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ART AND EURASIA

The Development of Pre-Islamic Persian Iconography in Relation


to its Cultural Context in the Eastern Hemisphere
CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Connections along the Silk Road

March—June 2010 at the RISD Museum


Objectives for the Viewer:

• Concepts of scale and global interconnectivity


• Migration as the cause for similarities between art objects and ideas
• The Importance of the silk road as a kind of circulatory system for these ideas
• To gain a new perspective and to look at objects not for their material value but as representations of larger ideas
• To discover art history as it directly relates to he or she

> > > > >


“origin” Adaptation of How/Why How/Why How Ideas Migration is
of idea idea by different idea moved to ideas changed/ changed the centuries old &
cultures another region evolved once culture of the still happening
they moved people living in today
new region
Persona: A multi-layered audience for a multi-layered exhibition

• Accessible and appropriate for a general audience including children, adults, elderly and those with any
physical or mental disabilities

1 Daniel Sanchez: age 10


- comes from a middle class family and goes to public school
-is learning about world history in school and likes to spend most of time outdoors

2 Daniel’s mother Carla: age 40


-is a Dental assistant and works 48 hours per week
-on monthly basis brings her children to the museum but is not familiar with specific areas of history
Content: Objects from cultures connected by the silk road

Silver Plate with David and Goli- Ritual Basin, 7th-9th c. Plate 5th century Bowl 658, Kwarazm Standing Buddha, 6th c. Standing Buddha, 6th c.
ath, 629-630
Pakistan (ancient region of Hunting scene from the tale of Silver with repousse and en- Pakistan, ancient region of Northern Wei dynasty (386-534)
Byzantine; made in Constantiople Gandhara)/Central Asia Bahram Gur and Azadeh. graved decoration 12.4cm Gandhara mid-5th c. China

Silver 19.5” Bronze 8” Silver, mercury gilding, 7.9” Bronze, 13.25” Gilt Bronze 55.25”
Europe

Asia
Bowl, 1688 Dish, later 16th century Bowl, first half of 13th c. Bowl with Foliate Decoration Bowl 12th-13th c. Dish 1736-95 Overglaze Enamel Bottle Vase
1175-1220 Qing Dynasty, Kangxi Period
Hampton Court, England Istanbul, Turkey Syria (Raqqa ware) Frit body with moulded decora- Qianglong, China (1662-1722)
Kashan, Iran tion with touches of purple in a
Porcelain in French- Style of Yuan and early Ming Conical bowl shape, underglaze turquioise glaze. Mughal style Pale Celadon Jade Porcelain 10”
Dutch/Oriental Style. Chinese blue/white painting, influence from Iran, Fritware with inglaze and over- Chrysanthemum Dish
Minai ware 28.3 cm glaze decoration 8.5” Eastern Iranian (Bamiyan, Af-
ghanistan)

Ch’ao Fu 1821-1850

Dalmatic, 2nd half of 16th c. Caftan, mid-16th c. “Simonetti” Carpet, ca 1500 Coat, 16th century Men’s Coat, late 19th c. Riding Coat 1630-40 Garmet designed for horseback
riding. Imperial Dragon, Confu-
Bursa, Ottoman Empire Istanbul, Turkey Mamluk, Egypt Iran Shahr-i Sabz, Uzbekistan India cian universe.

Vestment for priest in Orthodox Polychrome Silk and gilt-metal Pile weave, wool pile on wool Silk velvet with metallic threads Silk embroidery on cotton, poly- Silk thread on white satin
church. Christ the Pantokrator, thread foundation, ca. 100 asymmetri- chrome woven border.
for Greek market cal knots per square inch
Design Objectives:
• To create a holistic learning experience • To show the formal and informal • To simplify the visual confusion
for the viewer through obejcts, their connections between objects from that one tends to have while
graphic representations, and maps neighboring cultures in the Eastern learning about similar cultures (i.e.
Hemisphere via the silk road Central Asia) through a step-by-
step visual analysis
Graphic Representations/Organization of the Objects:
Byzantine Empire Ottoman Empire Middle East Persian Empire Central Asia India/SoutEast A. China

Textiles 1500-Present
Ceramics 1000-1500 A.D.
Metalwork 500-1000 A.D.

Interior Exhibition: Understanding the “Macro” Perspective


[how cultures visually and physically relate to one another on the large scale]
Space for user interaction:
Ample space for walking, running, &
visitors with any physical disabilities

Life-size display cases for textiles

Entrance
Display cases for metalwork and ceramics
Visitor B Visitor A
Aerial View (Carla) (Daniel)

• Entire floor is a visitor-sensitive


screen that has a cause-effect
activation

Visitor B

Visitor A

Side View
• The floor exposes the viewer to
the formal visual connections
between the objects

• Possible land routes between


objects and their origins/influ-
ences are highlighted

• Similarites are highlighted in


drawings according to geo-
graphic color

• The wall gives visual & textual


information about the objects
• Different digital objects can be
activated simultaneously on the
floor and wall
• Information on the wall will de-
scribe individual objects’ quali-
ties as they are related to other
objects in the exhibition and
styles of respective cultures
External Exhibition: Interactive Website:
1 Reminder of “Macro” Perspective at the Museum

CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Connections along the Silk Road

home objects timeline exhibition education schedule

Pre-Islam Post-Islam
Iconography Iconography
3000 B.C.-600 A.D. 600A.D.-Present

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CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Connections along the Silk Road

home objects timeline exhibition education schedule

Pre-Islam Post-Islam
Iconography Iconography
3000 B.C.-600 A.D. 600A.D.-Present

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CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Connections along the Silk Road

home objects timeline exhibition education schedule

Metalwork 500-1000 A.D.


Ceramics 1000-1500 A.D.
Textiles 1500-Present

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CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Connections along the Silk Road

home objects timeline exhibition education schedule

Metalwork 500-1000 A.D.


Ceramics 1000-1500 A.D.
Textiles 1500-Present

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CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Connections along the Silk Road

home objects timeline exhibition education schedule

CHINA

Metalwork 500-1000 A.D.


Ceramics 1000-1500 A.D.
Textiles 1500-Present

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CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Connections along the Silk Road

home objects timeline exhibition education schedule

CHINA

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CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Connections along the Silk Road

home objects timeline exhibition education schedule

CHINA

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CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Connections along the Silk Road

home objects timeline exhibition education schedule


Possible land routes of influence and origins of object’s aesthetic design along the Silk Road:

Qing Dynasty, Kangxi Period AD 1622-1722

China

Porcelain Bottle Vase, 10”

Overall Design of scrolling blossoms in colorful overglaze enamel


imitates the decoration of Ming Period Porcelain.

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CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Connections along the Silk Road

home objects timeline exhibition education schedule


Possible land routes of influence and origins of object’s aesthetic design along the Silk Road:

Qing Dynasty, Kangxi Period AD 1622-1722

China

Porcelain Bottle Vase, 10”

Overall Design of scrolling blossoms in colorful overglaze enamel


imitates the decoration of Ming Period Porcelain.

contact us | subscribe to e-mail list | site map | privacy policy español 漢語 français Россия © 2009 Cultural Currents, Inc. All Rights Reserved
CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Connections along the Silk Road

home objects timeline exhibition education schedule


Possible land routes of influence and origins of object’s aesthetic design along the Silk Road:

Qing Dynasty, Kangxi Period AD 1622-1722

China

Porcelain Bottle Vase, 10”

Overall Design of scrolling blossoms in colorful overglaze enamel


imitates the decoration of Ming Period Porcelain.

contact us | subscribe to e-mail list | site map | privacy policy español 漢語 français Россия © 2009 Cultural Currents, Inc. All Rights Reserved
CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Connections along the Silk Road

home objects timeline exhibition education schedule


Possible land routes of influence and origins of object’s aesthetic design along the Silk Road:

Luoyang—China

Qing Dynasty, Kangxi Period AD 1622-1722

China

Porcelain Bottle Vase, 10”

Overall Design of scrolling blossoms in colorful overglaze enamel


imitates the decoration of Ming Period Porcelain.

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CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Connections along the Silk Road

home objects timeline exhibition education schedule


Possible land routes of influence and origins of object’s aesthetic design along the Silk Road:

Luoyang—China

Qing Dynasty, Kangxi Period AD 1622-1722

China

Porcelain Bottle Vase, 10”

Overall Design of scrolling blossoms in colorful overglaze enamel


imitates the decoration of Ming Period Porcelain.

contact us | subscribe to e-mail list | site map | privacy policy español 漢語 français Россия © 2009 Cultural Currents, Inc. All Rights Reserved
CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Connections along the Silk Road

home objects timeline exhibition education schedule


Possible land routes of influence and origins of object’s aesthetic design along the Silk Road:

Luoyang—China
Taxila—Central Asia

Mathura—India

Qing Dynasty, Kangxi Period AD 1622-1722

China

Porcelain Bottle Vase, 10”

Overall Design of scrolling blossoms in colorful overglaze enamel


imitates the decoration of Ming Period Porcelain.

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CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Connections along the Silk Road

home objects timeline exhibition education schedule


Possible land routes of influence and origins of object’s aesthetic design along the Silk Road:

Luoyang—China
Damascas—Middle East Ray—Persia Taxila—Central Asia

Mathura—India

Qing Dynasty, Kangxi Period AD 1622-1722

China

Porcelain Bottle Vase, 10”

Overall Design of scrolling blossoms in colorful overglaze enamel


imitates the decoration of Ming Period Porcelain.

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CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Connections along the Silk Road

home objects timeline exhibition education schedule


Possible land routes of influence and origins of object’s aesthetic design along the Silk Road: BACK

England—Byzantine Empire

Istanbul—Ottoman Empire

Luoyang—China
Damascas—Middle East Ray—Persia Taxila—Central Asia

Mathura—India

Qing Dynasty, Kangxi Period AD 1622-1722

China

Porcelain Bottle Vase, 10”

Overall Design of scrolling blossoms in colorful overglaze enamel


imitates the decoration of Ming Period Porcelain.

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CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Connections along the Silk Road

home objects timeline exhibition education schedule

Metalwork 500-1000 A.D.


Ceramics 1000-1500 A.D.
Textiles 1500-Present

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CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Connections along the Silk Road

home objects timeline exhibition education schedule

ROMAN EMPIRE GHAZNAVIDS VARIOUS PEOPLES/SOUTHWEST ASIA SONG DYNASTY

500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900

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CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Connections along the Silk Road

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ROMAN EMPIRE SELJUKS VARIOUS PEOPLES/SOUTHWEST ASIA SONG DYNASTY

500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900

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CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Connections along the Silk Road

home objects timeline exhibition education schedule

ROMAN EMPIRE KHWAREZM SULTANATE (N) GHURID SULTANATE SONG DYNASTY


(S) VARIOUS PEOPLES

500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900

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CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Connections along the Silk Road

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ROMAN EMPIRE (W) ILKHANATE (MONGOL) & (N) DELHI SULTANATE YUAN (MONGOL) DYNASTY
(E) CHAGATAI KHANATE (S) VARIOUS PEOPLES

500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900

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External Exhibition: Interactive Website:

2 Understanding the “Micro” Perspective
[how the identity of objects from each region originally developed]

• Focus for Section Exhibiting Pre-Islamic Art: Persia


Why? Because:

•Persia (Iran before the


founding of the Islamic
Republic in 1979) is a
culture with an incredibly
rich yet complex history
of its artistic style]
Why? Because:

• Persia (Iran before the • Its geographic location sits


founding of the Islamic almost in the middle of
Republic in 1979) is a “ Eurasia” along the silk road
culture with an incredibly and its art exhibits influences
rich yet complex history from almost all cultures
of its artistic style]
Why? Because:

• Persia (Iran before the • Its geographic location sits • Persian art and general his-
founding of the Islamic almost in the middle of toric tendencies to take the
Republic in 1979) is a “ Eurasia” along the silk road best elements of each culture
culture with an incredibly and its art exhibits influences (whether invasive or docile)
rich yet complex history from almost all cultures represents a concept whic his
of its artistic style] very true to my morals:

Dependence > Independence > Interdependence



[i.e. A person is only truly mature when he/she realizes
that real success can only be achieved when he/she
acknowledges the interdependence of nature]
$POUFOU0SHBOJ[BUJPO Sassanid

Byzantine Parthian Central Asia

Rome Greco-Bactrian

Hellenistic

Achaemenid

Bordering Iranian Plateau Area Iranian Plateau Area

Caucasus Scythian Assyrian


Gilan Elam Susa

Urartu Luristan
Hittite Kassite Phoenician
CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Connections along the Silk Road

home objects timeline exhibition education schedule

Pre-Islam Post-Islam
Iconography Iconography
3000 B.C.-600 A.D. 600A.D.-Present

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CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Connections along the Silk Road

home objects timeline exhibition education schedule

Pre-Islam Post-Islam
Iconography Iconography
3000 B.C.-600 A.D. 600A.D.-Present

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CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Evolution in Eurasian Territories

home objects timeline exhibition education schedule

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CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Evolution in Eurasian Territories

home objects timeline exhibition education schedule

PERSIA/WEST ASIA

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CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Evolution in Eurasian Territories

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Cultures that make up Pre-Islamic Persian Iconography before 600 A.D.

Roman Hellenistic Near Eastern Persian Central Asian Indian

Areas that initiated cultivation of Iranian identity 2000 B.C.

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CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Evolution in Eurasian Territories

home objects timeline exhibition education schedule

1500-500 B.C.

Influential Cultures

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CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Evolution in Eurasian Territories

home objects timeline exhibition education schedule

1500-500 B.C.

Influential Cultures
Nomads

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CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Evolution in Eurasian Territories

home objects timeline exhibition education schedule

1500-500 B.C.

Influential Cultures
Kassite

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CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Evolution in Eurasian Territories

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1500-500 B.C.

Influential Cultures
Hittite

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CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Evolution in Eurasian Territories

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1500-500 B.C.

Influential Cultures

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CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Evolution in Eurasian Territories

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BACK

1500-500 B.C.

Gold deer ornament from Kostromskaia


kurgan, Kuban region, Caucasus. Scythian,
late 7th early 6th century

Scythians were nomadic herders of the steppes north of the


Black Sea. Their origin, just like their mother tongue, is essen-
tially unknown. They were among the first nomads riding
domesticated horses, which gave them tremendous mobility
and power. From the seventh century B. C. they dominated the
Eastern part of Europe by conquering most other nomads and
agricultural tribes.

Scythian jewellery features various animals including stags, cats,


birds, horses, bears, wolves and mythical beasts.
Influential Cultures

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CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Evolution in Eurasian Territories

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1500-500 B.C.

Influential Cultures

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CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Evolution in Eurasian Territories

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Maturity of Iranian Identity Phase 1: Achaemenid Empire 500 B.C.

Achaemenid Roots

Different Influences fuse to create a distinct Iranian style

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CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Evolution in Eurasian Territories

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Maturity of Iranian Identity Phase 1: Achaemenid Empire 500 B.C.

Achaemenid Roots
Egypt

Different Influences fuse to create a distinct Iranian style

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CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Evolution in Eurasian Territories

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Maturity of Iranian Identity Phase 1: Achaemenid Empire 500 B.C.

Achaemenid Roots
Scythia

Different Influences fuse to create a distinct Iranian style

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CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Evolution in Eurasian Territories

home objects timeline exhibition education schedule

Maturity of Iranian Identity Phase 1: Achaemenid Empire 500 B.C.

Achaemenid Roots
Nomadic

Different Influences fuse to create a distinct Iranian style

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CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Evolution in Eurasian Territories

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Maturity of Iranian Identity Phase 1: Achaemenid Empire 500 B.C.

Achaemenid Roots

Different Influences fuse to create a distinct Iranian style

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CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Evolution in Eurasian Territories

home objects timeline exhibition education schedule


BACK

Maturity of Iranian Identity Phase 1: Achaemenid Empire 500 B.C.

Gold Cup or Situla With Gazelle Head


The Achaemenid Age is the first period that we can identify a
native Persian art. Persian art at this point is no longer charac-
terized as that deriving from any one direct reference desite the
colossal number of borrowings which have lost their original
meaning.

Styles that can be identified in Achaemenid art serve two


functions in describing this culture: all of the elements can be
traced back to a previous era but the entire pictorial repertoire
of art of this era was established by the particiation of crafts-
men of various nationalities.
Achaemenid Roots
Characteristic Near Eastern Imagery lost in the Scythian tradi-
tion survives in Persian art of this era through seals, silver and
gold vessels, decoration on swords and monumental art,
capitals and colums.

Different Influences fuse to create a distinct Iranian style

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CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Evolution in Eurasian Territories

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Maturity of Iranian Identity Phase 1: Achaemenid Empire 500 B.C.

Achaemenid Roots

Different Influences fuse to create a distinct Iranian style

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CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Evolution in Eurasian Territories

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1 AD: Cultural neighbors simultaneously develop to


create their own identities which ultimately....
Greco-Bactria

Kushan

Byzantine Empire Indo Parthia

Persian Empire under


Parthian Rule
(Achaemenid Roots)

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CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Evolution in Eurasian Territories

home objects timeline exhibition education schedule

1 AD: Cultural neighbors simultaneously develop to


create their own identities which ultimately....
Greco-Bactria

Kushan

Byzantine Empire Indo Parthia


Roman

Persian Empire under


Parthian Rule
(Achaemenid Roots)

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CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Evolution in Eurasian Territories

home objects timeline exhibition education schedule

1 AD: Cultural neighbors simultaneously develop to


create their own identities which ultimately....
Greco-Bactria

Kushan
Roman

Byzantine Empire Indo Parthia

Persian Empire under


Parthian Rule
(Achaemenid Roots)

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CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Evolution in Eurasian Territories

home objects timeline exhibition education schedule

1 AD: Cultural neighbors simultaneously develop to


create their own identities which ultimately....
Greco-Bactria

Kushan
Ghandara

Byzantine Empire Indo Parthia

Persian Empire under


Parthian Rule
(Achaemenid Roots)

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CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Evolution in Eurasian Territories

home objects timeline exhibition education schedule

1 AD: Cultural neighbors simultaneously develop to


create their own identities which ultimately....
Greco-Bactria

Kushan

Byzantine Empire Indo Parthia

Persian Empire under


Parthian Rule
(Achaemenid Roots)

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CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Evolution in Eurasian Territories

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BACK

1 AD: Cultural neighbors simultaneously develop to


create their own identities which ultimately....
Greco-Bactria

Reclining woman 2nd century B.C.–2nd century


A.D.; Parthian period Mesopotamia Alabaster
Kushan
This alabaster figurine is of a nude woman reclining on her left side.
Her left arm, which would have supported her body, is missing. The
right arm is extended along her side, with the tips of her fingers resting
lightly on her thigh. Faint bands at the woman’s neck indicate creases;
the subtle folds of flesh along the right side of the torso emphasize the
full curves of her figure.

Reclining figures are common among Greek terracottas, and the


appearance of the posture in Mesopotamian sculpture may reflect the
influence of Greek terracotta manufacturing centers along the eastern
Mediterranean. The majority of Greek terracottas of this type are male,
Byzantine Empire Indo Parthia
however, as are reclining figures depicted in Greco-Roman funerary
reliefs. In Mesopotamia, the opposite is true: whether the figurine is
fashioned of alabaster or terracotta, the subject is usually a woman.

Persian Empire of
While the treatment under
the body and graceful pose of the present
sculpture undeniably betray Hellenistic influence, the creases at the
Parthian Rule
neck, the drilled navel, and the voluptuous form are elements of an
(Achaemenid Roots)
established local tradition.

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CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Evolution in Eurasian Territories

home objects timeline exhibition education schedule

1 AD: Cultural neighbors simultaneously develop to


create their own identities which ultimately....
Greco-Bactria

Kushan

Byzantine Empire Indo Parthia

Persian Empire under


Parthian Rule
(Achaemenid Roots)

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CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Evolution in Eurasian Territories

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....assimulate into the Iranian Identity.

Maturity of Iranian Iconography,


Phase 2: Sassanid Empire 500 A.D.

Sassanid Roots

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CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Evolution in Eurasian Territories

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....assimulate into the Iranian Identity.

Maturity of Iranian Iconography,


Phase 2: Sassanid Empire 500 A.D.

Sassanid Roots

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CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Evolution in Eurasian Territories

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....assimulate into the Iranian Identity.

Maturity of Iranian Iconography,

Wine Bowl Silver Phase


, applied2: Sassanid
repousse, Empire
partially gilt. 500 A.D.

Shapur I (310-379 A.D.)


The king as hunter becomes a standard motif on royal Sasanian silver
plates during the reign of Shapur II (309–79). The theme symbolized
the invincibility and the prowess of Sasanian rulers and dominated
the royal plates, which may have been used as gifts to neighboring
courts. The king has various royal attributes: a crown and fillet,
covered globe, nimbus with beaded border, and beaded chest halter
with fluttering ribbons.

Sasanian silver bowls and plates were usually hammered into shape
Sassanid
and then decorated in various complex Roots
techniques. On this plate,
separate pieces of silver were inserted into lips cut up from the plate
to provide high relief. The plate was then gilded using an amalgam
of mercury and gold, which could be painted onto the surface, and
niello—a metallic alloy of sulfur and silver—was inlaid. The result was
an object of varied surface contours and colors.

contact us | subscribe to e-mail list | site map | privacy policy español 漢語 français Россия © 2009 Cultural Currents, Inc. All Rights Reserved
CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Evolution in Eurasian Territories

home objects timeline exhibition education schedule

....assimulate into the Iranian Identity.

Maturity of Iranian Iconography,


Phase 2: Sassanid Empire 500 A.D.

Sassanid Roots

contact us | subscribe to e-mail list | site map | privacy policy español 漢語 français Россия © 2009 Cultural Currents, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Applications: Invitation and T-shirt

CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Connections along the Silk Road

CULTURAL CURRENTS
Iconographic Connections along the Silk Road

March—June 2010 at the RISD Museum


Thank You
RISD Fall 2009 Degree Project Presentation by Laura Sobrado

Instructors: Degree Project: Tom Ockerse


Senior Studio: Tom Wedell and Hans Van Dijk

References:

Book
7000 Years of Iranian Art Circulated by the Smithsonian Institution. National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.
Axworthy, Michael. Empire of the Mind, A History of Iran. Basic Books 2008.
Abrbandi, Ikats of Central Asia. From the Collection of the Islamic Arts Museum, Malaysia. IAMM Publications, 2006
Aruz, Joan and Anne Farkas, and Elisabetta Valtz Fino. The Golden Deer of Eurasia, Perspectives on the Steppe Nomads of the Ancient World.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art Symposia. Yale University Press, New Haven, 2006.
Bloom, Jonathan and Sheila Blair. Islamic Arts. Phaidon Press Limited. New York, 1997.
Brand, Michael and Glenn D. Lowry. Akbar’s India: Art from the Mughal City of Victory. The Asia Society Galleries, 1985-6.
De Luca, Edizioni. Oxus, Tesori Dell Asia Centrale. Italy, 1993
Froom, Aimee. Persian Ceramics, From the Collection of the Asian Art Museum. San Fransisco, 2008.
Herrman, Georgina. The Iranian Revival, The Making of the Past. Elsevier Publishing, Oxford, 1977.
Hess, Catherine. The Arts of Fire, Islamic Influences on Glass and Ceramics of the Italian Renaissance. The J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, 2004.
Kalter, Johannes and Margareta Pavalovi. Uzbekistan, Heirs to the Silk Road. Thames and Hudson, London 1997.
Komaroff, Linda and Stefano Carboni. The Legacy of Genghis Khan, Courtly Art and Culture in Western Asia, 1256-1353. The Metropolitan
Museum of Art. Yale University Press, New Haven, 2002.
Loukanine, Vladimir & Anatoli Ivanov. Lost Treasures of Persian Art. Mage Publishers, Bournemouth, England 1996
Negahban, Ezat O. A Preliminary Report on Marlik Excavation, Gohar Rud Expedition. Rudbar 1961-62. Offset Press, Tehran, Iran. 1964
Pope, Arthur Upham. Masterpieces of Persian Art. The Dryden Press, Publishers, New York, 1945.
Reade, Julian. Assyrian Sculpture. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 1999
Rogers, J.M. and R.M Ward. Suleyman the Magnificent. Wellfleet Press. Syracuse, NJ, 1988.
Rowland, Benjamin. The Art of Central Asia. Crown Publishers, Inc. New York, 1974.
Treasures of Persian Art After Islam. The Mahbouian Collection. Plantin Press, Inc. Ney York 1970.
Tucker, Jonathan. The Silk Road, Art and History. Art Media Resources, Chicago, 2003.
Ward, Rachel. Islamic Metalwork. Thames and Hudson Inc, New York, 1993.
Watson, Oliver. Ceramics from Islamic Lands, Kuwait National Museum, The Al-Sabah Collection. Thames & Hudson. 2004
Weisbrod, Michael B. Chinese Ceramic Art: Innovation and Imitation. Michael B. Weisbrok, Inc. New York.
Welch, Stuart Cary. The Art of Mughal India, Paintings & Precious Objects. The Asia Society Inc. New York, 1964.

Website
Afghanistan, HIdden Treasures from the National Museum, Kabul. http://www.nga.gov/exhibitions/2008/afghanistan/timeline.shtml
Iran Chamber Society. http://www.iranchamber.com/index.php
MACE (Metadata for Architectural Contents in Europe). http://www.esono.com/boris/projects/maeve/
Metropolitan Museum of Art Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/
The Silk Road Project. http://www.silkroadproject.org/

People
Hammett Nurosi, Iraj Anvar, Omid Hamooni

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