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Original Title: d sesqunces randomness

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Oklahoma State University, Stillwater

Abstract: This paper examines the randomness of d-sequences, which are decimal

sequences to an arbitrary base. Our motivation is to check their suitability for

application to cryptography, spread-spectrum systems, and use as pseudorandom

sequence.

Introduction

There exist two approaches to randomness [1]: one takes the path of probability, the other

that of complexity [2]. From the point of view of probability, all binary sequences of

length n are equivalent, but from the point of view of complexity, the sequence

01001011110

is more random than the all-zero sequence

00000000000

Ritter [1] summarizes several methods to measure algorithmic complexity that includes

the application of suitable transforms [3].

In this paper, we consider a new measure, due to Kak, to quantify randomness. It is based

on the idea of how much the autocorrelation departs from the ideal that is true for white

noise. Kak defines the randomness, R(x), of a discrete sequence x by the expression

below:

n 1

C (k )

R( x) = 1

k =1

n 1

where C(k) is the autocorrelation value for k and n is the period of sequence. The value of

the autocorrelation is defined as in the equation below:

1 n

C (k ) = a j a j +k

n j =0

Since the randomness measure of discrete-time white noise sequence is 1 whereas that of

a constant sequence is 0, this measure conforms to our intuitive expectations. Likewise,

the value of randomness for a binary shift register maximum-length sequence is close to

1, in accord with our expectations.

This measure will be tried on the class of d-sequences [4-12], that are decimal

sequences in an arbitrary base, although binary (base-2) sequences will be the only ones

that will be considered in this paper. D-sequences have found several applications in

cryptography, watermarking, spread-spectrum [5-12], and as generator of random

numbers [13]. They constitute a very versatile source of random sequences, since, unlike

maximum-length shift-register sequences [14], they are not constrained to only a limited

number of period values. They have the additional virtue that other periodic sequences

(including maximum-length shift register sequences) can be seen as special cases of dsequences.

The motivation for this study is the search of new classes of random sequences for

applications to cryptography and spread spectrum systems.

We begin with a quick review of d-sequences [4-12], obtained when a number is

represented in a decimal form in a base r, and it may terminate, repeat or be aperiodic.

For maximum-length d-sequences of 1/q, where q is a prime number, the digits spaced

half a period apart add up to r-1, where r is the base in which the sequence is expressed.

1

Ex: = 0.142857

7

Here q is 7, r is 10, the sequence is 142857 and 6 is the period. It can be clearly seen that

digits that are half the period apart add up to r-1 (1+8, 4+5 and 2+7).

D-sequences are known to have good cross-correlation and auto-correlation properties

and they can be used in applications involving pseudorandom sequences. When the

binary d-sequence is of maximum length, then bits in the second half of the period are the

complements of those in the first half.

We begin with some standard results [13]:

A1A2...As+1.a1a2

where 0 Ai r, 0 ai r, not all A and a are zero, and an infinity of the ai are less than (r-1).

There exists a one-to-one correspondence between the numbers and the decimals and

x = A1rs+ A2rs-1++ As+1+ a1 +..

r

That the decimal sequences of rational and irrational numbers may be used to generate

pseudo-random sequences is suggested by the following theorems of decimals of real

numbers.

Theorem 2: Almost all decimals, in any base, contain all possible digits. The expression

almost all implies that the property applies everywhere except to a set of measure zero.

Theorem 3: Almost all decimals, in any base, contain all possible sequences of any

number of digits.

Theorems 2 and 3 guarantee that a decimal sequence missing any digit is exceptional.

Autocorrelation and cross-correlation properties of d-sequences are given in [4] and [5].

It is easy to generate d-sequences, which makes them attractive for many engineering

applications. For a maximum-length d-sequence, 1/q, the digits of a/q, where a < q, are

permutations of the digits of 1/q, which makes it possible to use them for error-correction

coding applications [5].

We are concerned primarily with maximum-length binary d-sequences (which are

generated by prime numbers) because, as we will show later, the randomness measure for

such sequences is generally better than for non-maximum-length d-sequences. The binary

d-sequence is generated by means of the algorithm [6]:

where q is a prime number. The maximum length (q-1) sequences are generated when 2

is a primitive root of q. When the binary d-sequence is of maximum length, then bits in

the second half of the period are the complements of those in the first half.

Any periodic sequence can be represented as a generalized d-sequence m/n, where m and

n are suitable natural numbers, i.e., positive integers.

For example, consider the maximum-length shift register [14] or PN sequence 0011101,

of periods 7:

1

1

1 1

(.0011101)2 = + +

+

8 16 32 128 10

Hence .0011101 2

1

1 1 1 1

1

1

1 1

= + +

+ 7 + +

+

+

+

8 16 32 128 2 8 16 32 128

1 1 1

1

1

+

+ +

+

14

2 8 16 32 128

1

1

1 1

= + +

+

8 16 32 128

1

1

1 + 2 7 + 214 + ......

3

16

+

8

+

4

+

1

1

=

128

1 1

2 7

29 128

=

128 127

29

=

127

Figure 1.

d-sequences

PN sequence

n 1

C (k )

We apply the randomness measure R ( x )

=1

k =1

n 1

autocorrelation value for k and n is the period of sequence, to determine how it varies for

different values of q.

We first consider the general d-sequence 1/n, where n is an odd number. For doing so we

The randomness measure has its minima for n = 2k-1, since for such a case the sequence

would be k-1 0s followed by 1, which is a highly non-random sequence. However,

multiplying such a sequence with an appropriate integer could generate a PN sequence as

given by the previous example.

1.2

Randomness measure

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

27449

28429

29409

60733

63179

26469

58391

25489

24509

23529

22549

21569

20589

19609

18629

17649

16669

15689

14709

13729

12749

11769

9809

10789

8829

7849

6869

5889

4909

3929

2949

1969

989

Odd numbers

Now we consider prime numbers q < 63,180 (Figure 3).

1.2

Randomness Measure

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

56179

53887

51577

49307

47059

44687

42407

40193

37963

35771

33533

31337

29147

26953

24841

22697

20611

18443

16417

14423

12401

10337

8461

6553

4721

2953

1307

Prime Number

We find that the randomness measure quite quickly (by q in the range of 4000 or so)

climbs to a value close to 1 for maximum-length d-sequences. This increases our

confidence in the use of d-sequences in cryptography applications.

Many of the primes in Figure 3 do not correspond to maximum-length sequences. As

expected, the randomness measure has its minima for the Mersenne prime (8191) in

Figure 3. In Figure 4, we plot the randomness measure only for maximum-length dsequences.

1.2

Randomness measure

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

61331

58427

55813

53147

50227

47507

44939

42403

39869

37013

34651

32237

29723

27299

24709

22157

19739

17077

14797

12251

9803

7573

5563

3499

1531

Prime number

prime numbers

The results are nearly equally impressive when half-length sequences are considered as in

Figure 5.

Half length sequences

1.2

Randomness measure

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

62311

59833

57791

55903

53441

51343

48857

46663

44351

41959

39791

37561

35159

32999

30727

28663

26681

24439

22409

20479

18089

15991

13879

12097

10223

8297

6287

4639

2753

1279

Prime numbers

with prime numbers

Conclusions

This note has shown that the randomness measure R(x) has excellent characteristics since

it accords with our intuitive ideas of randomness. The application of this measure to dsequences has shown that these have good randomness properties and, therefore, their use

in cryptographic applications may be appropriate in many situations.

References

1. T. Ritter, Randomness tests: a literature survey.

http://www.ciphersbyritter.com/RES/RANDTEST.HTM

2. Kolmogorov, Three approaches to the quantitative definition of information.

Problems of Information Transmission. 1, 1-17, 1965.

3. S. Kak, Classification of random binary sequences using Walsh-Fourier analysis.

Proceedings of Applications of Walsh Functions. Pp. 74-77. Washington, 1971.

4. S. Kak and A. Chatterjee, On decimal sequences. IEEE Transactions on

Information Theory, IT-27: 647 652, 1981.

5. S. Kak, Encryption and error-correction coding using D sequences. IEEE

Transactions on Computers, C-34: 803-809, 1985.

6. S. Kak, New results on d-sequences. Electronics Letters, 23: 617, 1987.

7. D. Mandelbaum, On subsequences of arithmetic sequences. IEEE Trans on

Computers, vol. 37, pp 1314-1315, 1988.

8. S. Kak, A new method for coin flipping by telephone. Cryptologia, vol. 13, pp.

73-78, 1989.

9. N. Mandhani and S. Kak, Watermarking using decimal sequences. Cryptologia,

vol 29, pp. 50-58, 2005; arXiv: cs.CR/0602003

10. R. Vaddiraja, Generalized d-sequences and their applications in CDMA Systems.

MS Thesis, Louisiana State University, 2003.

11. K. Penumarthi and S. Kak, Augmented watermarking. Cryptologia, vol. 30, pp

173-180, 2006.

12. S. Kak, Joint encryption and error-correction coding, Proceedings of the 1983

IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, pp. 55-60 1983.

13. G.H. Hardy and E.M. Wright, An Introduction to the Theory of Numbers. Oxford

University Press, 1954.

14. S.W. Golomb, Shift Register Sequences. Aegean Park Press, 1982.

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