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FED-STD-H28/3

31

March

1978

Superseding
N8S
Handbook
Part
1 Section

H28
3

(1969)

FEDERAL STANDARD
SCREW-THREADSTANDARDSFOR FEDERAL SERVICES
SECTION 5
UNIFIED THREADS OF SPECIAL DIAMETERS,
PITCHES, AND LENGTHS OF ENGAGENEi4T

This
standard
Supply
Service,
the
use
of
all

U.S.

was

GOVERNME~

approved
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Services
Federal
agencies.

PRINTING

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1978

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FSC

THDS

FED-STD-H28/3
31 March
1978

INFORMATION
This
insertion

Federal
Standard
or removal
of

Al 1 Users
serting
revised
cel led
pages.

of

Federal
or new

SHEET

ON FEDERAL

is issued
in
new or revised
Standards
pages
as

loose
pages

STANDAROS
leaf
and

form
to
sections.

should
keep
them
issued
and removing

New and revised


pages
wi 11 be issued
be numbered
consecutive
v and wil 1 bear
Notices
should
be retain;d
and filed
in
time
as they
are
superseded
by a reissue

permit

up to date
superseded

under
Change
Notices
the date
of issuance.
front
of the
Standard
of the
entire
Standard.

the

by inand can-

hhich
wi 1
Change
until
such

NOTICE
From 1939,
the
Interdepartmental
der
the
Chairmanship
of the
National
of Comnerce
had developed
and published
Standards
for
Federal
Services.

for
the

Section
487 of
development
of
General
Services

Title
40 of the
Federal
Standards
Administration

In November
1976,
Administration
(GSA)
agreed
to convert
it

Screw-Thread
Cormnittee
( ISTC),
un8ureau
of Standards
(N8S) , Department
N8S Handbook
H28,
Screw-Thread

U.S.
Code states
for
procurement
(GSA).

that
the
purposes

authority
rests

with

the
ISTC was terminated,
and the
General
Services
accepted
the
responsibi
1 ity
for
NBS Handbook
H28
and maintain
it as a Federal
Standard.

and

The standards
which
had been
published
as N8S Handbook
H28,
Part
1,
Part
II
and Part
III
will
now be promulgated
as a fully
coordinated
FEO-STD-H28,
maintaining
the
existing
sections
and identifying
them with
For example,
N8S Handbook
H28,
Part
1, Section
3 wil 1 be
slant
lines.
detailed
standard
FED-STO-H28/3
which
must
be procured
individual
lY.
Military

ARMY - AR
NAVY-AS
AIR FORCE Civil
ACO
AFS
BPA
FHW
FIS

Preparing

Custodians

Agency

Activity

DLA-IS
(Project

11
Coordinating

Activity

FPI
FRA
FSS
JFK
LRC

MSF
NBS
Pco
RDS
TCS

ii

No.

THDS-0006)

FED-sTD-H28/3
31 March
1978

CONTENTS

Page
1.
2.

3.
4.
5.
6.
i.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Introduction

Types
of special
threads
. .
Unified
thread
form...
.
Preferred
diameters
and pitches
fhreadclasse
s.....
. .
Allowances
. . . . . . . . .
Tolerance
s......
. . .
Length
Limit s
Method
Directions
Gages
Index

ofengagemenc
. . .
of size.....
.
of designating
screw
for
determining
. . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . .

The text
of this
with
minor
editorial
contain
corrections

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of size
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. . .
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. . .
special
. . .
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. . .
. . .
. . .
threads
.
.
. . .

.
.
.

. .
. .
threads
limits
. . .
. . .

section
is reprinted
fry
Page
corrections.
indicated
by an asterisk.

of
.
.

.
.

the

NBS

...?.

.
.

1
.
.
.
.
.
.

HAND800K

Reorganization
of the document
from
NBS HANOBOOK H28 to
FEO-STO-H2B
creates
an editorial
inconvenience,
when maintaining
continuity
of cross
references
amongst
the
pages,
paragraphs,
tables
and figures
of the
different
sections.
For this
standard
individual
sections
wil 1 be numbered
sequentially
starting
with
(1)
one.
If
the
reprinted
text
refers
to another
page,
such
as
Page 6.3,
this
will
be understood
to mean section
6 page
3.
All
figures
and tables
wil 1 maintain
the
established
designations,
prefixed
with
the
section;
e.g.
Table
3.1
and Figure
2.5
to
identify
their
location
in this
standard.
All
appendices
wil 1
be incorporated
in the basic
document
FED- STO-H28
with
other
general
information
and wil 1 continue
to be identified
with
the
prefix
A.

iii

.
.

H28

1
1
1
2
3
3
4
5
5
5
6
28

FED-STD-H28/3
31 March
1978

1., INTRODUCTION

3.

lhe thread series, tolerances, and nllmvn.ceq


specified in section 2 of H28 apply in general to
bolts, nuts, and tapped holes of stundard pitches
and diameters. Inadditio,
there arclargc quantit.iea
of tlu-mded parts produced where the relations of
dinmeter to pitch are necessarily diflerent from
those of thestande.rd threndserics, and thelengths
of engagement either 8horter or longer than for bolt
and nut prncticc. Such threads arc designated
threads of specird diamcl.ers, pitches, ancl lengths
of engagement.
Selected combinations of (Tnificd
special screw thrwtds arc Iistcd in tablr. 3.I. Pkch
diameter tcdemnccs in this tdda me hnswf o n
length of thread cngngcment of O times the pitch,
Thepitch diamcterl imitsarea pplicablefoa
Icn th
of engagement of from 5 to 15 timm the pitch. (T%M
should not be confused with the length .f I.hrmd
on mating pnrts, w it may exceed tbe length of
engagement by a considerable nmoun t.)
2.

TYPES

OF

SPECIAL

UNIFIED

FORM

OF

THREAD

The Unified form of thread profile M specified in


section 2 shrill be USA

4.

PREFERRED
DIAMETERS
AND
PITCHES

The USC,whenever P@aible, of the standard series


of screw tbreada listed in table 2.7 k recommended
for all npplicntions. Whenever aizea and pitches in
tcble 2.7 are not suitable, the designer abouldf if
pmssiblc, chome n thrcad from table 3.1 which lists
dectcd
combkmtions
of Unified special screw
thrcads. If a selection cannot be made from either
t nble 2.7 or 3.1, consideration should be given to the
following parngrnphs in a choice of thread.
4,1. PREFERREDflArnErmw.-Wbenever
pcssible,
tbe be.sic ,dkmcter should be selected from series of
ditameter increments as follows:

THREADS

There are varkua degrees of speckdizat ion in the


design of special thrmds that may be cbwzified as
follows :
(1) A standard thread that. k modified by the
inclusion of some nonstandard fent.ure as discu.wed
in section 2,
(2) A thread of n standard dinmeter euch an is
found in one or more of tbe thread series in section
2 associated with a standard pitch listccl in table
2.1 forming a diameter-pitch comhkmt ion tbat. is not
in a standard thread series; for example, 1.C4M-10
UNS,
(3) A diameter of odd size such M 1.137 in. ucciated with a stnndnrd pitch,
(4) A thread of either standard or nonstandard
diameter associated with n mnstnndnrd pit oh; for
example, 1.XIO-15 UNS or .S95-26 UNS,
(5) A thread of nny of the first four degrees of
apecinlization to whtch npecid tolcrrmm-s nrc npplied,
(6) A completely special thrcnd that devint es from
tbe sttmdn~d Unbied thread form.

RmnE.

Dt.meter i.creme.b
Yimtdioice

in
0,25 toO.6
.bave 0.0 10 1.5
mb.wel.
stoe. o
A). 6 to 10
A-we 16 ta 24

i
0.05
0.1
0.25
0.6
1,0

3ec.andctmie3

. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .
0.05
0.1
0.25
0.5

It b recommended that diometem less thtm 0.25


in conform to the standnrd .zizea of e.cmw8 under
0.25 in. as there is virtually no nece.mity for the
.wkctlon of a dimnctcr ot included in three sizes
Furthermore, the coarse and fine thread series pw
vide ample choice M to diameter-pitch
combim+
ticnm
4.2. PREFERRED Prrcnm..-Whenever
pomible,
the pi(cb should be eelected from the series 40, 36,
32, X, 24, 20, 16, 12, 10, S, 6, and 4 threads per
inch. Intermediate
pitches should be used only
when absolutely necceaary. Pitches coarser than 4
threads pcr inch me mt komnwmded.
There arc practical fimits to both the largest and
zrmalfest diarnetem suitable for any pitch. The curves
on the chart for determining minimum Iengtb of
thread engagement i Appendix A5 stop at such
limits,
4.3. B.KWCTHREAD DATA.Ba6ic thread data for
standnmf pitches are given in table 2.1. These data
arc to he umd in conjmction
with the dkoctiona
for specifying npecial threads cm drawi~ as given
1 par, 5.4, p. 3.02,

In the wend
OJ ecmnnv, tho &
adhere to Wmdard thrzndz ar to had 7-W
enturm conJonniw m cfosdu us PO%SW & established stmdmk.
Itshould be rememhcmd tbat epecial threads cntnil
tbe design and manufacture of special thrcadig
tools and gages wkb cmucquent greater cm.ts, icrc~
in inventories, nnd difficulties i prcmurig
c.pare p?rta when rcplncemcnts me necesmry.
In tbm scctmn! st andurda for special thrruds arc
presented, including thread form. sclectcd cornbh.
tiom of Unified special screw threads (table 3.1),
allowances and tolerances, and detailed direct ions
for specifying special threads on rfrnwing~, A discussion of factors nffccting the denign of qxwitd
threads is presented in appendix A5.

FED-STD-H28/3
31

March
5.

1978
THREAD

coded, am basic, tiording no allowanm or clearance in mmembly at maximum materkl limito.


Affowanc= for all diametem and pitch dmeter
tolerances are specified in tables 3.2, 3.4, and 3.7.
Their application b shown in y
2s.
5.3. CL.ASSEE3A AND3B.--C aeaea 3A for external
threads and 3B for internal thrends pmvidea for,
appficatiom
where clmenes
of fit md WCWUCY
of lead and angle of thread em mportant. l%ey am
obtainable cm.wstently onfy by the use of h~b
qm+fity production equipment, suppm-ted by a veiy
efficient system of gaging and inspection, The msnmum dnetem
of class 3A (external) tbresdn and
the minimum diameters of clam 3B (internal)
threads, whether or not plated or coated, are btic,
affording no tdlawance or clearance for a?aernbly of
maximum mnterifd components
No alfow.snce is provided, but since the tolerances
on GO gages are within the Iiiita of nice of the pr~
duct, the gages will assure a c.hght clearance between
product made to the maximum-material
limku.
Pitch dkneter tolerancm are npecified in tablea 3.5
and 3.S. Their supplication in shown in &@& 2.6.
5.4. SELECITON or CLAM or Tnnmm-Connidemticm should first be given to tbe we of a ck
2A external thread with a cl2B internal thre++d
since thew Amen are designed for general use. The
use of clasa 2A provides that them will always be a
small clearance between msxmum-mderi8f
except when the external thread is plated, P t-ated
Prtn are intended to be gaged with ba+c~ize GO
g-.
In e]thy ctqe, it in expected tkt ~
w~l
nenemble readily without galling or eeiing. Tole*
antes are .3uIWxently large so that ordinary pr.xfc.
tim methods are generally applicable.
Past experience with simifar deaigm may indimte
that a more accurately made or closer fitting thread
in requiied than that which in pmmitted by class2A and 2B tolerances. In such cawn conaidemtion
should be given to the use of cla.sw 3A and 3B.
The necesmy increase in cost should not be over.
looked.
In some designs them may be advantages in prw
vialing for greater average loa9eneea of lit than that
obtained with cl=
2A snd 2B. Such greater
average Iocaenm b provided by C*
1A and lB
or the mssemhly of cl1A extemaf threacfa with
cfam 2B internal threads. f%e minimum loosenem,
however, k the eai-ne an for clamw 2A and 2B except that a pmitive allowance in provided for plated
parts, When.9 greater minimum Icmseneeais reqisik
to mvide for adverse conditions of a!sembly, clam
1Ai IS avadable, which is not a Unified cb?ay and
in IxMed on the American National clam 1 aflmmnce
combined with CIME 1A tolemnce. Tlwae cfaac.cs
also provide larger tolerance to the manufactmr,
which may be of ndvant,sge if the thread in dMicult to
prO@ce.
It should be noti.
that any clsm of external
thread may be as!.misted with any cka of internal
thread, there being m requirement to combim
classas of like number.

CLASSES

Thread cken
are dutiiidwd
fmm each other
by the amounti of tolerance and tdfowrmce. The
f~qtion of these cfaa+ea is to aesura the interch8nge$I#y
t&$$~%
& n eatahfiihed
w diiinct for.l~ geneml
.f
use. The.!@ cla%en are: 1A, 2A, and 3A (for external
threads only) and lB, 2B, and 3B (for inteme,l
threada only).
Clam IAR (for external threads only, 16 threads
per inch and cosrmr) in aleo included for special
use. Clam IAR is produced by combming
tbe
American National c186Y1 allowances with cl1A
tolerances.
The dkmmition of the tolerances, allowamwt and
crest clearances for the six general w
cl-s
is
illustrated in figures 2.5 and 2.6.
The requirements for a screw thread fit for a
BWifiC aPPl\cati?n ~n be met by specifying the
proper combination of cfa.wss for the compommts.
For example, an external thread made to clam 2A
fiits
can be used with an internal thread made to
oh
lB, 2B, or 3B finite for specific applications.
5.1, CT.MSES 1A, lAR, and lB.The comhina.
t.ions of cfassen 1A or lAR and lB me intend~ to
coyer the manufacture of threaded parts where
qutck and ~
-mhly
in ne-,
and where an
alfowance u required to penmt ready. ~mbly,
even when the threads are dightly bmieed or dirty.
Maximum diametem of clam 1A (external) threada
are lea than b=c by the amount of the .qp,Me~.
Iowance as applied ta clam 2A. For the intended
IIPPfiCII@MIOiII Am-i=
practice the sllowance in
or coating. Where the
not .svadable for plating

thread
n~.

in pfated or coated, epecial pmviaionn are


The minimum
diametem of clnea lB

(interr+J) thmdq
whether or not plmed or OJSM,
c.m km,
affording no rdlownnce or cleamnce for
amembly with maximum msterial external thremi
cmnponenta having maximum d-etem
which are
basic.
Albwances for all diametem and pitch diameter
tolemncea are specified in tables 3.2, 3.3, and 3,6.
Their a plication is &own in figure 2.5,
.5.2. 1%.ASSES2A and 2B.-Cfnmea
2A forexternd
$?d.Y
and 2B for internal tbreada me dmi$ned
nemf use. A moderate allowance b prcmded
for~~
2A threads.
mnximum d-etan
of class 2A (external)
uncoated tbreada are less than tic
by the amount
of the ~lowwee., The allowance minimizes galling
ti?~i;.?%%%ti~i;;d
%%%%
~;h;~
coating. Howeve~, for tbrec.dn with addk,ive finish,
the maximum dmmetem of cbn 2A may be ex.
cee+d by the amount of the allowance; i.e., the 2A
mnxumun dunetem
appl to an unplated part or
to a part before plating, wi ere= the btic duetem
(the 2A maximum diameter plus allowance) apply
to s part after plating. The minimum diametem of
cfma 2B (internal) thmada, whether or mt plated or

FED-STD-H28/3
31 March
1978
6.

where

ALLOWANCES

C D -

a factor which differs for each clasn


bmio major dkneter
L. = Iengtb of engagement
p = pitch.

l%
allowance k minus nnd b appfied fmm the
btic size to below baaic size. Aflowanca in applied
on3y to tbe cla.swa 1A, lAR, and 2A external threads.
Values of tbe allowance for clnssea 1A and 2A me
obtained by w of a C factor of 0.3 in the formufa
shown in paragraph 7.3. Numerical values of cl-s
1A and 2A allowances for the commonly used
pitches are listed in table 3.2.
The fonnuh in pmagmph 7.3 is not applicable to
cllAR m this clnsa in produced by combining
the American National CIW 1 allowances wltb cl=
1A tolernnoes. Tbeae allowances are larger than
those for cl=
1A and 2A and provide for ready
ses.embly under adverse comfitha.
Numerical values of clnsa IAR allowances are:
Tt,rcds per inch (lpi),

Thii formula is bsmd on the accuracy of prwnt


day threading practice, ar.d k applicable to all
reasonable comblnnticmn of diameter, pitch, and
length of engagement. Numerical values of the
increments in the formula for standard diameters,
pitches, and lengths of engagement are given in
table 2.19. The values of factor C for pitch diameter
tolernncen me .93 follown:

Ckl

Clans IAR allowance

l~~d
0;%

1:
12
1:

:%%
.0044
.00a4

6
4
(Chum lAR allowance
apply
tbreds,
16 tpi and CO=.)

7.

H
2B
3A
3B

.MJ24

onfy

ta external

TOLERANCES

7.1. UNWORM MINIMUM INTIORNAL TMEEAD.


ktm mioimum major, pitch, and minor diatnetem of
tbe internal thread are, respectively
*IU! same for
okaes lB, 2B, and 3B.
7.2. DI?IECITON AND 8COPE or 10 LMIANCSS.
(a) The tolerume on the inLernal thread in plus,
and in appfied fmm the tic
size to above bade

mm. --

(b) The tolerance on the external thread in minuo


and is applied frum tbe maximum (or design) .sir.e
to below the M8ximum sise.
(c) The tofemtwes npecified represent the extreme
~3tioP-m~rmJted
on the product.

Toumamm8.-Yhe
basic
for&&
for pitch diameter tolerance in carnpoaed of
the following inorementn:
P.D. Toleranm
c(o.oo15v~

o.oo15q

1.KIO
1.WJ
1.0J3
1.3m
0.734
.976

R will be noted that the factor C is 20 percent


greater for internal than for externnl threads of a
ven ckwm number on account of tbe relative
%icuftiea of mmufactum.
Numerical vshma of pitch dimneter tolemncen
for cla%wa 1A, lAR, lB, 2A, 2B, 3A, and 3B am
given in tablea 3.3 through 3.8. Two eeti of tolerances are given: The
for 5 to 15 pitcb~ length of
e-merit,
w
O? l@ba
of 9 pitches, and
th=
for 16 to 30 pltohm length of engagement,
which are 1.25 timrm the 9-pitch wduw. For lengths
of engagement over 30 pitches, it i3 recommended
that pitch diameter tolermcea 1,5 times tbe 9-pitab
values be umd. If exmssively mmfl or large Iengtlm
of e~ment
am encountered, the thread tOler.
mmay lx calculated fmm the formub+, if ccmsidered advimble. Afso, for threads per mcb not
idcluded in the tables, tolerances ehould he calculated by applying the fcmmhw.
7.4. M.uoR Dr.ummm TOLERANCES.
-(..%) Ez&rnd fArmd8.-Tbe
tolerance on msjor di.wneter for
special threads b not specified, M it must be deWrnined in r+ticm to the requirements of B @ven
design ~n accordance with tbe prwedum cmtlimd in
ap~n~
A5. Preferred tolerances equal to o.ofio +@
for cla.!sa 2A and 3A, and equnf to 0.090 @
for
clnenea 1A and lAR are u fcdlows:

The folfoying general npr?ci6c8ti0n3 apply to all


;~<ed
forspplicatmnsof
the .nitied form

Factor c

+ o.o15wp),

FED-STD-H28/3
31 March
1978
Msi.ar di-tm
ThMda
w.

Clc.=a 1A d
lAR, O.omwp

Inch

in
. .. .. .. . .. .. . ..
. .. . . .. . .. . .. ..
. .. .. . .. . .. .. ..
..............
,------- . . . . . . .
o:~7

40
36
32
20
27

.WsB
.mm
.O1m

10

8
6
4

Cbzea 2A snd
3A, 0.060+ZZ

o.&32
.0335
.m33
.0341
.0045
.m4s
.m31
.m5
.Omo
.Ca6s
.mX17

.010s

.0072

.0122
.0131
.0142
.01s5
.0172

.0321

.0194
.02!5

.0129

:%

a gage or w ng method that reprm?ntd the maxi.


mum-moteriz!ccmfition
of the internal thread 1the aflowancea, if any.
(b) htemal thrmdz.-Formufm
for the intemaf
thrmd minor dmeter
tolemocea are zbown in table
2.2o. Numerical values for the tolerances am zbown
in tables 3.9 and 3.10. To reduce the n@Xr
of
mimm dueter
toleranczz to a pmctwd mmumun,
toleroncez are shown in these tables for selected
pitches tmd dwmetem In these tables, the tolerances
an? u follows:

tnhrlmca

Lm@h of
m~wnent
f.emthan 0.33D . . . . . .
0.33D to 0.67D.
Ovrr O.67D10 1.6 D..
Over 1,5D . . . . . . . . . . .

.m37
.We4
.0103
.0114

d-eter

;% i

mti.

0.6
y::s

1.25

When the to!emnoe value so mmputed k mom


than 0.394P, which conwpondz t-a a rmufting ,tininnun thread beigbt of 53 pzrcent, the value m .zdjuzted to equal 0.394P.

.Oml
.0132
.023.9

8.

major

ao
75

Fmm

tolerance on mnor
(b) IrUemnl Uwa&.-lh
diameter is far refere.om only. It is equal to I1 /6
plus the pitch diameter tolerznce of the cbwa of
tbm+d mvolvc?d. The maximum major diameter of
the mternzf thread mz,y be determmed by adding
table 2.1) to the mmxinmm
o.7933b7p (= llH/12,
pitch dmeter
of tbe internal thread. However, thiz
diameter @ball not result in a root Szt width Iesz
intend
threzdz the
than p/24. In dimenaioni~
nmxinmn

fomub V.lue

LENGTH

OF

ENGAGEMENT

The valuez in tablea 3.9 and 3.10 for lengths of


engagement frmn 0.67D to 1.5D, are mitable for
general appfi28ti0n3.
Some thread applioationz have lengths of engagement which are greater than 1.6 diametem or Ima
then 0.67D. For sunlicationa hovinn shorter or
longer len@2 of enticement it mzy Fe 2dv2ntageoua to decrease or ince
the internal thread
minor dkmeter tolerznoe ~ explained Mow.
The pri.cimf practicaf factors that govern thtolerances a,., tapping dficoltiei,
particularly mP
breakage in the small sizes, availability of standard
drill sizes in the medium and farge sises, and depth
of engagement. Depth of engagement wrrel8twith the .strippin~ atrength of the thrmd mmmbl ,
rt
nnd thus rd.m mth the length of On-ent.
also oorrelatm with the tendency toward dmen~
meat of the threndz on one side when =mbfy
in
eocentric. The amount of +ble
eccentricity in
one half of the sum of the pitch d=eter
allow~ze
and tolerance on both matins thmadn. For a gwen
pitch or height of thread thts sum increase? with
the dimneter, and nmordirr$ly thin factor wmdd
require ?. deoramz in minor dmmeter tolerance with
increase in dinmeter. However, such decrea8e in
tolemnoe often iz not fezzibfz without 72q~W
special drill sir.ea; therefore, to be able to w M
many aY pmsible of the available standard driff
si= listed in USA B5.12, tbe minor d~eter
tolerance for clncsea lB and 2B of s given pitch fm
0.25 in. diameter and lnrger is constant, in m%mrdance with tbe formula:

m not npeoif ied, Wing

eatabfisbed by the crest of an unworn t~l. In PmCti~, the major diameter of an intemnl thread, b
szttiactcmy
when amzpted by a ~go or gz.gm
f
method that represents the maxmmm materm
condition of an external thread which hnn no alIowrmm.
7.5. Mmon
DMMmxn
TouanANcEz.-(a)
Ezfanol tfumdm-l%e
tolerznce on minor dmeter
of
external ,thrmds is for ~ference only. At the norninaf
minor dfzmeter, that m, at the interazctian of tbe
2.3) it
rounded rmt with itscenter fine (nee 6
eq@s
the pitch dmmeter tolerance pl~ h /12 and
8PPh2a only where the rounded root m a reqir~
ment of the deqn.
Othermqa tbe tolerance shall be
H/4 ply the, pitch diameter tolerance. The minimum mmor dmmeter of the externzl thread may be
determined by s.btmoting
0. S49519P (0.75H,
table 2.1) fmm the minimum pitch dizmekr of the
externaf thread. However, thu diameter hall not
result in a rcmt flat width leM than p/8. In dimendoning extend thre@z the minimum minor dLwneter is not speoifizd, bang estnblizhed by the crest of
an unworn tool. In practice, the minor dinmeter of
an extemzf tbm.nd is satisfactory when accepted by

0.25P 0.4P.

FEo-sTD-H28/3
31 March
1978
f~tenem and some custom threaded par@! it is
customary to be
acceptance at tbe nunmmntmaterinl condition (minimum pitch d!ameter of the
ext.er.naf thread and maximum pitch diameter. of
the. inter@
thread) on threaded plug and nng
-g,
~th ~es
to the thrd
form nnd length
specu%d m sectmn 6. See Dlmen.wonal acceptability
of threads in that sectton.

lhere may be applications where the length of


e,~ement
01 the mating threads or the combina.
tmn of mnterw.fs used far mating threads me such
that the maximum tolerance mav not Drovide the
desired strength of the fmtenin~. Ex&rience hM
shown that for. Iengthn of engagement
less than
0.67D (the muumum thickn=
of standard nuts)
the minor diameter tolerance may be reduced without causing tapping dbficultms.
In other application,
the length of engagement
of mating thrends may be long because o,f design
cmmiderations or the combination of mnter,nls used
formatingthreadm
Asthet.hreads
engaged mcrmse
in number, their depth of engagement may be
shallower and.sldl develop atrippingstren
Chgrenter
t.hantheexternaf
thread brea!smgstrcngt f In these
cthe maximum tolerance should be increased
to reduce the Poembllity of toppmgd16icultie.%
Recommended
internal thread minor dmmeter
tolemncca for various lengths of engagement are
shown in tables 3.9 and 3.10. Recommended hole size
Iimita before threndig for different lengths of
engagement are shown in appendix A3.

9.

LIMITS

OF

10. METHOD
SPECIAL

OF DESIGNATING
SCREW
THREADS

For the method of designating threads of special


dimnetem, pitches, and lengths of engagement, and
UNS threads (threads with Unified tolerance formulations), see 8130 section ,2.
Tbe symbol UNS in apphcsblc tO any thread,
(1) having the basic Unified thread form,
(2) with links based on Unified formulations, nnd
(3) which in not Iiited in table 2.7.
Selected combinations of UNS threada urc listed
in table 3.1.

11. DIRECTIONS
FOR DETERMINING
LIMITS
OF SIZE OF
SPECIAL
THREADS

SIZE

W1tb respect to the pitch dinmeter fiiita of size,


it in intended, except M hereinafter qwdified, that
no portion of the complete thread be perrmtted to
project beyond the envelope defined by the maximum-material limts on the one hand, o! beyond
that defined by the minimum-material lilts
on the
other, and thus be outnide of the tolernnce zone m
illustrated in figures 2.5 and 2.6. The full tolerance
cannot thc~e fore, be used on pitch diameter unless
deviation m other thread elements are. zero.
Dweter
equivalents of variations in lead, uniformity of helix, and flank angle are in the direction
toward maximum material. A!so included in pitchdiameter liudts are other varmtiom from size and
pro f.fe, such m taper, out-o f-round,. and surface
defects. Thus the maximum-mnterud pkch dmrrwter
fiiitn.we a Ikmtation of the vutual diameter (effective awe) and are so specfmd herein for nll thread
clas?ea. It h intended that diameter equivalents of
deviation in any given element except pitch. diameter should not exceed one-half of the pitchdmmeter
tolerance. Values nre given in table 2.22 for deviations in 1.4 and haff-angle equivalent to one-half
of pitch d-eter
tolerances. Flank angle equivalents
aJoo~6dWb.bawd on a depth of thread cngngement

The following dnctions


are intended to simplify
the ttwk of the designer or specification writer in
preparing the specification for n npecial thread:
The procedure to be followed in detmmining yaluea
for the escntinl tbrend elements (IM shown, m fig.
3.12) and the umociated tolerances, in outhned m
table 3.11. The application of tbia and other tables
in illustrated by the followin~ example:
Internaf thread, 2.5W2SUNS-2B
Length of engagement, 1 in.
Min major diameter = 2SIXIJ in.
Min pitch diimeter = basic major diameter
0.75H (table 2.1)
0.0232 =
= zz~m

Mu

pitch diameter

= min pitch
tolerance

diameter
+
(table 3.7)

= 2.6768 + 0,0i173 2.4841


Min minor diameter = b~ic major dweter

1.25H (table 2.1)


= 2.5oo -0.0387
= 2.461
Max minor &meter
= min minor diameter +
tolerance (table 3.9)
= 2,4613 + 0.0363 = 2.46S

Variations in &nper and roundnem of the pitch


dmeter,
together with wriationn
of the pitch
dweter
as a whole, may be in the direction of
minimum material and thus tbe minimum-msterinl
pitch dhnetq
fiiit may be, specified as a limhaticm
of the pitch dl~eter
= a angle element. However,
in view of the mterrelatmn of the pitch d,nmetcr,
variations in lead and flank angle, etc., together
with practical considerations
relating to est.abfinbed production proct=se+ product appli-tion
and inspection procedures, except for cl=
3A, for

The dimensions of the above internal thread may


be stated on the drawing as follows:
Major diameter: 2.5W30 min
Fitch diameter: 2.6768 . 0.0073
- 0.00C0
Minor d-eter:
2.461 + 0.0063

- O.ocm.
5

FED-sTD-H28/3
31 March
1978
External thread,
2.5WI-28UNS2A
with the above thread)

(To

mate

h stated on the drawing M follown:


Major diameter: 2.49S6 + 0.@3011
o.ma.5
Pitch diameter: 2.4754 + 0.0000
0.0049
Minor dimncter: 2.4548, nominal,

basic major diameter

allowance (table 3.2)


2.5000 0.0014 = 2.4986
mnx major diameter

Min major dinuwter


tolerance
(tabulnted
on
p, 3.04)
2.4986 0,MM5 = 2.4921
Max pitch dinmetcr
max m.jor
dimncter
0.75H (table 2.1)
2.4986 0.0232 = 2,4754
max Ditch diameter tolMill nilch dhmcter
era;ce (table 3.4)
= 2.4754 0.@2-49 = 2.4705
Nom
minor diameter = max mnjor dimnctcr

17H/12 (1.4167H) (tublc


9 1\,
-..
= 2.4986 0.042S = 2.454S.

iknx h.sjor dkrmeter

The dimcmicms cd the nbovc cxkmd

The design of a sprcial thread usually requires


that considcrnt ion be givrm to varimm {*CIon in
order that (he thread wembly
will function properly. These factom arc discussed in appendix A5.
It is to & noted particularly that deviations from
tbc preferred toleraucm for 1.najor dinmcfcr of the
extcrnnl thrcnd and for mlrmr rliumeter of (he
int ernnl thrcod mny bc nc.cswmy i,, wd.r (o arrive
at. the optunum dmign.
12.

GAGES

The ~pccifictit iom for gngcs. including


= pr=nl~
i,, SCCltoll 6 ripply *ISO I 0

thread mny

@cIfil

thr~~~.

marking,
gngrs

for

FED-STD-H28/3
31 March
1978
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31 Msrch
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FED-STD-H28/3
31 March
1978
T.m.n

3.4

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diameter

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of #pu&l

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31 March
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FED-STD-H28/3
31 March
1978
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31 March
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