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# Lecture # 7

## Chapter # 5, pages 206-211; chapter # 10 pages 482-485

Exercises: 43, 50 page 240; 7, 65, 73 pages493-496

## Melting (fusion): transition of solid liquid.

Melting point: temperature at which melting occurs.
Same as freezing point!
Enthalpy of fusion, Hfusion, is the quantity of heat required (melting is
endothermic process) to melt a set amount (one gram, one mole) of solid.
Enthalpy or heat of fusion Hfusion :
H2O(s) H2O(l); Hfusion= +6.01 kJ/mol
Freezing is exothermic process amount of heat released when a given amount (1 mole)
of liquid is frozen.
Enthalpy or heat of freezing Hfreezing :
H2O(l) H2O(s); Hfreezing= - 6.01 kJ/mol
Sublimation: transition of solid vapor.
Example: Ice cubes slowly disappear in the freezer.
Enthalpy of sublimation, Hsubln, is the sum of the enthalpies of fusion and
vaporization - amount of heat required to transform a given amount (1 mole) of
solid substance directly to gas.
Enthalpy or heat of sublimation Hsubln = Hfusion + Hvapn
Sublimation is endothermic process
Deposition is the reverse process, the condensation of vapor to a solid (exothermic).
A phase diagram is a graphical representation of the conditions of temperature and
pressure under which a substance exists as a solid, liquid, a gas, or some combination of
these in equilibrium.

## AB, solid-vapor equilibrium (sublimation curve).

A - Triple point: all three phasessolid, liquid, vaporare in equilibrium.
AC, liquid-vapor equilibrium (vapor pressure curve)

## Cooling curve of water

1. The liquid water cools until
2. the freezing point is reached, at which time the temperature remains constant
as solid forms.
3. If the liquid is cooled carefully, it can supercool.
4. Once all of the liquid has solidified, the temperature again drops.

2
1

## Heating curve of water

1. The temperature of the solid increases as it is heated
2. until the solid begins to melt, at which time the temperature remains constant
3. until all the solid is melted, at which time the temperature again rises.

Melting point 0C
Hvap
Hcond
Hmelt
Hfreezing
Molar heat capacity(l)
(g)
(s)

40.7 kJ/mol
-40.7 kJ/mol
6.02 kJ/mol
-6.02 kJ/mol
75.4 J/moloC
33.1 J/moloC
37.6 J/moloC

## We can examine phase changes in

detail by looking at a heatingcooling curve for a particular
substance,
which
shows
the
changes that occur when heat is
added to or removed from the
system at a constant rate.

## Use the following data to sketch a

cooling curve for 2.5 mole of

## water. Start curve at +130C and end at -40C.

Step in
cooling curve

Ti,
C

Cooling gas

130

Condensing
vapor
Cooling liquid
water
Freezing
water
Cooling ice

Tf,
C

Calculate Energy q, kJ

Phases (One or
two: specify each
as as s, l, g)
Gas

q = heat = n x Cp(gas) x T
q = 2.50 mol x 33.1 J/moloC x (100oC 130oC)
q = -2482 J = -2.482 kJ
100 100
Gas liquid
qcond = heat = n x -Hvap
q = 2.50 mol x (-40.7 kJ/mol)
q = -102 kJ
100
0
liquid
q = heat = n x Cp(liquid) x T
o
o
o
q = 2.50 mol x 75.4 J/mol C x (0 C 100 C)
q = -18850 J = -18.8 kJ
0
0
Liquidsolid
qfreez = heat = n x -Hfus
q = 2.50 mol x -6.02 kJ/mol
q = -15.0 kJ
0
-40
Solid
q = heat = n x Cp(solid) x T
o
o
o
q = 2.50 mol x 37.6 J/mol C x (-40 C 0 C)
q = -3760 J = -3.760 kJ
Total q, kJ = q1 + q2 + q3 + q3 + q4 + q5
qtotal = -2.48 kJ + -102 kJ + -18.8 kJ + -15.0 kJ + -3.76 kJ = -142 kJ
100

Exercise # 1
What happens if we heat up a block of ice 10.0 kg from -10.0 C to boiling
point 100.0 C and convert to vapor?
1. Warming the ice.