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Appendix D. Tables and Charts

The properties of materials vary widely depending on numerous factors, including chemical composition,
The
properties
of
materials
vary
widely
depending
on
numerous factors,
including
chemical
composition,
manufacturing
processes,
internal
defects,
temperature,
and
dimensions
of
test specimens
. Hence,
the
approximate
values
presented
in
Table
D.1
are
not
necessarily
suitable
for
specific
application.
Tabulated
data
are
for
reference
in
solving
problems
in
the
text.
For
details,
see,
for
example,
Refs.
D.1and
D.2.
The
International
System
of
Units
(SI)
replaces
the
U
.S.
Customary
Units,
which
have
long
been
used
by
engineers
in
this
country.
The
basic quantities
in
the
two
systems
are
as
follows
:
Basic
Units
SI
Unit
U.S.
Unit
Quantity
Name
Symbol Name
Symbol
Length
meter
m
foot
ft
Force [*]
newton
N [*]
pound
force
lb
Time
second
s
second
s
Mass
kilogram
kg
slug
lb
·
s 2 /ft
Temperature
degree
C
degree
F
Celsius
Fahrenheit
Derv
ied
unit
(kg
m/s 2 ).
In
the
SI
system,
the
acceleration
due
to
gravity
near
Earth’s
surface
equals
ap
proximately 9
.81
m/s 2 .
A
mass
of
1
kilogram
on
Earth’s
surface
will
experience
a
gravitational
force
of
9.81
N.
Thus,
a
mass
of
1
kg has,
owing
to
the
gravitational
force
of Earth,
a
weight
o
f 9.81
N.
Interestingly,
one
newton
is
approximately
the weight
of
(or Earth’s
gravitional
force
on)
an
average
apple.
Tables
D.2
and
D.3contain
conversion
factors
and SI
unit prefixes
in
common
usage.
Table
D.1.
Average
Properties
of
Common
Engineering
Materials [a]
(SI
Units)
Coefficient
Modulus
Modulus
Ductility,
of
Thermal
Ultimate
Strength,
MPa
Yield
Strength [c] MPa
of
of
Percent
Density,
Expansion,
Elasticity,
Rigidity,
Elongation
Material
Mg/m 3
Tension Compression [b] Shear Tension Shear
GPa
GPa
10
–6 /°C
in
50
mm
Steel
7.86
400
250
145
200
79
11.7
30
Structural,
ASTM-A36
7.86
480
345
210
200
79
11.7
21
High
strength,
ASTM-
A242
7.92
860
520
190
73
17.3
12
Stainless
(302),
cold
rolled
Cast
iron
7.2
170
650
240
70
28
12.1
0.5
Gray,
ASTM A-
48
7.3
340
620
330
230
165
64
12.1
10
Malleable,
ASTM
A-
47
Wrought
iron
7.7
350
240
210
130
190
70
12.1
35

Aluminum

 

2.8

480

290

410

220

72

28

23

13

Alloy

2014-T6

 

2.71

300

185

260

140

70

26

23.6

17

Alloy

6061-T6

Brass, yellow

Brass,

yellow

 

8.47

540

300

435

250

105

39

20

8

Cold

rolled

 
 

8.47

330

220

105

65

105

39

20

60

Annealed

Bronze, cold

Bronze,

cold

rolled

8.86

560

520

275

110

41

17.8

10

(510)

Copper,

hard
hard

drawn

alloys

Magnesium

8.86

1.8

380

140–

340

165

260

80–280

160

120

45

40

17

16.8

27

4

2–20

Concrete

2.32

28

24

10

Medium

strength

 

2.32

40

30

10

High

strength

Timber [d]

(air
(air

dry)

0.54

55

7.6

12

4

Douglas

fir

 

0.58

60

10

11

4

Southern

pine

Glass, 98% molded silica Nylon, Polystyrene 2.19 1.1 1.05 — 55 48

Glass,

Glass, 98% molded silica Nylon, Polystyrene 2.19 1.1 1.05 — 55 48

98%

molded

silica

Nylon,

Polystyrene

2.19

1.1

1.05

55

48

50

90

55

65

2

3

28

80

81

72

50

4

Rubber

0.91

14

162

600

[a] Properties may vary widely with changes i n composit ion, heat [c] Offset of
[a]
Properties
may
vary
widely
with
changes
i
n
composit
ion,
heat
[c]
Offset
of
0.2%.
[b]
For
ducti
le
metals
the
compression
strength
is
assumed
to
be
[d]
Loaded
parallel
to
the
grai
n.

treatment, and method of manufacture.

the same

as

that

i

n tension.

Table

Table D.1. Average Properties of Common Engineering Materials [ a ] (U.S. Customary Units)

D.1.

Average

Properties

of

Common

Engineering

Materials [a]

(U.S.

Table D.1. Average Properties of Common Engineering Materials [ a ] (U.S. Customary Units)

Customary

Units)

Yield Strength, [c] ksi

Ultimate

Strength,

ksi

Ultimate Strength, ksi

Modulus

of

Modulus Coefficient

of psi
of
psi

of

Thermal

Rigidity, Expansion,

Ductility,

Percent

Elongation

Specific

Rigidity, Expansion, Ductility, Percent Elongation Specific Weight, Elasticity, psi Material lb/in. 3 Tension C

Weight,

Elasticity,

psi
psi

Material

lb/in. 3

Tension Compression [b] Shear Tension Shear

10

6

10

6

10

6 /°F

in

2

in.

Steel

0.284

0.284

58

36

21

29

11.5

 

6.5

30

Structural,

ASTM-A36

0.284

70

50

30

29

11.5

6.5

21

High

strength,

strength, ASTM-

ASTM-

 

A242

0.286

125

75

28

10.6

9.6

12

Stainless

(302),

cold

(302), cold rolled

rolled

 

Cast

iron

Cast iron 0.260

0.260

25

95

35

10

4.1

6.7

0.5

Gray,

Gray, ASTM A-

ASTM A-

 

48

0.264

50

90

48

33

24

9.3

6.7

10

Malleable,

ASTM

A-
A-
 

47

Wrought

Aluminum

iron

Alloy

0.278

0.101

50

35

30

18

27

10.6

10

6.7

12.8

35

13

70

42

60

32

4.1

2014-T6

0.098

43

27

38

20

10.0

3.8

13.1

17

Alloy

6061-T6

Brass, yellow 0.306

Brass,

yellow

Brass, yellow 0.306

0.306

78

43

63

36

15

5.6

11.3

8

Cold

rolled

0.306

48

32

15

9

15

5.6

11.3

60

Annealed

Bronze, cold rolled 0.320

Bronze,

cold

rolled

0.320

81

75

40

16

5.9

9.9

10

(510)

Magnesium

hard
hard

alloys

drawn

Copper,

Concrete

0.065

0.320

0.084

20–49

55

24

11–40

38

23

6.5

17

2.4

6

15

9.3

2–20

4

4

3.5

5.5

Medium

strength

0.084

6

4.3

5.5

High

strength

Timber [d]

(air
(air

dry)

Timber [d] (air dry) 0.020

0.020

7.9

1.1

1.7

2.2

Douglas

fir

0.021

8.6

1.4

1.6

2.2

Southern

pine

Glass, 98% silica 0.079

Glass,

98%

silica

0.079

7

9.6

4.1

44

Nylon,

Polystyrene

Nylon, Polystyrene molded

molded

0.040

0.038

8

7

13

8

0.3

0.45

45

40

50

4

Rubber

0.033

2

90

600

[a] Properties may vary widely with changes i n composit ion, heat treatment, and method
[a]
Properties
may
vary
widely
with
changes
i
n
composit
ion,
heat
treatment,
and
method
of
manufacture.
[c]
Offset
of
0.2%.
[b]
For
ducti
le
metals
the
compression
strength
is
assumed
to
be
the
same
as
that
i
n tension.
[d]
Loaded
parallel
to
the
grai
n.
Table
D.2.
Conversion
Factors:
SI
Units
to
U.S.
Customary
Units

Quantity

 

SI

Unit

U.S. Equivalent

U.S.

Equivalent

Acceleration

m/s 2

m/s 2

(meter

per

square

3.2808

ft/s 2
ft/s 2

meter)

Area

m 2

(square

meter)

10.76

ft 2

 

Force

N

(newton)

0.2248

lb

Intensity

Intensity of force N/m

of

force N/m

(newton

per

meter)

0.0685

lb/ft

Length

m

(meter)

3.2808

ft

Mass

kg

(kilogram)

2.2051

lb

Moment

Moment of a N

of

a

N

·

m

(newton

meter)

0.7376

ft

·

lb

force

Moment

of of a
of
of
a

m 4

(meter

to
to

fourth

power)

2.4025

× 10 6
×
10
6

in. 4

inertia

plane

area

Power

Pressure

stress

or

W

Pa

kW

(watt)

(kilowatt)

(pascal)

0.7376

1.3410

0.145

ft · hp × 10 –3
ft
·
hp
×
10
–3

lb/s

psi

Specific

weight

kN/m 3

kN/m 3

(kilonewton

per

cubic

 

×

10

Velocity

Volume

meter)

meter) m/s m 3 (meter (cubic per meter) second)

m/s

m 3

(meter

(cubic

per
per

meter)

second)

3

lb/in. 3

3.2808

35.3147

ft/s

ft 3

Work

or

energy

J

(joule,

newton

meter)

0.7376

ft

·

lb

Table

Table D.3. SI Unit Prefixes

D.3.

SI

Unit

Prefixes

Prefix

Symbol

Factor

 

tera

T

10 12

10 12

=

1

000

000

000

 

000

giga

G

10 9

 

=

1

000

000

000

   

mega

M

10 6

=

1

000

000

kilo

k

10 3

=

 

1

000

hecto

h

10 2

=

 

100

deka

da

10 1

=

10

deci

d

10 –1

=

 

0.1

centi

c

10 –2

=

0.01

milli

m

10 –3

= = =
=
=
=

10 –6

10 –9

0.001

 

micro

µ

0.000

001

nano

n

0.000

000

001

pico

p

10 –12

=
=

0.000

001

000

000

Note

recommended.

:
:

The

use of the However,
use
of
the
However,

prefixes

hecto, are
hecto,
are

deka,

and
and

centi

is not in
is
not
in

they

sometimes

encountered

practice.

expressions fo r deflection and slope for selected members given in Tables D.4 and D.5
expressions
fo
r deflection
and
slope
for selected
members
given
in
Tables
D.4
and
D.5
are
representative
of
results
found
in
a
number
of
handbooks
[Ref.
D.3].
Restrictions
on
the
application
of
these
formulas
include
constancy of the
flexural rigidity
EI,
symmetry
of
the
cross
section
about
the vertical
y
axis,
and
the
magnitude
of
displacement
v
of
the
beam.
In addition,
the
expressions apply
to
beams
long
in proportion
to
their
depth
and
not
disproportionally
wide
(see
Secs.
5.4 and 5.6).
The
stress
concentration
factors
K (Figures
D.1 through
D.8)
were
selected
from
extensive
charts
found
in
Refs.
D.4
and
D.5.
Table
D.4.
Deflections
and
Slopes
of
Beams
[Vi
ew
full
size
i
mage]
Table
D.5.
Reactions
Deflections
of
Statically
Indeterminate
Beams
[Vi
ew
full
size
i
mage]