Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 8

S t e phen A y lwa rd

S t e p p i ng i n t o Ri ver s: O n to l o g y i n H era cl i t u s

Cratylus famously attempted to correct Heraclitus by amending his claim that “you cannot step

t w ice i n t o th e s ame r i v e r s ; f o r f r e s h w a t e r s a r e f l o w i ng in u p o n y o u ” (B 2 ) to th e m o r e ra d i c a l p o si t io n

th a t o n e c an n o t s t ep e v e n o n c e i n t o t h e s a m e r i v e r (A r i s t. Me t ap h . 1 0 1 0 a 1 0 -1 5 ). 1 T h is r ead in g o f He r-

ac lit u s, w hi ch c o m m i t s h i m to a ra d ic a l d o c t r i n e o f fl ux , in w h i c h t h in g s f a il t o m a in t a in a n y s o r t o f o n -

t o lo g i ca l un i t y t h r o u g h t i m e, w as p o p u l a r i n a n c i e n t t i me s, a n d is p r es e r v e d i n b o t h P la t o a n d A r i st o tl e as t h e m ain t e ach in g o f H e r a c l i t u s. W h i le m o re re c e n t s c h o l a r sh i p h a s c a s t d o u b t o n t h i s tr a d it io n a l i n- terpretation of Heraclitus, most of the discussion of the issue has centered on philological considerations,

p e r ta in in g t o w h e th e r o r n o t H e r a c li t u s h a d b e e n p r o p er l y in t e r p ret e d b y P la to a n d A r i st o t l e. 2 T h e m o d-

ern att emp t t o al t er H e rac l it u s’ r e p u t a t i o n as t h e p h i l o s o p h e r o f t a p a n t a re i h as th u s b e e n l e ft o p e n t o

t h e ch a rg e t h at t h e n e w i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s n o t c o h e r e n t w it h r eg a r d t o th e e x t a n t f r ag m e n ts . S o , W.K . C .

G u t h rie arg u es th at , “ i n f a ct, t h e e x t a n t f r a g men t s o ff er n o c h al l en g e to th e u n iv e rs a l an c i e n t v i e w. ” 3 I n

t h e co u r s e o f t h i s p a p e r, I p r o p o se to e v a l u a te so me o f t h e p h il o l o g ic a l iss u e s a t st a k e , as a p re c u rs o r t o

a philosophical discussion of the extant fragments, in the hope of at least sketching a response to the chal-

l en g e s e t b y G u t h r i e. I w i l l t h e r e f o re d e m o n s t r a t e o n t h e b a s i s o f th e te x t t h a t C r a t y lu s w a s m i s ta k e n , an d t h at t h e o n to log i c a l u n i t y o f t h e r i v e r d o e s in f a c t p e rs is t t h ro u g h t im e . S u c h a b r o a d a p p ro ac h w i l l nece s sa r i l y i n v o lv e c o m m e n t i n g o n s o me o f t h e m o r e d i ff i c u lt i s s u es in H e ra c li t u s sc h o l ar s h ip , s u ch as th e n at u r e o f th e u n i t y o f o p p o s i t e s a n d t h e l o g o s. I n s u c h c as e s , a n a tt e mp t h a s b e e n ma d e to o p t f o r

t h e l east co n t r o v er s i a l r e a d i n g s .

P l at o ’s co mmen t s o n H e r a c li t u s , e x p l i c i t i n h is d i al o g u e C r a t y lu s b u t a l so i m p l ic i t i n o t h e r

p l a ces , m ak e i t cl ea r t h a t h e s u p p o s es h i m t o h a v e h e l d a r a d ic a l t h e o r y o f f l u x . In w h a t is l ik e l y a r ef-

erence to fragment B12, Plato claims that Heraclitus wrote that we cannot step into the same river twice.

Plato deduces from this that Heraclitus believ ed that all thin gs are constantl y chan ging (Pl. Cr at. 402a).

T h e r i v er im a g e, w h i c h o f i t se lf o n l y s p ea k s t o t h e c on t in u i ty o f c h an g e o f t h e w a t e r i n a ri v e r, i s e x-

tended to cover the domain of all things. Of course, Heraclitus’ preferred mode of presentation is through

i mag es , w h i ch h e r ar e l y e v en s u p p l e m e n ts w i t h e x p l a n a ti o n s o r a rg u m e n ts . 4 T h e s co p e o f t h e fl u x w as

c

e r tai n l y in t en d e d t o b e b r o a d e r t h an ju s t i n r i v e r s o r w a te r; th e q u e s ti o n i s w h e th e r t h e in t e n d e d s co p e

o

f t h e m e tap h o r i n c l u d e s al l t h i n g s at a l l t i m e s , a s P l a t o w o u l d h a v e it , o r so m e s u b s e t o f th i n g s .

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f co u rse , P l a t o in t h e Cr a t y l u s i s n o t a t te mp t i n g t o w r it e a n o b j e c t i v e h i s to r y o f p h ilo s p h y

b

as ed o n a c l o se r ead i n g o f t h e a v a i l a b l e t e x t. H e i n st e a d m a k e s u s e o f sp e c if i c a s p e c ts o f Her a c li t u s’

t h ou g h t t o fa ci l ita te t h e ex p l a n a t i o n o f h i s o w n p h i lo so p h i c a l v i ew s b y me a n s o f c o mp a r i so n . A ss u m -

1 We f o llo w t h e t ra n sl at io n s p r o v id e d i n J o h n Bu r n e t, E a rl y G ree k Ph i lo s o p h y, 3 r d e d ., ( Lo n d o n : A . an d C. Bl a c k , 1 9 2 0 ) , ac co r d in g t o t h e D ie ls or d eri n g o f th e f r a g m en t s.

2 In a d d i ti o n to K i r k ’s v i e w w h i c h i s p r e s en t e d b e l o w, a n e ar l ie r a rg u m en t a g a i n st th e F lu s s le h re i s p r e s e n t ed i n B ru n o S n e l l, “D i e S p ra c h e H e r ak lits ,” in H er m e s , Vo l. 6 1 , N o . 4 ( 1 9 2 6 ) .

3 W. K . C . Gu t h ri e, “ Flu x a n d L o g o s i n H e r a cl i t u s , ” fr o m W. K. C . G u th r ie , A H is t o r y o f G re e k P h il o s o p h y, Vo l . I : T h e Ea r li e r P re- so c r a t ic s a n d t h e P yth a g o rea n s ( C am b ri d g e : CU P, 1 9 6 2 ) , r e p rin t e d i n T h e Pre so c r a t ic s, ed . A lex a n d er M o u r el a to s , ( N ew Yo r k :

An c h o r P r e s s , 1 9 7 4 ) , 2 0 4 .

4 C . J . E ml y n -J o n e s, “ H e ra cl i tu s an d t h e I d e n t i t y o f Op p o s i t es,” i n P h r o n e s is , Vo l . 2 1 , N o . 2 ( 1 9 7 6 ) , 9 6 .

O n S t e ppi n g Int o R iv e rs

i n g, a s t h e mo d e rn co n s en s u s se e m s t o b e , t h at t h e Cr a ty l u s w a s w r it t en r o u g h ly c o n t e mp o r a n eo u s l y w i th t h e T h e a te t u s, i t m a y r e p res e n t o n e o f P l a t o ’s f i r s t s u c c in c t s ta t e me n ts o n h is t h e o ry o f F o r m s. 5 I f th is is t ru e , P l a to wo u l d h a v e a c l e a r m o t iv e f o r c o n j ur i n g u p t he id ea o f a wo r l d in w h i ch e v er y th i n g i s n o t o n ly s u s c ept i b l e t o c h a n g e b u t a c t u al l y c h a n g i ng a l l th e ti m e . S u c h a n id e a , s o e a si ly i n v o k ed b y at t ri b u t in g i t t o t h e a u t h o ri t y o f H e r ac li t u s, w o u l d p r o v id e a p o we r f u l d ra m a ti c c o n tr a s t to t h e

“ b eau t if u l i ts e l f ” an d t h e “ g o o d i t se l f ” ( P l . C ra t. 4 3 9 c) , w h ic h h e e st a b li s h e s a s n e c e s s a ry to p r o v i d e

me an in g t o s u c h a w o r l d o f c o n s t a n t f l u x . Wh at fo l lo w s i n th e d i a l o g u e i s a f a i r l y l i g ht - h e ar t e d tre a tm e n t o f th i s d o c tr i n e , in w h ic h H er ac li t u s is co m p a r e d t o H o m e r - a c o m p a r i s o n m o s t li k e ly i n t e n d ed a s a n in s u lt to a th i n k e r w h o s o d e l i b erat ely s et s h i m se lf ap ar t f r o m t h e p o e t s ( c f . e sp e c i a l l y B 40 , B 4 2 ) . T h is p a r o d ic e x p o s it io n o f H er ac li t ean t h o u g h t l ea d s o n e t o s u s p e c t th at P l a t o m a y b e d i s to rt in g t h e tr u e co n t e n t o f H e r a c li t u s ’ t h ou g h t . A g a i n st s u ch s u s p i c i o n , W. K . C. G u t h r ie p o i n ts o u t t h a t e v e n i f P l at o a p p ea rs t o b e d i sm i s- s i v e o f H e ra cl i tu s , A r i s t o t l e w r i t e s t h at h e h a d a p ro f o u n d in fl u e n c e o n P la to , a n d in d e e d p ro v i d ed t h e

c a taly s t f o r h i s i n v en t i o n o f t h e F o r m s . 6 S o i n s p i t e o f t h e c ar i ca t u re in t h e d i a lo g u e i t se l f , P lat o mu s t h av e p ri v at el y h e ld t h is t o b e an a u t h en ti c a l l y H e r a c l i te a n d o c tr i n e. T h e f i rs t p r o b le m w it h t h is l i n e o f arg u me n t is t h at t h er e may b e p h i l o l o g ica l e v i d e n c e th a t A r i st o tle ’s c o n c l u si o n s ar e b a s e d s o le l y o n t h e t ex t o f t h e Cr a t y lu s , a n d n o t o n a n y o t h e r in d e p e n d e n t a u th o r i ty. 7 T h e s eco n d p r o b l em is th a t e v e n i f P l a to wa s in f l u en c e d b y th i s t h e o ry o f f l u x , t h i s s t i l l d o e s n o t es t a b l i s h t h a t i t was ev e r a n au t h e n ti- ca lly H eracl i te an t e ac h i n g .

G u t h r i e r ai s e s an ad d i t i o n a l p h i l o l o g i c al c o n c e rn in h is d e fe n c e o f C r a t y lu s ’ r ad i c al f l u x

d o ct ri n e. H e c la i ms t h a t i t i s e x t r e m e l y i m p l a u s i b l e t h at “P l a t o g ro s s l y m is u n d e r st o o d [H e r a c li tu s ] an d ev ery s u b s e q u en t G r ee k i n t e r p r e t er m e e k l y f o l lo w e d h i s l e a d , in s p i te o f p o s s e ss i n g e i th e r H e r ac- i tu s ’ b o o k o r at l east a m u c h m o r e c o m p r e h e n s i v e c o ll e ct i o n o f h is s ay i n g s th a n w e h a v e . ” 8 Wh i l e K i rk d o es d o u b t w h e t h e r P l a t o a c t u a l l y r e a d so ma n y o f th e f ra g m e n ts , h i s a rg u m e n t i s fl a w e d. 9 A s n o ted ab o v e, P l at o m a k e s c asu a l a l l u sio n s t o t h e f r a g m en t s o n ri v e rs a n d p o e ts . T h e s e r e f e r e n c es s e em t o s ug g e s t t h at b o th P l a t o a n d h i s a u d i e n c e w e r e f a m i li a r w i th H e ra c lit u s ’ f ra g m en t s , s in c e P la t o w o u l d h av e e x p ec t ed h is a u d i e n c e to p i c k u p o n th e a l l u si o n s . B u t th e me r e fa c t t h at t h e G r e ek s h a d be t t er acc es s t o t he t e x t b y n o m e a n s c o n st i t u t e s a st r o n g p r i m a fa c i e c a s e f o r th e P l a to n i c r e a d i n g , as G u t h ri e sug g es t s . A s d i sc u s s e d a b o v e , a m i sr e p r es e n t a t i o n o f H e ra c l i t u s n e e d n o t re p r e se n t a mi s u n-

de r s tan d i ng o n t h e p a r t o f P l a t o , r a t h e r t h a n a n a p p ro p r ia t i o n o f h is n a m e f o r d ra m a ti c p u r p o s es i n t h e

C r a t yl u s. Late r G r e ek in t e rp r e t e r s w e r e s i m i l a r l y m o t iv a t e d b y t h ei r o w n ag e n d a s ; G u th r ie h i ms e l f

a d mits t h at A r is t o t l e m i s re p re se n t s H er a c l i t u s a s a Mi le s ia n t h in k e r, i n o r d e r th a t h e mi g h t p r e s e n t th e h is t o ry o f p h i lo s o ph y a s c u l m in a t in g i n h i s o w n p h y sic s . 10 T h e co mb i n e d au t h o r it y o f P la t o a n d A r is-

t o tl e wo u l d p resu m ab l y h a v e i n sp i r e d at l e a s t s o m e me e k n e ss o n th e p a rt o f w o u ld - b e d is s e n t e r s .

H o p ef u l ly t h es e p r el i m in a ry p h i l o l o g i c a l r e ma rk s a re su ff i ci e n t to ca s t d o u b t o n t h e Pl a-

5 G. S. K i r k , “T h e P r o b l e m o f Cr a ty lu s , ” in T h e Am e r i ca n Jo u r n a l o f Ph i l o l o g y, Vo l. 7 2 , N o . 3 ( 1 9 5 1 ) , 2 2 6 .

6 Gu t h rie , 2 0 1 .

7 Ki rk , 2 4 2 ff .

8 Gu t h rie , 2 0 3 .

9 G. S. K i r k , “N a t u ra l C h a n g e i n H er ac l it u s , ” M i n d, Vo l . 6 0 (1 9 6 1 ) , 35 .

1 0 G u th ri e, 2 0 2 .

S t e phen A y lwa rd

t o ni c r e ad i n g o f He r ac l i tu s. We n o w p r o c ee d t o s o m e p h il o so p h i c a l an a ly s is a s t o t h e p la c e o f o n t o- l o gi c al u n i ty t h r o ug h t i m e i n H e r a cl i t u s’ t h o u g h t as a w h o l e, in a n at t em p t to p r o v e t h a t t h e P l at o n i c r e a d in g i s in co m p at i b l e w i t h s o m e l e ss co n t es t ed tea c h i n g s o f H e r a c l i tu s . Th e f irs t an d m o st o b v i o u s co n s i d e r a t i o n i s t h a t o f s e n s e p e rc e p t io n . T h e r e a r e c e rt a in fr a g- me n t s, w h i ch s u g g e st t h a t H e r a c l i t u s h el d a s c e p t i c a l v i e w o f se n s e p e rc e p ti o n . In f ra g m e n t B 1 0 7 , h e cla i ms th a t ey es an d e ar s a r e p o o r w i t n e ss e s to a b a r b ar ia n s o u l , a n d a g ai n i n B 3 4 , h e st a te s t h a t, “fo o ls w h e n th ey d o h e a r ar e l i k e th e d e a f … ” Bu t t h e s e f r ag men t s t ak e n in i s o l a ti o n p r o v id e an u n - b al an ced v i ew. I t i s t r u e t h a t h e d o es n o t h o l d s en s e p er c e p ti o n t o b e s u ffi c ie n t f o r u n d e r st a n d in g ( n o u s ) . B ut, h e d o es w r i t e : “ T h e t h i n g s t h a t c a n b e se e n , h e ar d , an d lear n e d a r e w h at I p r i z e th e m o st ” ( B 5 5 ). 11 O n an o th er o cc as i o n , h e se e m s t o i n d i c a t e th a t s en s e p e r c e p t io n m a y ev e n b e a n ec es s a r y co n d i t io n f o r k n o w l e d g e : “ T h o se w h o s p ea k w it h u n d e rs t a n d in g m u st h o l d f a s t t o w h a t i s c o mm o n to all … ” ( B 11 4 ). O n t h e e v i d e n c e o f t h e se f r a g m e n t s ( w h i c h c a n b e s u p p le m e n te d wi th c o n si d e ra t io n o f B 2 , B1 9 a n d B8 9 f o r a m o r e c o m p l e t e a n a l y si s ) , t h e m e a n in g o f B 1 0 7 s e e m s to b e le s s a co n d e m n a- t io n o f s en s e p er ce p t io n i n g e n er a l , b u t m o r e s o i t i s s im p l y a r e c o g n it i o n t h at it i s n o t s u ffi c ie n t to g ai n u n d er s t an d in g ; f o r t h a t , o n e ’s s o u l m u s t n o t b e b a r b a ri an , f o r e x am p l e o n e ’s s o u l mu s t s p e a k G r e ek , o r r en d e re d i n a m o r e c o sm o p o l i tan sp i r i t, o n e ’s s o u l m u s t “ sp e a k t h e l a n g u a g e” ( B1 0 7 ). No w t h at i t h a s b een es t a b l i sh e d t h at H e r a c l it u s is n o t a s c e p ti c c o n cer n i n g t h e v al u e o f s e n s e p ercep t i o n l i k e P a r m e n i d e s, w e c an a t t e m p t t o e v a l u a te t h e c la i m o f t h e d o ct ri n e o f f l u x b a s e d o n th e ev iden c e o f t h e s e n se s . I t se e m s d o u b t fu l t h at t h e r e c o u l d b e m u c h s e n s o ry e v i d e n c e f o r P la t o ’s i n terp r et at i o n o f p e rp et u a l c h a n g e . G u t h r i e b r i n g s u p a n i ma g e u se d b y A r i st o tle to il l u s tr a t e th e th e- o r y o f f l u x as p o t en t i a l s e n so r y e v i d en c e , n a m el y t h a t o f w a te r d r i p p i n g o n to a s t o n e . 1 2 T h is i s su p - p o s e d ly ev i d en ce t h at ev e n i f s e n se p er c e p t i o n c a n n ot d et ec t c h a n g e as i t o cc u r s , t h e e ro s i o n w h i c h t ak es p l ace o v er ti m e c a n b e a r w i t n e ss t o t h e st e a d y f lu x o f a ll t h i n g s . B u t t h e r e ar e s e v e r a l p ro b l e ms w i th t h i s im ag e. Th e d r i p p i n g o f t h e w a t e r i s n o t i t s e lf a c o n t inu o u s st r ea m . T h e ch a n g e th a t i t ca u s e s i s i n d eed im p e rc ep t ib l y s m a l l , b u t i t is i n t e r mi t t e n t , n ot c o n ti n uo u s . T h i s is n o t a tr iv i a l p o in t, b u t i s on e w h i ch can b e co r r e c t e d b y s i m p l y a m e n d i n g t h e ima g e to th a t o f a co n t i n u o u s s t r e a m o f w a te r ; i n o rd e r fo r t h e arg u me n t t o w o r k in s u p p o r t o f P l at o ’s e x p la n a t io n , ta p a n ta re i, a ll c h an g e h a s to b e s h o w n t o be co n t i nu o u s . On e c an t ry t o s al v ag e th e a rg u m e n t b y p o si ti n g a n in v i si b l e p h a se o f c h a n g e w h i c h p e rs i st s in b e t wee n d ro p s , b u t i n o r d e r to d o so , o n e m u s t p o si t s o me s o r t o f i mp e r ce p t ib l e mo t i o n , a n i d e a t o w h i ch H e racl itu s ’ av e r sio n w a s a l r e a d y n o t e d a b o v e . A n d t h e p r o b le m is e v en s ta r k e r f o r t h in g s th a t a re n o t m o v in g i n a n y o b v i o u s w a y, s u c h a s a st o n e wi th o u t a n y w a te r p o u r in g o v e r i t a t a ll . M o re ge n er al l y, o n e d o es p e r h ap s p e r c e iv e a t e n d e n c y o f al l th i n g s t o w e a r a wa y wi t h ti me , b u t th e r e i s c e r- tai n ly n o p e rcep t u al e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h i s e r o s io n is c o n t in u o u s r a t h e r t h a n in t e r mi t t e n t, a s s e em s m o r e i n t u it i v e a t l ea s t f o r o b j e c t s . J u s t a s H e r ac l i tu s i s n o t a s c ep t i c w i t h r e g a rd s t o th e v a l u e o f s e n s e p e r c e p t io n , n o r i s h e

11 T h e t arg et o f t h i s fr a gme n t i s p r o b ab l y G r e e k r el i g io n a s d ep i ct ed b y th e p o ets ( a l s o u n d er a ttac k i n B 4 4 a n d B 3 3 ), a n d /o r e x -

t rase n s u a l p h ilo s o p h is i ng su c h as t h at o f A n ax i m an d e r, w h o p o s i te d th e ex i s t e n c e o f a n a p ei ro n ( u n b o u n d e d , lim i tle s s) s u b s t an c e w h i c h r em ains imp er ce p t i b l e.

1 2 G u th ri e, 2 0 2 .

O n S t e ppi n g Int o R iv e rs

co m m it ted t o a n y s o r t o f r e l a t i v i sm . I n t h e a b o v e d i s cu s se d f ra g m e n t B 9 9 , H e r ac l it u s m a k es i t c l e ar

t

h a t th e re i s a co g n i ti v e co m p o n e n t i n v o l v e d i n u n d e r st a n d in g c o m p l e me n t ar y t o t h e se n s e s , n a me l y

t

h e s o u l ’s l a n g u ag e , w h i c h a l l o w s i t t o c o m p r eh e n d t h e lo g o s a n d n o t s i mp l y h e a r i t, a s i f o n e r e-

m a i n ed abs e n t w h i l e p r es en t ( B3 4 ) . T h e l o g o s, w h i c h i s g e n e r al l y tr a n s la t ed a s “ a cc o u n t ,” “ w o r d , ” o r

“ re as o n ,” refer s h er e t o t h a t w h i c h i n h e r e s i n t h e o r d e r o f t h i n gs i n d e p e n d e n t o f o u r s en s e p e rc e p tio n

o f it . S o , al t h o u g h H e r a c l i t u s m o st p r i z e s t h o se t h i n g s t h a t ca n b e s e e n a n d h ea r d li k e p h y s i c al

ch an g e s , w h i c h ar e p e rc e p t i b l e , t h e se t h i n g s a r e n o t t o b e t a k e n a s t r u e m e r e l y o n t h e b a s is o f in d iv i d-

ual p er cepti o n . T h ey a r e t ru e b e c a u s e t h e y a re i n so m e s e n s e “g o v e r n e d ” b y a l o g o s w h i ch e x ist s

ap art f r o m an y i n d i v id u a l : “… t h o u g h [ t h e l o g o s] i s c o m m o n , y e t t h e ma n y l iv e a s if t h e y h a d a w is -

d o m o f t h ei r o w n ” ( B 2 ) . I f o n e m ay b e p e r m i t t e d t o s p e a k o f a n “ e p i st e mo l o g y ” i n Her a c l itu s , it i s

c le a rl y o b jec ti v e , an d n o t r e l a t i v i st i c . I n l i g h t o f t h e se c o n s id er a t i o n s , o n e o f t h e f ra g m en t s w h i c h b e st

l en d s i t sel f t o a rela ti v i st i c i n t e r p ret a t i o n c an b e u n d e r s to o d d iff e re n tl y. H e ra c l it u s’ s ta te s th a t “t h e s ea

is t h e p u res t a n d t h e i m p u r e st w a t er; f i s h c a n d r i n k i t an d it i s g o o d fo r t h e m; t o m en it is u n d r in k a b l e

an d d es tr uct iv e ” ( B6 1 ) . T h is i s b e t t e r v i ew e d a s a p a r ad o x i c a l s ta t e me n t a b o u t h o w s e a w a te r is o f it s

n at u re b o t h p u r e an d i m p u r e, r a t h e r t h a n a c l a i m t h a t th e s e a w ate r is s o me h o w in a n d o f i ts e l f d iffe r-

en t f o r men t h an i t i s f o r f is h e s . 1 3

A s t h i s di scu s s i o n b e g i n s t o i m p i n g e o n s o me c o n t r ov er s ial in t e r p re t a ti o n s o f H e r ac l it u s ’

t h e o ry o f un ity i n o p p o s i t i o n , l e t i t su ff i c e t o sa y t h a t He r a c l i tus i s c o m m it te d to a w o r ld a n d a l o g o s

th a t are co m m o n t o al l . We c a n a g re e w i t h P l a to t h at t h es e c l a ims are n o t e a s il y re c o n c i le d w it h a

v i e w o f th e w o r ld i n w h i c h t h i n g s a re c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g . Th e re ar e s e v e re d iff ic u l t i e s w it h b o t h a

th e o ry o f l an g u a g e an d a t h e o r y o f t ru t h t h at a r i s e f r o m d e n y in g t h a t a n y t h i n g e v er r e m a i n s co n s t a n t.

B u t t o ad mi t, as o n e m u st o n t h e str e n g t h o f t h e t e x t u a l e v i d e n ce , th a t H e r ac l it u s d e d ic a te d mu c h

th ou g h t t o t h e e tern a l ex is t e n ce o f t h e c o sm o s , f o r w h i ch t h e lo g o s r e main s u n c h a n g e d , w h i le s i m u l-

t an eo u sl y s u p p o s i n g t h a t h e h o ld s t h a t a l l t h i n g s a r e c o n s ta n tly ch a n g in g , i s t o a c c u s e H e r a c li tu s o f a n

ex t re mel y f u n d am en t al a n d e q u a l ly i m p r o b a b l e i n t e l l e c t u a l i n c o n si st e n c y. To ret u r n o n c e mo re t o th e q u e s t i o n o f p e r ce p ti o n , H e r a c l i tu s r em a r k s t h a t d i ff e re n t s e n s es

a re u s e f u l u n d er d i ff er e n t c o n d it i o n s: “ If a l l t h i n g s w er e tu rn e d t o sm o k e , t h e n o s tr il s wo u l d d is ti n-

gu is h th em ” (B 7 ). Wh i l e H e r a cl i t u s c le a r l y d o e s n o t be l ie v e that a l l t h in g s a re sm o k e , t h is fr a g me n t

d o es p r o v i d e a cl u e a s t o w h a t h e d o es b e l i e v e t o b e t h e mo s t v a l u a b le s e n s e i n t h i s w o r ld ; t h e m e n-

tio n o f s m o k e creat es a ss o c i a t i o n s o f f i re . A n d i n fa c t H e r a c l it us e x p lic itl y li n k s v is io n w i t h f ir e i n

f r a g men t B 2 6 : “M a n i s k i n d l e d an d p u t o u t l i k e a l i g h t in th e n ig h t - ti me .” Vis i o n i s th e re f o r e b e s t a b le

to

m a k e s en s e o f a w o r l d , w h i c h is i l lu m i n a t e d b y f i r e , o r t h e su n .

A

n d y et i t is a f r a g men t a b o u t t h e s u n t h a t s e e ms t o mo s t co n t ra d i c t a t te m p ts to d i s s o ci a te

H

e r ac li t u s f r o m t he d o c tri n e o f t a p a n t a re i. I n f r ag m e n t B 6 , H e ra c l i t u s w r i te s , “ T h e s u n i s n e w e v e r y

d a y. ” I f t he s u n i s n e w e v e r y d a y, t h e n i t s e em s t o b e t h e s o r t o f th i n g , w h i c h i s p e r p e tu a l l y c h a n g i n g

a n d i n d ee d in s u c h a w a y t h a t t h i s c h an g e is i m p e r c e p t ib l e , a s th e su n d o e s n o t g en e ra l ly a p p e a r s ig -

n

i fi can tl y d i ffer ent f ro m d a y t o d a y. G r a n t e d t h a t t h e su n m a y o c c a s io n a l ly a p p e ar a d i ff e r en t c o l o u r

u

n d er cer tai n at m os p h e ri c c o n d i t i o n s, b u t t h is i s h a r d l y a n e c e s sa r y c o n n e c t i o n t h a t w o u ld c a u se o n e

1

3 Fo r a d i ff eren t arg u m en t a s to h o w th i s f r a g me n t d o e s n o t c o m m i t H e r ac li tu s t o an y f o rm o f re l a tiv i s m , s e e Ma r i e I. G e o rg e,

Wh a t Wi s d o m is A cc ord in g t o H er ac l it u s t h e O b sc u r e, ” in Ly ce u m, Vo l. 5 , N o . 1 , (1 9 9 3 ) , 11 .

S t e phen A y lwa rd

t o s p e a k of a n ew su n “e v er y d a y. ” A n d w h i l e t h e su n ’s r el a t i v e p a tt e rn t h r o u g h th e h e av en s d o es

ch an g e i n a n eces sa r y f a s h i o n , it s e e m s u n l i k el y t h a t t h is d a i ly c h a n g e i s su ffi ci e n t g ro u n d s f o r p o s it- i n g t h e ex i st e n ce o f a w h o l e n e w o r e v en su b s t a n t i a l l y d i ff er e n t s u n . T h is i mp e r c ep t i b le c h a n g e ce r- t ai n ly s e e ms t o s p e ak a g a i n st t h e arg u m en t s a b o u t H e ra c li tu s a n d s en s e p e rc e p t io n m e n ti o n e d a b o v e .

B u t p er h aps t h ere i s a p a rt i cu l ar r ea so n f o r co n si d e r i n g t h a t t h e s u n ma y b e a p r i v il e g e d e n t it y i n t h is

r eg ar d . I n deed th i s sh o u l d h a r d l y b e s u r p r i si n g , g i v e n t h e p i v o ta l r o le g iv e n to f i re . As H e r a c l itu s s t at es, “ th e w o r ld … w a s e v e r, i s , a n d ev e r s h a l l b e a n ev e r- li v i n g f i r e … ” ( B 3 0 ) , a n d h e a t t ri b u t es c e n- t ral c o s mi c b r il l i anc e t o t h e s u n , s t at i n g : “ I f t h e r e w e r e n o su n , i t w o u l d b e n i g h t,” s in c e th e o t h e r s t ar t s w o ul d n o t s u ff i c e t o mak e i t d a y ( B 9 9 ) . Th e p r i v il e g ed p l ace g i v e n b y H e r a c l i t u s t o f ir e i n h i s p h il o s o p h y g i v es i t a s u p e rf i c ia l s im i- l ar i t y t o the m at er i al m o n i sm o f t h e M i l esia n s , w h o w er e , i t is t ru e , h is m ai n p h il o so p h i c a l i n fl u e n ce s. I n th e m a teri al m o n i sm o f A n a x i m e n es , f o r e x a m p l e , a l l t h in g s c o m e i n to e x i st e n ce b y r a ref a ca t io n

a n d co n d e n s a t io n o f A i r. I f it w e r e s i m p l y t h e c a s e t h a t e v e ry t h in g c o m e s t o b e f r o m f i re in a s i m il ar

w ay, it w o u ld b e ea sy to e x p l a i n w h y t h e su n w o u l d be n e w ev e r y d a y, s in c e a d iffe r en t p r o p o r t i o n o f

its f ir e w o u l d h av e b e e n co n d e n s e d o r r a re fi e d in t o n e w b e i n g s. B u t H e r a cl i t e an f i r e u n d e rl i es th e

u n iv ers e i n a w ay t h a t i s f u n d am en ta l ly d i ff e r e n t t h a n Th a le s i a n wa t er o r A n a x e mi n e si a n a i r. 1 4 T h e

M i l es ian in te rp ret a ti o n o f H er a c l i t u s’ c o s mo l o g y b ase s it se lf o n f ra g m e n t B 9 0 : “Al l t h i n g s a re e x- ch an g e d f o r fir e, a n d f i r e fo r a l l t h in g s , e v e n a s w a r es f o r g o l d , a n d g o l d f o r w a r e s .” B u t a s G u t h ri e

p o in t s o u t, t h i s ch an g e i s n o t a si mp l e ma t te r o f tr an s f o r ma t io n ; H e r a c l it u s co u l d e a s i ly h a v e wri tt e n t h a t g o ld t ak es o n t h e s h a p e o f j ew e l l e r y, o r c a n d l e s ti ck s , o r a ny o th e r w a r e s. 1 5 Bu t i n s t ead h e d e- s c ri b es t h e a ff ai r a s a s o r t o f c o mm er c e .

I n d eed , i t may b e w o r t h p o i n t i n g o u t , t o e x te n d th e an al o g y, t h a t co m m er c e c a n t a k e p l a c e

o

n th e b asi s o f cr ed i t , s u c h t h at t h e g o ld n ee d n o t b e i m m e d i a te l y t ra n s f er r e d f o r w a re s , b u t t h a t th i s

c

o u l d t ak e p l a ce ov er t i m e . S o j u st a s t h e h u m a n m e r ch a n t k e e p s tr a ck o f w h a t h e is o w e d p e rs o n a ll y,

a

co s m i c b o o k k ee p er k e e p s t r a ck o f w h a t i t i s o w e d : “ T h e s u n w il l n o t o v e r s t e p h i s m e a s u re s ; i f h e

do es , th e Er i n y es , t h e h a n d m ai d s o f Ju s t i c e, w i l l f i n d h i m o u t ” ( B 9 4 ) . H e ra c li t u s c a n th u s h a r d ly b e

s aid t o h o ld an e l em e n t a l p h y s i c al t h e o r y, at l e a s t n o t i n t h e M il e s ia n s e n s e . M o r eo v e r, h e d e s c ri b e s

m at te r n o t i n t er ms o f i t s o w n s u b st a n c e , b u t a s s o m e t h i n g in te n s i o n b e i n g p u l le d i n d i ffe r e n t d i r ec-

t io n s . 1 6 Th e t h ree m ai n s u b s t an c e s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e e x ta n t f r a g m en t s a re f i r e , w a te r, a n d e a r t h ( c f. B3 6 ) . H e w r i t es , “Th e t r an sfo r m a t i o n s o f f i r e a re , f i r s t o f a l l, se a ; a n d h a lf o f th e s e a i s e a r th , h a l f

[ k i n d l in g ] ” ( B 3 1 ) . Ta k i n g s e a t o b e a s t an d -i n f o r w at er, w e s e e th a t w a te r i s n ev e r d e f i n ed i n i ts o wn

term s , o r i n t er m s o f it s o w n p r o p e r t i e s. I n st e a d , i t i s d es c r ib e d a s so m e th i n g p er p e t u a ll y i n t e n s io n be twee n t h e t w o o t h er s u b s t a n c e s; h a lf o f i t r e m a i n s fi r e , f ro m w h e n c e it c a me i n t o b e in g , a n d h a lf o f i t b e co m es ea rt h , wh i c h c o m e s t o b e f r o m w a t e r ( B 3 1 ). I n th i s s e n s e th e n , “ t h e w a y u p an d th e w a y

d o w n i s o ne an d t he s a m e ” ( B6 0 ) . To l eav e a si d e t h e co m p l e x i t i e s o f H e r a c l it e a n co s m o l o g y, w e s e e t h at e v e n t h o u g h f i r e ’s r o le i n t h e s y s t em i s f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i ffe re n t f r o m t h a t o f w at e r f o r T h a le s , w e a r e s ti ll a b le to s e e

1 4 G r e g o ry V l as t os , “O n H e r ac l i tu s” i n T h e A m e ri ca n J o u rn a l o f P h i lo lo g y, Vo l. 7 6 , N o . 4 ( 1 9 9 5 ) , 3 6 7 .

1 5 G u th ri e, 2 0 5 .

1 6 G r e g o ry V l as t os , “E q u a l it y a n d J u st i c e i n E ar ly G r e e k C o s m o l o g i es,” in C la s s i ca l Ph i l o lo g y, Vo l . 4 2 , N o . 3 ( 1 9 4 7 ), 1 6 4 .

O n S t e ppi n g Int o R iv e rs

h o w f i re is i n v o l v ed i n t h e c o m i n g t o b e o f o t h er b e i n g s . To r e tu r n to th e p ro b l e m o f th e su n f ra g me n t B6 d i sc u s se d ab o v e, w e c a n n o w s a y th a t it i s th e i n v ol v e me n t o f f ir e in al l c h a n g e w h ic h ta k e s p l a c e ( th o u g h t h is ch a n g e d o e s n o t t a k e p lac e p e r p e t u a l l y ) , w h i c h a cco u n t s f o r a “ n e w s u n ” ri s in g ev e r y d ay.

In o rd er to s k e t ch a n i d e a o f w h a t t h e t r u e p u rp o s e o f th e r i v e r i m a g e i s , i f i t i s n o t to su g - g es t a m ater i al i st t h e o r y o f f l u x , w e s h o u l d c o n si d e r t he p la c e o f p s u k h e ( so u l ) in t h e co n t ex t o f th e e x t an t fr a g men t s. T h e c en t r a l r o le p l a y e d b y t h e p su k h e i n H e r a c l it u s’ t h o u g h t h a s o f te n b e e n o v e r- s h a d o w ed b y h i s mo r e d r a m a t i c c o s m i c n o t i o n s o f fir e , t h e id e n t it y o f o p p o s i te s , a n d o f c o u r s e , t h e th e o ry o f f l u x . T h i s t e n d en c y h a s c l ai m ed s u p p o r t f r o m th e p u r p o r t e d t it le o f H er a c lit u s’ b o o k , Of Na -

t u re. 17 Bu t t h is i s u n ce rt ai n e v i d en c e a t b e st, s i n c e A ris t o t l e ’s d e si g n a ti o n o f t h e P r e so c r a ti c s a s “ n at-

u r al p h i l o so p h e rs ” ca u se d v i r t u al l y e v e r y P r e so c r a t i c t e x t t o c o m e t o b e k n o w n b y th i s n a me , a n d it i s alm o st ce rt a in l y no t a n a u t h en t i c t i t l e . 1 8 O n t h e o t h er han d , i n a n i n t e r es t i n g r ec e n t w o r k , R o ma n D i lch er h as p r o p o se d t h a t t h e p r o e m t o H e r a c l i tu s’ w o r k ( B 1 ) is a c t u a ll y q u it e si mi l ar to o t h er p r o e m s o f it s d ay. 1 9 Th i s an a ly s i s l ea d s h i m t o t h e c o n c l u si o n t h a t t h e “ ac t s an d d e ed s ” m en ti o n e d i n B1 a r e t h e t ru e s ub jec t ma t te r o f h is w o r k , t h u s su g g e s t i n g th a t t h e s t u d y o f t h e p s u k h e is m o re c e n tral th a n t h a t o f t h e co s mo s to H e r a c l i tea n t h o u g h t .

L ea v in g asid e s u ch p h il o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o n c e m o re , it i s c le a r en o u g h fr o m th e te x t

th a t an y in t er p r eta t io n o f f l u x i n H e r a cl i t u s m u s t t a k e p r o p e r acc o u n t o f t h e s o u l . F o r s o u l s s e e m to b e

a p art i cu l ar l y g o o d ex a m p l e o f s o m e t h i n g t h a t d o e s f l o w a n d c o n s ta n t ly c h a n g e s . A h u m a n s o u l is a l-

w ay s affe ct ed b y w h a t i t ex p er i en c e s, a n d s i n ce t h e so u l e x p e ri en c e s i n ev e r y w a k i n g m o me n t , i t is

c o n stan t ly in a s t at e o f fl u x . M o re v o e r, t h i s r ea d i n g s ee m s c o n s is te n t w i t h th e o t h e r k e y f r a g m e n ts r e-

l at in g t o s o u l. F o r ex a m p l e , i n f r a g m e n t B4 5 , i t i s s a i d t h a t e v e n i n tr a v e ll in g e v e ry p a t h o f t h e so u l ,

y o u w i ll no t f i n d i t s b o u n d ar i e s b e c a u se i t s l o g o s i s so d e e p . T h i s s u g g es t s t h a t t h e s o u l is e ffe c ti v e ly l im i tl e ss , an d t h u s in co m p r e h e n si b l e . O n e r ea s o n s o me th i n g mig h t b e sa i d t o b e e ff e c t iv e l y l im itl e s s i s t h at i t c on t in u o us l y c h a n g e s, s o t h a t e v e n i f w e t r a v e l e v e ry p a th , b y th e t ime w e f i n is h , t h e p at h s

t h e mse lv e s w i l l b e d i ff er e n t . Th e s o u l i s l i m i t le ss b e c au s e i t is c o n s ta n t l y i n f lu x ; i n d ee d , i t c o n ta i n s t h e p r i n c ipl e o f i t s o w n g r o w t h ( B11 5 ) . F u r t h e rm o r e , ev e n w h i l e r ec o g n i z in g t h a t t h e q u e s t t o f in d th e

b o u n d ar ie s o f t h e so u l w i l l n e v e r fu ll y s u cc e e d , H e r a c li tu s e n do r s e s th i s s e a r c h , in an ir r eg u l a rl y s e lf - r e f e ren ti a l fr a g m en t : “ I h a v e s o u g h t f o r m y se lf ” ( B 1 0 1 ) . T h is i s a c l a im c o n ce r n i n g h i s m e th o d ,

w h ich p o ss i b l y ev e n e n a b l e s h i m t o c l a i m t o h a v e a p r i v i le g e d r e l a tio n to t ru t h wi t h s u c h b r a v a d o i n

fr a g m en t B 1 . O f c o u rs e , t h e as s e rt i o n th a t th e s o u l i s c o n s ta n t ly i n a st a te o f fl u x w o u l d n o t a t a l l b e s u r-

pr is i n g t o a p ro p o n e n t o f t h e H er a c l it e an i n t e r p re ta t ion t a p a n ta re i. Bu t ac c o r d in g t o t h e r e ad i n g

a b o v e, t h e s o u l i s i n f lu x i n a p r i v il e g ed w a y. B e ca u se th e s o u l i s t h a t w h ic h i s m o st i mm e d ia t e t o u s ,

a n d b ecau se w e ca n h a v e u n d e r st a n d i n g o f i t i n d e p en d e n tl y o f e x t e rn a l s e n se p e r c ep t i o n , w e c a n s e e

th a t it i s al way s i n a s t a te o f c h a n g e . B u t f o r H e r a c l i t u s to p r o p o se s o u l -s e a r c h i n g a s a m e a n in g f u l a c-

t iv it y, h e need s t o al l o w t h a t t h e r e i s i n s o m e se n s e a n o n to l o g i ca l u n ity t o t h e p e r so n c o n d u c t i n g t h e

1 7 Fr a n ço is e J o u k o v s k y, L e Fe u et l e F le u v e, ( G en e v a : Li b r ai rie D r o z , 1 9 9 1 ) , 5 3 .

1 8 G . S . K i rk , J . E. R av e n , an d M . S c h o f ie l d , Th e P reso cr a ti c P h il o s op h e r s , 2 n d ed . , ( C a mb r id g e : C U P, 2 0 0 7 ), 1 8 4 .

1 9 Ro man D i l ch e r, S tu d i es in H er a cli t u s, ( Zü r i c h : H i ld e s h ei m , 1 9 9 5 ) , e sp e ci a ll y 11 -1 8 .

S t e phen A y lwa rd

s e a r ch . Wit h r eg ard s t o t h e e ff e c t s o f ag i n g , h e w r i t e s t h a t it i s in f a c t t h e sa me th i n g t o b e y o u n g o r o l d ( B8 8 ) . By v i r tu e o f b e c o m i n g o l d , o n e d o e s n o t b e c o me e s s e n ti a ll y d i ff e r e n t . C e r ta i n a sp e c ts o f o n e’s b ei ng ar e m er el y r e v e r sed . W h e n t h i n g s a r e i n f l u x , l ik e th e r iv e r, t h e p o in t is n o t t h a t th e y b e- co m e s o met h i n g el se ; t h e i r l o g o s r em ai n s t h e sa m e . T h e p o in t i s ra th e r t h a t it i s o n l y b y c h a n g in g t h at s o m et h i n g ca n f i n d r e p o s e , t h a t i t ca n b e w h a t i t is . S o , “ i t r e st s b y c h a n g in g ” ( B 8 4 a ) . I t i s b e ca u s e o f t h is th a t it i s in a ce rt a i n s e n se d ea t h f o r so m e o n e t o s l e e p . O n e is n o l o n g e r o n es e l f, b e c au s e th e fl o w o f c h an g e i n t h e s o u l h a s b e en t e m p o r a r i ly i n t e r r u p t e d ( B 2 6 ) . S i m il a rly, t h e b ar l e y d r in k s e p a r a te s w h en i t i s n o t s t i r re d (B 1 2 5 ). T h e d r i n k c a n o n l y b e w h a t i t i s b y b e i n g i n mo t io n . O n t h is r ead i n g , t h e r iv e r i m a g e i s s i g n i f i ca nt i n a d i ff e re n t w a y. He r ac l it u s is m a k in g an a r- g u men t ag ai n s t a s tr i c t l y m a t e r i al i st o n t o l o g y, n o t f o r it . H e d o e s n o t m e a n t h a t a b e i n g p er s is t s t h r o u g h t ime o n ly b y v i rt u e o f i t s m a te ri a l co m p o n e n ts , b u t th a t t h e r e i s a n o n -m at er i a l c o mp o n e n t , o r l o go s , w h ich d ef i n es t h a t b e i n g . W h e n h e p o i n t s o u t t ha t a ri v e r i s c o n s t an t l y i n f l u x , h e d o es n o t m ean t o s ay t h at i t c e a se s t o b e th e r i v e r t h a t it i s; i n l i g h t o f t h e a b o v e r e a d i n g , it c o u ld o n l y ce a se to b e t h e ri v er th at it i s b y fa i l i n g t o b e i n f l u x . Th e ri v er i m a g e p o in t s o u t th a t “ fr e sh w a t er s f lo w in u p o n y o u ” as y o u s ta n d i n t h e r i v e r, b u t w h a t th i s i s me an t t o d e m o n st r a te , i s t h a t i n s p i t e o f th e m a te- r ial ch an g e o f t h e r i v e r, i t d o e s r e m a i n t h e s a m e . Li k e s o m a n y o t h e r f r a g m en t s i n H e ra c li t u s , t h e cla im t h at o n e cann o t s t an d i n t h e sa m e r i v er t w i c e i s th u s b e s t u n d e r st o o d a s a p a r a d o x , i n t en d e d to d r a w o u r at te n t io n t o t h e r el a t i o n sh i p b e tw e en m a t e r ia l c o mp o si t io n a n d t h e l o g o s w h i c h i s th e tru e b ei n g o f a ll b e i n g s. I t i s a r h e t o ri c a l d e v i c e , n o t a se r i ou s c l ai m a b o u t t h e o n to l o g i ca l st r u c tu r e o f t h e w o r l d . T h o u g h n o t a c t u a l l y a l w ay s c h an g i n g , a l l t h i n g s a re s u s c ep t i b le to c h a n g e ; e v e n th e s u n , t h e s y m b o l o f fi re , w h ic h a p p e a rs m o st i m m u tab l e , i s i n f ac t n e w e ac h d a y. B u t th e n a t u r e o f th i n g s ( p h u - s i s ) can n o t h i d e ( B 1 2 3 ) fr o m t h a t w h i ch n e v e r se t s ( B 1 6 ) , w h i c h c an a l w a y s b e s een an d i s co m mo n to a l l, th e lo g o s ( B 2 ) . I t i s t h u s t h e l o g o s t h a t g o v e rn s b e in g f o r H e r a c li tu s , n o t t h e te m p o r a ry i mb a l- an ces o f m at er i al ma k e u p , w h i ch a r e i n a n y e v e n t a lw ay s re p a i d t o th e c o s m i c b o o k k e ep e r. Th i s rei nt er p r et at i o n o f t h e e x t a n t f r a g m e n t s in an a t tem p t to d is s o c ia t e H e ra c lit u s fr o m t h e do ct rin e o f f lu x rai se s it s o w n p e r p l e x i n g q u e s t i o n s: wh at s o r t o f e x i st e n ce is t h e l o g o s i t s el f m e an t t o po s s e s s i n H e ra cl i tu s’ o n t o l o g y, a n d h o w c an i t g o v e r n t h e b e in g o f b e i n g s w it h o u t b e in g co n n e c te d w ith a n y part icu l ar m a t e ri a l b e in g ? D o e s a ll o w i n g t h at a l l t h in g s c a n in p r i n c ip l e c h a n g e , e v e n i f t h ey are n ’t act u al l y al w ay s c h a n g i n g , r e a l l y a v o i d t h e e p i st e mo l o g ica l a n d l in g u i st ic p r o b l em s o r ig i n a ll y r a is e d b y P l ato i n C ra t y l u s? Re g a r d l e ss o f th e a n s w e rs t o s u c h q u e st io n s , w h i c h c a n n o t b e a d d re s s e d un d er th e co n s t ra in t s o f t h i s p a p er, i t i s c l ea r t h a t t h e ab o v e i n te r p r e t a ti o n i s m o r e co n s i s te n t w it h t h e re s t o f H e r ac li t u s’ p h i l o so p h y t h a n t h e a n c ie n t v ie w o f H e r ac l it u s a s th e p h ilo s o p h e r o f t a p a n t a re i. H e rac li t u s ’ o ri g i n al cl a i m c a n n o t h a v e b e e n m e a n t a s a n e n d o rs e m e n t o f s tr ic t m a te r i al i sm , s i n c e h is c o mm itm en t t o t h e i n d e p e n d e n t e x i st e n c e o f a l o g o s w h i ch g o v e r n s a ll th i n g s m a k e s s u ch a re d u c- tio n i s t o n t o l o g y i mp o s s i b l e . I f t h e e x i ste n c e o f a r i v e r w e r e d e t e r m in e d s o l e l y b y th e w a te r s w h i ch f lo w t h ro ug h i t, t her e w o u l d o f co u rs e n o t b e a n y n e e d f o r i t t o b e g o v e r n e d b y a n y e x te r n a l lo g o s , i ts ma ter ia l co m p o si t i o n w o u l d al re a d y b e s u ff i c i e n t f o r i ts b e in g . C r a ty l u s w as t h er e f o r e s e r io u s ly m is- tak en w h e n h e cl ai m e d th at H e r a c l i t e a n p h i l o so p h y w a s c o mm itt e d t o th e c la i m t h a t o n e c a n n o t st e p in to t h e s a m e ri v er ev e n o n c e .

S t e phen Ay l wa r d

O n S t e ppi n g Int o R iv e rs

B ibli og rap hy

P rim a r y S o u rce s

A ri s t o tl e. M et a p h ys i c s: Bo o ks I -I X . Tr a n s . H u g h Tr e d e n n i c k . C a mb r id g e : H a r v a r d U P, 1 9 7 9 . B u rn et, J o hn . Ea r ly G re e k Ph i l o so p h y. 3 r d ed i t io n . L o nd o n : A . a n d C. Bla c k , 1 9 2 0 . P l at o . C r a t yl u s . Pa rm en i d e s . G re a t e r H i p p i a s . L e s se r H i p p i a s. Tr a n s . H . N . F o w l er. C am b r i d g e :

H arv a rd U P, 1 9 2 6 .

S e co n d a r y S o u rc es

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E ml y n -J o n es , C . J . “H e r a c l i t u s a n d t h e I d e n t i ty o f O p p o s i t es .” P h ro n es i s. Vo l 2 1 , N u mb e r 2 ,

19 7 6 . 89 - 11 4 .

G eo rg e, M a ri e I . “W h at Wi sd o m i s A cc o r d i n g t o H e ra c l i tu s th e O b s c u r e. ” Ly c e u m . Vo l. 5 , N o . 1 , 1 9 9 3 . 1 - 2 0 . G u t h r ie, W. K. C . “F l u x an d L o g o s i n H e r a c li t u s. ” f r o m W. K . C . G u th r ie . A Hi s to r y o f G ree k P h il o s o p h y. Vo l . I : t h e E a r l i e r Pre so c r a t i c s a n d th e P y th a g o re a n s . C a m b ri d g e : C am b ri d g e U n i v e rs ity P r e s s , 1 9 6 2 . R ep r in t e d i n T h e P res o c r a tic s. E d it e d b y A l ex a n d er M o u r e l at o s . N ew Yo r k : A n c h o r P r es s , 1 9 7 4 . 1 9 7 - 2 1 3 . J o u k o v s k y, F r an çois e . L e Fe u e t l e Fl e u v e. G en e v a : Lib r a i r ie D r o z , 1 9 9 1 .

K i r k , G . S . “ Na tu r al Chan g e i n H e r a c l i t u s. ” M i n d. Vo l . 6 0 , 1 9 6 1 . 3 5 -4 2 .

K i r k , G . S . “ Th e P r o b l e m o f C r a ty l u s . ” T h e Am e r i c a n J o u rn a l o f P h i l o l o g y. Vo l . 7 2 , N o . 3 1 9 5 1 .

22 5 - 2 5 3 .

K ir k , G . S ., J . E. R av en, a n d M . S c h o f i e l d . T h e P res o c r a t i c Ph il o s o p h er s. 2 n d ed i ti o n . Cam b r i d g e:

Cam b ri d g e U n i v e rsi ty P r e ss , 2 0 0 7 . S n el l , Br u no . “D i e S p r a c h e H er a k l i t s. ” H e rm es . Vo l . 6 1 , N o . 4 , 1 9 2 6 . 3 5 3 -3 8 1 .

Vl a st o s , G r e g o ry. “E q u a l i t y a n d J u s t i c e i n Ea rl y Gr e e k C o s mo l o g i e s . ” C l a s s i c a l P h i l o lo g y. Vo l.

42 , N o . 3 , 1 9 4 7 . 1 5 6 - 1 7 8

Vl as t o s , Gr e g o ry. “O n H e r a c l i tu s . ” T h e Am e r i c a n Jo u r n a l o f P h il o l o g y. Vo l . 7 6 , N o . 4 , 1 9 9 5 , 3 3 7 -

36 8 .

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