Kyi (Rakhine)
7. Sao Seng Surk (Shan)
Members of Presidium:
1. Khun Manko Ban, M. P., (Democratic Organization for
Kayan National Unity)
2. Dr. Za Hlei Thang, M. P., (Chin National League for
Democracy)
3. U Tha Noe, M. P., (Arakan League for
Democracy)
4. Sai Win Pay, M. P., (Shan Nationalities League for
Democracy)
5. Pu Thang Lian Pau, M.P., (Zomi National Congress)
6. Nai Tun Wai, M. P., (Mon National Democratic
Front)
7. Sao Ood Kesi (Shan State National Races
League for Democracy)
8. Mahn Nyunt Maung (Union Karen League)
9. Khu Shar Reh (Kayah State All Nationalities
League for Democracy)
10. Kya Aye Maung (Lahu National Development
Party- LA)
11. Khun Tet Lu (Union Pa-O National
League)
Standing Body of Presidiums:
1. Khun Manko Ban (Chairman)
2. Dr. Za Hlei Thang
3. U Tha Noe
4. Sai Win Pay
5. Khu Shar Reh

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Secretariats:
1. Dr. Lian H. Sakhong (Secretary General)
2. Sai Doue
Working Committees
I . Policy Making & External Affairs
1. Dr. Chao Tzang Yawnghwe (Leader)
2. Teddy Buri (Asst. Leader)
3. Pu Lian Uk (member)
4. Dr. Maran La Raw (member)
5. Daniel Aung (member)
6. Dr. Lian H. Sakhong (Secretary)
II. Organizing & Alliance Affairs
1. Khun Manko Ban (Leader)
2. Sai Win Pay (Asst. Leader)
3. Khu Shar Reh (member)
4. Khine Myo Khine (member)
5. Pu Thang Lian Pau (member)
6. Kya Aye Maung (member)
7. Dr. Lian H. Sakhong (Secretary)
III. Information & Office
1. Manh Nyunt Maung (Leader)
2. Sai Kyaw Thet (Asst. Leader)
3. Khun Tet Lu (member)
4. Sai Win Kyaw (member)
5. Saw John Lulay (member)
6. Zo Suan (member)
7. Aaron Ngun Ceu (member)
8. Sai Doue (Secretary)
IV. Finance Committee
1. Khun Manko Ban (Chairma)
2. Dr Lian H Sakhong (Secretary)
3. Sao Seng Suk (Treasurer)
4. Khu Shia Re (Auditor)
5. Dr Chao Tzang Yawnghwe (Senior Advisor)

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The Implementation of Decisions of Inaugural


Conference

A. Preparation for Tripartite Dialogue


At its first conference, the UNLD (LA) officially and firmly
endorsed the United Nations General Assembly’s resolution
for a Tripartite Dialogue between the military government, the
NLD led by Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, and the democratic
movement of the ethnic nationalities. The UNLD welcomes
the efforts of the United Nations to mediate such a dialogue.
Pre-dialogue discussions have been started most as a result of
initiative taken by Mr. Razali Ismail who is, Mr. Koffi Annan’s
special envoy to Burma.
As an important part of preparation for a tripartite dialogue,
and also to create an ethnic nationalities platform for a tripartite
dialogue, the UNLD has taken the initiative and conducted
consultative meetings with other ethnic nationalities
organizations, especially the National Democratic Front (NDF)
and its member organizations of armed resistance groups, such
as Karen National Union (KNU), and Chin National Front
(CNF), and others. The NDF is composed of armed resistance
organizations of ethnic nationalities. The UNLD also sent a
team to meet with non-NDF member armed groups such as
Karenni National Progressive Party (KNPP) and Shan State
Army (SSA- South), and also met with ceased-fire group,
namely, the Mon New State Party (MNSP).

A.1. UNLD-NDF´s Joint Action Committee

As a result of these consultative meetings, the UNLD and


NDF—two of a largest ethnic nationalities organizations—
formed a “Joint Action Committee (JAC) of UNLD-NDF”
on March 20, 2001. The committee members of “JAC of
UNLD-NDF” are:
Saw Ba Thein (Chiarman of KNU- NDF),
Khiang Soe Niang Aung (Secretary- NDF),
Dr. Sui Khar (Foreign Secretary of CNF - NDF).

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Dr. Chao Tzang Yawnghwe (UNLD),


Khun Marko Ban (Elected MP- UNLD)
Dr. Lian H. Sakhong (Secretary- UNLD);

A.2. UNLD-NDF’s Mission to the United Nations


Headquarter in New York

The UNLD and NDF also sent a mission consisting of Dr.


Chao Tzang Yawnghwe (UNLD), David Taw (NDF), and Dr.
Lian H. Sakhong (Secretary- UNLD) to the United Nations
HQ in New York City, who met with Mr. Razali Ismail, Mr.
Koffi Annan’s special envoy to Burma, and other high ranking
UN’s officers, including Mr. Danilo Turk, Under-Secretary
General for Political Affairs, and Mr. Hitoki Den, senior officer
for Political Affair at the UN. The mission explained the ethnic
nationalities standpoint on tripartite dialogue and the UNLD-
NDF´s policy on the future Federal Union of Burma.

A.3. Ethnic Nationalities Seminar and the Formation of


ENSCC

As far as the UNLD´s preparation for a tripartite dialogue is


concerned, the most outstanding achievement undoubtedly is
the formation of the “Ethnic Nationalities Solidarity and
Cooperation Committee” (ENSCC) at the seminar held in
Kawthulee on August 26-30, 2001. The seminar was attended
by all major organizations of ethnic nationalities from three
blocs; namely political parties under the leadership of UNLD,
armed groups which are members of National Democratic
Front (NDF), and armed groups but not members of NDF.
The ENSCC has been entrusted with task of fostering
unity and cooperation between all Ethnic nationalities forces
and promote peaceful political settlement in Burma through
Tripartite dialogue. It was also resolved that the ENSC would:
• Undertake pro-active and constructive actions to bring
about peaceful resolution to the political conflict in Burma
through a dialogue process involving the SPDC, the NLD

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led by Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, and the Ethnic Nationalities
dialogue partners;
• Consult widely, cooperate, and work closely with all stake
holders in Burma and with the international community,
international bodies and agencies, the UN, and humani-
tarians organizations to resolve the grave humanitaian cri-
ses in Burma, which most seriously effect the Ethnic na-
tionalities popultions;
• Strive to facilitate an orderly and peaceful democratic tran-
sition in Burma, and to rebuild the country in accordance
with the spirit of Panglong, the principle of Equality, Self-
determination, Democracy, and Justice.
The ENSCC committee members are:
1. Saw Ba Thin, (Chairman of KNU, NDF)
2. Dr. Chao Tzang Yawnghwe (Director of NRP
Program Team)
3. Hteh Bupeh (Chairman of KNPP)
4. Sao Seng Suk (Chairman of Shan Democratic Union)
5. Teddy Buri (President of MPU)
6. Khun Okka (PNLO, Joint Secretary General of NDF)
7. Dr. Lian H. Sakhong (Secretary of UNLD)
The ENSCC has sent international lobby team to Europe
in December 2001, and to North America and Asia-Pacific
regions in January and February of the year 2002.

B. Preparation for the State Constitutions

The UNLD strongly believes that political crisis in present


Burma is not merely ideological confrontation between a
democracy and totalitarianism, but a constitutional problem
rooted in the question of self-determination for non-Burman
nationalities. The best means of solving political crisis in Burma,
therefore, is the establishment of a genuine federal union based
on the principles of equality for all nationalities and the right of
self-determination for all member states of the union, and the
democratic rights for all citizens of the Union of Burma.

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In order to establish a genuine Federal Union, all member


states of the Union should have their own separate state
constitutions, their own organs of state, that is, State Assembly,
Administrative Body, and Judiciary. Indeed, the state
constitutions are inherent and necessary components of a
federal system where power is shared between two levels of
governments. The UNLD therefore view drafting of state
constitutions as not only an important process of the
establishment of a federal union, but also as a preparation for
a tripartite dialogue because this is the issue on which all ethnic
nationalities in Burma can easily find their common ground.
The UNLD, therefore, organized the state constitutions
seminar, together with the NDF, from August 20-25, 2001.
The seminar was attended by the state constitutions drafting
committee members from Chin State, Karen State, Karenni
State, Mon State, and Shan State. Observers from Arakan
State and Kachin State also were invited for they are still under
preparation for forming their state constitutions drafting
committees. Members of democratic forces from the Burman
ethnic group and federal constitution drafting committee
members also were invited to the seminar. The seminar
focused on the basic principles of state constitutions based on
the “model of state constitution” in America. The skeletons of
state constitution, such as—Bill of Rights, Suffrage and
Elections, Legislature, Initiative and Referendum, The
Executive, Judiciary, Finance (including Revenue and taxation),
Local Government, etc., were thoroughly discussed.
As a follow up of that seminar, 17 members of state
constitutions drafting committees from seven states, namely,
Chin, Kachin, Karen, Karenni, Mon, Rakhine, Shan and two
representatives of Burma Lawyer Council, went a study trip
to Germany for ten days, from 5-15 December 2001. This
study trip emphasized the function and structure of German
Federalism in the light of how federal government and state
governments are functioning, how federal and state government
are related with each other and at the same time separated,

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and how two levels of government can co-exist and shared


power or separate power in a federal system.
In October and November 2002, the UNLD organized
two seminars in New Delhi, India, and Chiang Mai, Thailand,
under the title of The Role of State Constitutions in the
Protection of Nationality and Minority Rights Under
Federalism: Dialogues in support of a democratic
transition in Burma. The seminars were conducted under
the NRP program, and funded by International Institute for
Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA) in Stockholm.
The specific themes of the seminars include: The rationale for
federalism (Is it affordable? Will it exacerbate religious and
ethnic conflict, be an impetus for secession?); Boundary
delimitation (How is the federal unit to be structured? On the
basis of historical boundaries or ethnic/linguistic or religious
lines? The advantage/disadvantage of using historical
boundaries/ethnic/religious criteria, and or the creative drafting
of new boundaries? How federalism and decentralization can
ensure ethnic rights?); Conceptualizing state constitutions
(Should they be uniform, contain core features, represent the
unique features, history and aspirations of the state?); Powers
and functions of the Central government and State governments
(Scope of the legislative/ executive powers, Subject matters
under the control of Central government and State
governments, How power is shared between State and Federal
governments, e.g. health, education, Role of National/State
Institutions (Planning commissions, Ombudsman, Auditors,
Central Bank); Challenging issues (Fiscal powers - taxation,
police, judiciary, land rights). Scholars from Australia (Professor
Cheryl Saunders, Australia National University, Melbourne),
India (Professor Yogendra Yadav, Centre for the Study of
Developing Societies, New Delhi), and Nigeria (Dr. Otive
Igbuzor, Secretary, Citizens’ Forum for Constitutional Reform,
Lagos) were invited to present their papers and to share their
countries experiences.
In November and December 2002, a study trip to Germany
and Belgium was conducted by the UNLD for the second

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time. The specific theme of this study trip was to see how
local government are functioning and how local and state
governments shared power in federal system. Seventeen
members from seven state constitution committees and federal
constitution drafting committee members participated in the
study trip.

(See also a separate report on state constitutions drafting


process)

***********

Working Plan and Schedule

January 2001+
Consultations and Preparation for Three-year Programme
NATIONAL CONSULTATIONS – INAUGURAL
CONGRES
February 2001 +
Implementation of Decisions of Inaugural Congress:
- Strengthening UNLD and Building understanding with
Allied Forces (A series of meetings and consultations
with Ethnic Forces, especially with NDF; to create
underground channels to contact with inside UNLD
members and Cease-fire groups)
- Seminar on ‘State Constitutions’ (with NDF)
- Conducting ethnic nationalities seminar as part of
preparation for Tripartite Dialogue (with NDF, non-
NDF armed groups)
- Workshop on Negotiation Techniques and Strategies
(with NRP)
- Publication: Peaceful Co-existence: Towards
Federal Union of Burma, Vol. 2.
February 2002

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NATIONAL CONSULTATION – ANNUAL MEETING


March 2002 +
Implementation of Decisions of Annual Meeting:
- Strengthening and Expansion of UNLD, especially in
India side, by opening a branch office in New Delhi.
- Strengthening inside activities through UG-channels
- Seminars/ workshops on a ‘State Constitutions’ (with
NDF)
- Conducting Ethnic Nationalities Seminar (with NDF)
- Preparation for Tripartite Dialogue (and strengthening
the ENSCC)
- Workshop on Negotiation Techniques and Strategies
for ENSCC and other top leaders (with NRP-DHF)
- Publication: Peaceful Co-existence: Towards
Federal Union of Burma, Vol. 3.
January 2003
NATIONAL CONSULTATION – 2nd CONGRESS
February 2003 +
Implementation of Decisions of 2nd Congress:
- Strengthening inside activities
- Finalizing the Preparation/Drafting State Constitutions
- Workshop on power sharing and relation between
Federal and States
- Preparation for Tripartite Dialogue (ENSCC)
- Preparation for Transitional Government (ENSCC,
NDF)
- Seminar on a ‘National Convention’ (with NDF)
- Publication: Peaceful Co-existence: Towards
Federal Union of Burma, Vol. 4.

______
Submitted by
Lian H. Sakhong
General Secretary
*************
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ETHNIC NATIONALTIES INITIATIVE FOR


TRIPARTITE DIALOGUE
__________
Submitted by Dr. Lian H. Sakhong
General Secretary
Part (1)
Report on Activities of
Ethnic Nationalities Solidarity And Cooperation
Committee
(ENSCC)
1. Background History, Mandate and Mission

The “Ethnic Nationalities Solidarity and Cooperation


Committee” (ENSCC) was formed at the Ethnic Nationalities
Seminar held in Kawthulee on August 26-30, 2001, to
coordinate the following non-Burman political groupings:
1. Political parties under the leadership of United
Nationalities League for Democracy (UNLD)
2. Armed groups which are members of National
Democratic Front (NDF),
3. Armed groups but not members of NDF, such as Karenni
National Progressive Party (KNPP) and Shan State
Army (SSA-South).
4. Ceasefire groups.
The ENSCC, therefore, has been entrusted with task of
fostering unity and cooperation between all Ethnic nationalities
forces and promotes peaceful political settlement in Burma
through Tripartite dialogue. It was also resolved that the ENSCC
would:
(i) Undertake pro-active and constructive actions to bring
about peaceful resolution to the political conflict in
Burma through a dialogue process involving the SPDC,

38
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the NLD led by Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, and the Ethnic
Nationalities dialogue partners;
(ii) Consult widely, cooperate, and work closely with all
stakeholders in Burma and with the international
community, international bodies and agencies, the UN,
and humanitarian organizations to resolve the grave
humanitarian crises in Burma, which most seriously
effect the Ethnic nationalities populations;
(iii)Strive to facilitate an orderly and peaceful democratic
transition in Burma, and to rebuild the country in
accordance with the spirit of Panglong, the principle of
Equality, Self-determination, Democracy, and Justice.
Mission
• Promote the Profile of the Ethnic Nationalities on the
international stage.
• ENSCC, coordinate and work for Tripartite Dialogue.
• Reviving the Panglong Spirit, and nation-building.
• Build or facilitate Unity and Cohesion among all Ethnic
Nationalities forces, inside and outside, including promoting
and supporting political actions inside.

2. Dialogue Strategy

2.1. Tripartite Dialogue


One of the main objectives of forming the ENSCC, as
mentioned above, is to take pro-active and constructive actions
to bring about peaceful resolution to the political conflict in
Burma through a dialogue process. In lines with this objective,
the ENSCC has launching international and national campaigns,
and produced its position papers under the title of “The New
Panglong Initiative: Re-Building the Union of Burma”.
The ENSCC position is that any transitional authority
arrangement before prior to tripartite dialogue will not be useful
and could create serious problems for a smooth and orderly
transition. The ENSCC, therefore, wants a tripartite dialogue
before the formation of the interim government. The ENSCC
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believes that this arrangement will ensure the smooth transition


by forming widely accepted interim authority. In other words
the tripartite element of the dialogue constitutes a strategic
component of the ENSCC’s strategy objective.
To ensure that there is tripartite dialogue and meaningful
participation of the Ethnic Nationalities in the transition process,
the ENSCC will work toward – push for – the convening of
an Ethnic Nationalities Conference as broached very earlier
on by Razali and the UN team. The ENSCC believes that the
time is now ripe and conditions are now favorable for such a
conference. In other words, a country-wide Ethnic Nationalities
Conference (preferably outside Burma, in Malaysia, for
example) will be a major lobbying and action platform of the
Ethnic Nationalities and the ENSCC.

2.2. Ethnic Nationalities Conference


1. The ENSCC shall conduct Ethnic Nationalities
Conference as soon as possible.
2. The ENSCC should do the coordination for ethnic
nationalities/organizations both inside and outside.
(Detail work plan is not mentioned here).
3. The criteria for selection of representatives to the
Ethnic Nationalities shall be both state-based and
ethnic-based representation.
4. The preparation for the Ethnic Nationalities Conference
would be composed of three parts:
ONE: Letters to Taksin, Razali, Mahathir, Italy, Germany,
and France broaching this idea.
TWO: International lobby trips – e.g., a lobby tour of Europe
and/or lobbying EU
THREE: Coordination works (preparation) between Inside and
Outside Ethnic Nationalities forces.

2.3. International Lobby Trips


(i) The UN and USA trips.
(ii) The EU Lobby trip: ASEM conference in
Copenhagen, Denmark, 22 September 2002.
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2.4.Panglong Initiative: More Concrete Plan (on


Humanitarian Aid, Cease Fire, and Political Dialogue)

(i) The most important decision is an agreement on going


ahead with the H-Aid initiative (as a strategic link of
the PangLong Initiative]. HY is charged with the task
of preparing a concrete H-Aid Initiative DRAFT Plan.
(ii) To be included in the plan are the 10 points on H-Aid
agreed upon at the SCC Meeting in February 2002
(See appendix). Other components agreed upon are
Cross-Border aid (to reach the most vulnerable
population and most in need), Official Consultation (as
opposed to mere “consultation” or informal
consultation), and multilateral (joint) implementation
and mechanism. An issue which could be worked
into the DRAFT plan is “nation-wide” cease-fire, if
needed or suitable.
(iii) The H-Aid Initiative DRAFT Plan is to be submitted
to the ENSCC for further consultation and decision.
If the ENSCC agrees to adopt the H-Aid plan (after
making necessary changes as needed), the ENSCC
will consult with the mother organizations and push
for support.
(iv) The ENSCC agreed that there should be an
"independent" Ethnic Nationalities stand on H-Aid and
initiative because their population is the worst affected
and most vulnerable. Also, the ENSCC is of the opinion
that unless clear condition are established, or are tabled
and debated, the "free" or unconditional flow of H-
Aid will mostly, if not only, the regime directly and
indirectly.

3.1. Tactics & Strategy :Federalism vs. independence

3.1.1. Regarding policy goals and tactical positions, the


ENSCC recognized that the Karenni (KNPP) position
regarding independence vs. federalism is or should be

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the model, and the SSA/S tactical position is the most


suitable. The SSA/S tactical position is that it accepts
Tripartite Dialogue, and that it recognizes that the
people will decide what is best for the people of Shan
State. The RCSS representative stated that if the SSA/
S do not recognize and accept reality, it will be
marginalized and will wither away.
3.1. 2. It was clarified and agreed that federalism is an issue
that is separate from “Joining with Burma Proper”,
and that there is another option – i.e., establishing a
federal union without Burma Proper (……if Burman
leaders do not want to be part of a federal union).
NOTE: The above option, a Federal Union among
territorial states that are committed to federalism (i.e.,
the Panglong spirit and principle), is a strategically
relevant, strategically useful, option – vis-à-vis both
the Burman and international actors — which has not
been much thought about and/or developed by the
Ethnic Nationalities. The unfortunate fact is that
federalism has been confused with “joining with Burma
Proper”. As a result, the thinking of the Ethnic
Nationalities on federalism have been dominated by
an issue that has nothing much to do with federalism
– i.e., the “joining with Burma Proper” issue.

3.2. The Mode of Representation: States- or Ethnic-


based?

3.2.1 On the matter of representation mode, the ENSCC


prefers a flexible mode where both the state-based
and ethnic-based representation mode is recognized.
[NOTE: it was earlier suggested the ENSCC should adopt a
“States representation” mode at the EU-ASEM lobbying and
other tours.]
3.2.2. It was clarified that the Karen were very earlier on
oriented to the notion of ethnic equality and ethnic
rights – from the colonial period – because they were

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part of Burma Proper, did not have a separate state.


Whereas the Shan and Karenni are state-oriented
because they “possessed” their own states since pre-
colonial times, and as well in the colonial period.
3.2.3. Because of the above historical-political context, there
has been much confusion over who represents what.
For example, the NDF’s goal is federalism, a
federation of equal and self-determining states, but it
political language is about ethnic equality, ethnic self-
determination, not about states.
NOTE: The ethnic equality, ethnic representation, ethnic self-
determination orientation can be very confusing for
international and academic actors as well because it implies
that politics in Burma is about ethnicity, ethnic equality, ethnic
self-determination – and not about federalism (or Panglong).
The SPDC has used the ethnic oriented language (of the Ethnic
Nationalities) to say that there are over 130 ethnic groups,
thus making it necessary to have a military-dominated
centralized state, to prevent ethnic conflict and the disintegration
of the country.

4. Statement on the Release of Daw Aung Suu Kyi:

(Date: 9 May 2002)

The Ethnic Nationalities Solidarity and Cooperation Committee


(ENSCC) commends the unconditional release by the SPDC
of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi from a 19-months unlawful house
arrest, and with respect to the meeting of Daw Aung San Suu
Kyi with Khun Htun Oo and other ethnic nationalities leaders,
the ENSCC welcomes Daw Aung San Suu Kyi’s statesman-
like and correct stand on the right of the ethnic nationalities:
their right to self-determination and the right to resolve their
own problems within the national reconciliation framework.
The ENSCC, formed to achieve national reconciliation in
Burma through tripartite dialogue, is encouraged by the recent
development in Burma owed to the efforts and good office of

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Special Envoy H.E. Razali Ismail, and will continue to work


closely with all parties in Burma, with the U.N., and with
international supporters of peace and national reconciliation.
The ENSCC calls upon the SPDC to respond
constructively to the high expectations raised by its release of
Daw Aung Suu Kyi and urge the SPDC to recognize the rights
of the ethnic nationalities to fully and meaningfully participate
in the national reconciliation process. In this respect, there is
a need for ethnic national leaders and organizations to meet to
resolve Burma’s problem. Specifically, the ENSCC looks
forward to the SPDC’s cooperation in the on-going efforts of
the ethnic nationalities to build a peaceful and harmonious
federal Union of Burma in accordance with the Panglong spirit.

5. The ENSCC Committee Members:

1. Saw Ba Thin, Chairman, Karen National


Union
2. Dr. Chao Tzang Yawnghwe National Reconciliation
Program
3. Hteh Bupeh Chairman, KNPP
4. Sao Seng Suk Shan Democratic Union
5. Teddy Buri President, MPU
6. Khun Okka Joint Secretary General of
NDF
7. Dr. Lian H. Sakhong Secretary of UNLD-LA

- Mr. Harn Yawnghwe Official Advisor


- Saw David Taw Personal Assistant to Saw
Ba Thin

*************

Part (2)

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ENSCC POLICY PAPER


The New Panglong Initiative:
RE-BUILDING THE UNION OF BURMA

Preamble

Over five decades ago, while our leaders were meeting in


Panglong to deliberate the possibility of a future together after
the proposed withdrawal of British protection, General Aung
San, the Burman leader of the independence struggle in
Ministerial Burma arrived. He instead proposed that our
separate homelands in the Frontier Areas be joined to Ministerial
Burma as equal partners in a new ‘Union of Burma’ to hasten
the process of achieving independence from Britain. On 11
February 1947, he said:
The dream of a unified and free Burma has always
haunted me … We who are gathered here tonight
are engaged in the pursuit of the same dream.…
We have in Burma many indigenous peoples: the
Karen, the Kachin, the Shan, the Chin, the Burmans
and others… In other countries too there are many
indigenous peoples, many “races.”… Thus “races”
do not have rigid boundaries. Religion is no barrier
either, for it is a matter of individual conscience… If
we want the nation to prosper, we must pool our
resources, manpower, wealth, skills and work
together. If we are divided, the Karen, the Shan, the
Kachin, the Chin, the Burman, the Mon and the
Arakanese, each pulling in a different direction, the
Union will be torn, and we will come to grief. Let us
unite and work together.
Our forefathers agreed and the Panglong Agreement came
into being, providing a legal framework within which the
different ethnic peoples would cooperate as equals. The Aung
San-Attlee Agreement, which paved the way for Burma’s
independence, had called for the “unification of the Frontier

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Areas and Ministerial Burma with the free consent of those


areas.” The Panglong Agreement, therefore, became the basis
for the 1947 Union Constitution and the Republic of the Union
of Burma gained independence in 1948.
We, the representatives of the Arakan, Chin, Kachin,
Karen, Karenni, Mon and Shan peoples, therefore, in the spirit
of Panglong, are putting forward our vision of how our peoples
can once again work together voluntarily as equals with the
Burmans to rebuild the Republic of the Union of Burma, which
has been devastated by five decades of war.

Background
Our new nation, the Republic of the Union of Burma,
started well with the Panglong Agreement on 12 February
1947. But five months later on 19 July, General Aung San was
assassinated. However, it was not only the Burmans who lost
their leader, two of our leaders, Sao Sam Htun, the Shan
Sawbwa of Mong Pawn, and Mahn Ba Khaing, a Karen, also
died for their dream of a united country together with Aung
San.
In spite of the fact that in the aftermath of the assassination,
the 1947 Union Constitution was rushed through to completion
without reflecting the spirit of Panglong – a voluntary union of
equal partners - our leaders continued to support the government
of U Nu who had succeeded Aung San. When the Communist
Party of Burma started their armed revolution; when the war
veterans of the People’s Volunteer Organization went
underground; when Burman units of the Burma Army mutinied;
our leaders remained loyal to the spirit of Panglong and their
promise to work together to build a new nation.
The loyalty of our leaders was, however, not rewarded.
Instead of moving to conform more to the spirit of Panglong
as the Union Government stabilized, the opposite was true.
Our ethnic identities and equality, which were specifically
recognized at Panglong, were slowly eroded away. Even the
constitutional right of the Shan people to disassociate from the

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Union after 10 years, guaranteed in the 1947 Union


Constitution, was denied them. Our leaders tried to return to
the spirit of Panglong by proposing to amend the 1947
Constitution.
But General Ne Win launched a coup d’etat in 1962
supposedly ‘to save the nation from disintegration’ and further
denied us our rights even those guaranteed in the Union
constitution. This increasing repression of our rights
unfortunately led to more and more abuses until it finally led to
the unhappy massacre of unarmed civilians in 1988.
The State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)
and now the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC)
arranged separate cease-fire arrangements with different non-
Burman ethnic armies. It has represented the cease-fire as
correcting the wrongs of the past, as building peace and
rebuilding the country.
However, while the fighting has stopped in some areas, it
has intensified in others causing more suffering for the people.
This is because the root of the problem has not been dealt
with by the ceasefires. No political negotiations have taken
place since the ceasefires started in 1989 and no political
settlements have been reached between the ethnic armies and
the Burmese military. A comprehensive political solution for
the whole nation is needed, not just temporary military
ceasefires which can be revoked at any time.
The Union of Burma today is facing an unprecedented
crisis – economic, social and political. The survival of the Union
as we know it may even be at stake.
Therefore, while remembering the past, we must look to
the future. The question is - Can we overcome our differences
and prevent the Union of Burma from disintegrating? Can we
work together to perpetuate the sovereignty of the Union of
Burma? Can we unite to raise the quality of life of all the
peoples of Burma?

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We, the non-Burmans believe that all these can be


achieved, if the spirit of Panglong is respected.

Vision for the Future


We firmly believe that the crisis in the Union of Burma
today is rooted in a political problem, specifically a constitutional
one – the non-adherence to the spirit of Panglong.
As such, we believe that our differences can be resolved
through political means, i.e. through political dialogue,
negotiations and compromise. We, therefore, warmly welcome
the current ‘Secret Talks’ between Daw Aung San Suu Kyi
and the ruling State Peace and Development Council (SPDC)
led by Senior General Than Shwe.
We are confident that these talks will lead to a wide-ranging
and in-depth political dialogue, the Tripartite Dialogue, involving
all stakeholders that will eventually lead to a new constitutional
arrangement between the various states of the Union of Burma
as was envisioned in 1947.
We recognize that in a mature democracy, there is no room
for a political role for the military but we also recognize that
the military played a key role in the struggle for independence
from Britain. Non-Burman military forces have also played
key roles in the defence of our homelands and to uphold the
political aspirations of our people. In times of crisis, the military
has to ensure that the rights of the people are protected.
We further recognize that in 1990, the people of the Union
voted for the National League for Democracy (NLD) under
the leadership of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi. We believe that,
she should have been able to form a government.
Therefore, given the crisis Burma is facing, we believe
that it is within Daw Aung San Suu Kyi’s mandate − if she
wishes − to invite the State Peace and Development Council
and non-Burmans nationalities, including those with ceasefires
arrangement as well as those without, to form a transition
government to oversee a smooth transition to democracy.

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The ‘Transition Government’ should, however, make it a


priority to convene a new ‘Panglong Conference’ of
representatives of the constituent states to determine how we
can work together to rebuild the nation.

Interim Measures to facilitate the transition


The ‘Transition Government’, however, will face tremendous
challenges. How can it convene a new ‘Panglong Conference’
or ‘National Convention’, without also dealing with the huge
problems facing the nation – both economic and social?
The ‘Transition Government’ will need to alleviate the
suffering of those most deprived if it wants to convince the
people of Burma that they will benefit if they participate in
efforts to rebuild the nation. Our ethnic homelands have been
devastated by five decades of war. Fertile lands lie fallow,
hundreds of thousands have been displaced from their homes.
They have been deprived of security, their livelihood, education
and medical care, and many are refugees or living sub-standard
lives as migrant labourers in foreign lands.
We, therefore, call upon the international community to,
within the framework of the current ‘Secret Talks’ between
the SPDC and Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, explore ways and
means to begin delivering humanitarian aid directly and without
political interference to those in most urgent need, especially
in the non-Burman ethnic states.
The delivery of humanitarian aid to areas of most urgent
need, however, cannot be done effectively and efficiently in a
war zone. We are, therefore, ready to cease all hostilities if
SPDC will also agree to cease hostilities. We are even willing
to unilaterally declare a ceasefire in our respective areas if
the United Nations can ensure that the SPDC will accept the
ceasefire and the international community is willing to monitor
the ceasefire.
Such a nationwide ceasefire will demonstrate irrevocably
that the current ‘Secret Talks’ are being taken seriously by all
parties and that it will develop into an all encompassing political

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dialogue to resolve the crisis in Burma. The nationwide ceasefire


will help reduce the incidence of forced labour (including
military porterage), anti-religious activities, forced relocations
and human rights abuses. It will also reduce the flow of
refugees into neighbouring countries.
Furthermore, as the ‘Transition Government’ moves to
convene a new ‘Panglong Conference’, or ‘National
Convention’, it will need to ensure that all segments of society
including non-Burmans, Burmans, exiles and the military, can
actively participate in the political deliberations and contribute
to the rebuilding of the Union of Burma.
Therefore, we urge all parties to seriously consider the
possibility that the ‘Transition Government’ grant - immunity
from arrest for those considered to be outside the law by the
SPDC and immunity from prosecution for military leaders
considered to have committed abuses by the world community.
A truth and reconciliation process as was carried out in South
Africa could be considered at a later date.

Principles to Ensure Political Stability


In addition to the above interim measures, we propose
that the following principles be agreed upon by all participants,
to enable the ‘Transition Government’ and the new ‘Panglong
Conference’ or ‘National Convention’ to resolve the many
problems we face in a systematic and step-by-step process:
MORATORIUM - In the initial stage of the transition,
before we have decided on a constitutional arrangement
between the historic states of the Union, we should agree to
refrain from attempting to subdivide or change the boundaries
or names of the current states and divisions. All issues of
concern should be addressed in subsequent constitutional talks.
HUMAN AND CITIZENSHIP RIGHTS – Agree that
all citizens of the Union regardless of their ethnic or social
background, religion or state of residence, have the same basic
human and democratic rights. It should be further agreed that
illegal immigrants have the basic human rights as set up in the

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Universal Declaration of Human Rights. They, however, do


not have the same democratic rights as citizens. It should be
further agreed that cultural and religious rights must be
respected.
DECENTRALIZATION – Agree that all states within
the Union should consider decentralizing their administrative
structures to enable the multi-ethnic societies in their midst to
function in harmony with their respective neighbours and
prevent the unjust domination of one group over the other.
Decentralization, however, should not be taken to mean that
the national government cannot have national policies that will
benefit the whole nation.
PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION – Agree that
proportional representation should be considered for all
electoral processes within the Union including state and local
elections, in order to enable smaller grouping to participate
fully in the political process. Such a system will enable multi-
ethnic societies to function in harmony with their respective
neighbours and prevent the unjust domination of one group
over the other.

Conclusion
The Union of Burma came into being as an independent
sovereign nation in 1948 because all the different ethnic
nationalities agreed to work together as equals. Today, the
Union of Burma is facing a very serious crisis due to the non-
adherence to the spirit of and the agreement reached at
Panglong.
The current ‘Secret Talks’ between Daw Aung San Suu
Kyi and the ruling State Peace and Development Council
(SPDC) led by Senior General Than Shwe is a very crucial
and important first step in the right direction.
We, the non-Burman ethnic nationalities, warmly welcome
this development and are confident that these talks will lead to
a wide-ranging and in-depth political dialogue that will in turn
lead to a new just and voluntary constitutional arrangement

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between the various states of the Union of Burma as was


envisioned in 1947.
We believe that if we adhere to the spirit of Panglong,
we can overcome our many and long-fought-over differences
and rebuild a nation that will benefit all our peoples.

*************

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Part (3)
STATEMENTS AND DECLARATION

COPENHAGEN DECLARATION
22 September 2002

Declaration on behalf of the people of


Arakan, Chin, Kachin, Karen, Karenni, Mon, and
Shan, & the NCGUB.

When General Ne Win seized power in 1962 and ended


democracy, he claimed that the military was saving the Union
of Burma from disintegration. The military claimed that the
move by the ethnic nationalities to legally amend the Union
Constitution to allow a federal system of government would
break up the country. By ending a legitimate political dialogue
and imposing a military solution, Ne Win plunged the nation
into a civil war.
The creation of the Union of Burma was based on the
1947 Panglong Agreement between the ethnic nationalities
leaders and Aung San. The principles guiding the Agreement
were – equal rights of the ethnic nationalities, self-
determination, and democracy. Unfortunately Aung San was
assassinated and the Panglong Agreement was not fully
implemented.
Successive military regimes have tried without success in
the last 53 years to suppress the ethnic nationalities who make
up at least 40% of the population and whose homelands cover
60% of the nation. This eventually led to such human rights
abuses and excesses that the nation exploded in 1988 with
nation-wide demonstrations calling for a return to democracy.
The military once again seized power from itself in 1988
to ‘save’ the nation from disintegration. The junta claims that
without a strong military to hold the country together the Union
of Burma will break up like the former Yugoslavia. The military

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claims that there are 135 races in Burma, each with an agenda
to establish a separate nation.
This is not true. There are only eight constituent states in
the Union of Burma and we primarily want the military to
recognize the basic human and political rights of the people of
Burma irrespective of their ethnic or state backgrounds. This
cannot be denied.
Secondly, we want the ruling State Peace and
Development Council to recognize that there is no military
solution to Burma’s problems. The only way forward is political
dialogue, negotiations, compromises, and a willingness to work
together to rebuild the nation.
Therefore, we the ethnic nationalities welcome the talks
between the SPDC and Daw Aung San Suu Kyi that started
in October 2000. However, we are disappointed that there
has been no political progress nearly 2 years since the
confidence building talks began.
We are even more concerned and disappointed that the
military has not made peace or sought to gain the confidence
of the ethnic nationalities who make up at least 40% of the
population. Military operations with its accompanying human
rights abuses, rape, summary executions forced labour and
forced relocations have intensified in the border states.
In order to resolve Burma’s problems, we the ethnic
nationalities of Burma call on the SPDC to put the interest of
the nation before its own self interest and:
1. Immediately begin a political dialogue with Daw Aung
San Suu Kyi;
2. Immediately stop the use of forced labour, forced
relocations, rapes, summary executions, and other
human rights abuses by the military especially in ethnic
nationalities areas;
3. Immediately cease hostilities and military operations
against the ethnic nationalities;
4. Immediately free political prisoners and allow their
participation in the political process;
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5. Allow the ethnic nationalities armies that have signed


military cease-fires with the SPDC to freely meet and
discuss amongst themselves how they can support the
dialogue process and help rebuild the nation;
6. Allow the ethnic nationalities-based political parties
to freely meet and discuss amongst themselves how
they can support the dialogue process and help rebuild
the nation; and
7. Expand the political dialogue process to include the
ethnic nationalities in a ‘Tripartite Dialogue’.
We the ethnic nationalities of Burma, further call on the
international community to:
1. Stop the systematic use of rape by the Burmese military
as a political weapon against the ethnic nationalities
of Burma;
2. Provide a safe haven, social welfare and psycho-
counselling for the survivors of rape;
3. Provide humanitarian relief and assistance to the
people of Burma especially in the ethnic nationalities
areas that have experienced the military’s scorched
earth polices;
4. Implement United Nations General Assembly
resolutions since 1994 that call for a ‘Tripartite
Dialogue’ amongst the military, the democracy
movement led by Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, and the
ethnic nationalities of Burma;
5. Implement the terms of the International Labour
Organization resolution to end the practice of forced
labour in Burma, especially in the ethnic nationalities
areas; and
6. Strengthen international sanctions and introduce new
measures against the military until they take concrete
steps to enter into a political dialogue.

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For our part, the ethnic nationalities of Burma:


1. Re-affirm our commitment to a ‘Tripartite Dialogue’
as the best means to achieve national reconciliation
and democracy;
2. Are ready to cease hostilities against the Burma Army,
if the Burmese military is willing to declare a
nationwide cease-fire;
3. Will continue to consult our fellow ethnic nationalities
organizations inside and outside Burma, cease-fire and
non-cease-fire armies, on how we can truly help to
rebuild the Union of Burma in the spirit of the Panglong
Agreement;
4. Will continue to work with the international community
and the United Nations to find an equitable and just
political solution in Burma; and
5. Are ready to talk to the SPDC to find ways and means
by which we can work together for the good of the
nation and the welfare of our people.
Signed: Khaing Myo Min (Arakan State)
Salai Lian H Sakhong (Chin State)
Mahkaw Khun Sa (Kachin State)
Saw David Taw (Karen State)
Hteh Bupeh (Karenni State)
Nai Banya (Mon State)
Sai Myo Win (Shan State)
Dr Sein Win (NCGUB)

Copenhagen, Denmark
22 September 2002

*************

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A STATEMENT CALLING FOR


"TRIPARTITE DIALOGUE"
Date: May 17, 2002
1. Since Daw Aung San Suu Kyi was released from 19
months long house arrest, the so-called “confidence build-
ing process” is over, and the political process is now be-
ginning. The UNLD (LA) welcomes the recent political
developments.
2. The UNLD (LA) firmly endorses the statement issued
jointly by the SNLD under the leadership of Khun Tun
Oo, and other ethnic nationalities, in which they called for
a “tripartite dialogue”. Tripartite dialogue is negotiations
between the SPDC, the democratic forces led by Daw
Aung San Suu Kyi, and ethnic nationalities aimed at
resolving the country’s problems together peacefully,
through dialogue.
3. The UNLD (LA) strongly believes that political crisis in
Burma is rooted not just in an ideological confrontation
between democracy and dictatorship, but in a constitutional
problem — a protracted constitutional crisis — revolving
around the question of the right of self-determination for
the ethnic nationalities who co-founded the Union in 1947
at the Panglong Conference.
4. In order to resolve the constitutional problem of Burma’s
political crisis, ethnic nationalities’ participation in the
national reconciliation process is indispensable. We believe
that without ethnic nationalities participation, the
government in Rangoon might change, but the political
crisis, including the five long decades of civil war, will not
be resolved. Tripartite dialogue and three ways negotiation
must begin without any further delay.
5. The UNLD (LA) further believes that tripartite dialogue
must comes first, before any transitional arrangement. The
UNLD position is that any transitional arrangement prior

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to tripartite dialogue will not be useful and could create


serious problem for a smooth and orderly transition.
6. In preparation for the tripartite dialogue and a smooth
transition, the UNLD (LA) sees the need for a nation-
wide conference of all Ethnic Nationalities leaders and
forces, and as well as United Nations sponsored
international conference on national reconciliation in
Burma.
7. The main objectives of tripartite dialogue should be the
formation of transitional authority and a National
Convention, or the Second Panglong. The Transitional
Authority shall be a political body granted with limited
administrative power during the transition period.
8. As the founding members of the Union, we -- the Ethnic
Nationalities -- believe that we have the responsibility to
solve our country problems and rebuild our nation. No
matter how big the problems, we can -- we believe --
resolve them in the context of the Panglong Spirit, the spirit
that gave birth to the Union of Burma.

*************

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SCC POSITION ON HUMANITARIAN AID:


Decision made at the SCC meeting held
in January 2001.

1. The Strategy Consultation:


a. Believes that the root cause of the on-going
humanitarian crisis in Burma is the lack of a democratic
government accountable to the people and the
military’s focus of holding on to power instead of
promoting the interest of the nation. These
fundamentals need to be exposed.
b. Contends that humanitarian assistance from the
international community should be designed to
contribute to positive democratic changes in Burma.
c. Defines humanitarian assistance as food, clothing,
shelter and health care, which are the basic necessities
of the people.
d. If humanitarian assistance is to be delivered to the
people of Burma, the following criteria must be met.
The assistance must -
1. Be delivered directly to people.
2. Be delivered to the most needy areas.
3. Be delivered through credible international NGOs.
4. Not be delivered through the SPDC or
organizations under its control.
5. Be delivered only after prior consultation with
Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and the NLD.
6. Be delivered to border areas where the need is
greatest. In order to do this, SPDC should declare
a nation-wide cease-fire.
7. Be delivered only after prior consultation with
independent local leaders and community
organizations.
8. Be monitored by an independent impartial body.

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9. Be delivered by NGOs that abide by an


international Code of Conduct, which will be
agreed to by all parties.
10. The Strategy Consultation further agrees to
encourage the delivery of humanitarian assistance
across national borders.
2. The Strategy Consultation supports the formation of the
ENSCC to prepare the ethnic nationalities for a tripartite
dialogue and its efforts to bring about a tripartite dialogue.
3. The Strategy Consultation further supports the ENSCC’s
‘New Panglong Initiative’, which is aimed at national
reconciliation. The organizations participating in the
Strategy Consultation undertake to work together to
promote the concepts and principles of the ‘Initiative’ and
for their acceptance national-wide.

*************

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REPORT ON STATE CONSTITUTIONS DRAFTING


PROCESS (2001-2002)
_______________
Submitted by
Dr. Lian H. Sakhong
General Secretary

Introduction

Political crisis in present Burma is not merely ideological


confrontation between a democracy and totalitarianism, but a
constitutional problem rooted in the question of self-
determination for non-Burman nationalities. The ultimate goal
of democracy movement in Burma, therefore, is to establish
a genuine federal union based on the principles of equality for
all nationalities and the right of self-determination for all member
states of the union, and the democratic rights for all citizens of
the Union of Burma.
In a federal system where power is shared between two
levels of governments: federal government and state
governments, all member states of the Union should have their
own separate state constitutions, their own organs of state,
that is, State Assembly, Administrative Body, and Judiciary.
The state constitutions, therefore, are inherent and necessary
components of a federal system. It is, therefore, believed that
looking into federalism, the concepts and principles of
federalism, federal structures and mechanisms, and importantly,
looking at state constitutions, will enhance the capacity of
nationalities leaders to help their ethnic nations determine their
future in a peaceful and democratic manner. Moreover, the
process of drafting state constitutions constitutes a very
important step in reaching the goals of the democratic
movement. The state constitution seminar would, therefore,
lay a firm, bottom-up foundation for federalism (i.e., genuine
federalism), and the draft state constitutions could and would
collectively serve as a solid political platform for nationalities
leaders and forces in negotiation with other players and actors
on the Burma stage.

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This report is divided into four parts; part one is dealing


with historical and political backgrounds for the need of state
constitutions, part two is the UNLD initiative for drafting the
state constitutions and its follow-up activities. In part three
the role of NRP in this process is briefly mentioned, and part
four concluded with the formation of "Soppurting Committee
for State Constitutions" (SCSC).

Part One

Background History

The Union of Burma is a multi-ethnic, multi-cultural


“nation-state”, which was founded on the basis of the 1947
Panglong Accord. The aspiration of the signers of the Accord
was to jointly gain independence from the British, and to
establish a Union of equal and co-independent states, i.e., with
no nationalities or state being subordinated to any other state
within the Union. That is, all constituent states of the Union
were envisioned as being the equal partners of Burma Proper
or Ministerial Burma, the home state of the largest ethnic
nationality, the Burman.
However, as history or political events would have it, the
Union of Burma that came into actual being was not in
accordance with the aspiration of the non-Burman nationalities.
Contrary to the Spirit of Panglong, the 1947 Constitution
(finalized in September) created a “Union” where Burma
Proper enjoyed the status of the Mother Country, i.e., whose
cabinet, government, and parliament were also those of the
whole country. This kind of arrangement made the other states
of the Union subordinate to Burma Proper. Their relationship
to Burma Proper (or the Burma State) was like that of Scotland
and/or Wales to England.
An attempt was made by leaders of the non-Burman ethnic
nationalities and states in 1961-1962 to address the issue of
inequality and other problems related to the dominance of
Burma Proper over other member or constituent states. They

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proposed constitutional reform aimed at making the Union a


genuinely federal one as agreed at Panglong. This move – the
federal movement – was squashed in 1962 by the military,
dominated and controlled by Burman officers.
In 1974, General Ne Win, the military dictator and
chauvinist, imposed a new constitution, the Lanzin Constitution.
A notable fact about this constitution was that the state
structures and arrangements, as outlined on paper, looked highly
decentralized, even federal-like. However, the only and ruling
party, the Lanzin Party, which held all powers was not
democratic, and was moreover controlled and dominated by
military officers (in, and out, of uniform). The Lanzin state-
order was therefore one where its formal (on paper)
decentralized, federal-like, features cloaked a highly centralized
state where military subordinates of General Ne Win exercise
real and significant power.
In the post-1988 period of struggle, the Burmese opposition
forces and nationalities organizations have adopted as its goals,
ONE, the restoration of democracy and TWO, the
establishment of a new Union, one based on the principles of
federalism, national self-determination, and equality. There
have been signed several accords re-affirming the goals
mentioned. These agreements are the Manerplaw, the
MaeThaRawtha, and the ThooMweKlo Agreements. It might
be added that Democracy, and Federalism have been the
aspiration of the peoples of Burma and the nationalities since
before the obtaining of independence.

State Constitutions: Its Meaning and Significance

Unfortunately, Burma never has had any experience of


federalism. Noteworthy in this regard is that none of the
constituent or member states of the 1948 Union of Burma had
constitutions of their own.
The absence of state constitutions in what was supposedly
a Union of equal states is a very serious flaw. What this
situation indicates is this: namely, that whatever power the

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governments of states enjoyed and exercised in the 1948 Union


were given to them by a central government – and this is a
characteristic of a unitary state order. In a unitary state order,
power lies in the hand of the central government, and the
powers of local governing or administrative units are derived
from, or devolved to them by the central government.
In contrast, in a federal state order, the member or
constituent states are the basic and founding units of the
federation, and whatever powers they exercise or possess are
not given to them by the center. The powers of the constituent
states of a federation are, in principle, derived from the people
of the respective states, and it is thus stated in most state
constitutions in countries that are federal in form.
A federation is formed when a number of states agree for
some reasons to live and work together under one flag. And
because there is an agreement among founding states to band
together as equal partners, there arises a need for another
category or level of government to handle matters of common
interest. Accordingly, this government – the federal or national
government – is given, or vested with some powers by the
member states. In a federation therefore it is the power of the
federal government (or center) that is derived – i.e., given to
the federal center by the member or constituent states.
In federalism therefore, the federal or national government
is not a superior government that holds all power. Various and
significant powers are held by the member states, and this is
spelled out clearly in the state constitutions. As well, some
powers, which are shared by all, are given to the federal
government, and this is also spelled out or defined in the federal
constitution.
There is therefore in a federation, two levels of power,
and two levels of government. It might also be said that there
are two “sovereignties”, but which are intertwined, yet
separated. Hence, there are in federalism two constitutions.
One is the federal (or national) constitution, and there exist
concurrently, another set of constitutions, i.e., the constitutions
of member or constituent states.
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In Burma, however, although state constitutions are basic


to the idea or concept of federalism, they did not exist, and not
much attention has been given, until recently, to state
constitutions on the part even of nationalities leaders and
organizations. This is indeed a strange situation.

Part Two:

The UNLD-LA Initiative

The UNLD was established in 1989 as an umbrella political


organization for the non-Burman nationalities in Burma. From
the very beginning, the UNLD political platform called for the
establishment of a genuine federal union based on democratic
rights for all citizens, political equality for all nationalities and
the right of self-determination for all member states of the
Union.
The member parties of the UNLD contested the 1990
general election under the slogan of “democracy and equality”
and won 35% of the popular vote and 16% of parliamentary
seats (67 seats) in the national parliament of the Union of
Burma. The election results established the UNLD as the
second largest political party in Burma. The UNLD was
unilaterally dissolved and declared illegal by the ruling military
junta. The UNLD political platform stood in direct contrast to
the policies of the military regime that was intent on establishing
a unitary state dominated by the central government.
The UNLD was re-established as the UNLD (LA) in 1998
by its original members, most of whom had been forced to
flee the country. The Inaugural Conference of the UNLD (LA)
was held, as mentioned, from January 15-19, 2001, with the
aims and objectives of:
- Preparation for Tripartite Dialogue
- Preparation for State Constitutions
The UNLD believes that for building a genuine federal
union, the Union constitution must be based on a democratic
administrative system, because democracy is an essential pre-

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condition for federalism. Federalism will not work in a polity


where there is no democracy because federalism is, at the
bottom, about decentralization of power and limits placed on
power. In federalism the above is achieved via a set of
arrangement that limits and divides or disperses power, so that
parts of the whole are empowered and are further enabled to
check central power and prevent the concentration of power.
In short, democracy and federalism are inseparable, as head
and tail of a coin, in a pluralistic and multi-ethnic country like
Burma.
On the formation of a genuine Federal Union, the UNLD
has adopted seven principles of federalism for the future
constitution of the Federal Union of Burma, at its conference
held in Rangoon, on June 29 - July 2, 1990, and re-confirmed
at the Inaugural Conference of the UNLD-LA. These seven
principles are:
(1) The constitution of the Federal Union of Burma shall
be formed in accordance with the principles of
federalism and democratic decentralization.
(2) The Union Constitution shall guarantee the democratic
rights of citizens of Burma including the principles
contain in the United Nation’s declaration of universal
human rights.
(3) The Union Constitution shall guarantee political
equality among all ethnic national states of the Federal
Union of Burma.
(4) The Federal Union of Burma shall be composed of
National States; and all National States of the Union
shall be constituted in terms of ethnicity, rather than
geographical areas. There must be at least eight
National States, namely, Chin State, Kachin State,
Karen State, Kaya State, Mon State, Myanmar or
Burma State, Rakhine (Arakan State), and Shan State.
(5) The Union Assembly shall be consisting of two
legislative chambers: the Chamber of Nationalities
(Upper House) and the Chamber of Deputies (Lower
House).

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(i) The Chamber of Nationalities (Upper House) shall


be composed of equal numbers of elected
representatives from the respective National
States; and
(ii) The Chamber of Deputies (Lower House) shall
be composed of elected representatives from the
respective constituencies of the peoples.
The creation of Chamber of Nationalities based on
equal representation of the member states of the Union
is intended to safeguard the rights of National States
and minorities in the Union government. It also
intended as a symbol and instrument of the principle
of equality among all nationalities of the Union.
(6) In addition to the Union Assembly, all member states
of the Union shall form their own separate Legislative
Assemblies for their respective National States. In
Federalism there must be a clear separation of Union
Assembly, or Federal Parliament, from the Legislative
Assemblies of the member states of the Union.
Moreover, the residual powers, that is, all powers,
except those given by member states to the federal
center, or the Union, must be vested in the Legislative
Assembly of the National State. In this way, the Union
Constitution automatically allocates political authority
of legislative, judiciary, and administrative powers to
the Legislative Assembly of the National States. Thus,
all member states of the Union can freely exercise
the right of self-determination through the right of self-
government within their respective National States.
(7) The Sovereignty of the Union shall be vested in the
people of the Union of Burma, and shall be exercised
by the Union Assembly. Moreover, the central
government of the Federal Union shall have authority
to decide on action for: (i) monetary system, (ii)
defense, (iii) foreign relation, and (iv) other authorities
which temporarily vested in the central government
of Federal Union by member states of the Union.

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The UNLD-NDF State Constitutions Seminar


(August 20-25, 2001)

State constitutions are inherent and necessary components


of a federal system where power is shared between two levels
of governments. Due to the multiethnic composition in the
Union of Burma, and owing to long years of confrontational
politics based on ethno-nationalistic perceptions and demands,
it is important for all ethnic nationalities (including ethnic Burma)
leaders to seriously study or look into state constitutions together
at a seminar, so that leaders from various nationalities can not
only participate but share their different experiences and learn
the new insight together. The reason why this is important is
because how the state constitution is drafted—and the
mechanisms and structures that it provides—will significantly
determine how different ethnic groups will live and work
together within each member state of the future democratic,
federal Union.
In line with this policy, the UNLD organized the state
constitutions seminar, together with the NDF, on 20-25 August
2001. The seminar was attended by the state constitutions
drafting committee members from Chin State, Karen State,
Karenni State, Mon State, and Shan State. Observers from
Arakan State and Kachin State also were invited for they are
still under preparation for forming their state constitutions
drafting committees. Members of democratic forces from the
Burman ethnic group and federal constitution drafting committee
members also were invited to the seminar.
The seminar particularly focused on:
1. The basic principles of federalism.
2. The structures and functions of state constitutions,
including:
(i) Bill of Rights
(ii) Suffrage and elections
(iii) The Legislature
(iv) Initiative and referendum
(v) The Executive

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(vi) The Judiciary


(vii) Finance
(viii) Local government
(ix) Civil service
(x) Public welfare
(xi) General provisions
(xii) Constitutional revision

The First Study Trip to Germany (December 5-15, 2001)

As a follow up of that seminar, 17 members of state


constitutions drafting committees from seven states, namely,
Chin, Kachin, Karen, Karenni, Mon, Rakhine, Shan and two
representatives of Burma Lawyer Council, went to Germany
for a study trip, from 5-15 December 2001. This study trip
emphasized the function and structure of German Federalism
in the light of how federal government and state governments
are functioning, how federal and state government are related
with each other and at the same time separated, and how two
levels of government can co-exist and shared power or separate
power in a federal system.

The Second State Constitutions Seminar


(October 29-November 6, 2002)

In October and November 2002, the UNLD organized


two seminars in New Delhi, India, and Chiang Mai, Thailand,
under the title of The Role of State Constitutions in the
Protection of Nationality and Minority Rights Under
Federalism: Dialogues in support of a democratic
transition in Burma. The seminars were conducted under
the NRP program, and funded by International Institute for
Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA) in Stockholm.
The specific themes of the seminars include:
(i) The rationale for federalism:
- Is it affordable?

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- Will it exacerbate religious and ethnic conflict, be


an impetus for secession?
(ii) Boundary delimitation:
- How is the federal unit to be structured?
- On the basis of historical boundaries or ethnic/
linguistic or religious lines?
- The advantage/disadvantage of using historical
boundaries/ ethnic/ religious criteria, and or the
creative drafting of new boundaries?
- How federalism and decentralization can ensure
ethnic rights?
(iii) Conceptualizing state constitutions:
- Should they be uniform, contain core features,
represent the unique features, history and
aspirations of the state?
(iv) Powers and functions of the Central government and
State governments:
- Scope of the legislative/ executive powers
- Subject matters under the control of Central
government and State governments
- How power is shared between State and Federal
governments, e.g. health, education, ect.
- Role of National/State Institutions (Planning
commissions, Ombudsman, Auditors, Central
Bank)
- Challenging issues (Fiscal powers - taxation, police,
judiciary, land rights).
Scholars from Australia (Professor Cheryl Saunders, Australia
National University, Melbourne), India (Professor Yogendra
Yadav, Centre for the Study of Developing Societies, New
Delhi), and Nigeria (Dr. Otive Igbuzor, Secretary, Citizens’
Forum for Constitutional Reform, Lagos) were invited to
present their papers and to share their countries experiences.

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The Second Germany Trip


(November 25- December 4, 2002)
In November and December 2002, a study trip to Germany
and Belgium was conducted by the UNLD for the second
time. The specific theme of this study trip was to see how
local government are functioning and how local and state
governments shared power in federal system. Seventeen
members from seven state constitution drafting committees
and federal constitution drafting committee members
participated in the study trip.

Part Three:

The Role of NRP in State Constitutions Drafting Process

The National Reconciliation Program (NRP) was established


in 1998 with the aims and objectives of:
- to bring about a peaceful transition to democracy and
the establishment of a Federal Union of Burma by
assisting the ethnic nationalities in preparing for a
tripartite dialogue.
- to introduce a culture of dialogue and conflict
resolution/management skills and institutions to
Burmese society.
- to assist political stakeholders in increasing their
capacity building efforts as part of the preparation for
tripartite dialogue and transition to democracy.
The Program encourages and empowers all ethnic nationalities
to:
1. Discuss and define their own political futures,
2. Dialogue with other nationalities regarding their political
future,
3. Engage in preparing for political structures they wish
to establish,
4. Create conditions to safeguard and promote
democratic and political structures that will be
established.

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In order for political stakeholders to achieve the goal of


national reconciliation, the NRP has supported capacity building
projects designed to equip political organizations with
knowledge and understanding of dialogue and conflict resolution
techniques. As participation of women and youth in the political
process is crucial, the NRP has implemented programs among
women and youth of various ethnic backgrounds. The primary
task of NRP though is to see that projects and related activities
– seminars, workshops, training, etc. – are relevant to the
strategy, need and focus of the national reconciliation goals.
The NRP program not only encourages but empowers all
ethnic nationalities to discuss and define their own political
futures. In doing this, the NRP supports the state consituttions
drafting as part and partial of intra/inter ethnic dialogue in
national reconciliation process, through which all ethnic
nationalities can engage in their preparation for political
structures that they wish to establish, and create conditions to
safeguard and promote democratic and political structures that
will be established. The NRP program, therefore, assists the
state constitutions drafting process, initiated by the UNLD and
NDF, by providing financial assistance and technical needs.

Part Four:

The Formation of Supporting Committee for State


Constitutions (SCSC)

In order to assist the state constitutions drafting process


effectively, the UNLD and NDF jointly formed the “Supporting
Committee for State Constitutions” at the meeting held in Mae
Sod on August 17, 2003.
The SCSC committee members are:
1. Dr. Chao Tzang Yawnghwe (Chairperson)
2. Col. Htoo Htoo Lay (NFD, Coordinator)
3. Col. Hkun Okker (NDF, member)
4. Khun Marko Ban (UNLD, member)
5. Dr. Lian Hmung Sakhong (UNLD, Coordinator)

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The SCSC will as a coordinating body of the following


state constitution drafting committees and study groups:
1. Chinland Constitution Drafting Committee (led by
Lian Uk, formed as Working Group 1 of Chin
Forum in 1998).
2. Kachin State Constitution Drafting Committee (led
by U Khun Sa, formed under the KNO
leadership).
3. Karen State Constitution Drafting Committee (led
by Col Htoo Htoo Lay, formed under the KNU
leadership)
4. Karenni State Constitution Drafting Committee
(led by Abel Twide, formed under the KNPP
leadership).
5. Mon State Constitution Drafting Committee (led
by Nai Hongsar, formed under the leadership of
MUL and NMSP).
6. Rakhine (Arakan) State Constitution Drafting
Committee (under the process of formation).
7. Shan Democratic Union, which undertaking the
task of drafting Shan State Constitution (led by
Sao Seng Suk).
8. A study group of the Burman State Constitution
(led by U Than Tun).

Submitted by
Dr. Lian H Sakhong
General Secretary- UNLD
January 2003, Chiang Mai.

*************

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cJyh gonf?

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(24) &ufrS (28) &ufae@txd KNPP u&ifeaD cgi;f aqmifrsm;ESihf r,fa[mif
qGe+f rKd @ay:wGiwf }urd /f awmwGi;f pcef;wGiw f }urd f oGm;a&muf+y;D UNLD(LA)
zJ@G pnf;&jcif;ESihf rl0g'oabmxm;rsm;udk &Si;f vif;wifjycJ=h u &ygonf?
2001 ck Zefe0g&D (29) &ufaerS azaz:0g&v D (3) &ufae@txd KNU
acgi;f aqmifrsm;ESihf aumfoal v;e,fajrtwGi;f od@k ta&muf oGm;a&muf &Si;f
vif;wifjycJoh nf? 2001 ck azaz:0g&D (5) &ufaerS (8) &ufae@txd rGef
acgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh qefc&yl&dwGif‚if;/ rGefjynfwGif;e,fajrta&muf‚if;
oGm;a&muf&iS ;f vif; wifjycJyh gonf?
xd@k jyif jynfwiG ;f rS UNLD acgi;f aqmifrsm;ESiv hf nf; UNLD (LA) zJ@G pnf;&
jcif; rl0g'oabmxm;rsm;onf UNLD .rl0g'oabmxm;twdik ;f pJu G ikd +f yD;
v_y&f mS ;oGm;rnfjzpfa=umif; today;wifjyEdik cf o hJ nf? xd@k jyif jynfwiG ;f jynfy
qufpyfa&;vkyif ef;rsm;udv k nf; zvS,Ef ikd cf o
hJ nf?
2001 ck rwfv 20 &ufEiS hf (21) &ufae@wiG f NDF acgi;f aqmifrsm;ESihf
awGqakH qG;aEG;+yD; UNLD(LA) ESihf NDF yl;wJt
G pnf;ta0;jyKvkycf o
hJ nf?
75
jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)

a&S@vyk if ef;rsm;ESihf vufwEGJ ikd o


f nfh vkyif ef;rsm;yl;wJaG qmif&u
G o
f mG ;Edik &f ef (3)OD;
pDyg0ifaom (6) OD; aumfrwDw&yfuzkd @GJ pnf;Edik cf o hJ nf? ‚if;wd@k rmS
1) Dr. p0f*si;f odu
k f UNLD(LA)
2) cGe;f ref;udb k ef; UNLD(LA)
3) qvdik ;f vserf e_ ;f UNLD(LA)
4) z'db k oif NDF
5) cdkifpdk;Edkifatmif NDF
6) Dr. a&Gcg; NDF

UNLD(LA) rS NDF ESihf Joint Committee qufvufxm;&Sv


d akd =umif;
h abmxm;n‡Ed i_d ;f cJah omfvnf; NDF rS tvkyaf y:ayguv
pmjzifo f mrS omv#if
vkyif ef;wckcsi;f tvku
d f ,m,DaumfrwDjzifh vkyif ef;vkyaf qmifomG ; vdak =umif;
pmjzifoh abmxm;jyef=um;vmygonf?
UNLD(LA) oD;jcm;vkyif ef;rsm;/ NDF ESiy
hf ;l wJv
G yk af qmifEikd rf nfv
h yk if ef;rsm;
1) UN ESihf Edi
k if w
H umqufo,
G af &;vkyif ef;rsm;/
2) NDF tzJ@G 0ifr[kwaf om tzJ@G tpnf;rsm;ESihf qufo,
G af &;
vkyif ef;/
3) jynfwiG ;f tzJ@G rsm;ESihf qufo, G af &;vkyif ef;/
4) jynfe,frsm;zJ@G pnf;yHt k ajccHOya'rl=urf;a&;qJjG cif;/ rl=urf;a&;qGaJ &;
aumfr&Sirf sm;/ oifwef;rsm;/ ES;D aESmzvS,yf rJG sm;/
5) wdik ;f &if;om;rsm;ES;D aESmzvS,yf }GJ u;D usi;f ya&;vkyif ef;rsm;ESihf wdik ;f &if;
om;rsm;tm;vH;k ta&; yg0ifaomvkyif ef;rsm;/ ponfw@kd jzpfonf?
2001 ck ar (21) &ufae@ cGe;f ref;udb k ef;ESihf qvdik ;f vserf e_ ;f wd@k onf
Mr. Leon ESihf wdi
k ;f &if;om;oH;k yGiq
f ikd af wG@qakH &;ESihf ygwo f ufI aqG;aEG;wif
jyonf? 2001 ck ZGev f (8) &uf/ (9) &uf ae@wiG f NDF acgi;f aqmifrsm;ESihf
UNLD(LA) aumfrwD0ifrsm; u&ifew D iG w
f ikd ;f &if;om;rsm; Seminar }u;D usi;f y
a&;twGuf vkyif ef;t+yD;ndE‡ i_d ;f qH;k jzwf csrw S Ef ikd cf =hJ uonf? ‚if; Seminar rS
ENSCC udv k nf; zG@J pnf;wm0ef ay;tyfEikd cf o hJ nf?
2001 ckEpS f 'DZifbmv (6) &ufae@wiG f UNLD(LA) ESihf NDF acgi;f
aqmifrsm;tjyif tjcm;wkid ;f &if;om;acgi;f aqmifrsm;yg0if+y;D rpPwm &mZmvD
rS apv$wfaom Mr. Leon ESifh wdkif;&if;om;oHk;yGifhqdkif yg0ifEdkifa&;udpP

76
'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf;

tus,w f 0ifh awG@qakH qG;aEG;cJ=h uygonf? 2002 ckEpS f Zefe0g&v D (10) &ufae@
vl@abmifopf'rD u
kd &ufygwn D v GJ iG f UNLD (LA) . rl0g'oabm
D mcH zGiyhf w
xm;udo
k mG ;a&muf&iS ;f vif;wifjycJo h nf?
2002 ckEpS f Zefe0g&v
D (25) &ufae@wiG f rGejf ynfopfygwAD [dXk mecsKyf
od@k oGm;a&muf+y;D UNLD(LA) . rl0g'oabmxm;/ vkyif ef;pOfrsm;/ oH;k yGiq hf ikd f
awG@qakH qG;aEG;yJG oabmxm;ESiyhf wfoufIoGm;a&mufaw@q G kH aqG;aEG;onf?
2002 ckEpS f azaz:0g&D (5) 7ufrS (7) &ufae@txd UNLD(LA) ESpyf wfvnf
yHrk eS t
f pnf;ta0;udk atmifjrifpmG usi;f y jyKvkyo
f nf?
2002 ckEpS f rwfv (9) &ufae@ u&ifeAD [dXk mecsKyfo@kd a&mufvmaom
jynfwiG ;f Edik if aH &;orm;rsm;ESihf awG@q+kH yD; UNLD(LA) zJ@G pnf;&jcif;ESihf rl0g'
oabmxm;rsm;/ vkyif ef;pOfrsm;/ oH;k yGiq hf ikd af wG@qakH &;udprP sm;udk &Si;f vif;
wifjyonf? 2002 ckEpS f rwfv (13) &ufae@rS (14) &ufae@txd befaumuf
wGi&f dS aom ORO u&ifvil ,ftzG@J EiS hf &cdik v f il ,ftzJ@G w@kd tm; UNLD(LA)
zJG@pnf;&jcif;/ rl0g'oabmxm;ESifh vkyfief;pOfrsm;/ zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpk
wnfaqmufa&;&mESihf ywfoufonfrsm;udk oGm;a&mufaqG;aEG;&Si;f vif;
wifjyonf?
2002 ckEpS f {+yDv (30) &ufae@ e,fpyfwiG tf ajccHxm;aom Edik if aH &;
tzJ@G tpnf;rsm; awmif;qdck sut f & UNLD(LA) .rl0g'vkyif ef;pOfrsm;/ oH;k yGihf
qdik f awG@qakH qG;aEG;a&; oabmxm;rsm;udk &Si;f vif;wifjyonf? 2002 ckEpS f
arv (7)&ufae@wGif UNLD(LA) 3 vygwftpnf;ta0; jyKvkyf+yD;
taemufbufc&D;pOf/ xdik ;f e,fpyfc&D;pOfrsm; csrw S o
f mG ;onf? 2002 ckEpS f
arv (11) ESifh (12) &ufae@wGif SSA awmifydkif; acgif;aqmifrsm; ESifh
oGm;a&mufawG@q+kH y;D UNLD(LA) .rl0g'rsm;/ vkyif ef;pOfrsm;/ oH;k yGihf qdik u
f pd /P
zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpk wnfaqmufa&;rsm; ndE‡ i_d ;f aqG;aEG;onf?
2002 ckEpS f ZGev
f (5)&ufae@wiG f befaumuf&dS aemfa0;oH&;kH zdwaf c:csuf
t& UNLD (LA) . rl0g'rsm;/ vkyif ef;pOfrsm;/ ENSCC vkyif ef;rsm;/ oH;k yGihf
qdik u
f pd rP sm; oGm;a&muf&iS ;f vif; wifjyonf? 2002 ckEpS f ZGev
f (11) &ufae@
wGif Edik if w
H uma&muf UNLD(LA) ud, k pf m;vS,rf sm;od@k wm0efay;tyf
a=umif; pmxkwaf y;onf? 2002 ckEpS f ZGev f (15) &ufae@ rGejf ynfe,fo@kd
oGm;a&muf+yD; jynfwGif;rS acgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh oHk;yGifhqdkifaqG;aEG;a&;wGif
UNLD(LA) taetxm; rsm;ESihf ywfoufI aqG;aEG;=uonf?

77
jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)

2002 ckEpS f ZGev f (27) &ufae@wiG f KNPP XmecsKyfwiG f NDF acgi;f


aqmifrsm;/ UNLD (LA) acgi;f aqmifrsm;/ ENSCC acgi;f aqmifrsm; wd@k onf
wdik ;f &if;om;rsm;oH;k yGiq hf ikd af qG;aEG;yJG jyifqifa&;twGuf !SEd i_d ;f aqG;aEG;=u
onf? 2002 ckEpS f ZGev f (28) &ufae@wiG f NDF acgi;f aqmifrsm;/ UNLD(LA)
acgi;f aqmifrsm;ESit hf wl UN txl;ud, k pf m;vS,f Mr. &mZmvD ud, k pf m;vS,f
Mr. Leon ESihf oH;k yGiq hf ikd af wG@qakH &;udpP aqG;aEG;=uonf?
2002 ck =o*kwv f (21) &ufae@wiG f UNLD(LA) ESihf NDF yl;wJI G
Dag Hammarskjold Foundation ES;D aESmzvS,y fu
GJ si;f y&eftwGuf yl;wJG
aumfrwDw&yfukd zJ@G pnf;vku d of nf? 2002 ck =o*kwv f (23) &ufae@wiG f
UNLD(LA) ESihf NDF yl;wJG usi;f y jyKvkyr f nfh jynfe,frsm; zJ@G pnf;tkycf sKyfykH
tajccHOya'a&;qJaG &; ES;D aESmzvS,yf GJ usi;f y&eftwGuf SCSC usi;f ya&;
aumfrwDw&yfukd zJ@G pnf;vduk of nf?
2002 ck pufwifbmv (20) &ufrS atmufwb kd m (20) &uftxd
=opaw;vswiG f aexdik pf OftwGi;f wdik ;f &if;om;tiftm;pk tzJ@G tpnf;rsm;/
'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pkrsm;. awmif;qdkcsuft& UNLD(LA) . rl0g'ESifh
vkyif ef;pOfrsm;/ zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpk wnfaqmufa&;/ oH;k yGiq hf ikd af wG@qkH
aqG;aEG;a&;tay: oabmxm;tjrifrsm;udk ESp}f urd w f ikd f &Si;f vif;wifjyonf?
2002 ck atmufwb kd mv (23) &ufae@wiG f UNLD(LA) ESihf NDF rS yl;wJG
zJ@G pnf;xm;aom jynfe,frsm;zJ@G pnf;tkycf sKyfykH tajccHOya' ES;D aESmzvS,yf GJ
usi;f ya&;aumfrwD SCSC tpnf;ta0;jyKvyk o f nf? 2002 ck atmufwb kd m
(18) &ufrS Ed0k ifbmv (1) &uf UNLD(LA) ESihf NDF yl;wJG zJ@G pnf;xm;aom
SCSC aumfrwDonf ESD;aESmzvS,fyJGusif;y&eftwGuf t+yD;oyfnd‡Ed_if;
tpnf;ta0; jyKvkyo f nf?2002 ck Ed0k ifbmv (4) &ufrS (6) &ufae@txd
jynfe,frsm;zJ@G pnf; tkycf sKyfyt
kH ajccH Oya'ES;D aESmzvS,yf }GJ u;D udk atmifjrifpmG
usi;f yjyKvkycf o
hJ nf?
2002 ck Ed0k ifbmv (13) &ufae@wiG f UNLD(LA) acgi;f aqmifrsm;ESihf
NDF acgi;f aqmifrsm;yl;wJI G Dag Hammarskjold Foundation ud, k pf m;
vS,rf sm;wd@k EiS hf ES;D aESmzvS,yf u
GJ si;f y&eftwGuf n‡Ed i_d ;f tpnf;ta0; jyKvkyf
onf? 2002 ckEpS f Ed0k ifbmv (18) &ufrS (20) &uftxd UNLD(LA) ESihf
NDF OD;aqmif+y;D wdik ;f &if;om;tiftm;pk tzJ@G tpnf;rsm; yg0ifaom wdik ;f &if;
om;rsm;ESihf trsKd ;om;jyefvnfoifjh rwf &if=um;apha&;jy\em/ wdik ;f &if;om;

78
'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf;

rsm;ESihf rl;,pfaq;0g;jy\em/ wdik ;f &if;om;rsm; vlrt _ =uyftwnf; jy\em


rsm; ponfah cgi;f pOf 3 csut f ay: ES;D aESmzvS,yf GJ usi;f yjyKvkycf o hJ nf? 2002
ckEpS f 'DZifbmv (16) &ufae@rS (18) &ufae@txd UNLD(LA) 2003 ck
twGuf cef@reS ;f ajcbwf*suf aiGpm&if;a&;qJjG yKpkonf? 2003 ck Zefe0g&v D
(8) &ufrS (12) &ufae@txd UNLD(LA) ESihf NDF wd@k rS yl;wJI G Edik if w
H um
ynm&Sirf sm; ESihf awmfveS af &;tzJ@G tpnf; xdyyf ikd ;f acgi;f aqmifrsm; toD;oD;
yg0ifaom Dag Hammarskjold Foundation ES;D aESm zvS,yf u GJ kd usi;f yjyKvyk f
cJo
h nf? 2003 ck Zefe0g&v D (23) &ufae@rS (26) &ufae@txd SCC rS }uD;rSL;
usi;f yaom r[mAsL[mndE‡ i_d ;f a&; tpnf;ta0;od@k UNLD(LA) ud, k pf m;
yg0if wufa&mufco hJ nf?
pnf;&H;k a&; aumfrwDvyk if ef;ESihf r[mrdwaf &;&m aumfrwDvyk if ef;rsm;
onf rl0g'a&;&maumfrwDEiS hf Edik if jH cm;a&;&maumfrwDw@kd EiS hf vkyif ef;qufpyf
aeygojzifh oD;jcm;I‚if;/ yl;wGI J ‚if; vkyaf qmifvmcJah =umif; wifjytyfygonf?
UNLD(LA) ESpE f pS w
f mumv aqmif&u G o
f nfh vkyif ef;rsm;teuf rl0g'a&;&m
ESihf Edik if w
H uma&;&m vkyif ef;wGi‚f if;/ r[mrdwEf iS phf nf;&H;k a&;&m vkyif ef;rsm;
wGif‚if; atmifjrifr_rsm;pGm awG@&Sd&a=umif;wifjytyfygonf? odk@&mwGif
UNLD(LA) . jyef=um;a&;vkyi f ef; tm;enf;v#u&f +dS yD; TnDvmcH}uD;rS
0dik ;f 0ef;+yD; t}uHjyKcsurf sm;udk }udKqdv
k #u&f adS =umif; wifjytyfygonf?
aemufq;kH taejzifh wifjyvdo
k nfrmS jynfwiG ;f qufo,
G af &;vkyif ef;udk
txl;OD;pm;ay; vkyfaqmifv#uf&Sd+yD; wdk;IvkyfaqmifoGm;&ef&Sda=umif;
wifjyvdyk gonf?
av;pm;pGmjzifh
OuUX
r[mrdwaf &;&mESihf pnf;&H;k a&;&m aumfrwD
2003 ck azaz:0g&v
D (10) &ufae@?

***************

79
tydik ;f (3)

nDvmcHo@kd wifoiG ;f aompmwrf;rsm;tay:


jyefvnfaqG;aEG;a0zefjcif;ESit
hf wnfjyKjcif;?
jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)

rl0g'a&;&mrSwifoGif;aompmwrf;rsm;udk &Sif;vif;wifjyaqG;aEG;jcif;?

3;1 rl0g'a&;&mESifh EdkifiHwumqufqHa&;aumfrwDudk,fpm;


twG i f ; a&;rS L ; qvd k i f ; vsef r _ e f ; u t*F v d y f b momjzif h
a&;om;wifoGif;aompmwrf;udk &Sif;vif;wifjyjcif;?

usaemfph mwrf;udk }udKwifjzef@a0xm;+yD;jzpfwthJ wGuf pmwrf;rSmygwt hJ wdik ;f


tao;pdyw f ifjyjcif;rvkyaf wmhyJ twwfEikd q
f ;kH tusO;f csK;H +y;D wifjyoGm;zd@k }uKd ;
pm;oGm;rSm jzpfygw,f?
jynfaxmifpw k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf[m 'Dru kd a&pDa&;
ESihf ppfreS af omzuf'&,f jynfaxmifpx k al xmifa&;twGuf wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;
aygi;f pHk vufww GJ u kd yf 0GJ ifEikd zf @kd zJ@G pnf;xlaxmifcw hJ hJ Edik if aH &;tzJ@G csKyf}uD;wck
jzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifh UNLD(LA) udk vGwaf jrmufe,fajrrSm jyefvnfz@GJ pnf;
wJt h cgrmS - rlv UNLD jynfwiG ;f rSmcsrw S x f m;cJw
h hJ rl0g'ESiahf y:vpDrsm;udk
waoGrwdr;f vdu k ef moGm;r,f qufvufxed ;f odr;f oGm;r,fq+kd y;D UNLD (LA)
&Jh yxrt}urd n f v D mcHwek ;f u qH;k jzwfomG ;cJyh gw,f? 'ga=umifh usaemfph mwrf;
xJrmS UNLD &J&h nf&, G cf suf (6) &yfEiS hf tem*gwzf uf'&,f Edik if aH wmfxal xmif
Edik af &;twGuf UNLD csrw S x f m;wJh vrf;!Gerf l (7) &yfw@kd ukd usaemfjyefvnf
az: jyxm;ygw,f? (*)
'Dae@usaemftxl;wifjycsifwJhtydkif;uawmh UNLD(LA) &Jhyxr
t}urd n f v
D mcHu csrwS x
f m;cJw h hJ rl0g'a&;&mESihf ay:vpDyikd ;f qdik &f mudprP sm;udk
b,fvkd aqmif&u G tf aumiftxnf az:cJw h t
hJ ydik ;f udk OD;pm;ay;wifjyoGm;rSm
jzpfygw,f? rl0g'a&;&mESiyhf wfouf+y;D yxrnDvmcHwek ;f u csrw S f qH;k jzwfcsuf
rsm;xJrmS t"dutm;jzift h csuEf pS cf suyf g0ifcyhJ gw,f? 'gawGu
wpf - 1994 urBmu h v k or*~tzG@J csKyf}uD;&Jh taxGaxGnv D mcH (UNGA)
csrw S xf m;wJt h wdik ;f usaemfw@kd jynfaxmif&jhJ y\emrsm;udo k ;kH yGihf
qdik af qG;aEG;yJeG @J ajz&Si;f a&;? ‚if;oH;k yGiq
hf ikd af qG;aEG;yJG jzpfay:vma&;
twGuf wdik ;f &if;om;wd@k zufrS jyifqifrr_ sm;jyKvkyEf ikd &f ef UNLD
(LA) rSwwfEi kd o
f a&G@ Initiative ,l+yD; aqmif&u G o f mG ;&ef?
_________________________
(*) pmrsuE
f mS 27-28 wGi&f y_ g?

82
'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf;

ESpf - eHygwEf pS uf awmh usaemfw@kd UNLD(LA) .Edik if aH &; yef;wdik jf zpfwhJ


ppfreS af om zuf'&,fEikd if aH wmf xlaxmifa&;ESihf ywfoufygw,f?
usaemfw@kd tem*gwjf ynfaxmifpu k kd ppfreS af omzuf'&,fEikd if aH wmf
eJ@ xlaxmifEikd &f if/ usaemfw@kd &hJ Edik if aH wmfz@GJ pnf;yHt k ajccHOya'udk
zuf'&,ft*F g&yfawGeJ@tnDa&;qJGjyXmef;zdk@ vdktyfygw,f?
zuf'&,f t*F g&yfawGe@J tnD Edik if aH wmfz@GJ pnf;yHk tajccHOya'udk
a&;qJzG @kd qdw k ahJ e&mrSmvnf;yJ usaemfw@kd qv kd w
kd mu jynfaxmifpk
k ajccHOya' (Federal Constitution) wckxu
zJ@G pnf;yHt J kd qdv k w
kd m
r[kwb f ;l ? zuf'&,fpepfukd usio hf ;kH r,fq&kd if Federal Consti-
tution wckxJeJ@ rvHkavmufygbl;? jynfaxmifpktzJG@tzJG@0if
trsKd ;om;jynfe,frsm;[m rdrw d @kd &hJ jynfe,fz@GJ pnf;yHk tajccHOya'
udk oD;jcm;a&;om; jyXmef;Edik &f rSmjzpfygw,f? usaemf qdv k w
kd mu
jynfe,frsm;&Jh zJ@G pnf;yHt k ajccHOya'r&Syd J ppfreS w f jhJ ynfaxmifppk epf/
zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpq k w
kd m r&SEd ikd bf ;l ? jzpfvnf; rjzpfEikd yf gb;l ?
'ga=umifu
h saemfw@kd yxrt}urd n f v
D mcHwek ;f u UNLD(LA) tae jzifh
jynfaxmifpt k zJ@G 0if trsKd ;om;jynfe,ftoD;oD;u rdrw d @kd jynfe,fz@GJ pnf;yHk
tajccHOya' a&;qJjG yXmef;Edik af &;twGuf tm;ay;ulno D mG ;rnf qd+k y;D qH;k jzwf
xm;cJyh gw,f? 'gayr,fh jynfe,frsm;&Jh zJ@G pnf;yHt k ajccHOya'a&;qJaG &;vkyif ef;
eJ@ ywfoufwt hJ pD&ifcpH mudk oD;jcm;tcsed rf mS wifoiG ;f oGm;rSmjzpfwt hJ wGuf
tck awmh oH;k yGiqhf ikd af qG;aEG;yJG az:aqmifEikd af &;twGuf usaemfw@kd &hJ ESpEf pS w f m
umv }udK;yrf;aqmif&u G rf r_ sm;udk tusO;f csKH ;+yD; wifjyoGm;rSmjzpfygw,f?

hf ikd af qG;aEG;yJG jzpfay:Edik af &;twGuf UNLD(LA) .}uKd ;yrf; aqmif&u


oH;k yGiq G f
csufrsm;?
oH;k yGiq
hf ikd af qG;aEG;yJG jzpfay:Edik af &;twGuf usaemfw@kd &}hJ uKd ;yrf; aqmif&uG f
csurf sm;eJ@ ywfouf+yD; usaemftus,w f 0if&h iS ;f vif; wifjyvdyk gw,f? wcsKd @
tydik ;f u usaemfph mwrf;xJrmS tao;pdyrf xnfch w hJ mawG &Syd gw,f? 'gawGukd
acgi;f aqmif}uD;rsm; od&EdS ikd af tmif wifjyvdyk gw,f?
usaemfw@kd ausmif;om;rsm; 1988 uwnf;uOD;aqmif qifEcGJ w hJ hJ 'Dru
kd
a&pDta&;awmfy}kH uD;[m t+yD;owfatmifyGJ rqifEEGJ idk af o;ayr,fh ordik ;f rSm
rSww
f rf;wifxu kd w
f hJ atmifjrifr_ 2-ck uawmh usaemfw@kd &&Sxd m;ygw,f?

83
jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)

'gawGuawmh 1990 ckarvrSm usi;f ycJw h hJ a&G;aumufyaGJ tmifyeGJ @J 1994


ckrmS urBmu
h vk or*~taxGaxG nDvmcHrmS qH;k jzwfcw hJ hJ oH;k yGiq
hf ikd f aqG;aEG;yJeG @J
usaemfw@kd jynfaxmifp&k EhJ ikd if aH &; jy\emuudk ajz&Si;f a&; wd@k yjJ zpfygw,f?
1990 a&G;aumufyu GJ 'Dru kd a&pDtiftm;pkrsm;udEk ikd if aH &; Legitimacy ay;cJh
ovdk 1994 UNGA &Jq h ;kH jzwfcsuu f usaemfw@kd wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;&Jh
tcef;u¾udk todtrSwjf yK+yD; Edik if aH &; Legitimacy udyk gay;Edik cf yhJ gw,f?
UNLD uae+yD; oHk;yGifhqdkifaqG;aEG;yJGqdkif&m qHk;jzwfcsufudk 1994
uwnf; ucsrw S cf +hJ y;D jzpfayr,fh usaemfw@kd wikd ;f &if;om;bufu 'gukd trdt&
qkyfudkif+yD; EdkifiHa&;wdkufuGuftjzpf EdkifiHa&;r[mAsL[meJ@ enf;AsL[m
tjzpftoH;k rcsEikd cf yhJ gb;l ? wzufrmS vnf; e0wppftpd;k &uenf;rsKd ;pHek @J 'gukd
acszsuf z d k @ }ud K ;pm;cJ h y gw,f ? e0w&J h x d k ; ppf x J r S m usaemf w d k @ buf u
temqHk;xdk;ppfuawmh wcsdK@aom usaemfwdk@ wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;&Jh
vufeufuikd af wmfveS af &; tiftm;pkrsm;eJ@ Cease-fire vkyo f mG ; Edik w
f m
yJjzpfygw,f? usaemfw@kd wdik ;f &if;om;bufrmS tiftm;}u;D rm;wJh vufeufuikd f
awmfveS af &;tiftm; — txl;ojzifh KIO, ESihf NMSP, wd@k Cease-fire
vufrSwfa&;xdk;+yD;wJh aemufydkif; e0wubmjyef ajymovJqdkawmh —
oHk;yGifhqdkif aqG;aEG;yJGqdkwm vHk;0rvdkygbl;? wdkif;&if;om; vufeufudkif
tzJG@tpnf;awGeJ@ igwdk@ Cease-fire awGvkyfaeygw,f? pmcsKyfawG
vufrw S af wG xd;k aeygw,f? 'ga=umifh oH;k yGiq hf ikd af qG;aEG;yJG qdw
k mrvdyk gb;l
vd@k Edik if w
H umudk 0g'rdi_ ;f wdu k cf yhJ gw,f? 'guusaemfw@kd 'Dru kd a&pDtiftm;pk
rsm;udk awmfawmftxdemapcJyh gw,f?
'Dvekd @J — 1998 ckEpS f uae'gEikd if aH tmw0g;+rdK@rmS usi;f ycJw
h phJ nf;a0;yJG
wckrmS — NCGUB 0ef}u;D csKyf a'guw f mpde0f if;u uae'D,yH gvrD efrmS rde@f ceG ;f
ajymcJyh gw,f? tJ'h rD ed @f ceG ;f rSm olbmajymcJo h vJqakd wmh — usaemfw@kd wikd ;f jynf
&Jh Edik if aH &;jy\em}uD;udk ajz&Si;f &eftaumif;qH;k enf;vrf;uawmh UNGA
qH;k jzwfcsut f wdik ;f Tripartite Dialogue eJ@ajz&Si;f a&;yJ jzpfygw,f? 'D Tri-
partite Dialogue rSm -
(1) ppftpd;k &
(2) a':atmifqef;pk=unfO;D aqmifwhJ 'Dru kd a&pDtiftm;pkrsm;
(3) wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;pkrsm;
yg0ifaqG;aEG;+yD; Edik if aH &;jy\emtm;vH;k udk ajz&Si;f tajz&Smzd@k jzpfygw,f vd@k
olajymcJyh gw,f?
84
'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf;

0ef}uD;csKyfa'gufwmpdef0if;u uae'D,HygvDrefrSm rdef@cGef;ay;+yD;wJh


aemuf ar;cGef;xGufvmwmu/ [kwf+yD — oHk;yGifhqdkifrSmyg0ifaqG;aEG;zdk@
e0wu wckwnf;xJjzpfae=uw,f? 'Dru kd a&pDtiftm;pkrsm;vJyJ a':pk&hJ
OD;aqmifr_ atmufrmS nD!w G af e=uw,f? 'gayr,fh — wdik ;f &if;om; vlrsKd ;rsm;
usawmh b,fvv kd yk rf vJ? vlrsKd ;aygi;f 'Davmufrsm;wm/ ygwaD ygi;f 'Davmuf
rsm;wm/ b,fvv kd yk +f yD;nD!w G af tmifvyk rf vJ? b,fou
l OD;aqmifrvJ —
qd+k yD;awmh ar;cGe;f awGxu G vf mygw,f?
'ga=umifh usaemfw@kd pOf;pm;=unfw h thJ cgusawmh — 1990 a&G;aumuf
yJG rSm NLD wygwx D w J mtEdik &f wmr[kwb f ;l ? wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;&Jh
Edik if aH &; ygwaD wGvnf; tEdik &f wmygy?J UNLD &Jt h zJ@G 0ifygwaD wGu qd&k if
trwfae&m (67) ae&mawmifEikd cf w hJ myJ? 'ga=umifo h ;kH yGiq
hf ikd rf mS wdik ;f &if;om;
rsm; jyifqifEikd zf @kd / 1990 a&G;aumufyrGJ mS tEdik &f cJw h hJ UNLD udEk ikd if aH &; Le-
gitimacy &Sw d hJ tzJ@G csKyjf zpfwt hJ wGuf ‚if;udt k ajcjyK+y;D wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;&Jh
Legitimacy &Sw d hJ Edik if aH &; Platform tjzpftoH;k cs+yD; oH;k yGiq hf ikd af qG;aEG;yJG
twGuf jyifqifrr_ sm;udk vkyaf qmifomG ;=uzd@k oabmwlc=hJ uygw,f?
wqufwnf;rSmyJ uae'gtpd;k &u ‚if;oH;k yGiq hf ikd af qG;aEG;yJt
G wGuf jyif
qifEikd af &;/ txl;ojzifw h ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; jyifqifEikd af &;twGuf &HyakH iGyg
ay;vmcJyh gw,f? tJ'&D yH akH iG[m tck bmjzpfomG ;ovJqakd wmh National
Reconcilaition Program (NRP) jzpfomG ;ygw,f? tpu usaemfw@kd pOf;pm;cJh
wmuawmh NRP Program udk UNLD atmufrmS xm;+yD; aqmif&u G zf @kd y?J
od@k aomf aemufyikd ;f usaemfw@kd aqG;aEG;wdik yf if=unfw h t hJ cg usawmh — NRP
Program [mus,u f s,jf yef@jyef@ vkyo f ifw h ,f? UNLD wckxeJ @J vyk w f mxuf
yd+k y;D us,jf yef@atmif — wdik ;f &if;om;vufeufuikd f tzJ@G tpnf;tm;vH;k vnf;
csKH iHEk ikd af tmif/ 'Dru
kd a&pDtiftm;pk tm;vH;k twGuv f nf; tusKd ;&Sad tmif
vkyaf qmif&r,fq+kd yD; qH;k jzwfcyhJ gw,f? wzufrmS vnf; tJ'w D ek ;f u UNLD
udu k saemfw@kd yDyjD yifjyifjyefvnf rzJ@G pnf;Edik cf ahJ o;bl;? +yD;awmhvw G af jrmuf
e,fajrudk a&muf&v dS mwJh UNLD tzJ@G 0iftiftm;uvnf; enf;ygw,f?
enf;yg;&Hw k ifrubl; urBmt h ESjH yef@usaJ e=uwJth wGuf pkpnf;zd@k uvnf; cufcJ
cJyh gw,f? 'ga=umifh NRP ay:vmawmh UNLD u NRP &Jh Component wck
tjzpfygvmwm jzpfygw,f? trSeu f NRP udk UNLD atmufrmS aqmif&u G f
taumiftxnfaz:zd@k ? bmbJjzpfjzpftckvkd NRP udu k s,u f s,f jyef@jyef@
zJ@G pnf;Edik w f mudk usaemfw@kd tm;vH;k 0rf;om}udKqd&k rSm jzpfygw,f? UNLD
85
jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)

udv
k nf; LA tjzpfe@J jyefvnfxal xmif jzpfw,f? tm;vH;k twGuf tusKd ;&Sw
d hJ
NRP vkyi f ef;pOfuv
kd nf; vkyjf zpfomG ;ygw,f?

UNLD(LA) - NDF Joint Action Committee udz


k @GJ pnf;jcif;?
qdak wmhusaemfwifjycsiw f hJ ta=umif;&if;uawmh oH;k yGiq hf ikd f Tripartitie
Dialogue az:aqmifEi kd af &;twGuf usaemfw@kd &}hJ udK;yrf;csuyf J jzpfygw,f?
UNLD(LA) &Jy h xrnDvmcHrmS qH;k jzwfxm;wJt h wdik ;f oH;k yGiq hf ikd af qG;aEG;yJG
jzpfay:Edik af &;udk usaemfw@kd }udK;yrf;wJt h cgrmS yxrtqift h aeeJ@usaemfw@kd
vkyfaqmifoGm;wmuawmh — usaemfwdk@&Jh r[mrdwftiftm;pkrsm;eJ@
em;vnfr&_ ,l+yD; vufwt GJ vkyv f yk af qmifEikd af &; — jzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifh
nDvmcH+yD;+yD;csi;f usaemfw@kd &ehJ m,u}uD; Dr. Chao Tzang Yawnghwe
OD;aqmif+yD; t+rJwrf;obmywdtzJG@0if trwf}uD; cGef;ref;udkbef;ESifh
twGi;f a&;rSL; usaemfqvdik ;f vserf e_ ;f wd@k omG ;+y;D awmh NDF, KNU, KNPP eJ@
NMSP wd@k uo kd mG ;awG@ cJyh gw,f? aemufyikd ;f vnf; wjznf;jznf; SSA, CNF
pwJth zJ@G tpnf;rsm;udv k nf; ndE‡ i_d ;f wdik yf ifaqG;aEG;+y;D olw@kd &t hJ }uu H , kd w
l ,f?
olw@kd &hJ yl;aygi;f aqmif&u G rf u _ kd zdwaf c:cJyh gw,f?
yxrtqift h aeeJ@ usaemfw@kdvyk af qmifEikd cf w hJ mu UNLD(LA) - NDF
Joint Action Committee udz k @GJ pnf;Edik cf jhJ cif; jzpfygw,f? tJ'D Joint Action
Committee rSm NDF zufrS KNU OuUX}u;D apmboif/ NDF &Jh tJ' hwD ek ;f u
taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;wm0efukd xrf;aqmifcw hJ hJ cdik pf ;kd Edik af tmif ESihf NDF
tzJ@G vnf;jzpf/ CNF &JEh ikd if jH cm;a&;wm0efcv H nf; jzpfwhJ Dr. Sui Khar wd@k yg0ifchJ
ygw,f? usaemfw@kd UNLD(LA) zufrmS uawmh em,u}u;D Dr. Chao Tzang
Yawnghwe t+rJwrf;obmywdtzJ@G 0if cGe;f ref;udb k ef;ESihf twGi;f a&;rSL;
usaemfqvdik ;f vserf e_ ;f wd@k yg0ifcyhJ gw,f?
ouU&mZf 2002 rwfvrSm UNLDESihf NDF yl;aygi;f +yD;awmh — urBmh
ukvor*~tzJ@G csKy}f u;D &H;k pduk &f me,l;a,muf+rKd @ukd ud,
k pf m;vS,of ;kH OD;apv$wf
+yD; urBmhukvor*~ taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;&Jh jrefrmEdkifiHqdkif&m txl;
ud, k pf m;vS,f &mZmvDtpfpaf r;eJ@ oGm;a&mufawG@qakH qG;aEG;+y;D wdik ;f &if;om;
vlrsdK;rsm;&Jhtajctae/ tb,fa=umifh ESpf&Snfvrsm; vufeufudkif
awmfveS af &;udk qifEaGJ e&ovJ/ 'Djy\em}u;D +ird ;f csr;f pGmajz&Si;f Edik zf @kd bmawG
vdt k yfovJ/ rdrwd @kd &&hJ yfwnfcsuu f bm&So
d vJ ponfw@kd ukd oGm;a&muf
wifjycJhygw,f? udk,fpm;vS,ftzJG@rS txl;wifjycJhwJh tcsufuawmh —
86
'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf;

,ae@usaemfw@kd &ifqikd af e&wJh Edik if aH &;jy\em[m e0w (etz) ppftpd;k &


ajymovdk “vlrsKd ;a&;yÉdyuQ” (Ethnic Conflict) r[kwaf =umif;/ bmjzpfv@kd vJ
qdkawmh usaemfwdk@qifEJGaewJh awmfvSefa&;[m vlrsdK;a&; rkef;wD;r_
tay:rSmtajccHwhJ awmfveS af &;vH;k 0 (vH;k 0) r[kwaf =umif;/ wdik ;f &if;om;
tcsi;f csi;f t=um;rSm wdu k cf ukd rf v_ nf; r&Sad =umif;/ ArmESio hf #r;f / o#r;f ESi&hf cdik /f
csi;f ESihf ucsif ponf tm;jzifv h rl sKd ; wrsKd ;ESiw hf rsKd ;t=um;rSm wdu k yf &GJ efvrkd _
vH;k 0r&Sad =umif;/ xd@k a=umifh wjcm;urBmrSm jzpf yGm;aewJh Ethnic Conflict
rsKd ;vdk — Oyrm Former Yugoslavia rSmjzpfymG ;wJh Ethnic Conflict vdk vlrsKd ;
wrsKd ;ESihf wrsKd ;t=um;rSm tcsi;f csi;f wdu k cf ukd rf r_ sKd ; usaemfw@kd qrD mS vH;k 0r&Sw d hJ
ta=umif;/ tu,fv@kd usaemfw@kd &hJ jy\emudk Ethnic Conflict vd@k ac:&if
awmifrS Horizontal Conflict vdk@ac:wJh tvsm;vdkuf jzpfyGm;wJh vlrsdK;
tcsi;f csi;f wdu k cf u kd w
f m rsKd ;r[kwyf J Vertical Conflict vd@k ac:wJh axmifvu kd f
jzpfymG ;wJh yÉdyuQ — tpd;k & ESiw hf ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;pk tygt0if Armvlxk
w&yfv;Hk yg yg0ifywfoufwhJ yÉdyuQomv#if jzpfa=umif;/ ppftpd;k &taejzifh
usaemfw@kd &hJ Edik if aH &;jy\emudk Ethnic Conflict [kurBmudk a=unmjcif;rSm
olw@kd tm%mwnf+rJa&;udk &nf&, G cf suf &S&d edS @J vyk af qmifaewmjzpfa=umif;/
olw@kd qv kd &kd if;udk qef;ppfv#if tajzu — “igw@kd omr&Sv d #if wdik ;f &if;om;
tcsi;f csi;f wdu k cf ukd +f yD; wdik ;f jynf+ydKuJo G mG ;rnf? 'ga=umifh tiftm;}uD;rm;wJh
ppftpd;k &vdt k yfw,f” qd+k yD; urBmudv k rd v f nfjcif; omjzpfa=umif;/ trSef
pifppf usaemfwdk@wdkif;jynf&Jh EdkifiHa&;jy\em}uD;[m EdkifiHwumzJG@pnf;yHk
tajccHOya'ESihf wdu k &f u
kd yf wfoufwjhJ y\emjzpfa=umif;/ wenf;tm;jzifh
“yifvHkpmcsKyf” udktaumiftxnfraz:Edkifjcif;/ wdkif;&if;om; vlrsdK;rsm;
udk,fydkifjyXmef;cGifh (Self-determination) qHk;&H_;r_tay:rsm; tajcpdkufwJh
jy\emjzpfa=umif;/ pmwrf;ESiw hf uG wifjycJyh gw,f? ‚if; UNLD-NDF ud, k f
pm;vS,t f zJ@G u urBmu h v k or*~txl;ud, k pf m;vS,f rpPwm&mZmvD tygt
0if urBmu h vk or*~tzJ@G csKy}f u;D &Jh Edik if aH &;XmerSm t}u;D qH;k jzpfwhJ Mr Danielo
Turk (Under Secretary General of Political Affair), ESihf UN rSm&Sw d hJ EU
Commission, +yD;awmh Washington DC rSmvnf; State Department u
yk*K~d vfrsm;ESihf awG@qakH qG;aEG;r_rsm; jyKvkycf yhJ gw,f? ‚if; UN Mision rSm
yg0ifwhJ ud, k pf m;vS,rf sm;uawmh Dr. Chao Tzang Yawnghwe, Saw David
Taw (KNU/NDF) ESihf UNLD twGi;f a&;rSL; Dr. Lian Hmung Sakhong
wd@k jzpfygw,f?

87
jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)

ENSCC ay:vmjcif;

oHk;yGifhqdkifaqG;aEG;yJG az:aqmifa&;vkyfief;pOfrsm;udk aqmif&Gufzdk@


UNLD-NDF Joint Action Committee udu k saemfw@kd zJ@G pnf;Edik cf ahJ yr,fh tJ'D
aumfrwDrmS rygEikd w
f hJ — NDF tzJ@G 0ifr[kww f hJ vufeufuikd t f zJ@G tpnf;
tawmfrsm;rsm; &Sdaeao;w,fqdkwmudk usaemfwdk@oGm;awG@&ygw,f?
txl;ojzifh KNPP ESihf SSA(S) wd@k ryg0ifEikd cf w
hJ m usaemfw@kd tiftm;udk
avsmah pcJw
h ,fv@kd oH;k oyfcrhJ yd gw,f?
'ga=umifh Tripartite Dialogue twGuf us,u f s,jf yef@jyef@ jyifqifEikd f
a&;twGuf ENSCC (Ethnic Nationalities Solidarity and Cooperation
Committee) ouU&mZf 2001 ckEp S f =o*kwv f rSmusi;f ywJh “wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;
rsm;ES;D aESmzvS,yf ”GJ (Ethnic National Seminar) rSmzJ@G pnf;cJyh gw,f? ‚if;
ENSCC rSm UNLD ESihf NDF rSu, kd pf m;vS,rf sm;tjyif KNPP rSu, kd pf m;
vS,rf sm;vnf; yg0ifvmEdik cf yhJ gw,f? SSA(S) ESit hf jcm;vufeufuikd f tzJ@G
tpnf;wcsdK@vnf; usaemfwdk@eJ@ vufwJG+yD; aqmif&Gufvm =uygw,f?
(wif;jynft h zJ@G 0if taeeJ@awmh tajctaet& ryg0ifEikd af o;ygb;l )?
ENSCC &Jh t"du&nf&G,fcsufuawmh oHk;yGifhqdkifaqG;aEG;yJGjzpfay:
vmEdik af &;twGuf Armr[kww f hJ wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;&Jh Edik if aH &;ygwrD sm;ESihf
vufeuftzJ@G tpnf;rsm;udk pkpnf;Edik af &;yJ jzpfygw,f? ‚if;tiftm;pkrsm;udk
t=urf;tm;jzifh (4) rsKd ; (4) tkypf t
k jzpf cGjJ cm;Edik yf gw,f? ‚if; (4) tkypf u k awmh
(1) UNLD rSmpkpnf;yg0ifae=uwJh Edik if aH &;tzJ@G tpnf;rsm;
(2) NDF tzJ@G 0if vufeufuikd t f iftm;pkrsm;
(3) NDF tzJ@G 0ifr[kww f hJ vufeufuikd t f iftm;pkrsm;
(4) Cease-fire tzJ@G rsm;qd+k yD; (4) rsKd ;eJ@ owfrwS Ef ikd yf gw,f?
ENSCC taeeJ@ Tripartite Dialogue jzpfay:vmEdkifa&;twGuf
aqmif&u G wf thJ cgrmS usaemfw@kd ay:vpDuawmh olrsm;vkyw f mudk xdik af pmifh
raebJ ud, k u f Initiative ,l+yD; Proactive jzpfz@kd yjJ zpfygw,f? 'ga=umifh
usaemfw@kd ENSCC &Jh Policy Paper udv k nf;xkwjf yefcyhJ gw,f? 'D Policy
Paper uawmh "The New Panglong Initiative: Re-Building the Union
of Burma" (yifvp kH w
d "f gwu
f kd tajccHaom jynfaxmifpjk yefvnf wnfaqmuf
a&; pDrcH su)f yJjzpfygw,f? tJ'D pmwrf;udu k saemf&hJ 'kw,
d pmwrf;jzpfwhJ "Eth-
nic Nationalities Initiative on Tripartite Dialogue: Report on Activi-

88
'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf;

ties of ENSCC" qdw


k phJ mwrf;rSm aemufqufwt
GJ jzpfe@J wJaG y;xm;ygw,f?
vl}uD;rif;rsm; tao;pdyf avhvmzwf&z_ @kd wdu
k w
f eG ;f csiyf gw,f? (*)
ENSCC &Jh Policy Paper jzpfwhJ The New Panglong Initiative udk
usaemfw@kd &hJ r[mrdwt f iftm;pkrsm;xJ csjy+y;D us,u f s,jf yef@jyef@ aqG;aEG;r_rsm;
jyKvkycf yhJ gw,f? 'ga=umifh 'gukd 'Dru kd a&pDtiftm;pkrsm;u ouU&mZf 2001
ck Zefe0g&v D rSm Strategy Consultation Committee (SCC) u OD;aqmif
usi;f ywJh ES;D aESmzvS,yf rGJ mS wcJeufaxmufcH tm;ay;oGm;ygw,f? 'gt h jyif
'Day:vpDukd usaemfw@kd pu GJ ikd +f yD; Edik if wH umudv
k nf; Lobby oGm;cJyh gw,f?
ouU&mZf 2001 'DZifbmv (10) &ufrmS usa&mufwhJ a':atmifqef;pk=unf&hJ
Edb
k ,fqak y;yJG tESpw f &mjynfrh *FvmrSm usaemfw@kd ENSCC acgi;f aqmifrsm;
u aemfa0;Edik if H atmfpvd+k rdK@uo kd mG ;a&muf+yD; ENSCC &Jah y:vpDrsm;udk Edik if H
wum acgi;f aqmif}uD;rsm;a&SŒrSm csjyaqG;aEG;Edik cf yhJ gw,f? atmfpvdck &D;pOf
t+yD;rSmvnf;yJ usaemfw@kd EU XgecsKyf&&dS mb,fv*f s, D EH ikd if H b&mq,f+rdK@/
tDwvDEikd if H a&mr+rdK@ (tDwvDEikd if u H EU OuUXvkycf w hJ t hJ csed u
f ) wd@k ukd
oGm;+yD; pnf;&H;k a&;c&D;pOfrsm; jyKvkyEf ikd cf yhJ gw,f?
+y;D awmh ouU&mZf 2002 ck pufwifbmvrSm 'de;f rwfEikd if H udyk ifa[*if
+rdK@rmS usi;f ywJh EU-ASEAN SUMMIT eJ@csed u f u
kd +f yD; usaemfw@kd uvnf;
Burma Summit w&yf u d k u sif ; ycJ h y gw,f ? tJ ' D r S m "Copenhagen
Declaretion" udy k ifa[*if xkwjf yefa=unmpmwrf; udx k w
k jf yefEikd cf yhJ gw,f?
udyk ifa[*if xkwjf yefa=unmpmwrf;udk usaemfph mwrf;&Jh aemufqufwGJ (2)
taeeJ@waGJ y;xm;ygw,f?
ENSCC &Jo h ;kH yGiq
hf idk af qG;aEG;yJG jzpfay:vma&;vkyaf qmifr_ tm;vH;k udk
jyefo;kH oyf=unfw h hJ tcgusawmh usaemfw@kd taeeJ@ txl;tm;&p&maumif;
w,fv@kd yJ oH;k oyfryd gw,f? ENSCC rzJ@G cifwek ;f u Edik if w H umu usaemfw@kd &hJ
Ethnic Issues udt k a&;}uD;wJh tcef;u¾rSm rxm;cJb h ;l ? usaemft
h awG@
t}uKH wckukd OyrmtaeeJ@wifjy&if wcgu—tdik , f mvefEikd if H 'yfyvif+rKd @rmS
olw@kd &hJ ygvrD efEikd if jH cm;a&;aumfrwDrmS usaemfw@kd ta&;udo k mG ;a&muf wifjy
cJyh gw,f? tJ'w D ek ;f u usaemfw@kd wikd ;f &if;om;ta&;udk olw@kd em;rvnfwt hJ jyif
bmjzpfv@kd o;kH yGiq hf ikd af qG;aEG;yJq G w
kd m vdt k yfaewmvJ/ 'Dru kd a&pDtiftm;pk
tm;vH;k udk a':atmifqef;pk=unfu ud, k pf m;jyKvd@k r&bl;vm;qd+k yD; ar;cGe;f
______________________
(*) pmrsuE
f mS 39-61 wGi&f y_ g?
89
jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)

awG t}uD;tus,af r;cJyh gw,f? usaemfvnf;twwfEikd q f ;kH &Si;f jycJyh gw,f?


'gusaemfw@kd &hJ v_y&f mS ;r_ukd txl;tm;ay;axmufcw H hJ tdik ,
f mvefvkd wdik ;f jynf
rSmawmif usaemfw@kd ta&;udk em;rvnfb;l qd&k if wjcm;wdik ;f jynfawmh rajym
eJ@awmh? txl;ojzifh tmqD,EH ikd if rH sm;/ *syefEiS hf tar&duefawmif ygao;
w,f? olw@kd uusaemfw@kd wdik ;f &if;om;ta&;udk b,fawmhraS &SŒwef;wif+yD;
ta&;ay; avhr&Sb d ;l ? 'gayr,fh usaemfw@kd ENSCC zJ@G +yD; Panglong Initia-
tive udv
k yk v
f mwJt h cgusawmh EU Edik if t
H m;vH;k eJ@ tar&duefjynfaxmifpu k
usaemfw@kd &hJ wdik ;f &if;om;ta&;udk w+ydKifeufwnf; rpOf;pm; rajz&Si;f vd@k &&dS if
ArmjynfEikd if aH &;jy\em ajz&Si;f vd@k r&bl;qdw k m em;vnfvm=uygw,f?
*syefuvnf; Ethnic Nationalities awG Dialogue Process rSm ygvm
zd@k vt
kd yfwt hJ a=umif; axmufcaH qG;aEG;vmygw,f? +yD;cJw h EhJ pS f arvwke;f u
rav;&Sm;0ef}uD;csKyf a'guw f mr[moD,m uvnf; Ethnic Nationalities
awG Dialogue Process rSmyg0ifz@kd vt kd yfa=umif; ajymvmygw,f? +yD;awmh
tckq&kd if xdik ;f Edik if 0H ef}uD;csKyf wyfqifu etzppftpd;k &ESihf wdik ;f &if;om;
vufeufudkifawmfvSefa&; tiftm;pkrsm; aqG;aEG;Edkifatmif Mediation
=um;vl tjzpfaqmif&Gufay;r,fvdk@ ajymvmygw,f? 'gawGtm;vHk;udk
=unfrh ,fq&kd if ENSCCC &Jh ay:vpDe@J Eikd if w H umxd;k azmufr[ _ m twdik ;f
twmwcktxd atmifjrifaeygw,fv@kd oH;k oyfryd gw,f? 'gayr,fh usaemfw@kd
wm0efu ENSCC tygt0if usaemfw@kd 'Dru kd a&pDtiftm;pkrsm; 'Dxufru
tvkyv f yk +f y;D t+y;D owfatmifyq GJ ifEEGJ ikd w
f t
hJ xd quf+y;D }uKd ;pm;zd@k vdt
k yfae
ygw,f?
ed*Hk;csKyf
ed*Hk;csKyftaeeJ@ usaemfwifjycsifwmu tckusaemfaqG;aEG;oGm;wm
usaemf&hJ yxreJ@'w k , d pmwrf; UNLD(LA) &Jh Policy Making and Exter-
nal Affair Committee Report ESihf Ethnic Nationalities Initiative on
Tripartite Dialogue: Report on Activities of ENSCC wd@k u+kd cHK+yD;awmh
yl;wJG wifjyxm;wmjzpfygw,f? usaemf&hJ jynfe,fz@GJ pnf;yHt k ajccH Oya'a&;qJG
a&;vkyif ef;pOfEiS hf ywfoufwhJ Report on State Constitutions Drafting
Process udk reufjzefus&ifxyf+yD; wifjyygvr d rhf ,fqw
kd hJ ta=umif;wifjy&if;
ed*;kH csKyf tyfygw,f? tm;vH;k udak us;Zl;wifygw,f?
*************

90
'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf;

3;2 rl0g'a&;&maumfrwDudk,fpm; a'gufwmqvdkif;vsefr_ef;rS


wifoGif;aom jynfe,fzJG@pnf;yHktajccHOya'rsm;a&;qJGa&;
vkyfief;tpD&ifcHpm
a'guw
f mqvdik ;f vserf e_ ;f . &Si;f vif;wifjycsuf

t*FvdyfbmomeJ@ a&;om;jyKpkxm;wJh usaemfh&Jhpmwrf;udk nDvmcH


ud,k pf m;vS,rf sm; tm;vH;k xH}udKwifjzef@a0xm;+yD; jzpfwthJ wGuf pmwrf;rSm
ygwhJ tcsut f vufawGukd tao;pdyrf zwfjyawmhyJ usaemfw@kd &v hJ yk if ef;pOf
- State Constitutions Drafting Process - eJ@ywfoufwhJ tcsut f vufawG/
'Dvkyfief;pOf&Jh aemufcHordkif;ESifh 'Dvkyfief;pOfudk bmjzpfvdk@tav;teuf
xm;+yD; aqmif&u G o
f vJqw kd mudk OD;pm;ay;wifjyoGm;rSmjzpfygw,f?
usaemfwdk@,ae@qifEJGaewJh 'Drdkua&pDta&;awmfyHk}uD;udk “'kwd,
t}urd v f wG v
f yfa&;wdu k yf ”GJ vd@k a':atmifqef;pk=unfu uifyeG ;f wyfcyhJ gw,f?
'guu kd saemfw@kd tm;vH;k uvnf;vufcH oabmwl=uygw,f? oabmwl&jcif;
ta=umif;t&if;u — vGwv f yfa&;wduk yf u
GJ mv txl;ojzifh yifvn kH v
D mcHrmS
usaemfw@kd wdik ;f &if;om;acgi;f aqmifrsm;eJ@ Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef; oabmwlnD
cJw
h hJ oabmwlncD suf — ppfreS af omjynfaxmifppk epf wnfaqmufa&;
qdkwmudk ,ae@wdkif taumiftxnf raz:Edkifao;wJh twGufa=umifhyJ
jzpfygw,f? 'ga=umif, h ae@ usaemfw@kd qifEaGJ ewJh 'Dru kd a&pDta&;awmfy}kH u;D &Jh
tEdrW yef;wdik f (Ultimate Goal) [m ppfreS w f zhJ uf'&,f jynfaxmifppk epf
wnfaqmufa&;yJ jzpfw,fqw kd m yxrOD;pGmwifjyvdyk gw,f?
[kw+f y/D usaemfw@kd &yhJ ef;wdik [ f m ppfreS w f jhJ ynfaxmifppk epf xlaxmifa&;
jzpfw,fq&kd if tESpif g;q,f jynfaxmifpo k rdik ;f rSm usaemfw@kd bmawGrmS ;cJh
ovJ/ b,ftm;enf;csuaf wG&v dS @kd ppfreS w f jhJ ynfaxmifppk epfukd usaemfw@kd
rwnfaqmuf Edik cf o hJ vJ/ qdw k mudk jyefvnfqef;ppfz@kd vdt k yfvmygw,f? 'Dvkd
qef;ppfwt hJ cgrmS — 1947 Edik if aH wmfz@GJ pnf;yHt k ajccHOya'&Jh tm;enf;csuf
udk qef;ppfomG ;rSmjzpfygw,f? bmjzpfv@kd vq J akd wmh — 1947 Edik if aH wmf
zJ@G pnf;yHtk ajccHOya'[m yifvpkH mcsKyfut kd aumiftxnf az:zd@k a&;qJcG w hJ hJ
zJ@G pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'jzpfv@kd yJ jzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifh 1947 Edik if aH wmfz@GJ pnf;yHk
tajccHOya'&Jh tm;enf;csuv f @kd qw kd t
hJ cgrmS — usaemfqv kd &kd if;u b,f
tcsuaf y:rSm 1947 Edik if aH wmfz@GJ pnf;yHk tajccHOya'u “yifvpkH mcsKyf” udk
91
jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)

taumiftxnf raz:EdkifcJhovJ/ wenf;tm;jzifhajym&&if b,ftcsuf


tvufawGtay:rSm 1947 Edik if aH wmfz@GJ pnf;yHt k ajccHOya'u “yifvpkH mcsKyf”
uae vrf;v$J cJo
h vJqw kd hJ tcsuyf jJ zpfygw,f? (1974 rqv zJ@G pnf;yHt
k ajccH
Oya'uawmh zuf'&,fpepfe@J bmrSoufqikd jf cif;r&Sw d t
hJ wGuf 'Dae&mrSm
aqG;aEG;rSm r[kwyf gb;l )?

yifvpkH mcsKyfEiS hf 1947 Edik if aH wmfz@GJ pnf;yHt


k ajccHOya'
1947 zJ@G pnf;yHt k ajccHOya'}uD;&Jh tm;enf;csuaf wGukd rqef;ppfcifrmS
bmjzpfv@kd yifvpkH mcsKyv f ufrw S af &;xd@k z@kd vtkd yfovJ qdw k mudk enf;enf; av;
jyefqef;ppf=unfch siyf gw,f? bmjzpfv@kd vq J akd wmh “1947 Edik if aH wmfz@GJ pnf;yHk
tajccHOya'ESihf yifvpkH mcsKy”f udck jGJ cm;+y;D oD;jcm;pD=unfv h @kd r&ygb;l ? 'DEpS cf [
k m
aiG'*F g;wck&hJ acgi;f eJ@yef;vdk qufpyfaeygw,f? 'ga=umif'h ED pS cf u k kd cJjG cm;+yD;
=unf&h if t"dyg` ,rf jynfph EkH idk b
f ;l ? ESpcf pk vH;k udk aygi;f pyf=unf+h yD;rS qufpyf+yD;
=unfrh S t"dyg` ,af z: Edik yf gw,f?
tm;vH;k odxm;wJt h wdik ;f yifvpkH mcsKy[f m csi;f / ucsi/f o#r;f acgi;f aqmif
rsm;ESifh xdkpOfu Interim Burmese Government &Jh Chief Minister
Advk cf sKyfatmifqef;wd@k vufrw S af &;xd;k cJw
h hJ pmcsKyfjzpfygw,f? 'gukd av;av;
eufeuf xyfrq H ef;ppfz@kd vdyk gw,f? csi;f / ucsi/f o#r;f acgi;f aqmifrsm;ESihf
k cf sKyaf tmifqef;wd@k [m b,fvEkd ikd if aH &;tm%mESihf Legitimacy udu
Adv k ikd pf +GJ y;D
vufrw S af &;xd;k Edik cf o
hJ vJ/ olw@kd vufrw S af &;xd;k cGithf m%m Legitimacy
ubmvJ/ 'guakd oaocsmcsm qef;ppfz@kd vt kd yfygw,f? 'gukd aoaocsmcsm
rqef;ppf&if yifvpkH mcsKyf[m omrefvw l pk pkpnf;+yD; oabmwlnv D ufrw S f
a&;xd;k xm;cJw h hJ omrefpmcsKyf/ Edik if aH &; t"dyg` ,rf &Sw d phJ mcsKyf jzpfomG ;ygvrd hf
r,f? 'gayr,fh yifvHkpmcsKyf[m ordkif;a=umif;t&a&m/ EdkifiHa&;t&a&m
tvGeft"dy`g,fjynfh0wJh pmcsKyfw&yfjzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifh 'Dtcsufudk
tav;teuf qef;ppf=unfzh @kd vdyk gw,f?
trSepf ifppf yifvpkH mcsKyf[m omrefvrl sKd ;wrsKd ;ESihf wrsKd ;t=um; csKyfqkd
xm;wJph mcsKyf r[kwyf gb;l ? jynfaxmiftcsi;f csi;f csKyfqx kd m;wJh Edik if w
H um
pmcsKyfw&yfe@J toGiw f yl gw,f? od@k aomf wjcm;Edik if w H umpmcsKyfe@J uJjG ym;
oGm;wJhtcsufu tJ'DpmcsKyfcsKyfqdk+yD; aemufydkif; jynfaxmif 4-ck [m
“jynfaxmifp”k — jynfaxmifawGpx k m;wJh “jynfaxmifp”k — wckxrJ mS

92
'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf;

yl;aygi;f aexdik f oGm;cJ=h uwJth wGuf Edik if w


H umpmcsKyftjzpfe@J awmh usaemf
wd@k owfrw S v
f @kd r&ygb;l ? 'Dvukd saemfajym&jcif;u “yifvpkH mcsKy”f &Jh av;eufr_
udk usaemfykH az: csiv f @kd jzpfygw,f?
usaemfqdkvdk&if;u yifvHkpmcsKyfqdkwm[m udkvdkeDacwfrwdkifcifu
oD;jcm;pD vGwv f yf+yD; udv k ekd aD cwfwav#mufv;kH oD;jcm; “zJ@G pnf;yHt k ajccH
Oya'” eJ@tyk cf sKyfccH &hJ wJh jynfaxmifav; jynfaxmifcsKyfqx kd m;wJh pmcsKyf
jzpfygw,f? Oyrm csif;jynfaxmif — usaemfuawmh csif;vlrsdK;qdkawmh
csi;f jynfaxmif (Chinram) udk Oyrmay;+yD; ajymcsiyf gw,f? usaemfw@kd csi;f
vlrsKd ;rsm;[m +Adwo d #uv kd ekd aD cwf rwdik cf ifwek ;f u oD;jcm;vGwv f yfwhJ vlrsKd ;
wrsKd ; jzpfygw,f? +Aw d o
d #uv kd ekd aD cwf wav#mufv;kH rSmvnf;yJ oD;jcm;zJ@G pnf;yHk
tajccHOya' (1896 Chin Hills Regulation) eJ@tyk cf sKyfcw hJ m jzpfygw,f?
'ga=umifh yifvpkH mcsKyfcsKyfqckd =hJ uwJh usaemfw@kd csi;f acgi;f aqmifrsm;[m 1896
Chin Hills Regulation t& oD;jcm;tkyc f sKyfcw
hJ /hJ oD;jcm;jynfaxmifwckukd
ud, k pf m;jyKcJw h hJ acgi;f aqmifrsm; jzpfygw,f? ucsiaf cgi;f aqmifrsm;vnf; 'D
twdik ;f yJ/ o#r;f acgi;f aqmifrsm;vnf; 'Dtwdik ;f yJ/ o#r;f jynfaxmifu ud, k pf m;
vS,rf sm; qdv k @kd &&dS if olw@kd u Federated Shan State udu k ,
kd pf m;jyKchJ wmjzpfyg
w,f? jynfaxmifwckpu D kd ud, k pf m;jyKcJyh gw,f? 'Dvykd J — Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;
uvnf; 'Dtwdik ;f yJ? 1935 Burma Act vd@k ac:wJh zJ@G pnf;yHt k ajccH Oya't&
tkycf sKyfcw hJ hJ Burma Proper vd@k ac:wJh jynfaxmifwckukd olu, kd pf m; jyKoGm;
wmjzpfygw,f? tJ — wckawmh&w dS mayg?h tJ'D Burma Proper xJrmS 1935
Burma Act t& &cdkif&,f/ rGef&,f/ u&if&,fudkxnfhoGif; cHcJh&ygw,f?
tJ'ga=umifh yifvpkH mcsKyfrmS rGe/f &cdik Ef iS hf u&ifvrl sKd ;rsm;udk oD;jcm;rzdwyf J
Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;u ud, k pf m;jyK vufrw S af &;xd;k cJw h m jzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifh
yifvpkH mcsKyf[m jynfaxmif 4- ck t=um;rSm csKyfqx kd m;wJph mcsKyf/ oD;jcm;
zJ@G pnf;yHk tajccHOya'&S+d y;D ordik ;f pOfwav#muf oD;jcm;vGwv f yfwhJ jynfaxmif
av;jynfaxmifcsKyfqw kd hJ pmcsKyf w&yfjzpfygw,f?
'DtajccHoabmw&m;/ yifvpkH mcsKy&f t hJ ESpo
f m&jzpfwhJ jynfaxmif av;
jynfaxmifqdkwJh tajccHoabmw&m;ESifhtESpfom&udk 1947 EdkifiHawmf
zJ@G pnf;yHk tajccHOya'u &Si;f vif;xif[yf taumiftxnfaz:&rSm jzpfyg
w,f? 'gayr,fh uHraumif;ta=umif;rvSawmh yifvpkH mcsKyfcsKyf qd+k y;D aemuf
ydik ;f jynfaxmifpw k ckv;kH &Jh trsKd ;om;acgi;f aqmifjzpfomG ;wJh Advk cf sKyfatmif
qef; vky}f ucH H oGm;&ygw,f? Adv k cf sKyaf tmifqef; vky}f ucH H oGm;&+y;D aemufyikd ;f
93
jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)

rS twnfjyK jyXmef;oGm;wJh 1947 Edik if aH wmfz@GJ pnf;yHk tajccHOya'u usaemf


wd@k yifvrkH mS ar#mrf eS ;f cJw
h hJ ppfreS af omjynfaxmifppk epfukd taumiftxnf
raz:Edik cf yhJ gb;l ? 'DtxJrmS — 1947 Edik if aH wmfz@GJ pnf;yHk tajccHOya'&Jh tm;
enf;csufxJrSm — t"duuswJhtcsufoHk;csufudk usaemf rD;armif;xdk;+yD;
aqG;aEG; vdyk gw,f?

1947 Edik if aH wmfz@GJ pnf;yHt


k ajccHOya'&Jt
h m;enf;csurf sm;?
yxr tm;enf;csuu f awmh jynfaxmifawGpw k hJ “jynfaxmifp”k pepf
t&/ tJ'D “jynfaxmifp”k &Jt h zJ@G 0if “jynfaxmif”/ usaemfw@kd tckacwfrmS
toH;k rsm;wmu jynfaxmifp&k hJ tzJ@G 0iftrsKd ;om;jynfe,f jzpfygw,f? tJ
jynfaxmifyJac:ac:/ trsdK;om;jynfe,fyJ ac:ac: — jynfaxmifpktzJG@
“jynfaxmif” rsm;[m rdrw d @kd &hJ “jynfaxmif” od@k r[kwf “jynfe,f” zJ@G pnf;yHk
tajccHOya'rsm; oD;jcm;pD&&dS rSm jzpfygw,f? 'g[m topftqef; r[kwyf g
bl;? 'DjynfaxmifawG[m udv k ekd aD cwfwav#mufv;kH rSmvnf; oD;jcm;zJ@G pnf;yHk
tajccHOya'rsm; &SdcJh=uwmyJjzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifh usaemfqdkvdk&if;u
jynfaxmifppk epfukd xlaxmifr,f/ Federal Edik if aH wmfuw kd nfaqmufr,f
qdk&if tJ'DjynfaxmifpktzJG@0if jynfaxmiftoD;oD;ac:rvm;/ jynfe,f
toD;oD;ac:rvm;/ — tJ'jD ynfe,frsm;[m rdrw d @kd jynfe,fz@GJ pnf;yHk tajccH
Oya'rsm; oD;jcm;pD&&dS rnfrmS jzpfygw,f?
'gayr,fh 1947 Edik if aH wmfz@GJ pnf;yHk tajccHOya' rSmusawmh jynfe,frsm;
&Jh zJ@G pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'udk oD;jcm;a&;qJG jyXmef;jcif;r&Syd J jynfaxmifpk zJ@G pnf;yHk
tajccHOya'rSm aemufqufwGJ oabmrsKd ;eJ@ vH;k axG;+y;D jyXmef;oGm;cJh ygw,f?
'ga=umifh jynfe,fwck&hJ ta&;t&mudprP sm;udk jynfe,ftwGi;f vGwv f yfpmG
qH;k jzwfjyXmef;ydik cf iG hf r&Syd J jynfaxmifpv k w
$ af wmfuae wqifh oGm;cJyh gw,f?
jy\emu tJ'jD ynfaxmifpv k w$ af wmfuvnf; jynfaxmifpv k w
$ af wmf
omac:w,f? ppfreS w f jhJ ynfaxmifppk epfukd tajccHxm;wJv h w$ af wmf r[kwf
jyefb;l ? tJ'g 1947 Edik if aH wmfz@GJ pnf;yHk tajccHOya'}u;D &Jh 'kw,d tm;enf;csuf
jzpfygw,f? 1947 Edik if aH wmfz@GJ pnf;yHt k ajccHOya'[m jynfaxmifppk epfukd
tajccHwmjzpfavawmh wydik ;f wptm;jzifah wmh jynfaxmifppk epf&hJ *k%t f *F g
&yf awG&o dS ifo
h avmufawmh &Scd yhJ gw,f? tJ'guawmh jynfaxmifpv k w$ f
awmfrmS v$waf wmfEpS &f yf xm;&S+d yD; — txufvw $ af wmf od@k r[kwf vlrsKd ;pk

94
'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf;

v$waf wmfukd xm;&Sw d hJ tcsujf zpfygw,f? 'gayr,fh — tJ'D vlrsKd ;pkvw $ af wmf
qdw k hJ txufvw $ af wmfukd jynfaxmifppk epft*F g&yf jynf0h apzd@k xm;wmjzpf
ayrJh tJ'rD mS yJtm;enf;csu}f uD; csKd @,iG ;f csu}f uD; jyefygvmygw,f? vlrsKd ;pkawG
v$waf wmfqw kd m trSepf ifppfu jynfaxmifpt k zJ@G 0if trsKd ;om;jynfe,fukd
ud, k pf m;jyKwJh — jynfe,fukd uk, d pf m;jyKwJh v$waf wmfom jzpfoifw h ,f?
vlO;D a&udk ud, k pf m;jyKwJh v$waf wmfrjzpfap&bl;? 'gayr,fh 1947 Edik if aH wmf
zJ@G pnf;yHt k & vlrsKd ;pkvw $ af wmfukd vlO;D a&;tenf;trsm; tay: tajccH+yD;
zJ@G pnf;avawmh txufvw $ af wmf — vlrsKd ;pkvw $ af wmf — rSmvnf;yJ vlO;D a&
ydrk sm;wJh ArmawGuyJ xifwikd ;f }u+J y;D cs,v f , S cf siw
f ikd ;f cs,v
f , S v
f @kd &cJyh gw,f?
aemufwwd, tm;enf;csuu f — 'Dvv kd Ol ;D a&ydrk sm;wJh ArmawGu —
'Dvakd jymawmh Armudrk ek ;f vd@k r[kwb f ;l aemf? vlrsKd ;a&;udpu P kd 'DrmS ajymaewm
r[kwb f ;l ? Edik if aH wmfz@GJ pnf;yH&k hJ tm;enf;csuu f akd jymae — txufvw $ af wmf
a&m/ atmufvw $ af wmfa&m/ jynfaxmifpv k w $ af wmf w&yfv;kH udk csKyfuikd f
Edik w
f hJ taetxm;a&mufomG ;wJh tjyif 1947 Edik if aH wmfz@GJ pnf;yHt k ajccHOya'
&Jh t}uD;rm;qH;k tm;enf;csuu f jynfaxmifpt k zJ@G 0if jynfaxmifwckjzpfwhJ
— [dw k ek ;f u tac: Burma Proper — vlrsKd ;t&ac:&&ifawmh Arm/ tJ
b,fvykd aJ c:ac:/ Burma Proper udo k ;D jcm;jynfe,f tjzpfe@J zJ@G pnf;jcif;r&Sad pyJ/
tJ'jD ynfe,fukd jynfaxmifpw k ckv;kH eJ@ wJzG uf+y;D a&mpyf oGm;cJyh gw,f? tJ'v D kd
vkyw f t hJ cgusawmh — t"dyg` ,u f bmjzpfomG ;ovJqakd wmh/ Armjynfe,f
(Armjynfe,f ac:&ifykd aumif;r,fxifw,f/ Burma Proper ac:wmxuf/
bmjzpfv@kd vnf;qdak wmh aemufyikd ;f Burma Proper rSmygcw hJ hJ u&if/ rGeEf iS hf
&cdik w f @kd uo kd ;D jcm; jynfe,f awGay;cJw h ,f) ESihf jynfaxmifpt k m%mwckv;kH udk
aygi;f pyf/ a&mpyfomG ;cJyh gw,f? qdak wmh — tJ'v D v kd yk jf cif;tm;jzifh bmjzpfomG ;
ovJqakd wmh — jynfaxmifp&k hJ tcsKyftjcmtm%m w&yfv;kH udk jynfe,f
wck/ vlrsKd ;wrsKd ;udk xd;k tyfay;cJo h vdk jzpfomG ;ygw,f? 'Dvkd Edik if aH wmfz@GJ pnf;yHk
tajccH Oya'u jyXmef;vrf;zGiahf y;vdu k af wmh — r[mvlrsKd ;}u;D 0g' ArmxJu
ay:vmwm trSeu f awmhrqef;ygb;l ? Edik if aH wmfz@GJ pnf;yHk tajccHOya'u
vrf;zGifhay;cJhwmudk;? 'ga=umifh Armr[mvlrsdK;}uD; toD;tyGifhtjzpf
jynfaxmifpo k rdik ;f rSm jyef=unf&h if — Ak'b < momudk Edik if aH wmfbmomtjzpf
jyXmef;cJw h ,f? ppftm%m&Sipf epf/ ppf0g' vnf;yJ}uD;pd;k oGm;cJyh gw,f? trSef
pifppf ppf0g' 'Davmuf}u;D pd;k oGm;wm/ 1962 tm%modr;f +y;D rSom ay:vmwm
r[kwyf gb;l / ygvrD efacwf uwnf;u jzpfcw hJ mygy?J tdraf pmifh tpd;k &ay:wm/
95
jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)

'Dvakd y:atmif zefw;D oGm;cJw h mawG[m 1947 Edik if aH wmf zJ@G pnf;yHk tajccH
Oya' tm;enf;csut f jyif/ tm%m&tpd;k &u Edik if aH wmf zJ@G pnf;yHk tajccH
Oya' tm;enf;csuu f kd tcGiahf umif;,l+yD; rdrtd m%m &yfwnfa&; twGuf
cs,v f ,
S f csiw
f ikd ;f cs,v f ,S cf v
hJ @kd jzpfygw,f?

UNLD &Jh jynfe,fz@GJ pnf;yHt


k ajccHOya'rsm;a&;qJaG &;vkyif ef;pOf?
qdak wmh — usaemfw@kd UNLD ub,fvjkd zpfv@kd jynfe,fz@GJ pnf;yHk tajccH
Oya'rsm;udk a&;qJzG @kd vyk if ef;pOf pwifco hJ vJqw kd m — 'Dordik ;f a=umif;awG/
EdkifiHa&;jzpfpOfawGeJ@ usaemfwdk@&ifqdkifae&wJh EdkifiHawG zJG@pnf;yHktajccH
Oya'ESihf ES;D EG,af ewJh Edik if aH &;jy\emawGa=umifyh J jzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifh
usaemfw@kd ub,favmuftxd ajymcsio f vJqakd wmh — usaemfw@kd &ifqikd f
ae&wJh taxGaxGEikd if aH &;jy\em}u;D [m omref0g'a&; wdu k yf rGJ [kwyf gb;l ?
Constitutional Crisis jzpfw,fv@kd ajymaewmjzpfygw,f? usaemfw@kd &ifqi kd f
aewJh tajccHEikd if aH &;jy\emudu k Constitutional Crisis jzpfaevd@k usaemf
wd@k awmfveS af &;&Jh t"duyef;wdik [ f mvnf; “ppfreS af om zuf'&,fEikd if aH wmf
xlaxmifa&;” jzpfv@kd ajymaejcif;jzpfygw,f?
'ga=umifh usaemfw@kd &yhJ ef;wdik jf zpfwhJ ppfreS af omzuf'&,fEikd if H xlaxmif
a&;twGuf qdv k @kd &&dS if usaemfw@kd z@GJ pnf;&r,fh tem*gwzf uf'&,f jynfaxmifpk
&Jh zJ@G pnf;yHk tajccHOya'}u;D [m zuf'&,ft*F g&yfawGe@J jynfph zkH @kd vdt k yfygw,f?
+y;D awmh — ppfreS w f jhJ ynfaxmifppk epf&hJ tajccH t*F g&yfxrJ mS — jynfaxmifpk
tzJ@G 0if trsKd ;om;jynfe,frsm;[m rdrw d @kd &hJ jynfe,fz@GJ pnf;yHk tajccHOya'rsm;
udk oD;jcm;vGwv f yfpmG a&;qJjG yXmef;Edik &f rSm jzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifh usaemfw@kd
UNLD u 'Dvy k if ef;pOfukd t"duvkyif ef;tjzpf UNLD(LA) pwifz@GJ pnf;
uwnf;u aqmif&u G v
f mcJjh cif; jzpfygw,f?
'Dvkd State Constitutions Drafting Process udak qmif&u G wf t
hJ cg rSm
vnf;yJ usaemfw@kd UNLD(LA) taeeJ@ rdrw d @kd wud,
k w
f nf; Exclusively
vkyaf qmifwmrsKd ; rvkyyf J rdrw
d @kd wikd ;f &if;om;awmfveS af &;tzJ@G tpnf;xJrS
vufeufuikd af wmfveS af &; tiftm;pkrsm;&Jh wyfaygi;f pk}uD;jzpfwhJ trsKd ;om;
'Dru
kd a&pDwyfaygi;f pk NDF eJ@w+GJ y;D vkyv
f mcJyh gw,f? UNLD(LA)-NDF yl;wJG
aumfrwDta=umif;udkvnf; usaemfwae@uwifjy+yD;jzpfygw,f? tJ'D
aumfrwDuyJ ouU&mZf 2001 ck =o*kwv f rSm yxrt}udrf State Consti-

96
'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf;

tutions Seminar w&yfudkac:,l+yD; jynfe,ftoD;oD;udk rdrdwdk@jynfe,f


zJ@G pnf;yHk tajccHOya'rsm; a&;qJ&G ef jyifqif=uzd@k wu kd w
f eG ;f cJyh gw,f? 'Dvkd
wdu k w
f eG ;f wJh ae&mrSmvnf;yJ wcsKd @ujynfe,fz@GJ pnf;yHak &;qJaG &; aumfrwDrsm;
zJ@G pnf;+y;D +y?D wcsKd @q&kd if rl=urf;awGawmif&+dS y;D txl;ojzifh usaemfw@kd csi;f tzJ@G
qd&k if 1998 uae'gEikd if H atmfw0g;+rdK@rmS usi;f ywJh Chin Seminar uae
Chinland Constitution a&;qJz G @kd qH;k jzwf+y;D / Chinland Constitution Draft-
ing Committee w&yfuv kd nf; Chin Forum &Jh Working Committee One
tjzpfa&G;cs,f wm0efay;cJw h ,f?
usaemfw@kd UNLD(LA) - NDF uusi;f ywJyh xr Seminar rS usaemfw@kd
bmudk OD;pm;ay; =unfch o hJ vJqakd wmh Federalism &Jt h "dyg` ,/f tESpof m&/
'gawGukd =unfyh gw,f? usaemfw@dk UNLD uawmh Federal pepfe@J ywfoufv@kd
&S&d if tem*wfjynfaxmifpzk @GJ pnf;yHk tajccHOya'a&;qJEG ikd af &;twGuf tajccH
vrf;!Gecf suf (7) &yfukd csrwS xf m;+y;D jzpfygw,f? 'Dvrf;!Gef (7) &yf[m jynf
wGi;f uwnf;ucsrw S w
f m jzpfygw,f? 1990 ZGe/f Zlvikd v f rSm 0dik t
f rfpaD t
cef;r rSmusi;f ywJh UNLD tzJ@G csKy}f u;D &Jh 'kw,
d nDvmcHrmS twnfjyKcsrw S w f m
jzpf+yD;/ UNLD(LA) &Jh yxrnDvmcHrmS xyfrt H wnfjyKcJw h mjzpfygw,f? us
aemfph mwrf;rSm az: jyxm;+yD;jzpfwt hJ wGuf tao;pdyf rzwfawmhygb;l ? (*)
qdak wmh — usaemfw@kd &hJ UNLD(LA) - NDF uusi;f ywJh yxr Semi-
nar rSm Federalism tjyif — usaemfw@dk bmudk t"duxm;+y;D avhvmcJo h vJ
qdak wmh jynfe,fz@GJ pnf;yHt k ajccH Oya'rsm;a&;qJv G @kd &&dS if b,ft*F g&yfawG
yg0ifoifo h vJ´ b,fvt kd *F g&yfawGe@J jynfph rkH S usaemfw@kd ar#mrf eS ;f wJh ppfreS wf hJ
jynfaxmifppk epfukd csw D ufwt hJ cgrmS taxmuftuljyKEkid rf nf? 'gawGukd
usaemfw@kd txl;OD;pm;ay;+yD; avhvmcJyh gw,f? tJ'D Seminar rSmtar&duef
jynfaxmifprk mS &Sw d hJ jynfe,f 50 wd@k &zhJ @GJ pnf;yHk tajccHOya'tm;vH;k udk avh
vm+yD;rS jyKpka&;om;xm;wJh "Model of State Constitutions" qdw k phJ mwrf;
udk tajccHcyhJ gw,f? =opa=w;vsrS jynfe,fz@GJ pnf;yHk tajccHOya'qdik &f m
ynm&Sif wOD;vnf;jzpf =opa=w;vsjynfe,fwck&hJ jynfe,fvw $ af wmf ud, k pf m;
vS,f wOD;vnf;jzpfcw hJ hJ Janelle Saffin udzk w d af c:+yD; oifwef;yd@k cs aqG;aEG;r_
rsm;udk jyKvkycf yhJ gw,f? +yD;awmh usaemfw@kd zufrS Edik if aH &;odyyH` nm&Sif Dr.
Chao Tzang Yawnghwe uvnf;yJ oifwef;yd@k csO;D aqmifr_ ay;cJy h gw,f?
__________________
(*) pmrsuE
f mS 67-68 wGi&f y_ g?
97
jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)

tJ'D Seminar rSmqd&k if NDF OuUXAdv k cf sKyf}uD;a&$qikd ;f u Seminar udk


zGiv
hf pS af y;cJyh gw,f? tzGirhf ed @f ceG ;f vnf; ajym=um;oGm;cJyh gw,f? tJ'D Semi-
nar zGiy hf rGJ mS Adv
k cf sKyf}uD;a&$qikd ;f ajymcJo h vdk — 'D Seminar ujynfaxmifpk
ordik ;f rSm Armr[kww f w hJ ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;pkpnf;+y;D rdrw d @kd jynfe,fz@GJ pnf;yHk
tajccHOya'rsm;udk rdrw d @kd pwd w f ikd ;f usa&;qJjG yXmef; Edik zf @kd twGuf yxrOD;qH;k
pkpnf;usi;f ywJh Seminar w&yfjzpfygw,fw?hJ tJ'D Seminar rSmqd&k if — jynf
e,f (7) cku jynfe,fz@GJ pnf;yHt k ajccHOya' (rl=urf;) a&;qJaG &;aumfrwD0ifrsm;/
wcsKd @jynfe,f zJ@G pnf;yHt k ajccH Oya'a&;qJaG &;aumfrwD rzJ@G Eikd af o;wJh jynfe,f
rS EdkifiHa&;acgif;aqmif}uD; rsm;/ 'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pkrSacgif;aqmifrsm;/
zuf ' &,f j ynf a xmif p k zJ G @ pnf ; yH k t ajccH O ya'a&;qJ G a &;aumf r wD r S
wm0ef&ydS *k K~d vfrsm;udv k nf; pHn k pD mG zdw=f um;wufa&mufapcJ=h uygw,f?
'gayr,fh — tJ'D Seminar aemufyikd ;f rSm awmfawmfrsm;rsm;uusaemf
wd@k State Constitutions Drafting Process tpjyKwmudk tawmfjyif;jyif;
xefxefuef@ uGuq f ef@usicf hJ =uygw,f? jynfe,fawGo;D jcm;zJ@G pnf;yHk tajccH
Oya'a&;qJzG @kd jyifqifaewm “cJx G uG af &;vm;”´/ Independent udk OD;wnf
ae+yDvm;´ Confederation udkoGm;awmhrSmvm;´ trsdK;pHkyJpGyfpJGr_awG
tawmf}uD;udk jyif;xefcyhJ gw,f? usaemfw@kd uawmh onf;cH+yD; em;axmifchJ
ygw,f? wcsKd @uawmh wu,frodem;rvnfv@kd “pd;k &dr”f wmjzpfygw,f?
'Dvkd pd;k &drrf r_ sm; olw@kd qrD mS &Sw
d muvnf; trSeu f awmh Advk af e0if; ppftpd;k &&Jh
0g'rdi_ ;f wdu k rf a_ =umifyh gy?J 1962 ppfwyftm%modr;f uwnf;u "Federal"
qdkwm cJGxGufa&;vdk@yJ em;vnfcJh=uwmudk;? 'ga=umifhusaemfwdk@uawmh
pdw&f n S &f n S ef @J yJ vkypf &m&Swd m qufvyk yf gw,f? olw@kd em;vnfvmwJh wae@
us&if olw@kd oo H ,awG/ pd;k &drrf a_ wG aysmufomG ;vdrrhf ,fv@kd ar#mv
f ifrh yd gw,f?

*smr%Dzuf'&,favhvma&;c&D;
tJ'D Seminar &Jh aemufqufwt GJ jzpfe@J ouU&mZf 2001 ck 'DZifbm
vrSm usaemfw@kd *smr%Duakd vhvma&; c&D;oGm;cJyh gw,f? tJ'rD mS jynfe,f
(7) ckuud, k pf m;vS,rf sm;tjyif/ zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpk zJ@G pnf;yHk tajccHOya'
a&;qJaG &;aumfrwDu yk*v ~d rf sm;udyk g zdwaf c:cJyh gw,f? tJ'cD &D;pOf&hJ &nf&,
G f
csuuf awmh — usaemfw@kd Seminar rSmpmawG@e@J oif=um;cJw h mudk vufawG@
avhvma&; w&yfygy?J yxr bmvif+rdK@rmS "Federalism: A German Bur-
mese Dialogue" qd+k yD; Seminar wckvy k cf yhJ gw,f? tJ'rD mS awmh Federal-
98
'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf;

ism udy
k +J cHK+iHK avhvmwJo
h abm jzpfcyhJ gw,f? +yD;awmh usaemfw@kd Hanova
udk oGm;+y;D Hanova University rSm&Sw d hJ Federal Institution uynm&Sirf sm;eJ@
yl;wJ+G yD; Seminar vkycf yhJ gw,f? qdak wmh — usaemfw@kd taeeJ@ *smr%D&hJ
zuf'&,fpepf tygt0if olw@kd &EhJ ikd if aH &;ordik ;f waph wapmif;udvk nf; zJ@G pnf;yHk
tajccHOya'a&;qJaG &; &_a'giu hf ae avhvmcGihf &&Scd yhJ gw,f?
aemufawmhusaemfw@kd Rheinland Ptalz State jynfe,fuo kd mG ;+y;D olw@kd
&Jh jynfe,fvw $ af wmf}u;D udk oGm;avhvmcJyh gw,f? usaemfw@kd Rheinland Ptalz
State jynfe,fomG ;cJw h m[m tJ'cD &D;&Jh tusKd ;w&m; txGwt f xdyu f kd a&muf
apw,fv@kd avhvmoH;k oyfryd gw,f? tJ'u D kd oGm;wJt h cgusawmh — olw@kd &hJ
jynfe,fzJG@pnf;yHk tajccHOya'udk avhvmcJhwJhtjyif/ olwdk@&Jhjynfe,f
v$waf wmf/ jynfe,ftpd;k &/ jynfe,fw&m;&H;k pwJ[ h mawGukd rsujf rifu, kd af wG@
oGm;=unfch &hJ avhvmcJ&h ygw,f? jynfe,fvw $ af wmfa&SŒrSm v$ix hf x l m;wJh
jynfe,ftvHawmfukd =unf!ckd iG hf &&So d mG ;ygw,f? usaemfw@kd ar;=unhw f ,f?
cifAsm;wd@k jynfe,fz@GJ pnf;yHk tajccHOya'udk b,fvakd &;qJjG yXmef; cJyh govJ´
zuf'&,ftpd;k & cGijhf yKrS 'grsKd ;vkyv f @kd &wmvm; — qd+k yD;ar;=unfh ygw,f?
tajzu vuf&*dS smr%Djynfaxmifpk ray:cif/ vuf&zdS uf'&,fz@GJ pnf;yHk tajccH
Oya'ray:cif ('kw, d urBmppft+yD;rSm vuf&u dS sio hf ;kH wJh *smr%DEikd if zH @GJ pnf;yHk
tajccHOya'udk a&;qJjG yXmef;wmjzpfw,f) uwnf;u usaemfw@kd jynfe,f
zJ@G pnf;yHk tajccHOya'/ jynfe,fvw $ af wmfawG[m&Scd +hJ yD; ESpaf ygi;f &meJ@cs+D yD;
&Scd +hJ yDv@kd olw@kd jyefajz=um; cJyh gw,f?
tJ'v D rkd sujf rifu, kd af wG@ oGm;a&mufavhvmcJah wmh usaemfw@kd xrJ mS yg
vmwJh acgi;f aqmifwcsKd @ tpu “rif;wd@k jynfe,fz@GJ pnf;yHt k ajccHOya'a&;qJG
a&;vkyif ef; pvkyw f mcJxG u G af &;vm;´ Confederation vm;´ vd@k ar;cGe;f awG
t}u;D tus,af r;+y;D / qef@usiu f ef@uu G cf w
hJ hJ yk*K~d vfwcsKd @vnf; *smr%D c&D;pOf
ESpfcgpvHk;rSm ygvmygw,f? tJ'D*smr%Dc&D;pOft+yD;rSmawmh jynfe,f
zJ@G pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya' a&;qJaG &;qdw k m cGx J u G af &;r[kw?f ppfreS af om jynf
axmifppk epfrmS r&Srd jzpfvt kd yfwhJ tajccHt*F g&yf awGyv J @kd olw@kd em;vnf
vm=uygw,f? pum;yHk wck&o dS vdak ygh — Seeing is believing (jrifjcif;[m
,H=k unfjcif;) qdw k mrsKd ;jzpfygw,f? usaemfw@kd *smr%Dc&D;pOfukd pmtkyx f wk zf @kd
jyifqifxm;wJt h wGuf tao;pdyu f u kd saemfrwifjy awmhygb;l ? pmtkyx f uG f
vmwJt h cg tao;pdyaf &;om; wifjyzd@k jyifqifxm; ygw,f?

99
jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)

Internation IDEA ESiy


hf ;l aygi;f usi;f ywJh Seminar (2)ck
ouU&mZf 2002 twGi;f usaemfw@kd &hJ v_y&f mS ;r_rsm;ud=k unf&h if qD'G ifEikd if H
pawmh[rk ;f +rKd @rmS tajcpdu
k x
f m;wJh International Institute for Democracy
and Electional Assistance (IDEA) eJ@y;l aygi;f usi;f ywJh Seminar (2) ck
udt
k &ifwifjycsiyf gw,f? International IDEA eJ@vyk w f hJ Seminar udk "The
Role of State Constitutions on the Protection of Nationality and
Minority Right Under Federalism" qdkwJhacgif;pOfatmufrSm (2) ck
usi;f ycJw
h m jzpfygw,f? yxr wckukd tdE, Nd Edik if /H e,l;a'vD+rKd @rmS usi;f ycJ+h y;D /
'kw,
d udk xdik ;f Edik if /H Zif;r,f+rdK@rmS usi;f ywm jzpfygw,f?
tJ'D Seminar rSmawmh — usaemfw@kd b,f[mudt k "duxm;+yD; =unfh
ovJ qdak wmh zuf'&,fpepfrmS jynfe,fz@GJ pnf;yHk tajccHOya'rsm; oD;jcm;a&;
qJjG yXmef;jcif;tm;jzifh wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;&Jh ud, k yf ikd jf yXmef;cGiEhf iS hf Edik if aH &;
wef;wlciG u hf kd b,fvt kd mrcHcsuf ay;Edik o f vJqw kd mudk OD;wnf+yD;/ tJ'x D rJ mS
jynfaxmifpt k pd;k &ESihf jynfe,ftpd;k &rsm; b,fvq kd ufpyfr&_ &dS rvJ´ (Fed-
eral - State Relation) +yD;awmh b,ftm%mawGuakd wmhjzifh jynfaxmifpk
tyfxm;oifw h ,f qdw k t hJ ydik ;f udk OD;pm;ay;+yD; usaemfw@kd &ahJ cgi;f aqmif Dr.
Chao Tzang Yawnghwe &Jp h mwrf;tay:rSm tajcjyK+y;D aqG;aEG;r_awG vkycf hJ
ygw,f? Dr. Chao Tzang Yawnghwe tjyif =opa=w;vsu ynm&Siw f OD;/
tdE, Nd u ynm&Siw f OD;/ Edik *f s;D &D;,m;u ynm&Siw f OD;wd@k uv kd nf; zdwaf c:+yD;
pmwrf;rsm;udk wifoiG ;f aqG; aEG;apcJyh gw,f?
'DrmS usaemf tav;xm;+yD; wifjycsiw f mu jynfaxmifpt k pd;k &ESihf jynf
e,ftpd;k &rsm; qufqaH &;/ tm%mcJaG 0usio hf ;kH a&;ESihf yl;aygi;f aqmif&u G rf _
wd@k ukd avhvmwJt h cg — zuf'&,fpepf tvGeaf tmifjrif+yD; wd;k wufcsr;f om
wJh *smr%De@J =opa=w;vsw@kd &hJ tawG@t}uHKudak vhvmcJo h vd/k usaemfw@kd &hJ
1947 EdkifiHawmfzJG@pnf;yHktajccHOya'vdkyJ “zg;wydkif; ig;wydkif;” pepfudk
usio hf ;kH wJh tdE,
Nd vdEk ikd if rH sKd ;udv
k nf; avhvmxm;ygw,f? tdE, Nd rSm qd&k if
jynfe,frsm;twGuf oD;jcm;zJ@G pnf;yHk tajccHOya'qdw k m r&Syd gb;l ? tJ'v D kd
EdkifiHrsdK;rSm jynfaxmifpktpdk;&ESifh jynfe,ftpdk;&rsm; b,fvdkqufqH
ae=uovJ´ jynfe,fz@GJ pnf;yHk tajccHOya'r&Sw d t hJ wGuf b,fvjkd y\emrsKd ;
awG@}uHK ae&ovJ´ olw@kd qrD mS &ifqikd af e&wJjh ynfwiG ;f ppfEiS hf cJx G uG af &;
jy\emrsm;[m 'gawGe@J qufpyfr&_ o dS vm;´ 'gawGuu kd saemfw@kd taumif;

100
'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf;

zufua&m/ tqd;k zufuyg avhvmxm; ygw,f? Oyrm Edik *f s;D &D;,m;qd&k if


— olw@kd qrD mS vlrsKd ;a&;jy\em/ bmoma&;ppfy/GJ ppftm%modr;f r_pwJh
jy\emaygi;f pHu k kd &ifqikd af e&wJh wdik ;f jynfjzpfygw,f? 'guv
kd nf; usaemfw@kd
avhvm+yD; oifcef;pm ,l&ygw,f?

'kw,
d *smr%Dc&D;pOf
International IDEA eJ@ Seminar (2) cgusi;f y+yD;wJah emufyi
kd ;f usaemf
wd@k *smr%Dukd 'kw,d t}udrf avhvma&;c&D; oGm;cJyh gw,f? 'Dwcg usaemfw@kd
bmudk OD;pm;ay;+y;D avhvmcJo h vJqakd wmh — jynfe,ftpd;k &rsm;&Jh vkyyf ikd cf iG hf
tm%m ESihf zJ@G pnf;r_yo
kH ¾mef (Structure and Function of States) tjyif/
‚if; jynfe,frsm;twGi;f rSm&Sw d hJ a'oE &W tpd;k &rsm; (Local governments)
awG&t hJ a=umif;udk txl;OD;pm;ay;+yD; avhvmcJ&h ygw,f? State ESihf Local
Governments Relation, 'Dtqifr h mS &Sw
d hJ tm%mcJaG 0r_/ usio
hf ;kH r_/ +yD;awmh
Local Governments awG&hJ Structure & Function awGukd avhvmcJy h gw,f?
*smr%DtwGi;f rSm &Sw d hJ Local Governments awGtjyif/ b,fv*f s, D efEikd if H
rSm&Sw
d hJ Local Governments awGuykd gusaemfw@kd oGm;a&mufavhvm cJyh gw,f?
('Dc&D;pOf ta=umif;udv k nf; pmtkyx f w
k zf @kd jyifqifxm;ygw,f)?

Supporting Committee for State Constitutions (SCSC)


tckeusaemf wifjy&wJv h yk if ef;pOfawG jyefcsKŒH +yD;wifjy&&if usaemfw@kd &hJ
avhvmr_tydik ;f aygah emf — tJ'rD mS tydik ;f (4) ydik ;f &Sw
d mudak wG@&rSm jzpfygw,f?
yxrtydik ;f u (Federalism) ppfreS af omjynfaxmifppk epf ta=umif;udk
em;vnfatmifavhvmjcif;/ 'kw, d tydik ;f u jynfe,fz@GJ pnf;yHt k ajccHOya'
rsm;. tajccHt*F g&yfrsm;udk avhvmjcif; jzpfygw,f? wwd,tydik ;f uawmh
a'oE &W tkycf sKyfa&; (Local Governments) ta=umif;jzpf+yD;/ pwkwt ˆ ydik ;f
taeeJ@ usaemfw@kd bmud=k unfo h vJqakd wmh — jynfaxmifpt k pd;k &ESihf jynf
e,f tpd;k &rsm; t=um;qufqaH &; (tm%mcJaG 0a&;ESihf usio hf ;kH a&;) tyg
t0if — jynfe,ftpd;k &rsm;ESiahf 'oE &W tpd;k &rsm;t=um; qufqaH &;wd@k jzpfyg
w,f?
tm;vHk;odxm;wJhtwdkif; jynfe,frsm;&JhzJG@pnf;yHk tajccHOya'rsm;
a&;qJaG &; vkyif ef;pOf}uD;[m a&&Snv
f yk if ef;jzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifh usaemfw@kd

101
jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)

wzJ@G wnf; vkyv f @kd r&ygb;l ? 'ga=umifh usaemfw@kd UNLD eJ@ NDF wd@k nE‡d i_d ;f +yD;
‚if;udk Joint Action Committee eJ@ adhoc yHpk rH sKd ;vkyw f mxuf/ t+rJwrf;
aumfrwDw&yf zJ@G pnf;+y;D / 'Dvyk if ef;pOf}u;D udk wpdu k rf wfrwf aqmif&u G of mG ;zd@k
oabmwlcyhJ gw,f? tJ'D oabmwlncD sut f wdik ;f yJ Supporting Commit-
tee for State Constitution (SCSC) zJ@G pnf;cJy h gw,f? ‚if; aumfrwDrmS Dr.
Chao Tzang Yawnghwe uOuUXtjzpf aqmif&u G +f yD;/ NDF rS Adv
k rf LS ;}uD;
xl;xl;av;ESihf Adv k rf LS ;}uD;cGeOf uUm/ UNLD zufrS cGe;f ref;udb k ef;ESihf usaemf
qvdik ;f vserf e_ ;f wd@k u yg0ifaqmif&u G f ay;aeygw,f?
‚if; SCSC aumfrwDu jynfe,fz@GJ pnf;yHk tajccHOya'a&;qJaG &; aumf
rwDrsm;udk wwfEikd o f avmufun l yD yhH ;kd ay;rSm jzpfygw,f? tckq&kd if usaemfw@kd
rSm jynfe,ftm;vH;k eD;yg; (&cdik jf ynfe,fuvJv G @kd ) rSm jynfe,fz@GJ pnf;yHk tajccH
Oya'a&;qJaG &;aumfrwD rsm;&Syd g+yD? +yD;awmh Armjynfe,fz@GJ pnf;yHk tajccH
Oya'a&;qJG jyXmef;Ekid af &;twGuf avhvma&;aumfrwD w&yfvnf; ay:xGe;f
aeyg+y?D 'gawG ud=k unfjh cif;tm;jzifh usaemfw@kd tem*gwjf ynfaxmifpk twGuf
tvm;tvm aumif;wJh vuQ%myJv@kd usaemfo;kH oyfryd gw,f?
ed*Hk;csKyf
ed*Hk;csKyftaeeJ@ usaemfwifjycsifwmu usaemfhpmwrf;rSm NRP
ta=umif; udv k nf; xnfx
h m;ygw,f? 'gayr,fh — tcsKd @uvnf; tawmf=um
ae+yD jzpfwt hJ wGu/f 'Du¾mudk usaemfrwifjyawmhygb;l ? usaemfu h kd tckvkd
ta&;}uD;wJh vkyif ef;pOfw&yfrmS UNLD ud, k pf m; aqmif&u G cf iG hf wm0efay;
tyfxm;wJt h wGuf trsm;}u;D 0rf;om *k%,f yl gw,f? tckvu dk saemf&h hJ pmwrf;
tay: &Si;f vif; wifjycGi&hf wJth wGuv f nf; 0rf;om*k%, f wl t
hJ a=umif; wifjy
&if; ed*;kH csKyftyfyg w,f? aus;Zl;wifygw,f?

***************

102
'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf;

3;3 pnf;&Hk;a&;ESifhr[mrdwfa&;&mvkyfief;tpD&ifcHpmtay:
cGef;ref;udkbef; rS aqG;aEG;wifjyjcif;?

2002 ck ZGev
f (5)&ufae@ rGejf ynfe,fc&D;pOf

bmjzpfvq J akd wmh wcsKd @ub,fvakd jymvJqakd wmh aeygap ESpyf iG ahf vmuf
yJjyKyg vkyyf gqw dk hJ jynfwiG ;f uol@taetxm;t& olvyk &f wmud;k ol@ tae
txm;t& ajymifajymifwif;wif; aqG;aEG;vdk@r&bl;? tJ'De,fpyfrSm&SdwJh
wdik ;f &if;om;awG b,fvakd jymvmvJ qdak wmh cifAsm;wd@k UNLD txJu
b,fvv kd /J ESpyf iG qhf ikd yf J oGm;rvm;/ oH;k yGiq hf ikd u
f kd yDyjD yifjyifrajymbl;/ 'gu, kd &hf chJ kH
wcHv k ;kH &Swd [ hJ mudk bmjzpfv@kd t'J grsKd ; rm;rm;rwfrwf r&yfwnfovJ/ 'gawG
[mcifAsm;wd@k 'Dtwdik ;f &yfwnfr,f qd&k ifawmh ud, k yf ikd xf m;wJh oH;k yGiqhf ikd f
ukvm;xdik w f cku ukvor*~csrw S af y;wJ[ h m wckxyJ ikd x f m;awmifrS ,ck
tifwmAsL; vkyw f t hJ cgrmS olw@kd aqG;aEG;=uyg? olw@kd ay;wJh wm0efukd vkyyf grh ,f
qdwk hJ avoHawG bmjzpfv@kd xu G vf movJqw kd hJ wdik ;f &if;om;&Jh tiftm;pk
a0zefrt _ ay:rSm usaemfw@kd qufo, G +f y;D awmh aocsmawG@qrkH jS zpfr,f qdak wmh
olw@kd e@J !SEd i_d ;f wdik yf if+yD;awmh rGejf ynfe,ftwGi;f rSm usaemfw@kd omG ;a&muf
aqG;aEG; cJyh gw,f?
olwdk@vJolwdk@&Jhtaetxm;u a':pkuvJ ajym+yD;om;yg/ usaemfwdk@
oH;k yGiq hf ikd =f uawmh NLD vnf;wu,f r&Srd jzpf vufc+H y;D om;yg? usaemfw@kd vJ
'g oH;k yGiq hf ikd rf jzpfwt hJ csed rf mS ESpyf iG q
hf ikd v
f J t&ifpyg qdw k ohJ abmrsKd ;eJ@ usaemf
wd@k ajymwmyg? usaemfw@kd txJu taetxm;udv k J em;vnfay;yg? 'gayrJh
usaemfw@kd &hJ &yfwnfcsuu f awmh oH;k yGiq hf ikd yf gy?J olw@kd jyefaqG;aEG;w,f? tJ'D
ta=umif;udkvJ r'weJ@usaemfwdk@eJ@ usefwJhwdkif;&if;om;awGudk olwdk@&Jh
jynfwiG ;f uoabmxm;awGukd usaemfw@kd u jyefvnf+y;D awmh &Si;f vif; wifjycJh
w,f? tJ'jD y\emuvJ ,H=k unfcsuf ESihf usaemfw@kd [m oH;k yGiq hf ikd u
f kd 'g
avmufqyk u f ikd f xm;+y;D awmh 'Dupd P 'Dvrkd sKd ;aygah ygw h efwef jzpfomG ;ovm;qdw k hJ
tay:rSmvJ 'D=um;rSm usaemfw@kd awmfawmfav; }udK;pm;+yD; tJ'u D pd aP wGukd
!SEd i_d ;f +yD;awmh 'DrmS &Sad ewJh wdik ;f &if;om;tiftm;pkawG usaemfw@kd jyefvnf
&Si;f jyrS olw@kd oo H , eJeyJ +kd yD;awmh &Si;f vmygw,f?

103
jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)

2002 ZGev
f (28) &mZmvD.ud,
k pf m;vS,f Leon ESiahf wG@qHjk cif;
olajymoGm;wmu bmvJqdkawmh olunDvmcHwckvkyfvkduf&if
raumif;bl;vm;qdw k hJ avoHrsKd ;udk oluypfomG ;ygw,f? qdak wmhusaemfw@kd
ajymygw,f? nDvmcHq&kd ifvJ usaemfw@kd u e0wvufatmufrmS }uD;rSL;wJh
nDvmcHrsKd ;udk usaemfw@kd wikd ;f &if;om;taeeJ@ vH;k 0vufrcH Edik yf gb;l ? tJ'g
usaemfw@kd nDvmcHjzpfr,fq&kd ifvJ oH;k yGiq hf ikd af wG@qkH aqG;aEG; &J&h vm'ftay:rSm
tajccH+yD; jzpfay:vmwJh tJ't D rsKd ;om;nDvmcHrsKd ;udk usaemfw@kd u vufcH
w,f? 'gu usaemfw@kd wdik ;f &if;om;awG&hJ jywfjywfom;om; usaemfw@kd
&yfwnfcsuf jzpfygw,f? usaemfw@kd tJ'ED pS yf iG q hf ikd ef @J usaemfw@kd ukd ud,
k pf m;jyK
+yD;awmh a':pk NLD uvJ usaemfw@kd twGuf tqH;k tjzwf vkyaf y;Edik rf mS
r[kwyf gb;l ? olw@kd u, kd wf ikd u
f vJ wdik ;f &if;om; ta&; wdik ;f &if;om; ud, k wf ikd f
yg0ifq;kH jzwf &r,f? olw@kd uvJoabmxm; qH;k jzwfcs+y;D om;yg? wdik ;f &if;om;
ta&;udk usaemfw@kd wm0ef,l vkyaf qmifr,fqw kd hJ a':pk&hJ NLD uvJ wcgrS
'Dvrkd ajym zl;ygb;l ?
'gha=umifh usaemfwdk@oHk;yGifhqdkifawG@qHkaqG;aEG;yJGuae+yD;awmh jzpfay:
vmwJh trsKd ;om;nDvmcHw@kd =um;umv/ =um;jzwftpd;k &wd@k tJ'grsKd ;om us
aemfw@kd vufcEH ikd yf gw,fqw kd m usaemfw@kd jywfjywfom;om; UNLD-NDF
uae+y;D awmh u&ifew D @kd tygt0if usaemfw@kd u rpPwm&mZmvDu, kd pf m;vS,f
Leon ESiu hf saemfw@kd csjy aqG;aEG;Edik cf yhJ gw,f?
jynfe,frsm;zJ@G pnf;yHk tajccHOya'ES;D aESmzvS,yf u
GJ x
kd yfraH qG;aEG;jcif;
usaemfjynfe,frsm; zJG@pnf;yHkeJ@ywfouf+yD; eJeJwifjyvdkomuawmh
t&ifwek ;f u jynfe,fz@GJ pnf;yHak &;qJaG &; ay:vmwJt h csed u
f sawmh jynfaxmif
pk zJ@G pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'a&;qJaG &; aumfrwDuae+yD;awmh 'gawG[m jynfe,f
zJ@G pnf;yHk tajccHOya'a&;qJaG &; aumfrwDay:vmwm[m olw@kd e@J ,OS +f yKd io f vdk
olw@kd u xifjrifvmw,f? aemuf+yD;awmh 'Djynfe,fz@GJ pnf;yHk ay:ayguv f m
jcif;tm;jzifh olw@kd twGuf bmrSvyk pf &mr&Sb d ;l / qdw
k yhJ pkH rH sKd ;udv
k J aqG;aEG;
vmw,f? txl;ojzifh NCUB &Jh nDvmcHuae+yD;awmh olw@kd wifoiG ;f vm
w,f? 'gawGukd jynfaxmifpzk @GJ pnf;yHu k rvdtk yfawmhb;l / jynfe,f&adS e+yDyJ
qdw k hJ tjrifrsKd ;udk olw@kd u aqG;aEG;vmw,f?
'gayrJv
h @kd usaemfw@kd u UNLD ud, k pf m;vJajymvd@k &ygw,f? usaemf
b,fvkd aqG;aEG;ovJqakd wmh jynfe,fz@GJ pnf;yHak y:vmwJt
h csed rf mS usrS jynf
104
'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf;

axmifpk zJ@G pnf;yHt


k wGuf yd+k y;D awmh usaemfw@kd }uKd ;pm;+y;D awmh vkyaf qmifomG ;
rSm jzpfygw,f? usaemfw@kd ,SO+f yD;oGm;rSm jzpfygw,f? tckusaemfw@kd qJaG ewJh
jynfaxmifpzk @GJ pnf;yHu
k vJ 'gyxrrl=urf;vd@k usaemfw@kd ajymxm;wJh twdik ;f ygyJ
'D 3/ 4 ESpt
f awmtwGi;f rSm avhvmwmu 'Dyxrrl=urf; jyifqifp&m jznfh
pGufp&mawG trsm;}uD;&Sdw,f? jynfaxmifpkzJG@pnf;yHkudkvJ usaemfwdk@
qufomG ;rSm jzpfygw,f?
'Djynfe,f zJ@G pnf;yHak y:ayguw f meJ@ jynfaxmifpzk @GJ pnf;yHu k kd 'DaumfrwD
vkyfief;udk zsufqD;ygw,fvdk@ jrifwJhtjrifudk vHk;0rSm;w,f? 'gusaemfwdk@
,SOfwJG&r,fh udpPawGjzpfygw,f? jynfaxmifpkzJG@pnf;ykH bmjzpfvdk@rl=urf;
ra&;qJo G vJ qd&k ifawmh usaemfw@kd jynfaxmifprk mS &Sw d hJ wdik ;f &if;om;awG[m
tem*gwrf mS usaemfw@kd b,fv, kd OS w
f +GJ yD;awmh b,fvakd exdik f Edik rf vJqw kd hJ
yH=k urf;udk ,H=k unfru _ kd usaemfw@kd az:aqmifjcif; jzpfw,f? xdek nf;twlyJ
usaemfw@kd jynfe,frmS vJ tJ'jD ynfe,ftwGi;f rSm&Sw d hJ wdik ;f &if;om;rsm;u
b,fvkd twl,OS w f aGJ exdik rf vJ qdw k hJ usaemfw@kd &hJ ,H=k unfrr_ =l urf;udk csrw
S f
xm;ay;zd@k vrkd ,f?
'Djynfe,fz@GJ pnf;yHu k tJ'v D u
kd saemfw@kd yHak z:xm;jcif;jzifh jynfe,fwikd ;f
jynfe,fwikd ;f rSm usaemfw@kd jyifqifru _ &kd &So
d mG ;r,fq&kd if jynfaxmifpt k wGuf
tajccHu r&bl;vm;? jynfe,fz@GJ pnf;yHek @J usaemfw@kd jynfaxmifpzk @GJ pnf;yHu k
Edi_ ;f ,SOof mG ;jcif;tm;jzifh jynfaxmifp&k zhJ @GJ pnf;yHu k kd bmtm%m tm;enf;rvJ/
jynfaxmifpu k usaemfw@kd jynfe,fukd usew f jhJ ynfe,f toD;oD;uae+y;D awmh
b,fvakd &;qJrG vJ qdw k mvkyjf cif;tm;jzifh trsm;}uD;aumif;oGm;ygw,f? 'g
a=umifh usaemfwdk@jynfe,frsm; zJG@pnf;yHkay:vmvdk@ jynfaxmifpkzJG@pnf;yHk
vkyif ef;udk xdcu kd yf gw,fqw kd hJ tjrifrsKd ;[m vH;k 0rjzpfoifb h ;l ? 'g[m usaemfw@kd
jynfaxmifpzk @GJ pnf;yH&k hJ yxrrl=urf;yJ vkyaf o;w,f? usaemfw@kd jynfe,fz@GJ pnf;
yHv k J qufvufa&;qJ&G rSm jzpfygw,f qd+k yD;awmh usaemfwifjyw,f?
jynfaxmifpzk @GJ pnf;yHk a&;qJaG &;tzJ@G u jynfe,fz@GJ pnf;yHyk g }udK;udik +f yD;
awmh tukev f ;kH 0ifpuG +f yD;awmh }udK;udik cf siw
f yhJ pkH rH sKd ;eJ@ qd&k ifawmh oD;jcm;
udk,fydkifjyXmef;cGifhqdkwmu b,frSm&SdawmhrvJ? 'DrSm jynfe,fa&;qJGa&;
vkyxf m;wJh aumfr&Sirf mS a&;wJyh *k K~d vfuvJ Edik if aH &;tESpaf ygi;f 30/ 40 rSm
vkyfvmwJh tawG@t}uHKrsm;pGm&SdwJh yk*d~KvfawG jzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifh
cifAsm;wd@k jynfe,f zJ@G pnf;yHak wGukd tJvrkd sKd ;a&;qJjG cif;eJ@ ygwo f uf+y;D awmh 'Dvkd

105
jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)

oabmxm;r,f qd&k if usaemfw@kd wikd ;f &if;om; pnf;vH;k nD!w G af &;udk vH;k 0


'gcifAsm;wd@k xdcu
kd f apEdik w
f ,f? tJ'ga=umifh usaemfw@kd u jynfaxmifpzk @GJ pnf;yHk
vJvyk yf g? jynfe,ftoD;oD;&Jh zJ@G pnf;yHk vJvyk yf g qd+k y;D awmh usaemfu nDvmcH
rSm aqG;aEG;ygw,f?
aemufq;kH awmh tJ'h n D vD mcHu jynfaxmifpzk @GJ pnf;yHk 'kw,
d rl=urf;udk
qufomG ;yg? jynfe,ftoD;oD;&Jh zJ@G pnf;yHu k vJ qufvuf+y;D awmh vkyaf qmif
oifw h ,fqw kd thJ jrifukd nDvmcHucsrw S w
f thJ wGuaf =umifh ,ckjynfaxmifpk
zJ@G pnf;yHk 'kw, d rl=urf;udv k J jyifqifxm;ygw,f? usaemfw@kd jynfe,f toD;oD;&Jh
zJ@G pnf;yHu k v
kd J usaemfw@kd vH;k yrf;ae=uygw,f?
Armjynfe,fzJG@pnf;yHktajccHOya' a&;qJGavhvma&;tzJG@qdk+yD;awmh
tzJ@G 0if (9) OD;yg0ifwhJ tzJ@G wzJ@G ukd zJ@G pnf;cJw
h ,f? tckq&kd ifawmh wd;k +y;D awmhz@GJ
pnf;cJwh ,f? 'gvu J saemfw@kd &hJ jynfaxmifpk ESihf jynfe,frsm;&Jh aqG;aEG;yJu G ae+y;D
awmh jzpfay:vmwJ&h vm'faumif; wckjzpfygw,f?
tck[m 'Djynfe,fz@GJ pnf;yHek @J jynfaxmifpzk @GJ pnf;yHk b,fvrkd sKd ;oabm
wlnrD _ &&So d vJq&kd if yxrtcsut f aeeJ@ usaemfw@kd u jynfe,fz@GJ pnf;yHk
a&;qJw
G ahJ e&mrSm eHygww f pftcsuu f bmvJqakd wmh jynfaxmifpzk @GJ pnf;yHuk kd
tajccH&r,f? oabmu oD;jcm;vGwv f yfwEhJ ikd if H taeeJ@ jynfe,fOya'
a&;qJvG @kd r&bl;? Confederation qdkwJhtaeeJ@ a&;qJGvdk@r&bl;? ppfrSefwJh
zuf'&,f jynfaxmifppk epftay:rSm tajccH&r,f? qd+k yD;awmh usaemfw@kd u
jynfaxmifpzk @GJ pnf;yHek @J jynfe,fz@GJ pnf;yHk oabmwlnrD _ &ygw,f?
aemufwcsut f aeeJ@ usaemfw@kd jynfe,fz@GJ pnf;yH[ k m ygwpD 'kH rD u kd a&pD
pepfukd vufc&H r,f? 'guv kd J usaemfw@kd r=l urf;udk csrw
S Ef ikd cf w
hJ ,f? od@k r[kw&f if
wygwt D m%m&Sif oGm;vkyv f @kd r&bl;? bk&ifpepf apmfbmG ;pepf 'l;0g;pepfawG
jyefoGm;vdk@r&bl;? ygwDpHkpepfudktajccH&r,fqdkwJh tcsufwcsufygw,f?
aemuf wcsuu f bmvJqakd wmh usaemfw@kd jynfe,fz@GJ pnf;yHrk mS vJ 'Dru kd a&pD
tajccH+yD; vl@tcGit hf a&;udk tumtuG,f jyXmef;Edik &f r,f? 'gvu J saemfw@kd
jynfe,fz@GJ pnf;yHrk mS xJ&h rnfh tcsujf zpfygw,f? aemufwcgusawmh jynfe,f
twGi;f rSm &Sad ewJh vlrsKd ;pkawG usaemfw@dk wef;wla&;udk tajccH&r,fqw kd hJ
tcsuu f vkd nf; usaemfw@kd tJ'ED ;DS aESmzvS,yf rGJ mS usaemfw@kd csrw S f Edik cf yhJ gw,f?
aus;Zl;wifygw,f?
***************

106
'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf;

3;4 vuf&SdEdkifiHa&;tajctaersm; oHk;oyfcsufpmwrf;

ref;!Gef@armif

ed'gef;
jynfaxmifpw k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmuf
e,fajr)onf wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;Edik if aH &; tiftm;pktoD;oD;udk uk, d pf m;jyKzJ@G
pnf;xm;aom tzJ@G csKyfwckjzpfjcif;a=umifh wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;. jy\em
t&yf&yfudk vufawG@usus avhvmcsnf;uyf&ef wm0ef&SdouJhodk@ ,if;
jy\em&yfrsm;udk OD;aqmifajz&Si;f &efvnf; wm0ef&adS eayonf?
,ae@ jrefrmEdik if w
H iG f ppftm%modr;f acgi;f aqmifrsm; usio hf ;kH aeaom
ppftm%m&SifpepfwGif aZmif;ESpfzufxm;I &ufpuf=urf;=uKwfr_rsm; jyK
vky&f mY wbufaZmif;jzpfaom 'Dru kd a&pDtiftm;pkrsm;tay:wGif tavsmh
twif;enf;AsL[mudk usio hf ;kH ae+y;D wbufaZmif;jzpfaom wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;
rsm;tay: Y &mZ0wfrq _ efaom tpkvu kd t
f +yKH vu
kd f owfjzwfrE_ iS hf tpkvukd f
t+yHKvduk f t"rRjyKusirhf r_ sm; tygt0ifjzpfaom rsKd ;jyKwfenf;AsL[mudk usihf
oH;k aeayonf?
,ae@ usi;f yaom jynfaxmifpw k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Drukd a&pDtzG@J
csKyf (vGwfajrmufe,fajr) . 'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHwGif trsdK;om;a&;
jy\emw&yftjzpf ,if;udpu P kd txl;wvnf tm&kpH ;l pdu k Ef ikd af p&ef ppftpd;k &
. tavsmt h wif; enf;AsK[mESihf rsKd ;jyKwfenf;AsL[mwd@k ukd tav;ay;wifjy
vduk yf gonf?

avsmw
h if;enf;AsL[m
1988 ckESpf ppfwyfutm%modrf;+yD;aemufwGif jrefrmEdkifiHY
Edik if aH &;tiftm;pkt& 'Drukd a&pDtiftm;pk/ ppfa&;tiftm;pk ESihf vlrsKd ;a&;
tiftm;pk oH;k pk ay:ayguv f monf? ,if;tiftm;pk ok;H pkwiG f 'Dru
kd a&pDtif
tm;pkESifh vlrsdK;a&;tiftm;pkwdk@onf 'Drdkua&pDa&;udk ta=umif;jyKI
rdwzf uftoGi&f yf wnfvmcJo h nf? ppfa&;tiftm;pkEiS u
hf m; Edik if aH &;t&
&efbuftjzpf awmufav#mufqef@usif &yfwnfvmcJ=h uayonf?

107
jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)

,if;od@k ppftyk pf Ek iS hf qef@usizf uftjzpf &yfwnfvmcJ=h u&mwGif ppftyk pf k


onf jynfwiG ;f Edik if aH &; taetxm;ESihf Edik if w H umtaetxm;udk ta=umif;
jyKI 'Dru kd a&pD tiftm;pktay:wGif tavsmt h wif;enf;AsL[mudk usio hf ;Hk I
Edik if aH &;t& tay:pD;rS &&Sad &;ESihf ppftm%m ouf&n S =f uma&;udk }uKd ;yrf;tm;
xkwv f mcJo
h nf? ppftyk pf o k nf vlrsKd ;a&;tiftm;pktay: xd;k ESuw f u kd cf u
kd &f m
Y ppfa&;udt k "duxm;I xd;k ESuw f ukd cf ukd v f mcJ&h m yxrwGif ppftyk pf o k nf
1990 ckEpS f a&G;aumufyt JG +y;D Y (UNLD) tygt0if vlrsKd ;pkEikd if aH &;ygwrD sm;udk
rw&m; zsuo f rd ;f ypfco
hJ nf? wbufwiG f “0”vufeufuikd t f ygt0if (NDF)
tzG@J 0if vlrsKd ;pk vufeufuikd rf sm;tay: wbufYppfa&;t& xd;k ESuf wdu k cf u kd
I
f wbufY rdrv d ufeuf rdru d ikd x f m;qdo k nfh typftcwf&yfpaJ &; rsuEf mS zk;H udk
pGyI f wpwpjzifh 0dik ;f ywf acsre_ ;f a&;enf;AsL[mudk usio hf ;Hk vmcJo
h nf? ,if;od@k
typftcwf &yfpx J m;aom vlrsKd ;pkvufeufuikd t f zG@J rsm;ESihf 10 ESpf ausm=f um
onftxd Edik if aH a&;t& aqG;aEG;r_urkd jyKbJ Edik if w H umod@k trsKd ;om;nD!w G f
a&; &&Sad eoa,mif tm%modr;f ppfacgi;f aqmifrsm;u 0g'jzef@aeonf?
tvm;wlyif ppftyk pf o k nf 'Dru kd a&pDtiftm;pktay: Y avsmw h if;tcsed q f JG
enf;AsL[mudk usifhokH;ae&mrS ,cktcgEdkifiHa&;t& tay:pD;rS rdrdwdk@&&Sd
vm+yD[k ,lqonfEiS hf rdrw d @kd u, kd wf ikd f 'Dru
kd a&pDa&;udk ysKd ;axmifaeygonf
[k aºuG;a=umf pjyKvmonf?

jyefvnfqef;ppf&ef
rdwfquftjzpf twlwuG&yfwnf=uv#uf ppftm%m&Sifpepftm;
bH&k efotl jzpf qef@usiw
f u kd cf u
kd af e=uaom vlrsKd ;a&;tiftm;pkEiS hf 'Dru
kd a&pD
tiftm;pkw@kd onf &J&ifyh iG vhf if;pGmjzifh ppftpd;k &. aumufuspf pOf;vJaom
enf;AsL[mudktprStqHk; jyefvnfoHk;oyf&ef vdktyfouJhodk@ rdrdwdk@
csrSwfusifhoHk;cJhaom enf;AsL[mrsm;udkvnf; &dk;om;yGifhvif;pGm jyefvnf
oH;k oyf&ef txl;wvnf vdt k yfaeayonf?
1? 1990 ckEpS f rS 1997 ckEpS t f xd ppftpd;k &onf w&kww f @kd xrH S umuG,af &;
ypPn;f ESihf vlo;Hk ukeyf pPn;f tcsKd @&,lI ppftpd;k &onf w&kwjf ynftm; opf
ESihf pm;uket f csKd @ukd jyefay;I &yfwnfc&hJ onf?
2? xdkif;EdkifiHonf jrefrmEdkifiHrS opfawmxGufESifh yifv,fxGufypPnf;
&&Sda&;udkta=umif;jyKvsuf jrefrmEdkifiHtm; tmqD,HtzGJ@ twGif;

108
'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf;

0ifcGifh&&Sd&ef tjyKoabmaqmifaomqufqHa&; (Constructive


Engagement) vrf;pOfjzifh ppftpdk;&tm; tmqD,HtzGJ@0if jzpfapcJh
onf?
3? xdpk Of ppftpd;k &onf Edik if w H umY txD;useb f 0wGi&f adS eI Edik if aH &;
tay: pD;&&Sad &;twGuf jynfwiG ;f 'Dru kd a&pD tiftm;pktm; t"rRzEd ydS I f
tcsKd @aom vlrsKd ;pkvufeufuikd t f iftm;rsm;tm; ppfa&;jzifh +zdKcG&J mwGif
typftcwf&yfprJ u _ kd jyKEdik jf cif;jzifh ‚if;twGuf Edik if aH &;t& xGuaf yguf
wckukd &&SEd ikd af pcJo
h nf?
4? 1997 ckEpS w
f iG f ppftpd;k &onf tif'ckd sKd if;em; ok;H Edik if EH iS hf twla&S@aemuf
qifI h tmqD,t H zG@J twGi;f tzG@J 0iftjzpf 0ifciG &hf cJo
h nf? ppftpd;k & onf
0rf;omtm;&jzifh tcrf;tem;usif;yI }udKqdkcJhonf? xdkESpfwGif
tmqD,HtzGJ@0ifEdkifiHrsm;. pD;yGm;a&;+ydKvJoGm;I ppftpdk;&twGuf
pD;yGm;a&;t& tusdK;tjrwfr&chJaomfvnf; ta&S@awmiftm&SwGif
yxrqk;H t}udrf t&m0ifco hJ nf?

r,k=H unf&aomolEiS hf ,k=H unfrw


_ nfaqmufjcif;
ppftpd;k &onf w&kww f @kd xrH S ykpH t
H rsKd ;rsKd ;jzifh &&Sx
d m;aom vufeufrsm;
jzifh ,if;ppfwyfukd (1990) ckEpS af emufyikd ;f Y q,fqru wd;k cs@J vmcJo h nf?
,if; ppfwyftiftm;ESihf ppfwyftpd;k &onf 1990 ckEpS af emufyikd ;f Auy+ydKuGJ
oGm;+y;D aemuf ,if;wd@k . vlrsKd ;wrsKd ;wnf;/ bmomwckwnf;jzpfa&; r[mAsL
[mt& vlrsKd ;pkvufeufuikd rf sm;tm; yxrtqifh 0dik ;f ywfxm;a&;rS t+yD;
owf acsre_ ;f a&;udk pwifcohJ nf?
,if;od@k ppftpd;k &onf wbufwiG v f rl sKd ;pkrsm;tm; ppfa&;atmufY
toHaysmufatmif zdEydS x f m;pOf (2000 -2001) ckEpS f ta&mufY a':atmif
qef;pk=unftm; 'kw, d t}udrtf us,cf sKyfjzifh csLyfaESmifxm;+yD; yl;uyfcmG
Edik if aH &;enf;AsL[mt& ta&;}uD;aom Edik if aH &;upm;uGuf wckujkd yKvkycf hJ
onf?
,if; yl;uyfcmG enf;AsL[mrSm wbufrS xd;k ESurf j_ yif;xefaepOf aysmh
ajymif;pGmrdwaf qGozG,f yl;uyfaeI wbufrS t,Hv k ,
G v f maomtcg rdrd
bufrS jyefvnfweG ;f z,fxw k yf pfaom enf;AsL[myifjzpfonf? ,if; ppftpd;k &

109
jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)

. ESpf ESpef ;D yg; usiohf ;kH cJah om yl;uyfcmG Edik if aH &;AsL[mudk tcsKd @u,Hrk mS ;pGmjzifh
,H=k unfr_ wnfaqmufjcif;tjzpf ajymqdrk w S ,
f cl hJ =uonf?
,if;od@k ppftpd;k &. yl;uyfcmG AsL[mumvtwGi;f Y ukvor*~ tyg
t0if Edik if w H um tzG@J tpnf;toD;oD;rS yk*Kd~ vfrsm;ESihf Edik if w H ckjcif;rS tpd;k &
wm0efcrH sm;onf jrefrmEdik if o H @kd tqufrjywfa&muf&v dS m=u+y;D tcsKd @qv kd #if
ppfbufEiS hf 'Dru kd a&pDbufrS acgi;f aqmifrsm;tjyif vlrsKd ;pktzG@J tpnf;rsm;rS
acgi;f aqmifrsm;ESifh ygawG@qcHk =hJ uonf? ,if;yk*Kd~ vfrsm;. jrefrmEdik if H twGi;f
0ifxu G f oGm;vmr_EiS hf awG@qrHk u _ tkd a=umif;jyKI tcsKd @onf taumif;jrif
vGe;f vSojzifh r=umrD ESpyf iG q hf ikd af qG;aEG;yGJ xdrk rS =umrD ok;H yGiq
hf ikd af qG;aEG;yGJ
xduk rSwqifh tESpf ig;q,fausmf ysujf ym;aeaom trsKd ;om;nD!w G af &;udk
jyefvnfwnf aqmuf aygi;f pnf;Edik af wmhrnf[k vJrG mS ;pGm,H=k unfc=hJ uonf?

,k=H unfrr_ suEf mS zk;H uGm+yD


2002 ckEpS t f wGi;f b&lEikd ;f Edik if w
H iG u
f si;f yaom tmqD,EH pS yf gwv f nf
tpnf;ta0;Y w&kw0f ef}u;D csKyfonf a':vmbDvv D scH sI
D rwnfaom r[m
tm&S rD;&xm;vrf;r}uD;pDrHudef;ESifh tdEdN,EdkifiHtygt0if ta&S@awmif
tm&SEikd if rH sm; csr;f omºuG,0f a&; a':vmukaÉcso D nfh vGwv f yfaom ta&S@
awmiftm&Saps;uGupf rD u H ed ;f }uD; ESp&f yfukd wifoiG ;f cJo h nf? pum;rsm;rsm;
ajymwwfaom rav;&Sm;0ef}u;D csKyo f nfyif pum;udk enf;enf;omajymEdik +f y;D
useftmqD,HEkdifiH acgif;aqmifrsm;onf auseyf tm;&=uojzifh pum;
rajymEdik af tmif jzpfc=hJ uonf? ,if; tpnf;ta0; t+y;D wGif tdE, Nd Edik if H yg0if
a&;udk wm0ef,x l m;&aom jrefrmppfacgi;f aqmifrsm;onf tvkyt f rsm;qk;H
&cJ=h uonf//
,if;odk w
h &kww f @kd . ausmaxmufaemufcðH yr_jzifh tmqD,t
H zG@J wiG f
ae&m&vmaom ppftpd;k &onf 2003 ckEpS f Zefe0g&v D aemufq;Hk ygwYf
b,f(vf)*sD,ef (Belgium) EdkifiHwGifusif;yaom tmqD,H-tD;,l yl;wGJ
tpnf;ta0;od@k yxrqH;k t}urd f wufa&mufciG &hf oGm;onf? ,if; tajctae
onf ppftpdk;&tm; EdkifiHwume,fy,fwGif yxrqkH;t}udrf t&m0if
aponf[k ok;H oyfc=hJ uayonf//
ppftpd;k &onf tmqD,tH zG@J twGi;f ESihf Edik if w
H ume,fy,f twGi;f
0ifqef@r&_ v
dS monfukd ta=umif;jyKI xdik ;f Edik if b
H ufEiS hf tdE,
Nd Edik if H buf

110
'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf;

a&muf vlrsKd ;pkrsm;tay: &mZ0wfrq _ efaom &ufpuf=urf;=uKwfr_ rsm;udk


wd;k jr‡ihf jyKvkyv
f monf? a':atmifqef;pk=unfEiS hf 2 ESpaf usmf ,k=H unfr_
wnfaqmufxm;yg onfqakd om olw@kd . yl;uyfcmG AsL[mt& &cdik jf ynfc&D;
t+yD;Y &kyyf suq f if;ysuf t+yD;tydik rf suEf mS zH;k cGmcs ypfvu
kd o
f nf?

tawG;opfEiS hf enf;AsL[mopf
,ae@ a&muf&SdaeaomtajctaeESifh tjzpftysufrsm;t& ppftm
%m&Sipf epftay: &_jrif&mwGi‚f if;/ ppftm%modr;f acgi;f aqmifrsm; tay:
&_jrif&mwGif‚if;/ rdrd.pdwfqENudk ta=umif;jyKvsuf tjyKoabmaqmif
taumif;jrif0g'jzifh &_jrifo;Hk oyf&jHk zifh vkaH vmufjcif; r&Sad wmhonfukd awGŒjrif
Edkif=urnf? ppftm%modrf;jcif; ta=umif;&if;cHrsm;ESifh ppftm%modrf;
acgi;f aqmifrsm;. w&m;ud, k Ef iS hf ud,
k u f siw
fh &m;tay: YvufawG@usus
qef;ppfEikd jf cif;om ,ck ppf&mZ0wfrr_ sm;udk [ef@wm;Edik rf nf jzpfayonf//
,if;twGuf ,ckusi;f yaeqJjzpfaom jynfaxmifpw k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;
rsm; 'Dru
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aemuf+yD;awmh usaemfw@kd nv D mcHtwGuf ta&;}uD;qH;k toufaoG;


a=umjzpfwhJ usaemfw@kd UNLD &Jh zJ@G pnf;yHt k ajccHOya'udv k nf; jyifqifcsuf
tjzpf usaemfw@kd twnfjyKjyXmef;Edik cf yhJ gw,f? aemufusaemfw@kd UNLD(LA)
&Jh ,E ,W m;wckv;kH vnfywfvy_ &f mS ; vkyu f ikd Ef ikd &f eftwGuf em,u}uD;tzJ@G /
obmywdtzJ@G / twGi;f a&;rSL;tzJ@G / A[dt k vkyt f r_aqmiftzJ@G e@J a&;&maumf
rwD toD;oD;awGukd usaemfw@kd a&G;cs,w f ifajrm‡ uf&&Sd =u+y;D jzpfygw,f? usaemf
tav;teuf rSm=um;vdw k muawmh UNLD &Jph nf;&H;k a&;uspv f pf cdik rf ma&;
[m zJ@G pnf;yHyk g&w
dS t
hJ wdik ;f bJ usaemfw@kd acgi;f aqmifrsm;[m ygwD tzJ@G tpnf;
toD;oD;&Jh tjynft h 0ud, k pf m;jyKr_EiS hf usaemfw@kd nv D mcH wufa&mufwhJ
twGuaf =umifh usaemfw@kd a&;qJcG srw S xf m;wJh zJ@G pnf;yHyk gtwdik ;f bJ usaemfw@kd
UNLD(LA) pkpnf;a&;udk tpGrf;ukefxdef;odrf;=uygvdk@ usaemfrSm=um;
vdyk gw,f?
aemufqHk;taeeJ@ ajym=um;vdkwmuawmh 'DnDvmcHrScsrSwfxm;wJh
oabmwlq;kH jzwfxm;wJh tcsurf sm;tm;vH;k udk usaemfw@kd em,utzJ@G a&m/
obmywdtzJ@G a&m/ A[dt k vkyt f r_aqmiftzJ@G a&m/ a&;&maumfrwDtzJ@G rsm;
tm;vHk;[m us&mwm0efuae+yD;awmh aemufnDvmcHjyefa&mufwJhtxd
tpGrf;ukef usaemfwdk@ UNLD(LA) &Jhvkyfief;rsm;udk }udK;pm;aqmif&Guf
=uygp@kd v@kd ajym=um;&if;eJ@ tm;vH;k udb
k J aus;Zl;wifygw,f?

***************

118
'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf;

UNLD(LA) rSww
f rf;"gwyf rkH sm;

UNLD(LA) 'kw,
d t}urd n
f v
D mcHo@kd wufa&mufvm=uaom
ud,
k pf m;vS,rf sm;

UNLD(LA) 'kw,
d t}udrn
f v
D mcHwiG f a&G;cs,w
f ifajrmufjcif;
cH=u&aom obmywdtzJ@G 0ifrsm;

119
jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)

UNLD(LA) taemufzufa'o (tdE,


Nd e,fpyf) rSwufa&muf
vm=uaom ud,
k pf m;vS,rf sm;

'kw,
d t}udrn
f vD mcHwiG f a&G;cs,w
f ifajrmufjcif; cH=u&aom
A[dtk vkytf r_aqmifaumfrwD0ifrsm;

120
'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf;

em,u Sao Seng Suk ESihf Teddy Buri (MP)

taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL; a'guw f m qvdik ;f vserf e_ ;f qmacgi;f ESihf


&Hk;tzJG@om;rsm;
(0J,mrS) apm[ef!eG @f / a'guw f m qvdik ;f vserf e_ ;f qmacgi;f / Edik [
f o H m/
pdik ;f arm (ef)
121
jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)

UNLD(LA) OuUX cGe;f ref;udb


k ef; (MP) ESihf taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;
a'guw
f mqvdik ;f vserf e_ ;f wd@k nDvmcHukd OD;aqmifusi;f yaeyHk

UNLD(LA) 'kw,
d t}urd n
f v
D mcHukd wufa&mufvm=uaom
ud,
k pf m;vS,rf sm;. nDvmcHjrifuiG ;f

122
'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf;

rl0g'a&;&maumfrwDrS wifoiG ;f aompmwrf;udk taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;


a'guwf m qvdik ;f vserf e_ ;f rS &Si;f vif;wifjypOf

obmywdtzJ@G 0if ref;!Ge@f armifrS vuf&EdS ikd if aH &;tajctae


pmwrf;udk zwf=um;wifoiG ;f pOf

123
jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)

em,u}uD; Teddy Buri ESihf twGi;f a&;rSL; cdik rf sKd ;cdik w


f @kd
tcef;tem;udk OD;aqmifaeyHk

em,u}uD; OD;omEd;k (MP) aqG;aEG;pOf

124
'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf;

tvSnu
hf sobmywd ylxefvseaf ygif (MP)

r&mjynfo@l ygwD ud,


k pf m;vS,f Pu Thahe aqG;aEG;pOf

125
jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)

em*trsKd ;om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyfrS OD;apmp yg0ifaqG;aEG;pOf

obmywdtzJ@G 0if pdik ;f 0if;az (MP) yg0ifaqG;aEG;pOf

126
'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf;

obmywdtzJ@G 0if OD;',fe&D ,fatmif(MP) &Si;f vif;wifjypOf

kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf CNLD rS Pu Hrang Hu


csi;f trsKd ;om;'Dru
yg0ifaqG;aEG;pOf

127
jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)

&H;k tzJ@G .vkyif ef;pOfrsm;udk &H;k tzJ@G pdik ;f arm(ef) u &Si;f vif;wifjypOf

em,u}uD; p0fqikd pf pf (Sao Seng Suk) . tydwrf ed @f cGe;f

128
'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf;

UNLD(LA) OuUX cGe;f ref;udb


k ef; jynfe,frsm;zJ@G pnf;yHk tajccHOya'
a&;qJaG &;ES;D aESmzvS,yf w
GJ iG f tzGirhf ed @f cGe;f ajym=um;pOf

taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL; a'guw


f mqvdik ;f vserf e_ ;f UNLD(LA)
ESpyf wfvnf tpnf;ta0;wGif vkyif ef;pOfrsm;&Si;f vif; wifjypOf

129
jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)

Photo: Nang Hseng Noung Lintner

UNLD(LA) em,u}u;D Dr. Chao Tzang Yawnghwe

130
jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)

tydik ;f (4)

UNLD(LA) zJ@G pnf;yHt


k ajccHOya'udk
jyifqifjznfph uG t
f wnfjyKjcif;/
tvkyt f r_aqmifaqmifaumfrwDrsm;udk
a&G;cs,wf ifajrmufjcif;/ wm0efay;tyfjcif;ESihf
nDvmcHxw k jf yefa=unmcsurf sm;

jynfaxmifpk wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru


kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf
(vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)

132
'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf;

United Nationalities League for Democracy


(Liberated Areas)
zJG@pnf;yHktajccHOya'
Constitution
tcef; (1)
trnfEiS t
hf "dyg` ,zf iG q
hf ckd suf
yk'rf (1)
u? trnf
TtzJG@csKyf.trnfudk “jynfaxmifpkwdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm; 'Drdku
a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)” [kac:wGiaf p&rnf?
c? t"dyg` ,zf iG q
hf ckd suf
jynfaxmifpw k idk ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmuf
e,fajr)onf vGwaf jrmufe,fajra&muf rlvjynfaxmifpk wdik ;f &if;om;
vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Drukd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf. tzJ@G 0ifygwrD sm;udk tajccHI zJ@G pnf;xm;
aom tzJ@G csKyfjzpfonf?
tcef; (2)
jynfaxmifpkwdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;'Drdkua&pDtzJG@csKyf
(vGwaf jrmufe,fajr) zJ@G pnf;jcif;
yk'rf (2)
jynfaxmifpkwdkif;&if;om;vlrsdKrsm; 'Drdkua&pDtzJG@csKyf (vGwfajrmuf
e,fajr) udk jynfwiG ;f rS vGwaf jrmufe,fajrod@k a&muf&v dS m=uaom
tzJ@G csKyf tzJ@G 0if tzJ@G tpnf;rsm;/ jynfwiG ;f tzJ@G csKyfEiS hf Edik if aH &;rl0g'
yl;aygif;vufwJG vkyfaqmifvmcJh=uonfh tzJG@tpnf;rsm;rS A[dk
tvkyt f r_aqmifaumfrwD OuUÏrsm;/ 'k-OuUÏrsm;/ twGi;f a&;rSL;rsm;/
tzJ@G 0ifrsm;rSO;D aqmifI zJ@G pnf;xm;aom tzJ@G tpnf;rsm;/ pnf;&H;k a&;
aumfrwDrsm;ESihf woD;yk*v ~ jynfo@l vw$ af wmfu,kd pf m;vS,f rsm;wd@k jzifh
tajccHI zJ@G pnf;xm;onf?
tcef; (3)
tzJ@G 0ifopf vufcjH cif;?

133
jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)

yk'rf (3)
u? jynfaxmifpkwdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm; 'Drdkua&pDtzJG@csKyf. rlv
tzJG@0ifrsm;/ tzJG@csKyfESifh EdkifiHa&;rl0g't& yl;aygif;vufwJG vkyf
aqmif vmcJ=h uaom tzJ@G rsm;rS vGwaf jrmufe,fajrod@k a&muf&dS
vm=uonf h OuU Ï rsm;/ 'k - OuU Ï rsm;/ twG i f ; a&;rS L ;rsm;/
tvk y f t r_ a qmif t zJ G @ 0if r sm;OD ; aqmif + yD ; zJ G @ pnf ; xm;aom
tzJG@tpnf;rsm;/ pnf;&Hk;a&;aumfrwDrsm;onf tzJG@csKyftzJG@0if
tjzpfav#mufxm;vmygu vuf&SdtzJG@tpnf;tzJG@0ifrsm;.
oH;k yHEk pS yf kH axmufcrH j_ zifh tzJ@G csKyftzJ@G 0iftjzpf vufc&H rnf?
c? vGwaf jrmufe,fajrwGif vufeufuikd af qmifxm;jcif; r&Sad om wdik ;f
&if;om;EkdifiHa&;tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;onf rl0g'yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufvdk
a=umif; av#mufxm;vmygu vuf&jdS ynfaxmifpw k ikd ;f &if;om;
vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr) tzJ@G 0ifrsm;.
oHk;yHk;ESpfyHkaxmufcHr_jzifh rl0g'yl;aygif;vkyfaqmifonfhtzJG@0if
(Affiliated Members) tjzpfvufc& H rnf?
*? jynfaxmifpwk ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmuf
e,fajr) tzJ@G 0ifrsm;onf (2) ESpw f ikd w
f ikd yf ;l aygi;f aqmif&u
G rf t
_ zJ@G
(Affiliated Members) tjzpf+yD;ajrmufoGm;ygu tzJG@csKyf.
tvdt k avsmuf wif;jynft h zJ@G 0if jzpfap&rnf?
C? jynfaxmifpwk idk ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Drukd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmuf
e,fajr) wGif wif;jynft h zJ@G 0ifjzpf+yD;ygu wjcm;r[mrdwt f zJ@G 0if
tjzpf rjzpfap&?
tcef; (4)
OD;aqmiftzJ@G / OD;aqmifrp_ epf/ tm%mydik q
f ikd rf E_ iS hf zJ@G pnf;yHt
k qifq
h if?h
yk'rf (4)
jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,f
ajr) . nDvmcHonf tzJ@G csKyf.tjrifq h ;kH tm%mydik f jzpfonf?

134
'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf;

yk'rf (5)
jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,f
ajr) . nDvmcHrS em,utzJ@G 0ifrsm;udk a&G;cs,&f rnf?
yk'rf (6)
jynfaxmifpw k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,f
ajr) tzJ@G 0ifygwt D oD;oD;wd@k onf oufqikd &f mtzJ@G tpnf; ud, k pf m;vS,f
wOD;pDukd tzJ@G csKyfobmywdtzJ@G 0iftjzpf a&G;cs,af pv$w=f u&rnf?
yk'rf (7)
jynfaxmifpw k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwjf rmufe,f
ajr) tzJ@G 0ifygwD toD;oD;wd@k onf nDvmcHwufa&muf&ef tzJ@G csKyfu
owfrw S x f m;aom ud, k pf m;vS,Of ;D a&udk apv$w=f u&rnf?
yk'rf (8)
jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,f
ajr) nDvmcHonf obmywdtzJ@G 0ifrsm;xJrS oifah omfaom OD;a&jzifh
wm0efcoH bmywdtzJ@G ukd a&G;cs,af y;&rnf?
yk'rf (9)
jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,f
ajr) .nDvmcHo@kd wufa&mufciG &hf adS om ud, k pf m;vS,rf sm;xJrS oifah omf
aomOD;a&jzifh twGi;f a&;rSL;tzG@J ukd nDvmcHrS a&G;cs,af y;&rnf?
yk'rf (10)
jynfaxmifpkwdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm; 'Drdkua&pDtzJG@csKyf (vGwfajrmuf
e,fajr) nDvmcHrS a&G;cs,w f m0efay;onfh wm0efco H bmywdtzJ@G EiS hf
twGif;a&;rSL;tzJG@ wdk@onf jynfaxmifpkwdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;
'Drdkua&pDtzJG@csKyf (vGwfajrmufe,fajr) . A[dktvkyftr_aqmif
aumfrwD tjzpf wm0efcH vkyaf qmifomG ;&rnf? A[dk tvkyrf a_ qmif
aumfrwD. OuUX/ 'k-OuUXrsm;/ taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;/ twGi;f a&;rSL;
tzJG@0ifrsm;ESifh tvkyftr_aqmif aumfrwD0ifrsm;udk A[dktvkyf
tr_aqmifaumfrwD0ifrsm;xJrS tcsif;csif; a&G;cs,fwm0efay;I
nDvmcHu twnfjyKay;&rnf?
135
jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)

yk'rf (11)
jynfaxmifpw k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,f
ajr) . taemufa'opnf;&Hk;a&;aumfrwDudk A[dktvkyftr_aqmif
aumfrwDwiG f yg0ifaom taemufa'o&SAd [dt k vkyt f r_aqmifaumfrwD
0ifrsm;. OD;aqmifrj_ zifh tzJ@G csKyftzJ@G 0ifygwrD sm; wygwv D #if tenf;qH;k
ud,k pf m;vS,f wOD;pDyg0ifI zJ@G pnf;&rnf?
yk'rf (12)
jynfaxmifpw k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,f
ajr) taemuf X mecJ G p nf ; &H k ; a&;aumf r wD . OuU X / 'k - OuU X /
twGi;f a&;rSL;ESihf tr_aqmifaumfrwDtzJ@G 0ifrsm;udk taemufbufa'o
&Sd tzJ@G csKyftzJ@G 0ifygwD ud,k pf m;vS,rf sm;xJrS tcsi;f csi;f a&G;cs,w f m0ef
ay;tyf=u&rnf?
yk'rf (13)
jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,f
ajr) taemufbufa'opnf;&H;k a&;aumfrwDonf A[dt k vkytf r_aqmif
aumfrwD.vkyif ef;rsm;udk taxmuftuljyKonft h zJ@G jzpfonf?
yk'rf (14)
jynfaxmifpw k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Drukd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,f
ajr) A[dktvkyftr_aqmifaumfrwDonf nDvmcHrScsrSwfxm;aom
rl0g'ESihf vkyif ef;rsm;udk wm0efcv H yk af qmifomG ;&rnf?
yk'rf (15) a&;&maumfrwDrsm;
jynfaxmifpw k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmuf e,f
ajr) . a&;&maumfrwDrsm;udk atmufygtwdik ;f zJ@G pnf;I wm0efrsm;
cJaG 0tyfEiS ;f &rnf?
1? rl0g'a&;&m ESihf Edik if w
H uma&;&maumfrwD
2? pnf;&H;k a&; ESihf r[mrdwaf &;&maumfrwD
3? jyef=um;a&;&m ESihf vlxq k ufqaH &;aumfrwD
4? b¾ma&;aumfrwD

136
'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf;

tcef; (5)
tpnf;ta0;usif;yjcif;?
yk'rf (16) yHrk eS n
f v
D mcH
jynfaxmifpw k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,f
ajr) yHrk eS n
f v
D mcHukd (2) ESpf w}udrf usi;f y&rnf?
yk'rf (17) ta&;ay:nDvmcH?
em,utzJG@. t}uHay;csuft&aomf‚if;/ obmywdtzJG@0ifrsm;.
av;yHk oHk;yHkoabmxm;t&aomf‚if;/ tvkyftr_aqmifaumfrwD.
wifjycsuftay: obmywdtzJG@0ifrsm;ESifh/ em,utzJG@0ifrsm;.
oabmwlncD sut f & ta&;ay:nDvmcHukd ac:,lusi;f yEdik o
f nf? ta&;
ay:nDvmcH. qHk;jzwfcsufrsm;t& qufvufaqmif&Gufcsufrsm;udk
teD;uyfq;kH yHrk eS n
f vD mcHwiG f twnfjyKcsu&f ,l&rnf?
yk'rf (18) yHrk eS t
f pnf;ta0;rsm;?
u? em,utzJ@G / obmywdtzJ@G EiS hf tvkyt f r_aqmifaumfrwD. yHrk eS f
tpnf;ta0;rsm;udk wESpw f }udrf usi;f y&rnf?
c? a&;&maumfrwD toD;oD;wd@k onf ‚if;wd@k .oufqikd &f mvkyif ef;rsm;
tvduk f yHrk eS t
f pnf;ta0;rsm;udk (6) vw}udrf usi;f y&rnf?
yk'rf (19) tpnf;ta0;txajrmufjcif;?
u? (2) ESpf w}udru f si;f yaom yHrk eS n
f v
D mcHonf tzJ@G 0ifygwu
D ,
kd pf m;
vS,rf sm;. oH;k yHk ESpyf x
kH ufrenf; wufa&mufvmygu nDvmcHtx
ajrmufonf?
c? ESpyf wfvnfyrkH eS tf pnf;ta0;wGif em,utzJ@G / obmywdtzJ@G /
A[dt k vkytf r_aqmifaumfrwD0ifrsm; xuf0ufausmf wufa&muf
vmygu tpnf;ta0;txajrmufonf?
*? A[dt k vkytf r_aqmifaumfrwD. yHrk eS t f pnf;ta0;wGif tzJ@G 0if
rsm;xuf0ufausmf wufa&mufvmygu tpnf;ta0;txajrmuf
onf?
C? a&;&maumfrwDtoD;oD;wd@k . yHrk eS t f pnf;ta0;rsm;wGif aumfrwD
0ifxuf0ufausmf wufa&mufygu tpnf;ta0;txajrmuf
onf?
137
jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)

yk'rf (20) qENraJ y;jcif;


u? jynfaxmifpw k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Drukd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmuf
e,fajr) tzJG@0ifygwDtzJG@tpnf;rsm;onf tzJG@csKyfnDvmcHwGif
wygwv D #if wrJus qENraJ y;ydik cf iG hf &So d nf?
c? jynfaxmifpw k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Drukd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmuf
e,fajr) tzJ@G 0ifwoD;yk*v ~ jynfo@l vw $ af wmfu, kd pf m;vS,rf sm;
onf tzJ@G csKyfnv D mcHwiG f wOD;v#if wrJus qENraJ y;ydik cf iG hf &So
d nf?
*? jynfaxmifpw k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Drukd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmuf
e,fajr) ESihf rl0g'yl;aygi;f vkyaf qmifonfh ygwrD sm;onf a&G;cs,w f if
ajrmufjcif;qdik &f mrSty rl0g'ESiyhf wfoufI wygwv D #if wrJus
qENrJ ay;ydik cf iG hf &So
d nf?
tcef; (6)
ta&;,ljcif;/ xkwyf ,fjcif; ESihf tpm;xd;k cef@tyfjcif;?
yk'rf (21)
u? jynfaxmifpw k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmuf
e,fajr) tzJ@G 0ifygwt D zJ@G tpnf;wzJ@G u‚kd if;/ jynfaxmifpw k ikd ;f &if;
om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr) ESihf rl0g'
yl;aygi;f vkyaf qmifonfh ygwt D zJ@G tpnf;wzJ@G u‚kd if;/ tzJ@G csKytf zJ@G 0if
ESihf yl;aygi;f vufwv GJ yk if ef;rsm;aqmif&u G af om tzJ@G 0ifryS *k K~d vfwOD;
OD;onf‚if;/ tzJ@G csKy. f OD;wnfcsu/f tajccHr0l g'vrf;pOfEiS v hf yk if ef;pOf
rsm;udk qef@usiaf qmif&u G v f #iaf omf‚if;/ ay;tyfxm;aomwm0ef
udk xrf;aqmif&ef ta=umif;rJh wrifwumysuu f uG f v#iaf omf‚if;/
vkyyf ikd cf iG u
hf kd tvJo G ;kH pm;jyKv#iaf omf‚if;/ b¾maiG tvJo G ;kH pm;
jyKv#iaf omf‚if;/ ud, k u f siw hf &m;tvGet f usL; ysujf ym;v#iaf omf
‚if;/ wduscikd rf maom taxmuftxm;rsm;awG@&ydS gu obmywd
tzJ@G 0if. oH;k yHEk pS yf kH oabmwlncD sujf zifh owday;jcif;/wm0efrS
&yfpjJ cif;/ jyefvnf&yk o f rd ;f jcif;/ xkwyf ,fjcif;jzifh ta&;,lEikd o f nf?
c? obmywdtzJ@G 0ifrsm; oH;k yHEk pS yf q
kH ENoabmxm;jzifx
h w
k yf ,fxm;
aom tzJ@G tpnf;wzJ@G onf t+yD;jzpfap&rnf?

138
'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf;

*? obmywdtzJ@G 0ifrsm; oH;k yHEk pS yf q


kH ENoabmxm;t& xkwyf ,fjcif;
cH&aom yk*~dKvfwOD;OD;tpm; oufqdkif&mygwDtzJG@tpnf;rsm;rS
tpm;xd;k a&G;cs,af pv$wyf ikd cf iG hf &Sad p&rnf?
C? jynfaxmifpw k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmuf
e,fajr) obmywdtzJ@G 0ifwOD;OD;udk yHrk eS n f v
D mcHusi;f ypOf umv
wGif oufqikd &f mygwt D zJ@G tpnf;oabmwlncD sujf zifo h m ajymif;vJ
cGihf &Sad p&rnf?
tcef; (7)
zJG@pnf;yHktajccHOya'jyifqifjcif;?
yk'rf (22)
jynfaxmifpw k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,f
ajr) zJ@G pnf;yHOk ya'udk nDvmcHwiG w f ufa&mufaom ygwu D , kd pf m;vS,f
oH;k yHEk pS yf kH qENro
J abmwlncD sujf zifh jyifqifjcif;/ jznfph u G jf cif;/ y,fzsuf
jcif;rsm;udk jyKvkyEf ikd o f nf?
yxrt}urd rf S twnfjyKxm;cJah om zJ@G pnf;yHt k ajccHOya'udk 2003 ckEpS f
azaz:0g&Dv (9) &ufae@rS (12) &ufae@txd usif;yjyKvkyfaom jynf
axmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr) 'kw,
d
t}udrn
f vD mcHrS jyifqifjznfph u G jf cif;jzifh twnfjyKjyXmef;onf?

jynfaxmifpw k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru


kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)
ae@p?GJ ? 2003 ckEpS f azaz:0g&vD (12) &uf

***************

139
jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)

jynfaxmifpw k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Drukd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf


(vGwaf jrmufe,fajr) .
'kw, d t}udrf nDvmcHrS
em,ursm;/ obmywdtzJ@G 0ifrsm;/ t+rJwrf;obmywdtzJ@G 0ifrsm;/
twGif;a&;rSL;tzJG@ESifh
vkyif ef;aumfrwDtoD;oD;twGuf a&G;cs,w f m0efay;tyfjcif;?
2003 ckEpS f azaz:0g&v
D 9-12 &uf

A[dt
k vkyt
f r_aqmifaumfrwD0ifrsm;
em,utzJ@G
a'guw f m p0fZef@a,mifa[G
p0fqikd pf pf
cGe;f 'uf'bD ;l &D
OD;cifarmif=unf
Edik af omif;&Sed f
obmywdtzJ@G 0ifrsm;
cGe;f ref;udb k ef; (Democratic Organization for Kayan National Unity)
a'guw f mZavxef (Chin Naional League for Democracy)
',fe&D ,fatmif ( Lahu National Development Party)
OD;omEd;k (Arakan League for Democracy)
pdik ;f 0if;az (Shan Nationalities League for Democracy) Independent
ylxefvse;f aygif (Zomi National Congress)
ylvset f yk f (Independent M.P)
Edik xf eG ;f a0 (Mon National Democratic Front)
ref;!Ge@f armif (Union Karen League)
cl;&Sm;&,f (Kayah State All Nationalities League for Democracy)
rac:cGeq f m (Kachin State National Congress for Democracy)
qvdik ;f csi;f p (Mara People's Party)
OD;apmp (Naga National League for Democracy)

140
'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf;

wm0efco
H bmywdtzJ@G
cGe;f ref;udb
k ef; (OuUX)
OD;omEd;k (tzJ@G 0if)
ylxefvse;f aygif (tzJ@G 0if)
rac:cGefqm (tzJG@0if)
pdkif;0if;az (tzJG@0if)
twGif;a&;rSL;rsm;
a'guw f mvserf e_ ;f qmacgi;f (taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;)
cdkifrsdK;cdkif (ta&S@zufa'o)
Zdpk rG f (taemufzufa'o)
A[dt
k vkyt
f r_aqmifaumfrwD0ifrsm;
cGe;f ref;udb k ef; (OuUX)
rac:cGeq f m ('k-OuUX/ ta&S@zufa'o)
ylxefvse;f aygif ('k-OuUX/ taemufzufa'o)
a'guw f mvserf e_ ;f qmacgi;f (taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;)
cdik rf sKd ;cdik f (twGi;f a&;rSL; ta&S@zufa'o)
Zdpk rG f (twGi;f a&;rSL; aemufzufa'o)
pdkif;0if;az (tzJG@0if)
OD;omEd;k (tzJ@G 0if)
a&;&maumfrwDrsm;
(u) rl0g'a&;&mESihf Edik if jH cm;a&;&m
a'guw f m p0fZef@a,mifa[G (tzJ@G acgi;f aqmif)
cGe;f 'uf'b D ;l &D ('k-tzJ@G acgi;f aqmif)
ylvset f yk f (aumfrwD0if)
p0fqikd pf pf (aumfrwD0if)
',fe&D ,fatmif (aumfrwD0if)
OD;apmp (aumfrwD0if)
a'guw f mvserf e_ ;f qmacgi;f (wm0efct H wGi;f a&;rSL;)

141
jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)

(c) pnf;&H;k a&;vkyif ef;ESihf r[mrdwaf &;&m


cGe;f ref;udb
k ef; (tzJG@acgif;aqmif)
pdkif;0if;az ('k-tzJG@acgif;aqmif)
cl&mS ;&,f (aumfrwD0if)
ylxefvse;f aygif (aumfrwD0if)
qvdik ;f csi;f p (aumfrwD0if)
yl&ef[;l (aumfrwD0if)
OD;apmp (wm0efct H wGi;f a&;rSL;)
(*) &H;k vkyif ef;ESihf jyef=um;a&;&maumfrwD
ref;!Gef@armif (tzJG@acgif;aqmif)
rac:cGefqm ('k-tzJG@acgif;aqmif)
pwDAifqeG rf ef; (aumfrwD0if)
Anm;[Hom (aumfrwD0if)
apm[ef!eG @f (aumfrwD0if)
pDom[J (aumfrwD0if)
cdik rf sKd ;cdik f (wm0efct H wGi;f a&;rSL;)
(C) b¾ma&;&maumfrwD
cGe;f ref;udb k ef; (pm&if;ppf)
p0fqikd pf pf (b¾ma&;rSL;)
rac:cGeq f m (pm&if;udik )f
OD;omEd;k (aumfrwD0if-taemufzufa'o)
Zdpk rG f (aumfrwD0if-taemufzufa'o)
a'guw f mvserf e_ ;f qmacgi;f (wm0efctH wGi;f a&;rSL;)

***************

142
'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf;

UNITED NATIONALITIES LEAGUE FOR


DEMOCRACY (UNLD - LA)
The Second Conference
9-12 February 2003
CENTRAL EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE
MEMBERS
ADVISORS:
1. Dr. Chao Tzang Yawnghwe
2. Sao Seng Suk
3. Teddy Buri
4. U Khin Maung Kyi
5. Nai Taung Sein
MEMBERS OF PRESIDIUM:
1. Khun Manko Ban, M. P., (Democratic Organisation for
Kayan National Unity)
2. Dr. Za Hlei Thang, M. P., (Chin National League for
Democracy)
3. Daniel Aung, M.P., (Lahu National Development
Party)
4. U Tha Noe, M. P., (Arakan League for
Democracy)
5. Sai Win Pay, M. P., (Shan Nationalities League for
Democracy)Independent
6. Pu Thang Lian Pau, M.P., (Zomi National Congress)
7. Pu Lian Uk, M.P., (Independent MP)
8. Nai Tun Way, (Mon National Democratic
Front)
9. Mahn Nyunt Maung (Union Karen League)
10. Khu Sha Reh (Kayah State All Nationalities
League for Democracy)
11. Mahkaw Khun Sa (Kachin National Congress for
Democracy)
12. Salai Cinzah (Mara People’s Party)
13. U So Sa (Naga National League for
Democracy)

143
jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)

STANDING BODY OF PRESIDIUMS:


1. Khun Manko Ban (Chairman)
2. U Tha Noe (Member)
3. Thang Lian Pau (Member)
4. Mahkaw Khun Sa (Member)
5. Sai Win Pay (Member)

SECRETARIATS:
1. Dr. Lian H. Sakhong (General Secretary)
2. Khiang Myo Khiang (Secretary - East)
3. Zo Suan (Secretary - West)
CENTRAL EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE MEMBERS
1. Khun Manko Ban Chairman
2. Mahkaw Khun Sa Vice-Chairman (East)
3. Pu Thang Lian Pau Vice Chairman (West)
4. Dr. Lian Hmung Sakhong General Secretary
5. Khiang Myo Khiang Secretary (East)
6. Zo Suan Secretary (West)
7. Sai Win Pay Member
8. U Tha Noe Member

WORKING COMMITTIES
I . Policy Making & External Affairs
1. Dr. Chao Tzang Yawnghwe (Leader)
2. Teddy Buri (Asst. Leader)
3. Pu Lian Uk (member)
4. Sao Seng Suk (member)
5. Daniel Aung (member)
6. U So Sa (member
7. Dr. Lian H. Sakhong (Secretary)
II. Organizing & Alliance Affairs
1. Khun Manko Ban (Leader)
2. Sai Win Pay (Asst. Leader)
3. Khu Sha Reh (member)

144
'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf;

4. Pu Thang Lian Pau (member)


5. Salai Cinzah (member)
6. Pu Hrang Hu (member)
7. Zo Suan (Secretary)
III. Information & Public Relations
1. Manh Nyunt Maung (Leader)
2. Mahkaw Khun Sa (Asst. Leader)
3. Steven Suanmang (member)
4. Banya Hongsar (member)
5. Saw Han Nyunt (member)
6. C. Thahe (member)
7. Khiang Myo Khiang (Secretary)
IV. Finance Committee
1. Khun Manko Ban (Auditor)
2. Sao Seng Suk (Treasurer)
3. Mahkaw Khun Sa (Accountant)
4. U Tha Noe (Member - West)
5. Zo Suan (Member - West)
6. Dr Lian H Sakhong (Secretary)

***************

145
jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)

'kw,
d t}urd n
f v
D mcHxw
k jf yefa=unmcsu?f
jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsdK;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJŒGcsKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)

U.N.L.D (L.A)
UNITED NATIONALITIES LEAGUE FOR
DEMOCRACY (LIBERATED AREAS)
----------------------------------
jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJcG sKyf
(vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)
'kw, d t}urd n
f v D mcH
owif;xkwjf yefcsuf (01§2003)
ae@p?GJ 2003 ckEpS f azaz:0g&v
D (12) &uf?
1? jynfaxmifpw k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmuf
e,fajr) . 'kw, d t}udrn f v D mcHukd vGwaf jrmufa'oY ouU&mZf 2003
ckEpS f azaz:0g&v
D (9) &ufrS (12) &ufae@txd atmifjrifpmG usi;f ycJyh gonf?
,if; nDvmcHo@kd tzJ@G csKyt f zJ0G ifwikd ;f &if;om;ygwD (12) ygwrD aS cgi;f aqmifrsm;
pHn
k pD mG wufa&mufc=hJ uygonf?
2? jynfaxmifpw k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmuf
e,fajr) . 'kw, d t}urd n f v D mcHusi;f ycsed w f iG f (56) ESpaf jrmuf jynfaxmifpak e@
ESiyhf gwu
kd q f ikd af eaoma=umifh Adv k cf sKyaf tmifqef;ESihf wdik ;f &if;om;acgi;f aqmif}u;D
rsm; csKyq f ckd o
hJ nfyh ifvpkH mcsKyyf g wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;. wef;wla&;ESihf ud, k yf ikd f
jyXmef;cGit hf ajccHrrl sm;udk vdu k ef mapmifx h ed ;f &efvt kd yfa=umif; wdik ;f &if;om;ygwD
toD;oD;u az: jycJ=h uygonf?
3? ,cktcg tm%modr;f ppfacgi;f aqmifrsm;onf yifvpkH mcsKyyf g tajccHrl
rsm;udk azguzf suv f #uf tm%modr;f &mwGif wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; tay:
tpkvu kd f t+yKH vukd o f wfjzwfjcif;ESihf tpDtpOf&&dS dS t"rRjyKusijhf cif; tygt0if
rsKd ;jzKwpf pfqifru _ kd jyKvyk af eonfjzpf&m ,if;&mZ0wfru _ kd tjrefq;kH &yfqikd ;f I
usL;vGeo f rl sm;tm; urBmu h v
k or*~tzJ@G csKyrf w
S &m;0ifaz:xkwf ta&;,lay;
yg&ef nDvmcHu qH;k jzwfcyhJ gonf?

146
'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf;

4? ppftyk pf Ek iS hf q,fEpS af usmt f ypftcwf&yfpx J m;aom vlrsKd ;pkvufeuf


udik wf yfrsm;ESi‚hf if;/ ppftyk pf t
k m;qufvufwu kd yf 0GJ ifaeaom vlrsKd ;pkvufeuf
udkifwyfrsm;ESifh‚if;/ EdkifiHa&;t& tjrefqHk;awG@qHkaqG;aEG;I ppfrSefaom
+idrf;csrf;a&;az:aqmif&ef vkdtyfa}umif;udkvnf; nDvmcHu awmif;qdk
vdu k yf gonf?
5? trsKd ;om;'Dru kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyftygt0if wdik ;f &if;om;Edik if aH &;ygwD aygi;f pHk
yg0ifonfh jynfo@l vw $ af wmfu, kd pf m;jyKaumfrwD (CRPP) / pnf;vH;k nD!w G f
aomvlrsKd ;pkrsm;r[mrdwt f zJ@G (UNA) ESihf wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; aoG;pnf;
nD!w G af &;ESihf yl;aygi;f aqmif&u G af &;aumfrwD (ENSCC) wd@k . aqmif&u G cf suf
rsm;onf oH;k yGiq hf ikd af qG;aEG;yJaG y:ayguaf &;udk taxmuftul jyKaoma=umifh
nDvmcHutjynft h 0axmufco H nf? ESpaf ygi;f (50) ausmf trsKd ;om;nD!w G f
a&; ysujf ym;aeaom trsKd ;om;tiftm;pkrsm;twGi;f jyefvnf&if=um;aph
Edik &f ef oH;k yGiq
hf ikd af qG;aEG;yJu G kd tjrefq;kH pwif&ef nDvmcHu tav;teuf
awmif;qdx k m;ygonf?
6? jynfaxmifpw k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,f
ajr) . vuf&dS Edik if aH &;ESiphf nf;&H;k a&;vkt d yfcsut f & em,utzJ@G / obmywd
tzJ@G / twGi;f a&;rSL;rsm;tzJ@G EiS hf a&;&maumfrwDrsm; zJ@G pnf;+yD;aemuf A[dk
tvkyt f r_aqmiftzJ@G uykd g nDvmcHuwd;k csŒJ zJ@G pnf;vdu k o f nft h jyif nDvmcH
aemufq;kH ae@Y (56) }urd af jrmufjynfaxmifpak e@ txl;a=unmcsuf wapmif
udyk g xkwjf yefcyhJ gonf?
7? xdik ;f 0ef}u;D csKyfwyfqif&iS ef 0yf. azaz:0g&v D (9) &ufae@rS (10) &ufae@
twGif; jrefrmEdkifiHodk@oGm;a&mufpOf jrefrmppftkyfpkacgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh
awG@q+Hk yD; vufeufuikd w f ikd ;f &if;om;awmfveS af &;tiftm;pkrsm;ESihf ppftyk pf k
t=um;wGiaf wG@qakH qG;aEG;yJw G &yf ay:ayguv f ma&;twGuf }udK;yrf;oGm;rnf
[k xkwaf z:ajym=um;csuu f kd nDvmcHu}udKqd+k yD; w&m;r#waomEdik if aH &;
aqG;aEG;yJq G o
D @kd pGr;f aqmifomG ;Edik vf rd n
R [
f k ,H=k unfygonf?
jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)

***************

147
jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)

(56) ESpaf jrmuf jynfaxmifpak e@xkwjf yefa=unmcsuf

jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsdK;rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJŒGcsKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr)

U.N.L.D (L.A)
UNITED NATIONALITIES LEAGUE FOR
DEMOCRACY (LIBERATED AREAS)
----------------------------------

(56) ESpaf jrmuf jynfaxmifpak e@ xkwjf yefa=unmcsu?f

2003 ck azaz:0g&v D (12) &ufae@onf yifvpkH mcsKyfrS arG;zGm;ay;vdu


k f
aom (56) ESpaf jrmufjynfaxmifpak e@ &ufjrwfr*Fvmusa&mufaomtcg
or,ae@ jzpfayonf?
Armjynfrtpd;k &ud, k pf m; Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;ESihf o#r;f jynf/ ucsijf ynf
ESihf csi;f jynfrS acgi;f aqmifrsm;csKyfqckd ahJ om yifvpkH mcsKyfonf tEdik t f &_;H
pmcsKyf r[kwaf y? wdik ;f &if;om;jynfaxmifrsm; w+ydKifwnf;vGwv f yfa&;&,l
&ef ESihf wef;wl&nfwl jynfaxmifpw k nfaqmufa&; yifjzpfayonf?
od@k &mwGif Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef; usq;kH oGm;+yD;onfah emuf 1947 ck Edik if H
awmfz@GJ pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'onf yifvpkH w d "f gwt f ajccHrEl iS hf vrf;v$aJ oGzo
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