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by

R. P. Deshpande

B. Tech. Hon. Elec. (I.I.T., Bom.)

Fellow, The Institution of Engineers (India)

Technical Consultant

Active

Generator

Transistor

Amplifier

Thyristor

Vacuum tube

Rectifier

Battery

Fuel cells

Passive

Resistor

Capacitor

Inductor / choke

Transformer

Heater

Oven

Lamp

RLC network

Electro-mechanical

Fans / motor

Switch

contactor

Relay

Fuse

Circuit breaker

Connector

Cable

cannot supply energy by themselves, whereas a battery would be

an active component since it truly acts as a source of energy.

Passive components cannot introduce net energy into the circuit.

They also cannot rely on a source of power, except for what is

available from the circuit they are connected to.

PASSIVE COMPONENTS

Resistor

Power loss

component

Resists all

currents AC / DC

Inductor

Capacitor

Associated with

magnetic field

Associated with

Electric field

Resists change in

current

Resists change in

voltage

factor

Offer leading

power factor

Dampens surge

Represents work

current

being done / heat

produced

Short-circuit in DC

Dampens surge

voltage

Open-circuit in DC

ELECTRIC CURRENT

International Ampere

Unvarying current that would deposit 0.001118 000 grams

of silver per second from a solution of silver nitrate in water.

conductor with a 1-ohm resistance when there is a potential

difference of 1 volt between its ends.

One ampere is the current in a conductor when a charge

of one coulomb (6.24 x 1018 charge carriers) passes

through a cross section of the conductor each second.

to relatively negative points.

VOLT ( V ): Voltage, or electromotive force, is a

quantitative expression of the potential difference in

charges between two points in an electrical field

Unit of electric potential or electromotive force is Volt.

One volt appears across a resistance of one ohm

when a current of one ampere flows through it.

One volt will drive one coulomb charge carriers, such

as electrons, through a resistance of one ohm in one

second. One joule of work is done in doing so.

UNITS OF MEASUREMENT

Entity

Unit

Symbol

SI Derivation

Electric Charge

Coulomb

A .s

Resistance

Ohm

V/A

Capacitance

Farad

A.s / V

Inductance

Henry

V. s / A

Voltage

Volt

W/A

Energy

Joule

N. m

Power

Watt

J/s

Magnetic Flux

Weber

Wb

V.s

Tesla

Wb / m

Frequency

Hertz

Hz

Cycles /s

R.C s, ( RC = Time constant of C-R combination)

RESISTANCE

Resists all currents AC / DC.

Represents heat generation or rate of work done.

Can be fixed, variable, voltage or temperature dependent.

Inseparable part of most electronic circuits.

Ohm Symbol , is standard unit of electrical resistance in the

International System of Units (SI).

Ohm, multiplied by imaginary no. j= -1, represents reactance (X) of

capacitor or inductor, in AC circuits.

In SI Units, 1 Ohm is equivalent to 1 Kg. m2. S-3. A-2

difference of 1 Volt is applied across it produces a current of 1 A

through the component.

In AC circuits, combination of resistance and reactance is called

Impedance (Z), a complex quantity, with Ohms as its unit.

Z=R+jX

Conductance (G): Inverse of resistance, G, is many times used

for convenience. Its conventional unit was known as Mho (inverse

of Ohm), with symbol , also the reverse of resistance symbol.

This unit is now replaced by Siemens (S), after Sir William (Karl

Wilhelm Siemens), 182383, British inventor, and mho is no longer

in common use. 1 Siemens= 1Mho

Admittance: This is inverse of impedance in AC circuits.

terminals, considered open circuited (through air, vacuum,

or insulation) etc.

short-circuited or continuous, due to resistivity of

connecting wires, contacts, joints etc.

measurement of respective resistances.

resistance, nor is there a perfect insulator with infinite

insulation resistance.

Cable / wire resistance

Resistance of Inductor/ transformer wires (Copper Loss)

Switch contact resistance

Insulation Resistance between adjacent live parts

Dielectric Insulation Resistance of Capacitors

Earth/ grounding Resistance

Loss equivalent of core loss in inductors/ transformers

AND SHOCK

Electric shock due to current through body (Not voltage)

Body resistance variable

Shock severity depends on body condition

200 A bearing limit

Shock may be sensed even at 24-30V

Let go threshold: 1 mA (rms) AC at 50 Hz / 5 mA DC.

Around 10 mA AC current through arm can cause powerful

muscle contractions; the victim is unable to release the wire.

Above 30 mA of AC or 300 500 mA of DC, it can cause

ventricular fibrillation, leading to cardiac arrest.

RESISTORS IN

EVERYDAY LIFE

Types of resistors

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Carbon film resistors

Metal Film Resistors (usually coated with NiCr.)

Metal Oxide resistors

Wire wound Resistors

Other types:

Cermet composites of ceramics & metals as

Mo, Co, Ni

Water Resistor- Salt water tube / bath for resistance.

Temperature dependent resistors

CARBON FILM

RESISTORS

MFR & Metal Oxide resistor

construction is similar

Number

Colour

black

brown

red

orange

yellow

green

blue

violet

grey

white

Tol.

Colour

1%

brown

2%

red

5%

gold

10%

silver

(No. of

zeroes)

B. B. R O Y G B V Gr W

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Bill Brown Realized Only Yesterday Good Boys Value Good Work

Black, Brown, Red, Orange,

Yellow,

Bill Brown Realized Only Yesterday Good Boys Value Good Work

Black, Brown, Red, Orange,

Yellow,

RTD SENSOR

Pt. resistor accuracy 0.0039 / /C

THERMISTER

Temp. accuracy 0.1C

CARBON POTENTIOMETERS

PRESETS

RHEOSTATS

INDUCTANCE

Resists change in current

Result of magnetic properties of materials and coils

Stores energy in the form of a magnetic field.

Offers lagging power factor

All transformers, chokes, motors use inductive

properties of coils and materials

Used in tuning circuits, oscillators, filters and ripple

smoothing circuits

Offers high impedance path to high frequency

currents, when used in a current path

SI Dimensions of Inductance

1/ LC is resonant frequency of LC combination

Applications of Inductors:

Used in surge current dampening

Eddy current Induction heating, including melting of metals

Magnetic measurement

Control systems

inductance is given by:

(omega)

Where XL

L

f

j

is the angular frequency,

is the inductance,

is the frequency, and

is the imaginary unit.[Sqrt(-1)]

DC currents

a flow of magnetic energy. This flow is called

magnetic flux (). By convention it flows from

north pole to south pole. Flux flowing from the

north pole is same as that entering south pole.

At B there are a smaller number of magnetic

field lines passing through the loop than there

is when it is in position A

Magnetic field it is a vector field. The term is used for two closely related

fields denoted by the symbols B and H, measured in units of Tesla and

amp per meter respectively in the SI. B is most commonly defined in

terms of the Lorentz force it exerts on moving electric charges.

Amount of flux passing through a unit area at right angles to the magnetic

field lines is called flux density (B) at that point.

-2

Flux density is measured in Tesla (T) where 1 T = 1 Wbm

Flux () = Flux density (B) x area through which flux passes (A)

Flux linkage = N = NBA

= BA

Weber is the magnetic flux which, linking a circuit of one turn would

produce in it an electromotive force of 1 volt if it were reduced to zero

at a uniform rate in 1 second.

Weber is commonly expressed in terms of other derived units as

Tesla-sq. m. (Tm2), volt-seconds (Vs), or joules per ampere (J/A)

in motion; electrons at rest in an inductor tend to

stay at rest. Ideally, an inductor left short-circuited

will maintain a constant current through it:

Energy (measured in joules, in SI) stored by an inductor is equal to the

amount of work required to establish the current through the inductor,

and therefore the magnetic field.

An ideal closed loop inductor will continue to carry a current forever- it

opposes any change in current- and will store energy till disturbed. This

is nearly possible only in superconductors.

field and hence a magnetic flux through the circuit.

The ratio of the magnetic flux to the current is called the

inductance, or more accurately self-inductance of the circuit.

The symbol L is used for inductance.

The quantitative definition of inductance (webers per ampere)

L= / I

In honour of Joseph Henry, the unit of inductance has been given the

name Henry (H):

1H = 1Wb/A.

di / dt = V / L

area r2 and current i , would create a

magnetic field, similar to one created by a

permanent magnet.

mentioned in terms of a magnetic moment

m. In a loop of radius r and current i, a

magnetic field H, produced at the center of

the loop given by

H = i/2r

[Amperes/meter, A/m]

The intensity of magnetization, M or J, is magnetic moment per unit

volume

M = m / v [A/m]

Note that M and H have the same units.

B field is the sum of the H field and the magnetization M of the medium.

According to Faraday's Law, any change in this magnetic flux linkage

produces a self-induced voltage in a coil:

is flux in Webers,

l is the Length of the coil in meters

-permeability of core material,

di/dt in amps/second.

This means its magnetic field must increase in strength, and any

change in field strength produces corresponding voltage (principle

of electromagnetic self-induction).

Conversely, to release energy from an inductor, the current through

it must be decreased.

V=IR+ LI/t

(emf opposes applied voltage)

We can deduce, L = N2A/l

Self-inductance and mutual inductance

Self-inductance is the property of a circuit whereby a change in current

causes a change in voltage in the same circuit.

When one circuit induces current flow in a second nearby circuit, it is

known as mutual-inductance.

When AC current flows through of wire electromagnetic field produced is

correspondingly changing due to the constantly changing current. This

induces current in another wire or circuit closer to it. This current will also

be AC and of the same nature as the current flowing in the first wire.

Electric Bell

Relay

Horseshoe electromagnet

is similar to Capacitor

When a battery is connected to a series resistor and inductor, inductor

resists the change in current and the current therefore builds up slowly.

The rate of this buildup is characterized by the time constant L/R.

Establishing a current in an inductor stores energy in the magnetic field

formed by the coils of the inductor.

mutual inductance

N1 is the number of turns in coil 1,

N2 is the number of turns in coil 2,

P21 is the permeance of the space occupied by the flux.

L1 , L2 the inductance of the first and second coil.

This is the principle of transformer

Is , Ip the current through the secondary & primary inductor,

Ns , Np the number of turns in the secondary & primary inductor,

transform a load capacitance into an inductance. At low frequencies and low

powers, behaviour of the gyrator can be reproduced by a small op-amp circuit.

NPL, U.K. maintains two primary self-inductors whose values are established

from capacitance standards using two special transfer inductance standards.

The primary inductors are used to establish a range of secondary inductors.

inductance, with an approximate equivalent

circuit.

The two input impedances have similar

values in typical applications.

Simulated inductors do not have inherent

energy storing properties of real inductors.

This limits the possible power applications.

Q - FACTOR

An ideal inductor will be lossless irrespective of the amount of

current flowing through the winding.

Inductors have winding resistance from the metal wire forming the

coils. This resistance and core loss appear as a resistance in series

with the inductor, called the series resistance.

The quality factor (or Q) of an inductor is the ratio of its

inductive reactance to its resistance at a given frequency, and is

a measure of its efficiency.

Higher the Q factor of the inductor, the closer it approaches the

behavior of an ideal, lossless, inductor.

The Q factor of an inductor can be found through the following

formula, where R is its internal electrical resistance:

Q=L /R

Any wire carrying current generates magnetic field, and has an

inductance value. Inductance exists between two given wires in

a circuit or from different circuits, however low it may be.

A magnetic field associated with the instrument interacting

significantly with inductor, affects measurement of inductance.

Errors in measurement also arises from the interaction of

magnetic field of an inductor with rest of the measuring circuit.

Capacitance to other parts or surroundings of an inductor due

to electric field also affects the impedance or apparent

inductance of an inductor. Capacitive currents interference in

the measuring circuit need to be nullified / compensated,

Tube light

choke

INDUCTORS

Induction heating

Electromagnets

Solenoids / Relay coils

Yellow,

AC Waveforms

Voltage leads I (current) in an inductor L.

For 1 kW of real power: If the power factor is unity, 1 kVA of

apparent power needs to be transferred (1 kW 1 = 1 kVA).

At low values of power factor, more apparent power needs to be

transferred to get the same real power.

To get 1 kW of real power at 0.2 power factor 5 kVA of apparent

power needs to be transferred (1 kW 0.2 = 5 kVA).

Active power = VI Cos = W

Reactive power = VI Sin = VAr

Apparent power = Active power + Reactive power

(Vectorial Addition)

Series parallel

combinations

of R, L, & C

Ls = L1 + L2 + + Ln

C = C1 + C2 + C3

CAPACITORS

Resist change in voltage.

Uses electric field for working.

Offers leading power factor.

surge voltage dampening.

Resistance path to high frequency voltages.

Filter applications.

Power factor improvement on electrical installations.

CAPACITOR

d

C= 0 k A / d

Charge Q = C V

Energy stored:

E= C V2 = Q V

Polar Capacitors

General

Symbol

Variable

Capacitor

Force is between

Constant of proportionality

Gravitational Field

Objects with mass

Electric Field

Objects with charge

G

Same for all materials

in which the field exists

Nkg-1 or ms-2

Field strength in a radial field

Vector

NC--1 or Vm-1

Vector

Always attractive,

Vector

Attractive or repulsive,

Vector

Jkg-1

Scalar

Always less than zero.

JC-1

Scalar

Sign depends on charges

Definition of Potential

unit mass from infinity to positive charge from

the point in the field.

infinity to point in the field.

Potential Energy

Ep = Fm

W=VQ

Parameter

CAPACITOR

INDUCTOR

Working medium

Electric field

Magnetic field

V/I property

V-I relationship

I = C dv/dt

V = - L di/dt

Energy stored

E = CV2

E = L I2

SI Dimension

C = A.s/V =F

L= V.s/A = s2/F

Time constant

CR

L/R

Xc = -1 / jC

I2Xc leading

XL = jL

I2XL lagging

AC Reactance

Reactive power

I-V phase relation

Power factor

Watt loss component

Leading

Lagging

D= RC = 1/Q

Q = L/R

u= (E) 2 /2

= permittivity of the medium is = r 0

r is the relative permittivity of the material

E is the electric field vector.

field applied, humidity, temp., and other

parameters.

The magnetic permeability and the electric permittivity of space

are related by

C = 1/ (0 0)

0 = 4 x 10-7 N / A2

magnetic permeability of free space (Exact value)

0 = 8.854187817 x 10-12 F/m

Device

No. of capacitors

per unit

Mobile phone

260

Digital camera

310

Game console

315

Computer

700

Car

1700

1.6mm X 0.8mm MLCC

from Murata, Japan

WORLDS

SMALLEST

CAPACITORS

TACmicrochip tantalums,

15F/4V,

10F/6V

storing 50 MJ of energy and used to drive magnetic coils

with very high and super-short energy pulses.

ELECTRODE MATERIALS

ALUMINIUM

Etched & Formed Al. Foil

Mechanically Formed Al. Plates or Shapes

Containers as one electrode

Thin Film Coatings/ Metallization of

ZINC

Coatings

Metallization of Zinc or Zn/Al alloy

SILVER

Coating

TITANIUM

Powder form

ELECTROLYTE

This works as conductor, while also serving for replenishment of

oxide layer of dielectric

Real current does not really flow through a

capacitor, though it appears so when the

voltage across the capacitor changes.

If voltage across capacitor increases, some

positive charge has to be added to the top

conductor and some negative charge has to

be added to the bottom conductor.

Adding negative charge to the bottom conductor is the same

as pushing positive charge out;

The current I through the capacitor is the rate at which charge

Q is forced through the capacitor (dQ/dt). This can be

expressed mathematically as:

I = dQ / dt = C dV /dt

of only resistors and capacitors, the voltage across capacitor

cannot exceed voltage of the source.

An equilibrium is reached where voltage across the capacitor is

constant and the current through the capacitor is zero.

Hence it is commonly said that capacitors block DC.

A change in voltage is necessary for a capacitor to carry

current. In AC, voltage is always changing, so the current is

also changing to oppose the change in voltage- voltage being

sinusoidal, current is also sinusoidal.

are influenced by electric field,

causing molecules to rotate slightly

from their equilibrium positions.

The air gap is shown for clarity; in a

real capacitor, the dielectric is in

direct contact with the plates.

Capacitors also allow AC current to

flow and block DC current.

proportional to the amount of charge moved from one plate to the

other. This electric field creates a potential difference V = E x d

between the plates of the capacitor.

Time

Voltage

0

0

1 RC

63%

2 RC

86%

3 RC

95%

4 RC

98%

5 RC

99%

for ELECTROSTATIC CAPACITORS

Dielectric Material

Air

Dielectric Constant

1.0059

Vacuum

1.000

5.9 6.0

Ceramic (CO6)

Glass (Silicon)

Poly propylene

Polyester

Water (for comparison)

45

42

2.25 2.3

3.2

78.5

o As opposite charges accumulate on the plates of a capacitor

due to the separation of charge, a voltage develops across

the capacitor due to the electric field of these charges.

o Ever-increasing work must be done against this increasing

electric field as more charge is separated.

o The energy (in joules) stored in a capacitor is equal to the

amount of work required to establish the voltage across the

capacitor. The energy stored is given by:

o Stored Energy E= C V2 = Q2 /C = VQ

where V is the voltage across the capacitor.

AC current in capacitors

The current through a capacitor due to an AC source reverses

direction every half cycle. Except for the instant that the

current changes direction, the capacitor current is non-zero at

all times during a cycle. For this reason, it is commonly said

that capacitors "pass" AC.

The voltage across a capacitor is proportional to the integral

of the current, with sine waves in AC or signal circuits. This

results in a phase difference of 90 degrees, the current

leading the voltage phase angle.

The amplitude of the voltage depends on the amplitude of the

current divided by the product of the frequency of the current

with the capacitance, C.

for the instant the current changes direction, it is non-zero at all times

during a cycle. Hence it is commonly said that capacitors "pass" AC.

waveform of resistive circuit

Power waveform is above zero, means

net active power is consumed

of capacitive circuit with 90 shift

Power waveform is equal on both sides of

zero, means no real power is consumed

Impedance of Capacitor

The ratio of the phasor voltage across a circuit element to

the phasor current through that element is called the

impedance Z. For a capacitor, the impedance is given by

Zc = Vc / Ic = -j / 2 fC = - j Xc

( Xc = 1 / C)

=2f

Simple

Equivalent

Circuit

DF = watt loss / Reactive VA of a capacitor

Capacitors have "Q" (quality) factor (and the inverse,

dissipation factor , D or tan-delta) which relates capacitance

at a certain frequency to the combined losses due to dielectric

leakage

Lower D means lesser loss in the capacitor. Aluminum

Electrolytic types have typically high D factors. Low D

capacitors tend to exhibit low DC leakage currents and low

losses in AC.

Tan-delta is the tangent of the phase angle between voltage

and current in the capacitor. This angle is also called the loss

angle. It is related to the power factor which is zero for an ideal

capacitor.

Tan delta (Tg ) is same as power factor in most capacitors.

DC / AC CAPACITORS

Capacitors:

SMD ceramic at top left;

SMD tantalum at bottom left;

through-hole tantalum at top right;

through-hole electrolytic at bottom

right. Major scale divisions are cm.

A 12 pF 20 kV fixed

vacuum capacitor

Colour

Digit

A

Digit

B

Multiplie

r

D

Tolerance

T > 10pf

Tolerance

T < 10pf

Black

x1

20%

2.0pF

Brown

x10

1%

0.1pF

-33x10-6

Red

x100

2%

0.25pF

-75x10-6

Orange

x1000

3%

-150x10-6

Yellow

x10k

+100%,-0%

-220x10-6

400v

Green

x100k

5%

-330x10-6

100v

Blue

x1m

-470x10-6

630v

Violet

Grey

x0.01

+80%,-20%

White

x0.1

10%

0.5pF

Temp.

Coeff.

TC

Working

voltage

V

-750x10-6

250v

Capacitor

Colour Code

Markings

Tolerance

Letter

C <10pF pF

0.1

0.25

0.5

0.5

C >10pF %

10

20

+80-20

printed onto its body.

47pF * 1,000 (3 zero's) = 47,000 pF , 47nF or 0.047 uF

CAPACITOR APPLICATIONS

Energy Storage

Resonant Circuits

Oscillators, Tuning

Smoothing

Power Supplies

H.F. Filters

Phase Shifting

Measurement & sensors

Capacitive Switching

Motors, Fans

Vacuum, Electrical &

mechanical parameters

Touch Control

Transient Suppression

Power Supplies

Auto Industry

Rotor

12 F

440V

120 F

230V

MOTOR WINDING

WINDING

CAPACITORS IN

SINGLE PHASE MOTORS

12 F

440V

120 F

230V

for 230 V supply

The capacitor is hidden inside the pistol's grip. Its rating is

about 800 F at 300V.

Pulling the trigger discharges the capacitor and creates a

magnetic pulse which accelerates a small piece of metal.

The kinetic energy is about 0.10 Joule.

STRAY CAPACITANCE

Unwanted capacitance arises on account of following:

Between equipment and container housing / box.

Between wires/cables running parallel.

Occasionally lead to Static Electricity in machines.

equipment adversely and their effect has to consider while

designing.

Capacitor types:

Electrostatic: Use insulating material between electrodes

to act as dielectric. These are non-polar in nature.

higher capacitance values. Dielectric layer is an oxide formed

on metal plate surface.

They are inherently polar due to their construction.

forms naturally with applied voltage

DC Electrolytic Capacitors

Power Capacitors

&

Capacitor Banks

Electronic Capacitors

a)

(A.C., Motors, Fan & Lighting)

55-65 KV/mm AC

Test Voltage

110 -130 KV/mm

Peak Working Voltage

70-100 KV/mm

PP film used in 440 V AC rated capacitor is 6 to 9 m thick,

which gives working dielectric stress as 55-65 V/ m AC.

material in industry.

b)

b)

MPP capacitors most widely used today are of

Self- healing type.

Metallizing thickness around .02 microns

Defective or weak spots causing heavy current transients in

service evaporates metal around it, restoring healthy working

of capacitors.

Capacitance drops infinitesimally with each self healing.

Long life span of capacitor

Used in most AC applications in electrical industry

Construction

Electrostatic Capacitors

Electrolytic

Capacitors

Ceramic capacitors

The type of chip

capacitor that

predominates

because of its useful

range is the multilayer

ceramic chip (MLC).

The basis of this

structure is shown

Thick film capacitor electrodes are screen printed onto sheets of doped Barium

Titanate ceramic using interleaved pattern. These sheets are stacked under

pressure, dried, cut to size and sintered at a temperature around 1300C.

Electrodes are of a metal with a melting point higher than the sintering

temperature, and platinum (1774C) or palladium (1552C) are normally used.

Variable Capacitor

Trimmer Capacitor

Anode: Aluminium

Cathode:Aluminium

Electrolyte: solid / liquid /paste chemicals

Dielectric: Oxide layer film on Anode

Anode shape: Foil / formed

Cathode Shape: Foil / Can

Connection Leads: Tabs

Applications of Electrolytic

Capacitors:

Blocking & DC Bypass

DC Filters

Energy Discharge Application

Photoflash, Strobe, Military(Laser Radar)

Audio Systems

A.C.Motor Start

Power Supply filters/ Ripple control

Electrode1: Tantalum wire

Electrode2 Silver coating, graphite, solder

Electrolyte: Tantalum pentoxide, coated with MnO2

Advantages:

High volumetric efficiency

Easily mounted on PCB

Superior freq. Characteristics

Highly reliable- Do not lose capacitance with time.

Do not wear out

Wide temp. range 55 to +125 deg C, with no capacitance change

Tantalum Capacitors

Tantalum capacitors Applications

Cell phones

Laptops

Contributed to smaller sizes

Vehicular circuits

So far we knew

There is third type of capacitor in the world today:

ELECTROCHEMICAL CAPACITORS

(EC CAPACITORS)

Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitors (EDLC)

ULTRACAPACITORS, SUPERCAPACITORS,

Gold Capacitors, etc.

FARAD IS NO LONGER TOO LARGE A UNIT

ULTRACAPACITORS ARE RATED IN FARADS OR KILOFARADS.

throughout porous electrode surface with electrolyte contact

Capacitance

C= 0 k A /d

same Voltage:

1. Higher k

Energy stored :

E= C V2

= [ 0 k A /d ] V2

2. Larger Area A

3. Thinner Dielectric (d)

Porous carbon electrode: Area 2000-3000 m2/ g,

Nanometer size charge separation at electrolyte interface.

Area / Thickness ratio > 1012

Capacitor can contain 60-360 Farads / cm3

Energy storage comparable to battery.

RAGONE CHART

(Per Litre)

Source:

www.cap-xx.com

Ultracapacitor

Sizes & Shapes

Stackable 2200 F

3.8-2.2v 14 Wh

5.5 x 4 x 3.3

CAPACITOR

1500 F 2.7 VOLT

EC Capacitors:

MODULE HOLDS 144 CAPACITORS

(SIZE OF A COFFEE TABLE)

Quick charging

High discharge current

Energy storage much less than battery

Very high discharge currents make it ideal for power applications

Charging / discharging fast, in second instead of hours

RACING CARS

Toyota TS030 Hybrid (2012)

in 24 Hr. endurance test, Japan

IC Engine (Petrol) + U-cap (No battery)

Rear Motor: 225 KW (300HP)

Front motors used for regen. braking &

recharging of U-caps

Total Power 830 BHP

Majority of 31 racing cars used U-caps

Formula Zero Karts

Fuel Cell Power 8.2 kW

Ultracapacitor power (8 sec) 40 kW

Total electric power 46 kW (66 HP)

Emissions 6 min. of racing: 0.3 ml of water

SHANGHAI, CHINA

A) 5.9 KWH EDLC (3.5 miles with A/C)

Charging by pantograph from O/H lines

at bus stops (Umbrella Stops)

B) 2.25 KWH EDLC +60 KWH Battery

(45 miles with A/C) for Intercity

Guangzou (Guangdong),China

trains with U-cap power from 2014

with 320 passenger capacity.

Underfloor

power

pick-ups

charge U-cap unit at stations.

(CSR Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive)

U-cap pack for bus

Source: Sinautec Automobile technologies LLC

Source: Railway Gazette

SAVES 30% ENERGY

1500 KWh 1500 V DC system on 2 routes

(4896 EDLCs 2.7V / 5000F)

Regen: 20,155 KWh & 15464 KWh/day

Total Investment: $ 1.13 million

Payback period - 2.1 years

Siemens, Redox Engineering, LLC, Supercapacitor seminar, 2009

Industrial UPS

Ride through /Bridge

Power

1 MW DISCHARGE

Max. 15 seconds

~ 2000 Nos. x 2000F

Ucap vs PbA Battery

1/3 vol 1/5 wt

Life: 15 years

Low/No maintenance

Siemens, Redox Engineering, LLC, Supercapacitor seminar, 2009

THANK YOU

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