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Gadyl lessons

First level (Low beginner), Lesson 1.01

NOTE: In this guide, I am assuming that every reader already knows how to read and write
the Hebrew alphabet, including a basic knowledge on how matres lectionis work.
If you dont, you can still go further; in this lesson, I will be providing some introduction
about the pronunciation of the letters, but I would sincerely recommend practicing Hebrew
somewhere else, in a more detailed tutorial.
Gadyl (hagdillir, )is an inflectional language spoken by Keyali people, an ethnic group
of approximately two millions and a half people in the Gaian plain.
It is written by native speakers using the Anollim script (hagdillir anol, ) , but
among scholars, the Hebrew alphabet (rarely the Greek) is mostly used to write and describe it.

Reading and writing

(Phonology, orthography and Romanization)
Gadyl has 17 consonantal sounds and 7 vowels. Since the Anollim script is not encoded in
any Unicode charset, in this course we will be using a version of the Hebrew alphabet (due to their
similarities, this will be proven to be useful).

dummy sound
b/v /b/ like in bath or /v/
like in vest
g /g/ like in gas
d /d/ like in dim

/h/ like in hot

/w/ like in award
/z/ like in razor
/j/ like in mayor
/k/ like in coast


/l/ like in elastic
/m/ like in amber



/n/ like in nose

/s/ sort of like an English /s/, but with your
tongue on the back of your teeth.
/p/ like in epic or f like in fought
// normally. It depends on the dialect
// like in shot
/t/ like in toast or // like in think

A couple of rules:
1. Some consonants show a different form if they appear at the end of the word, for
example < >instead of <>, < >instead of < >and < >instead of <>.
2. Each consonant is romanized according to the value in the table.
3. The vowels are <a> /a/, <e> /e/, <i> /i/, <o> /o/, <u> /u/, <ey> /e/ and <ay> //.
4. Some consonants, such as <b>, <p> and <t> show a weak/strong duality which will be
represented in the Latin text.
5. The consonant <sh> often mutates to <z>. Since this change is quite sporadic and
irregular, we will be specifying each time it occurs.
6. Semi-consonants, in some patterns, mutate from their consonant form to their
respective vowel (<y> -> <i>; <w> -> <o/u>; <h> -> <a/e>).
7. As a cluster, < >is pronounced /fl/ and < >is pronounced //.

Pattern schemata notation Sometimes Gadyl shows such a morphological variety in the
conjugation of verbs that I have to make a table with all the possible patterns.
To generalize this tables, I developed a notation that helps me to describe how vowels are
applied to the key of the root to make it a meaningful word.
Each consonant of a triconsonantal root is called a key.
1. Each X stands for a general consonant of the abjad (a key); similarly, a Y stands
for its weak counterpart (<v> for <b>, <f> for <p> and <th> for <t>).
2. The consonants of a root are numbered. The number is added to the X in subscript.
3. Any lowercase text is plain romanized content and it indicates the pronunciation.
4. Stress normally falls on the last vowel; Otherwise, the stress vowel will be signalled
by a macron.
This is an example of patterns applied to the fictional root B-N-Sh:


Getting started with grammar

(Nouns, prepositions, verb to be and genitive construction)
Nouns The easiest part of Gadyl are native nouns (sometimes called pure nouns, as they
are not derived from any verbal root).
Native nouns in Gadyl have no gender, and they mostly do not need to be suffixed for
number, even if some reminiscence of the old plural is still present in the language.
Pure nouns generally consist of two, rarely three, consonants. Lets learn some:
, sam
, dar
, layum
, anol
, shan


You should always keep in mind that words in Gadyl have a really broad meaning, and one
should be careful when putting them in a context.
For example, sam means friend, but it has a really general meaning: it indicates someone
that you walk your path of life with, whether it is an actual friend, a lover, a family member, your
teacher or pretty much anyone that you can clearly recognize as a human.
You wouldnt ever tell anyone that they are not a sam, because that would be extremely
offensive and dehumanizing; thats the kind of phrase that can be told to a rapist, a mass
murderer of kids or an unwanted dictator.
Pronouns Pronouns in Gadyl behave mostly like in English: they do inflect for case even if
regular nouns dont in the language; However, the case system is different.

Gadyl has three (direct, dative and locative), and it doesnt have possessives (the verb to
have doesnt exist at all for various reason that I will be covering further).
Unlike English, pronouns dont have number.
The first person is , me (I/me/we/us), , mey (to me, us) and , mat (in me, us).
The second person pronoun can be translated as , de (you), , das (to you) or ,
divi (in you). The dative case, sometimes, may be translated as , de for archaic reasons.
The third person pronoun, which is somehow irregular, is , zi (She, her, he, him, it, they,
them), , sen (To her, him, it, them), , kiri (In her, him, it, them).
kiri and divi are pronounced with the stress on the first syllable.
The interrogative pronoun is , ti. For any case but the direct it requires prepositions, so
we will have for example , neti instead of a separate locative form.
The relative pronoun is , ley. Similarly to the interrogative, it requires prepositions but
this time it requires one even for the direct form, in which case it becomes , sheley.

, me
, de
, zi
, ti
, sheley

, mey
, das
, sen

, mat
, divi
, kiri
, neti
, neley

Now, theres a couple of rules to remember about third person pronouns.

In Gadyl, unlike some language, there are no honorific pronouns and we can therefore use
these forms without any exception, speaking to anyone.
However, one should always remember not to use third person pronouns when speaking
about someone whos not witnessing the conversation.
For example, if you want to introduce Hana to your friends, you could say zi sam (Shes a
friend), but if shes not there, you have to say Hana sam (Hana is a friend).
Prepositions In Gadyl, we have a short number of prepositions to express the logical role
of the word in the sentence, and postposition to better define it.
For example, the preposition ne ( )means in, on or at, and it is used invariably to
specify location, time, category or role. However, if we want to translate a more specific concept,
for example, the English preposition beneath, we will need the postposition arat ().
After a preposition, pure nouns undergo an internal vowel change. e becomes a, ey
becomes ay and vice versa; dar, for example, becomes der and ben becomes ban.
Later in the lessons, we will see more in depth where postpositions are applied, including
the proper usage of negative nouns and verbs.
To be Now that we have learnt our first preposition and some nouns to play with, we can
start making meaningful sentences.
Gadyl has no verb to be for the present tense, so we can already say:
( Hana sam)
( Dar ney anol arat)
( Layum ney anol)
( Me Hana)

Hana is a friend
The village is under the sun
The sun is in the sky
I am Hana

A couple of notes about pronunciation and orthography.

1 As we can see, the preposition ne becomes ney in the sentences we provided.
One should always remember that vowels change very often (and sometimes irregularly) in
Gadyl: meaning is always conveyed by the consonant.
In this case, this was a simple way to link the preposition with an object starting with
another vowel, to make the sound pleasant.
In the sun, for example, would just be translated as ne layum.
2 The subject and the object of the verb to be should be pronounced as a single word,
with the first consonant of the second word doubled.
Generally, everything that is not separated by a verb or a genitive behaves like a single word.
For instance, Hana sam sounds like Hanassam, and ney anol arat should be
pronounced like neyanollarat, both with the stress on the last a.
3 Prepositions are orthographically connected to the object, postpositions are not.
Genitive construction Possessions and logical correlations, in Gadyl, are expressed by
juxtaposing the possessed object after the possessor.
Just like prepositional objects, genitives often change their first vowel; this does not apply to
nouns beginning with or ( Anol, for example, does not change).
( Samder)
( Dar leyum)
( Layum anol)

Citizen (lit. friend of the village)

Village of the sun
Sun of the sky

Exercises Translate the following eight sentences; As a side note, , Serim, ,

Hana and , Dana are feminine nouns, while , Samir is usually for males.
Here are some useful words that you need to use in order to solve the exercise:
, adal
, kam
, madi
, ley


1 Where is the village of the moon?

2 She is (my) friend Dana ().
3 Under the moon of the sky, there is a gift.
4 Samir ( )is a teacher who is a citizen of Athens ().
1 . Ne adal arat der Hana neley Serim.
2 . Anol ley medi, madi ley Anol.
3 . Ti shan ne dar.
4 . Zi sam mey.