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= F(

x)
Vector Field: F

= F(
x)
Vector Field: F

z = f (x, y)

Not every surface can be written in the form z = f (x, y)

x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1
This surface cannot be written in the form z = f (x, y)

x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1
This surface cannot be written in the form z = f (x, y)

z = 1 x2 y 2

x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1
This surface cannot be written in the form z = f (x, y)

z = 1 x2 y 2

We need a more general way to describe surfaces with equations

x = cos sin
y = sin sin
z = cos

x = cos sin
y = sin sin
z = cos

x = cos sin
y = sin sin
z = cos
If = 1, these equations describe all points (x, y, z) on the
surface of a sphere of radius 1.

x = cos sin

y = sin sin

z = cos

In vector form,
= x, y, z = cos sin , sin sin , cos
R

0 2

Hold constant and vary

Hold constant and vary

Hold constant and vary

Hold constant and vary

We dont have to use and for the variable names of the


parameters.
= cos u sin v, sin u sin v, cos v
R

More generally, surfaces can be described by a vector equation


of the form
= x(u, v), y(u, v), z(u, v)
R
The variables u and v are called the parameters

z = 4 x2 y 2

( 2
)
2
z =4x y =4 x +y
2

Let

x = u cos v

y = u sin v
(
)
z = 4 (u cos v)2 + (u sin v)2 = 4 u2

( 2
)
2
z =4x y =4 x +y
2

Let

x = u cos v

y = u sin v
(
)
z = 4 (u cos v)2 + (u sin v)2 = 4 u2
= x, y, z = u cos v, u sin v, 4 u2
R
where 0 v 2 and 0 u 2

0 v 2 and 0 u 2

0 v 2 and 0 u 2

= x, y, z = u cos v, u sin v, 4 u2
R
where 0 v 2 and 0 u 2
Vary v for dierent values of u

0 v 2 and 0 u 2

= x, y, z = u cos v, u sin v, 4 u2
R
where 0 v 2 and 0 u 2
Vary u for dierent values of v

= x, y, z = u cos v, u sin v, 4 u2
R
where 0 v 2 and 0 u 2
We have induced a grid on the parabolic surface

= x, y, z = u cos v, u sin v, 4 u2
R
where 0 v 2 and 0 u 2
We have induced a grid on the parabolic surface