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RESEARCH METHODS

IN ARCHITECTURE
A Research on
Research

Submitted by: Randell P. Taguiling


Submitted to: Arch. Esteves
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Research Methods in Architecture


What is research?
Research is a systematic inquiry that investigates hypotheses, suggests new
interpretations of data or texts, and poses new questions for future research to explore.
Research consists of:

Asking a question that nobody has asked before;


Doing the necessary work to find the answer; and
Communicating the knowledge you have acquired to a larger audience.

In practice, research methods vary widely, depending upon the academic disciplines
accepted standards, the individual researchers preferences, or a particular studys needs.
Research in science and engineering often involves conducting experiments in the lab or in
the field. Research in the arts, humanities, and social sciences may include archival work in
the library or on the internet, conducting surveys or in-depth interviews, and a wide range of
creative and artistic projects- from costume design to playwriting to curating a fine arts
exhibit.
Research is not a solitary activity but an act of community. As a member of the research
community, you are building on the knowledge that others have acquired before you and
providing a road map for those who come after you. You are adding to a body of work that
will never be complete. Research is an ongoing, collaborative process with no finish line in
sight.

What are the characteristics of research?


1. Empirical - based on observations and experimentation on theories
2. Systematic - follows orderly and sequential procedure.
3. Controlled - all variables except those that are tested/experimented upon are kept
constant
4. Employs hypothesis - guides the investigation process
5. Analytical - There is critical analysis of all data used so that there is no error in
their interpretation
6. Objective, Unbiased, & Logical - all findings are logically based on empirical
7. Employs quantitative or statistical methods - data are transformed into numerical
measures and are treated statistically
8. Original work
9. Done by an expert - the researcher uses valid and carefully designed procedures,
valid data gathering
10. Must be patient and unhurried activity - to ensure accuracy

What are the types of research?

Qualitative
o This type of research methods involve describing in details specific situation
using research tools like interviews, surveys, and Observations. It focuses on
gathering of mainly verbal data rather than measurements.

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Descriptive/Quantitative
o This type of research methods requires quantifiable data involving numerical
and statistical explanations. Quantitative analysis hinges on researchers
understanding the assumptions inherent within different statistical models. It
generates numerical data or information that can be converted into numbers.
The presentation of data is through tables containing data in the form of
numbers and statistics.
Correlation/Regression Analysis
o This research methodology involves determining the strength of the
relationship between two or more variables (e.g. are violent video games
correlated with aggression in children).
Quasi-Experimental
o This research involves the comparison of two groups, one which is influenced
by an external source and another which is not.
Experimental
o Use of random assignment to place participants in two groups: an
experimental group which receives intervention, and another control group
without any intervention. It is using a positive control for you to base it or
compare it in your result.
Meta-Analysis
o This research method is useful for finding out the average impact of several
different studies on a hypothesis.

What are the classification of research?


There are many kinds of classification of research which are classified according to their
distinctive features. Some of the classifications are as follows:
1. According to Purpose
a. Predictive or Prognostic it has the purpose to determine the future operation of the
variables under investigation with the aim of controlling or redirecting such for the
better.
b. Directive it determines what should be done based on the findings.
c. Illuminative it is concerned with the interaction of the components of the variable
being investigated.

2. According to Goal
a. Basic or Pure it is done for the development of theories and principles. It is
conducted for intellectual pleasure of learning.
B. Applied the application of pure research. This is testing the efficiency of theories
and principles.

3. According to the Levels of Investigation


A. Exploratory the researcher studies the variables pertinent to a specific situation.
B. Descriptive the researcher studies the relationships of the variables.
C. Experimental the researcher studies the effects of the variables on each other.

4. According to the type of Analysis

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a. Analytic Approach the researcher attempts to identify and isolate the components
of the research situation.
b. Holistic Approach this begins with the total situation, focusing attention on the
system first and on its internal relationships.

5. According to Scope
A. This involves the application of the steps of the scientific method in the classroom
problems.
B. This type of research is done on a very limited scope to solve a particular problem
which is not so big.

6. According to the Choice of Answers to Problems


A. Evaluation research All possible courses of action are specified and identified and
the researcher.
B. Developmental research the focus is on finding or developing a more suitable
instrument or process than has been available.

7. According to Statistical Content


A. Quantitative or Statistical Research is one in which inferential statistics are utilized
to determine the results of the study.
B. Non-quantitative Research this is research in which the use of the quantity or
statistics is practically not utilize.

8. According to Time Element


A. Historical research describes what was.
B. Descriptive research describes what is.
C. Experimental research describes what will be.

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