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TEN100: Technology Engineering Test #1

Study Guide
Patent: A document issued by the government that gives an
inventor the sole right to make, distribute, or sell a particular
invention for a certain number of years. A patent protects work

How Putt-Putt Boat Works


Candle heats up water

Water flashes to steam
Water is pushed out straws
Water exiting pushes the boat forward
The exiting water creates a vacuum and pulls fresh water in
The cycle repeats because directional

A putt-putt boat moves in a forward direction because the exiting

water has greater directional force than the incoming water which
enters from all directions.

Combustible Fuels
Gasoline: refined petroleum used as fuel for internal combustion
engines. Gasoline engines rely on a spark plug to ignite the fuel
used to drive the pistons.
Diesel: an internal combustion engine in which heat produced by
the compression of air (no spark plug) in the cylinder is used
to ignite the fuel.
Bio-diesel: a vegetable or animal fat-based diesel alternative
that cuts emissions of carbon monoxide and smog-producing

particulate matter almost in half, and reduces hydrocarbon

emissions by between 75 and 90 percent. Perhaps most
significantly, using B100 reduces the emissions of carbon dioxide
the main greenhouse gas causing global warmingby more
than 75 percent.

Internal Combustion Engine

Internal Combustion: an engine that generates motive power by the
burning of gasoline, oil, or other fuel with air inside the engine, the hot gases
produced being used to drive a piston or do other work as they expand.


Intake Stroke: Piston Direction DOWN, Intake Valve OPEN, Exhaust

Compression Stroke: Piston Direction UP, Intake Valve CLOSED,
Exhaust Valve CLOSED
Ignition/Power Stroke: Piston Direction DOWN, Intake Valve CLOSED,
Exhaust Valve CLOSED
Exhaust Stroke: Piston Direction UP, Intake Valve CLOSED, Exhaust
Valve OPEN

The engine cycle begins with the intake stroke as the piston is pulled
towards the crankshaft (to the left in the figure). The intake valve is open,
and fuel and air are drawn past the valve and into the combustion chamber
and cylinder from the intake manifold located on top of the combustion

Geothermals, Pneumatics & Hydraulics

Geothermal energy: thermal energy generated and stored in
the Earth. Thermal energy is the energy that determines the
temperature of matter.

Pneumatic System
- A pneumatic system uses air or another inert gas for operation.
- When the volume of a cylinder filled with air is compressed, the
increase in pressure equals a rise in heat.

Hydraulic System
- A hydraulic system uses fluid for operation.
- When the volume of a cylinder filled with oil is extremely difficult
to compress. It is so hard to compress that the hydraulic brake
systems used in most cars operate on the principle that there is
essentially no change in the volume of the brake fluid when
pressure is applied to this liquid.
Pressure = Force/Area

Aeronautical Wing Pressure

Bernoullis Principle: states that pressure decreases when air

moves faster. Air moves faster over the top of a wing, which
results in an area of lower pressure. Meanwhile, the bottom of the
wing experiences higher pressure.

Chemical & Nuclear Reactions

Chemical reaction: a process that involves rearrangement of
the molecular or ionic structure of a substance, as opposed to a
change in physical form or a nuclear reaction.
Nuclear reaction: a change in the identity or characteristics of
an atomic nucleus that results when it is bombarded with an
energetic particle, as in fission, fusion, or radioactive decay.
- Oneofthemaindifferencesbetweennuclearreactionandchemicalreactionis