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Engine Lubrication System

Purpose of Lubrication System

Reduces Friction by
creating a thin
between moving

The oil helps form a seal
between piston rings and
cylinder walls (Reduces


Internal oil leak (blowby) will

result in BLUE SMOKE
at the
tail pipe.

Purpose of Lubrication System

As it circulates through the engine, the oil picks up metal
particles and carbon, and brings them back down to the pan.

Picks up heat when moving
through the engine and then
drops into the cooler oil pan,
giving up some of this heat.

Purpose of Lubrication System

Absorbs shock
When heavy loads are imposed on the bearings, the oil
helps to cushion the load.

Absorbs Contaminants
The additives in oil helps in absorbing the contaminants
that enter the lubrication system.

Lubrication System Types

Petroil or mist lubrication (Petrol and Oil Premix)

Pressure Fed or Force Feed
Wet Sump
Dry Sump

Mist lubrication system

Used where crankcase lubrication is not suitable.
(In two stroke engine, as the charge is
compressed in the crankcase, it is not possible to
have the lubrication oil in the sump. Hence mist
lubrication is used in practice).

Mist lubrication system

The lubrication oil is mixed with the fuel, the usual ratio
being 2% to 5%.
Oil and fuel mixture is inducted through the carburetor.
Fuel is vaporized and the oil in the form of mist goes via
the crankcase into the cylinder.
The oil which strikes the crankcase walls lubricates the
main and connecting rod bearings and the rest of oil
lubricate the piston, piston rings and the cylinder.

Low cost as it does not require an oil pump,
filter, etc.

Cause heavy exhaust smoke due to burning of lubricating
Forms deposit on piston crown and exhaust port which
affect engine efficiency.
Requires a thorough mixing for effective lubrication. This
requires either separate mixing prior to use or use of some
additive to give the oil good mixing characteristics.
During closed throttle operation (as in the case of vehicle
moving down the hill), the engine suffers from insufficient
lubrication as the supply of fuel is less. This is an important
limitation of system

Autolube System
Used in 2 stroke engines
Oil is stored in a separate tank
A nozzle sprays measured quantity of oil in the crankcase
in every stroke
More efficient than mist lubrication system
Used in Kinetic Honda, Yamaha RX 100

Splash System
Used in light duty, slow speed engines (<250 rpm).
Lubricating oil is stored at the bottom of engine crankcase and
maintained at a predetermined level.
The oil is drawn by the pump and delivered through a distributing
pipe into the splash trough located under the big end of all the
connecting rods.
These troughs are provided with overflows and oil in the trough is
therefore kept at a constant level.
A splasher or dipper is provided under each connecting rod cap
which dips into the oil in the trough at every revolution of the
crankshaft and the oil is splashed all over the interior of crankcase,
into the pistons and onto the exposed portion of cylinder walls.
The oil dripping from the cylinder is collected in the sump where it
is cooled by the air flowing around. The cooled oil is then

Splash System

Pressure Feed System

Oil is drawn from the sump by an oil pump through an oil strainer.
The strainer is a fine mesh screen which prevents foreign particles
from entering the oil circulating system.
A pressure relief valve is provided which automatically keep the
delivery pressure constant and can b set to any value. When the oil
pressure exceed that for which the valve is set, the valve open and
allow some of the oil to return to the sump thereby reliving the oil
pressure in the system.

Pressure Feed System

Pressure Feed System

Lubrication System Wet Sump

Oil is stored in the sump.
Drawn into engine through
the pickup.
Forced round by a pump.
Protected by a pressure
relief valve.
Particulates removed
by a filter.
Carried around
in galleries.

Lubrication System Wet Sump

Dry Sump
It uses an additional pump as well as a remote oil tank

It is used in situations
when a wet sump
cannot cope with the
oil supply, in unusual
or extreme
conditions; Heavy
acceleration (racing
cars), Off road driving,
steep hills and uneven

2 3 4

No 1


No 2


No 3


No 4




Lubricating System Parts

Oil sump
Oil pump
Pick-up screen
Pressure regulator
Oil filter
By-pass valve
Oil galleries
Pressure indicator

Oil sump

Made of Sheet Metal with baffle plates inside

Storage reservoir for oil (Holds 3 to 6 liters)
Plug on bottom to drain.

Oil Pump
Driven by camshaft, crankshaft
All types of oil pumps use a pick-up
screen in the sump and a pressure
Gear Pump
Rotor Pump(Two star

shaped rotors pump the


Rotary Oil Pump

Inner rotor driven by pump shaft.
Inner rotor drives outer rotor.

Oil is forced from input to output

May be shaft, gear or chain driven.

Crankshaft-Driven Pump
Drive splines
on crankshaft.
Main seal.
Inner gear (rotor)
driven by crankshaft.
Outer gear (rotor)
driven by inner gear.
Pump housing at
front of engine.
Pump insert holds
drive within housing.

Gear Pump
Pump shaft drives one gear.

Other gear rotates.

Low pressure at input.

High pressure at output.

Oil Filters

Micro-porous paper filters used to screen out particles.

Most filters are of the cartridge type.
Remove harmful materials
Two Types
Full Flow

Bypass Systems
Part of oil goes from
sump to filter
Part goes to engine
for lubrication
Over time, entire oil
is filtered
Very fine filter is

Full Flow Systems

All the oil goes to the
system through filter
Relatively a coarse filter
is used
Relief valve is used to
ensure oil supply to
engine in case of filter

Oil Level and Pressure Indicators

Dipstick the most
Some engines
equipped with an
electrical level
Oil pressure
indicator lamp
Oil pressure gauge
(electrical or

Oil Pressure Indicator

Light or a Gauge
The light turns on or gauge reads low when pressure
drops below specified value (10psi or .7kg/sqcm)
Correct oil pressure is 40-60 psi
Common causes of low oil pressure are:
Low oil level
Worn out pump

Oil Filter
Keeps impurities out of the engine.

Spin-on oil filter with O-ring seal.

Centre outlet tube.
Input feed holes.

Paper elements trap impurities.

Oil Filter Housing

Bolts to cylinder
Oil pressure switch.
Oil cooler adapter.

Fed by oil cooler hoses.

Oil filter.
Heat shield.

Pressure Relief Valve

Fitted between the pump and the filter
Used to prevent damage to the engine due to
too much oil pressure.

Oil Pressure sending unit

Electrically sends the signal to the Light or Gauge mounted
on the dash.

If the wires get short the light will come on or the gauge will
read high (Full Scale)


Every 5000/10000 Km
Ignoring regular oil change intervals will shorten
engine life and performance.

Oil Contamination
Blow-by gases add raw petrol and water to the oil
causing deterioration.
Excessive heat can cause thermal breakdown.
Excessive cranking can dilute oil with petrol.
Cooling gasket leaks will ruin oil causing sludge.
Short distance driving. (which is most trips)
Extensive idling.
Cold weather operation.
Trailer towing.
Excessive heavy loads
Dirty and dusty conditions.