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Evernotesharednotebook:newspaperindia'sneighbours

IndiaandUNO
Saturday,November262011,1:12AM
UnitedNationsDevelopmentActionFramework201317
1. ThisFrameworkarticulatesUN'sstrategytohelpinIndia'seconomicdevelopmentinnext5years.
2. UNhasselectedsomebackwardstatesfordirecthelp.TheareasoffocusforUNwillbewhereit
hascomparativeadvantage.
UnitedNationsReform
1. IndiaandGermanyareapartofG4nationswhichalsoincludesBrazilandJapanwhicharevying
forUNpermanentmembership.
2. Germany differs from India in the sense that it willing to become a
permanentmemberwithoutgettingthevetopowernow.Itbelievesvetocanbeobtainedinadecad
e.IndiaandBrazilwanttosettletheissueonceandforall.
WorldBankAid
1. India currently receives $2 bio aid under the IDA (International Development Association)
programmeofWorldBank.Butsuchanaidcanonlybemadetolowincomecountries.
2. India'spercapitaincomeis$1,330againstthethresholdof$1,175.AssuchIndiaisclassifiedas
"blend"countryandmaylosetheaidinnext2years.
3. Inthemiddleincomerange,interestratesarehigherthanLIGthoughlessthancommercialrates.
ICJ
Judges
1. The International Court of Justice is composed of 15 judges elected to nineyear terms by the
GeneralAssemblyandtheSecurityCouncil.Theseorgansvotesimultaneouslybutseparately.In
ordertobeelected,acandidatemustreceiveanabsolutemajorityofthevotesinbothbodies.One
thirdoftheCourtiselectedeverythreeyears.Judgesareeligibleforreelection.Shouldajudge
dieorresignduringhisorhertermofoffice,aspecialelectionisheldassoonaspossibletochoose
ajudgetofilltheunexpiredpartoftheterm.
2. AllStatespartiestotheStatuteoftheCourthavetherighttoproposecandidates.Theseproposals
aremadenotbythegovernmentoftheStateconcerned,butbyagroupconsistingofthemembers
ofthePermanentCourtofArbitrationdesignatedbythatState,i.e.bythefourjuristswhocanbe
calledupontoserveasmembersofanarbitraltribunalundertheHagueConventionsof1899and
1907.AStatepartytoacasebeforetheInternationalCourtofJusticewhichdoesnothaveajudge
ofitsnationalityontheBenchmaychooseapersontositasjudgeadhocinthatspecificcase.
3. Since the 1980s there has been a clear increase in willingness to use the Court, especially
amongdevelopingcountries.AfterthecourtruledthattheU.S.'scovertwaragainstNicaraguawas
inviolationofinternationallawtheUnitedStateswithdrewfromcompulsoryjurisdictionin1986.
The United States accepts the court's jurisdiction only on a casebycase basis.UN Security
CouncilisauthorizedtoenforceWorldCourtrulings.
4. Article6 of the Statute providesthat alljudgesshould be"elected regardlessoftheirnationality
amongpersonsofhighmoralcharacter",whoareeitherqualifiedforthehighestjudicialofficein
theirhomestatesorknownaslawyerswithsufficientcompetenceininternationallaw.Judgesof
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theICJarenotabletoholdanyotherpost.Ajudgecanbedismissedonlybyaunanimousvoteof
othermembersoftheCourt.
5. All UN members are automatically parties to the Court's statute. NonUN members may also
become parties by following a procedure. However, being a party to the statute does not
automatically give the Court jurisdiction over disputes involving those parties. The issue
of jurisdiction is considered in the two types of ICJ cases: contentious issues and advisory
opinions.
6. ThekeyprincipleisthattheICJhasjurisdictiononlyonthebasisofconsent.Incontentiouscases
(adversarial proceedings seeking to settle a dispute), the ICJ produces a binding ruling between
states that agree to submit to the ruling of the court. Cases come before it when brought by the
parties.TheCourtalsohasajurisdictionover"mattersspecificallyprovidedfor...intreatiesand
conventions in force". Such cases have not been as effective as cases founded on special
agreement,sinceastatemayhavenointerestinhavingthematterexaminedbytheCourtandmay
refuse to comply with a judgment. Since the 1970s, the use of such clauses has declined. Many
moderntreatiessetouttheirowndisputeresolutionregime,oftenbasedonformsofarbitration.
7. Third, Article 36(2) allows states to make optional clause declarations accepting the Court's
jurisdiction. Such declarations made by states are voluntary. Furthermore, many declarations
contain reservations. Industrialized countries however have sometimes increased exclusions or
removedtheirdeclarationsinrecentyears.
8. The court also has advisory function. In principle, the Court's advisory opinions are only
consultative in character, but they are influential and widely respected. Advisory Opinions have
oftenbeencontroversialbecausethequestionsaskedarecontroversialorthecasewaspursuedas
anindirectwayofbringingwhatisreallyacontentiouscasebeforetheCourt.
9. Article94establishesthedutyofallUNmemberstocomplywithdecisionsoftheCourtinvolving
them.Ifpartiesdonotcomply,theissuemaybetakenbeforetheSecurityCouncilforenforcement
action.Thereareobviousproblemswithsuchamethodofenforcement.Ifthejudgmentisagainst
one of the permanent five members of the Security Council or its allies, any resolution on
enforcement would then be vetoed. Furthermore, if the Security Council refuses to enforce a
judgmentagainstanyotherstate,thereisnomethodofforcingthestatetocomply.Furthermore,
the most effective form to take action for the Security Council, coercive action under can be
justifiedonlyifinternationalpeaceandsecurityareatstake.
10. Generally,theCourthasbeenmostsuccessfulresolvingborderdelineationandtheuseofoceans
andwaterways.
11. When deciding cases, the Court applies international law i.e. international conventions,
internationalcustom,andthe"generalprinciplesoflawrecognizedbycivilizednations".
InternationalCriminalCourt
1. AsofMay2012,theCourt'sfirsttrial,theLubangatrialinthesituationoftheCongo,hasended
with the accused found guilty. The Court's jurisdiction does not apply retroactively: it can only
prosecute crimes committed on or after 1 July 2002. ICC is a permanent tribunal to prosecute
individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes. The Court can generally
exercise jurisdiction only in three cases, viz. if the accused is a national of a state party, if the
allegedcrimetookplaceontheterritoryofastatepartyorifasituationisreferredtotheCourtby
the United Nations Security Council. It is designed to complement existing national judicial
systems: it can exercise its jurisdiction only when national courts are unwilling or unable to
investigateorprosecutesuchcrimes.
2. Theaccusedaredeniedsuchbasicrightsastrialbyajuryofone'speers,protectionfromdouble
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jeopardy,andtherighttoconfrontone'saccusers.Butthepositivesarepresumptionofinnocence
righttocounselrighttopresentevidenceandtoconfrontwitnessesrighttoremainsilentrightto
bepresentattrialrighttohavechargesprovedbeyondareasonabledoubtandprotectionagainst
doublejeopardy.
3. UnliketheICJ,theICCislegallyandfunctionallyindependentfromtheUnitedNations.However,
theRomeStatutegrantscertainpowerstotheUnitedNationsSecurityCouncil.Article13allows
theSecurityCounciltorefertotheCourtsituationsthatwouldnototherwisefallundertheCourt's
jurisdiction.Article16allowstheSecurityCounciltorequiretheCourttodeferfrominvestigating
a case for a period of 12 months. Such a deferral may be renewed indefinitely by the Security
Council.
R2P
1. ThiswasadoptedbyUNafterthe90smassacresinRwandaandSerbia.Itwasformallyadoptedin
2009andappliedincaseofLibya.
India'sStand
1. R2Pcan'tbeusedtoaddressallsocialevilsincludingviolationofhumanrights.Itsusemustbe
confinedonlyto4casesi.e.genocide,warcrimes,ethniccleansing,crimesagainsthumanity.
2. It can't be the default action of the international community. Coercive action under Chapter 7
shouldbethemeasureoflastresort.
3. Itshouldnotbeusedselectivelyandwithbiasandtheprinciplemustbeapplieduniformly.

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