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# Transformer Protection Tutorial

Application 2
Consider the autotransformer given below. The power transformer data has been
given: 175/175/30 MVA Autotransformer, YNyn0d1, 230/115/13.8 kV. The
current transformer ratios are as follows: HV CT ratio - 800/5, LV CT ratio 1200/5 and TV CT ratio 2000/5.

## 1. Calculate the ratio correction factors.

2. Verify that the differential protection does not operate due to errors
introduced by the on load tap changer. Consider a dual slope relay as
follows:
Iop = Is1, (Ibias Is1/K1)
Iop = K1 Ibias, (Is1/K1 Ibias Is2)
Iop = K1 Is2 + K2 (Ibias - Is2), (Ibias Is2)

Idiff (pu)

Is-HS2

Is-HS1
Restraint region
K2
Operating region

K1
Is1

Is1/K1

Is2

Ibias (pu)

## Is1 = 0.2pu, K1 = 30%, K2 = 80%, Is2 = 1pu

3. Draw (a) the bias characteristic, (b) the CT and on load tap changer errors
(assume 20% total error), (c) differential and bias currents considering on
load tap changer errors and the characteristic knees (There are 2 knees as it is
a dual slope characteristic.)

Solution Application 2
1. Ratio correction factors
Since the transformer has an on load tap changer on the HV side, the nominal
voltage of the HV winding must be set to the mid tap voltage level. According
to the nameplate data, the mid tap voltage is 218.5kV. The mid tap voltage can
also be calculated as follows:
(5 15 )
2
230 = 218.5kV
100

100 +
Mid tap position =

K amp , HVCT =

I nom,T 1CT
=
S ref
3Vnom, HV

K amp , LVCT =

1200
175 10 6

= 1.366

3 115 10 3

I nom ,T 3CT
=
S ref
3Vnom ,TV

= 1.730

3 218.5 10 3

I nom,T 5CT
=
S ref
3Vnom , LV

K amp ,TVCT =

800
175 10 6

2000
175 10 6

= 0.273

3 13.8 10 3

## 2. Errors introduced by the on load tap changer.

To check that the differential protection does not misoperate due to errors
introduced by the on load tap changer, the user may perform the following
calculations.
Transformer nominal rating

Calculate HV full load current at both tap extremities and LV and TV full load
current.

## HV full load current on tap 1 (5%) =

175 10 6
3 241500

= 418.37 A primary

418.37
= 2.615 A secondary
160

## HV full load current on tap 19 (-15%) =

175 10 6
3 195.510 3

= 516.810 A primary

516.810
= 3.230 A secondary
160

## TV full load current =

145 10 6
3 115 10 3

= 727.963 A primary

727.963
= 3.033 A secondary
240

30 10 6
3 13.8 10 3

= 1255.109 A primary

1255.109
= 3.138 A secondary
400

## Determine Idiff at both tap extremities (with mid tap correction).

LV corrected current = 1.366 3.033 = 4.143
TV corrected current = 0.273 3.138 = 0.857
Idiff at tap 1 = 4.524 4.143 0.857 = 0.476 A =

0.476
= 0.095 pu
5

## Idiff at tap 19 = 5.588 4.143 0.857 = 0.588 A =

0.588
= 0.118 pu
5

Determine Ibias at both tap extremities (with mid tap correction). The
currents used in the Ibias calculation are the currents after ratio and vector
correction.
4.524 + 4.143 + 0.857
4.762
= 4.762 A =
= 0.9524 pu
2
5
5.588 + 4.143 + 0.857
5.294
Ibias at tap 19 =
= 5.294 A =
= 1.059 pu
2
5

Ibias at tap 1 =

## Determine relay differential current.

Iop = Is1, (Ibias Is1/K1)
Iop = K1 Ibias, (Is1/K1 Ibias Is2)
Iop = K1 Is2 + K2 (Ibias - Is2), (Ibias Is2)
Ibias at tap 1 is less than 1 pu and greater than 0.667 pu; since Is2 is set to 1pu,
Iop is calculated as follows:
Iop = 0.3 0.9524 = 0.286pu
Ibias at tap 19 is greater than 1pu; since Is2 is set to 1pu, Iop is calculated as
follows:
Iop = 0.3 1 + 0.8 (1.059 - 1) = 0.347pu

Check Idiff < Iop by a 10% margin for each tap extremity and adjust Is1
and/or K1 as necessary.
Tap 1: Since Idiff = 0.095pu and 0.9Iop = 0.9 x 0.286 = 0.257pu, the error
introduced by the on load tap changer causes no mal operation considering K1 =
30% and Is1 = 0.2pu.
Tap 19: Since Idiff = 0.118pu and 0.9Iop = 0.9 x 0.347 = 0.312pu, the error
introduced by the on load tap changer causes no mal operation considering K1 =
30%, Is1 = 0.2pu, K2 = 80% and Is2 = 0.8pu.
66.7% of transformer nominal rating

Calculate HV, LV and TV load current at 66.7% of the nominal MVA rating.
The 66.7% is the interception between Is1 and K1. It is determined as Is1/K1
100% = (0.2/0.3) 100 = 66.7%.

## HV full load current on tap 1 (5%) =

175 10 6
3 241500

= 279.05 A primary

279.05
= 1.744 A secondary
160

## HV full load current on tap 19 (-15%) = 0.667

175 10 6
3 195.510 3

= 344.71A primary

## HV full load current on tap 19 (-15%) =

344.71
= 2.154 A secondary
160

## LV full load current = 0.667

145 10 6
3 115 10 3

= 485.551A primary

485.551
= 2.023 A secondary
240
30 10 6
TV full load current = 0.667
= 837.158 A primary
3 13.8 10 3
LV full load current =

## TV full load current =

837.158
= 2.093 A secondary
400

## Determine Idiff at both tap extremities (with mid tap correction).

LV corrected current = 1.366 2.023 = 2.763
TV corrected current = 0.273 2.093 = 0.571
Idiff at tap 1 = 3.017 2.763 0.571 = 0.317 A =

0.317
= 0.063 pu
5

## Idiff at tap 19 = 3.727 2.763 0.571 = 0.393 A =

Determine Ibias at both tap extremities (with mid tap correction). The
currents used in Ibias calculation are the currents after ratio and vector
correction.
Ibias at tap 1 =

## 3.017 + 2.763 + 0.571

3.176
= 3.176 A =
= 0.635 pu
2
5

Ibias at tap 19 =

0.393
= 0.0786 pu
5

3.531
= 3.531A =
= 0.706 pu
2
5

## Determine relay differential current.

Iop = Is1, (Is1/K1 Ibias)
Iop = K1 Ibias, (Is1/K1 Ibias Is2)
Iop = K1 Is2 + K2 (Ibias - Is2), (Ibias Is2)

## Ibias at tap 1 is less than 0.667 pu; then Iop = 0.2pu

Ibias at tap 19 is less than 1 pu and greater than 0.667pu; since Is2 is 1pu, Iop is
calculated as follows:
Iop = 0.3 0.706 = 0.212pu

Check Idiff < Iop by a 10% margin for each tap extremity and adjust Is1
and/or K1 as necessary:
Tap 1: Since Idiff = 0.063 pu and 0.9Iop = 0.9 x 0.2 = 0.18pu, then there is
sufficient safety margin with K1 = 30% and Is1 = 0.2 pu.
Tap 19: Since Idiff = 0.0786pu and 0.9Iop = 0.9 x 0.212 = 0.19pu, then there is
sufficient safety margin with K1 = 30% and Is1 = 0.2 pu.
The following graph shows the bias characteristic, the CT and tap changer errors
(assumed as 20%), and the bias, differential coordinates corresponding to full
load current and 66.7% of full load current. It can also be seen that it is
necessary to check the safety margin at the two knee-points of the bias
characteristic.