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Submitted by : anil kumar sah

Roll: 14
SID : 22167
Semester: IV


Mechanical properties of materials

Compressive strength : stress a material can withstand before compressive failure (MPa).In
the study of strength of materials, the compressive strength is the capacity of a material or
structure to withstand loads tending to reduce size. It can be measured by plotting applied
force against deformation in a testing machine.
Creep : the slow and gradual deformation of an object with respect to time. In materials
science, creep is the tendency of a solid material to move slowly or deform permanently
under the influence of mechanical stresses
Ductility : Ability of a material to deform under tensile load (% elongation).Ductility is when a
solid material stretches under tensile stress. If ductile, a material may be stretched into a
wire. Malleability, a similar property, is a material's ability to deform under pressure
(compressive stress). If malleable, a material may be flattened by hammering or rolling.
Fatigue limit : Maximum stress a material can withstand under repeated loading (MPa).the
highest stress that a material can withstand for an infinite number of cycles without breaking
Flexural modulus the flexural modulus or bending modulus is the ratio of stress to strain in
flexural deformation, or the tendency for a material to bend. It is determined from the slope of
a stress-strain curve produced by a flexural test.
Flexural strength Flexural strength is an objects ability to bend without obtaining any major
deformities. A standard experiment called the three-point test can calculate an objects
flexural strength.
Fracture toughness : Energy absorbed by unit area before the fracture of material (J/m^2).
Fracture toughness is a quantitative way of expressing a material's resistance to brittle
fracture when a crack is present. If a material has high fracture toughness, it is more prone to
ductile fracture. Brittle fracture is characteristic of materials with less fracture toughness.
Hardness : Ability to withstand surface indentation (e.g. Brinnell hardness number).It is the
property of a metal which gives it the ability to resist being permanently deformed when a
load is applied. Therefore, hardness is important from an engineering standpoint because
resistance to wear by either friction or erosion by various elements generally increases with
hardness. The greater the hardness of the metal, the greater resistance it has to deformation.

Plasticity (physics) : Plasticity is the propensity of a material to undergo enduring deformation

under load when compressed. It is the quality or state of being plastic; especially the capacity
for being molded or altered.
Poisson's ratio : Ratio of lateral strain to axial strain (no units).Poisson's ratio is the ratio of
transverse contraction strain to longitudinal extension strain in the direction of stretching
force. Tensile deformation is considered positive and compressive deformation is considered
negative. The definition of Poisson's ratio contains a minus sign so that normal materials
have a positive ratio
Resilience : Ability of a material to absorb energy when it is deformed elastically (M Pa).
Resilience is the ability of a material to absorb energy under elastic deformation and to
recover this energy upon removal of load. Resilience is indicated by the area under the
stress strain curving to the point of elastic limit. In a technical sense, resilience is the property
of a material that allows it return to its original shape after being deformed
Shear modulus : Ratio of shear stress to shear strain (M Pa).Elastic modulus is the ratio of
stress, below the proportional limit, to the corresponding strain. It is the measure of rigidity or
stiffness of a material. In terms of the stress-strain curve, the modulus of elasticity is the
slope of the stress-strain curve in the range of linear proportionality of stress to strain.
Shear strain : a coefficient of elasticity of a substance, expressing the ratio between the force
per unit area (shearing stress) that laterally deforms the substance and the shear (shearing
strain) that is produced by this force. Also called modulus of rigidity, modulus of torsion,
torsion modulus.
Shear strength : shear strength is the strength of a material or component against the type of
yield or structural failure where the material or component fails in shear. A shear load is a
force that tends to produce a sliding failure on a material along a plane that is parallel to the
direction of the force.
Specific modulus : Specific modulus is a materials property consisting of the elastic modulus
per mass density of a material. It is also known as the stiffness to weight ratio or specific
Specific strength : The specific strength is a material's strength (force per unit area at failure)
divided by its density. It is also known as the strength-to-weight ratio or strength/weight ratio.
Specific weight : The specific weight (also known as the unit weight) is the weight per unit
volume of a material. The symbol of specific weight is (the Greek letter Gamma). A
commonly used value is the specific weight of water on Earth at 5C which is 9.807 kN/m3

Tensile strength :The tensile strength of a material is the maximum amount of tensile stress
that it can take before failure, such as breaking or permanent deformation. Tensile strength
specifies the point when a material goes from elastic to plastic deformation. It is expressed
as the minimum tensile stress (force per unit area) needed to split the material apart.
Yield strength : Yield strength can be explained, in engineering and materials science, as the
stress at which a material begins to plastically deform. Prior to the yield point, the material
will deform elastically and will return to its original shape when the applied stress is removed.
Once the yield point is passed, some fraction of the deformation will be permanent and nonreversible.
Young's modulus : The elastic modulus is a material property that describes its stiffness and
is therefore one of the most important properties of solid materials. It is the ratio of stress to
strain when deformation is totally elastic. Stress is defined as force per unit area and strain
as elongation or contraction per unit length.
Coefficient of friction :A coefficient of friction is a value that shows the relationship between
the force of friction between two objects and the normal force between the objects. It is a
value that is used in physics sometimes to find an objects normal force or frictional force,
when other methods aren't available.
Coefficient of restitution : the ratio of the relative velocity of two elastic bodies after

rebounding to velocity before impact.

Surface roughness : Surface roughness, often shortened to roughness, is a component of
surface texture. It is quantified by the deviations in the direction of the normal vector of a real
surface from its ideal form.