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Alex T.

Zhao
Greg Kerr
IB Chemistry HL
October 10, 2012
Aim: To observe several important types of chemical reactions and
to write equations for these reactions.
Material:
Balance
Spatula
Bunsen
Metal tongs
Wax taper
Dropper
Beaker (100mL)
Test tubes (one large
fitted with rubber
stopper and plastic gas
delivery tubing, two
small)
Steel wool
Zinc strips (two)
Copper strip (one)

IB Chemistry HL Lab 3

Copper(II) carbonate
[CuCO3] (2g)
Magnesium ribbon (two
3cm strips)
Siler nitrate solution
[AgNO3] 0.1 M (30mL)
Sodium bromide solution
[NaBr] 0.1 M (5mL)
Copper(II) sulfate
solution [CuSO4] 0.1 M
(30mL)
Sodium hydroxide
solution [NaOH] 2 M
(5mL), 0.1M (30mL)
Hydrochloric acid [HCl] 2
M (10mL), 0.1 M (30mL)

October 10, 2012

Reaction of a carbonate with an acid


Method: Place a spatula of calcium carbonate (marble
chips) in a large test tube, add 2 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid to
a depth of about 2-3 cm, and fit the test tube with the stopper
and delivery tube as before. Note the effect of any gas
evolved on a limewater solution.
Observations:
Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3): Solid, in the form of
chips, whitish with greyish marks, odorless, opaque.
Hydrochloric Acid (HCl): liquid, clear, transparent,
odorless, colorless, homogeneous.
Lime Water: liquid, clear, transparent, odorless,
colorless, homogeneous.
Reaction:
Abundant gas immediately forms
Bubbles violently-becomes some sort of a form
Lime water test: Gas creates a milky white precipitate
in lime water.

Equation:
CaCO3(s)+2HCl(aq)CO2(g)+H2O(l)+CaCl2(aq)

1 mol Calcium Carbonate and 2 mol of Hydrochloric acid

yields 1 mol of Carbon dioxide, 1 mol of water, and 1


mol of Calcium Chloride.

Oxidation of a metal
Method: Hold a 3cm strip of magnesium ribbon in some
tongs and heat in a Bunsen flame above a mat.
Observations:
Magnesium (Mg): Solid, opaque, shiny, silver,
malleable, ductile, with traces of oxidation (thus less shiny)
Reaction:
For the first 2 seconds, nothing happens. Then a
blinding, intense white light is produced.

Equation:
2Mg(s)+O2(g)2MgO(s)
2 mols of Magnesium and 1 mol of Oxygen gas yield 2
mols of Magnesium Oxide.

Reaction of a reactive metal with a dilute acid


Method: Place another 3 cm strip of magnesium in a
small test tube and add 2 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid to a
depth of about 3 cm. Note the reaction and collect nay gas
evolved by inverting another small test tube and holding it

directly above the reaction tube. Test the gas evolved by


placing a lighted taper in the inverted test tube.
Observations:
Magnesium: shiny, malleable, solid, opaque,
silvery.
Reaction:
Gas was immediately produced
Odor produced
Temperature increase
Magnesium Disappears
Equation:
Mg(s)+2HCl(aq)H2 (g)+MgCl2(aq)
1 mol of Magnesium and 2 mols of Hydrochloric acid
yield 1 mol of hydrogen gas and 1 mol of Magnesium
Chloride.
Precipitation Reactions:
Part A
Method: Place 2-3mL of 0.1 M AgNO3 solution into a
test tube and add about the same volume of 0.1 M NaBr
solution.
Observations:

AgNO3: clear, transparent, odorless,


homogeneous, liquid, colorless-although with a tiny tinge of
grey.

NaBr: Clear, transparent, odorless, homogeneous,


liquid, colorless

Reaction:
Milky white/yellow precipitate formed
Equation:
AgNO3(aq)+NaBr(aq)NaNO3(aq)+AgBr(s)
1 mol of Silver Nitrate and 1 mol of Sodium Bromide
yield 1 mol of Sodium Nitrate and 1 mol of Silver
Bromide.

Part B
Method: Place 2-3 mL of 0.1 M CuSO4 solution into a
test tube and add about the same volume of 2 M NaOH
solution.
Observations:

CuSO4: Greenish light Blue, transparent, clear,


odorless, uniform, liquid.
NaOH: Clear, transparent, odorless, colorless,
liquid

Reaction:
Color change,
darker blue precipitate formed
Equation:
CuSO4(aq)+2NaOH(aq)Cu(OH)2(s) + Na2SO4(aq)
1 mol of Copper (II) Sulfate and 2 mol of Sodium
Hydroxide yield 1 mol of Cupper (II) Hydroxide and 1
mol of sodium Sulfate.

Metal displacement reactions

Part #8:
Method: Place about 25 mL of 0.1 mol dm-3 CuSO4
solution into a 100 mL beaker and place into the beaker a freshly
cleaned zinc strip.
Observations:

Zinc: shiny, solid, greyish silver, malleable,


opaque,

CuSO4: As above CuSO4 descriptions

Reaction: Slow reaction. Surface of zinc turns


black

After Reaction: solid + liquid


Solid: Black, clumped powder, tints of copper-ish
red. Looks like iron rust.
Liquid: Clear, transparent, odorless, colorless,
uniform
Equation:
Zn(s)+CuSO4(aq)Cu(s)+ZnSO4(aq)
1 mol of Zinc and 1 mol of Copper (II) sulfate yield 1
mol of Copper and 1 mol of Zinc Sulfate.

Part #9
Method: Place about 25 mL of 0.1 mol dm-3 Pb(NO3)2
solution into a 100 mL beaker and place into the beaker a freshly
cleaned zinc strip.
Observations:

Zinc: Shiny, malleable, silver colored, opaque,


ductile

Pb(NO3)2: clear, transparent, liquid, colorless,


odorless, liquid

Reaction:
Zinc turns greyish black. Faster reaction than 8.
Texture looks spongy.
There are shiny specks within the greyish black.

After Reaction: Solid + liquid

Solid: greyish black with whitish grey particles


(ball like, grainy) on top. Tint of blue grey.
Liquid: Clear, transparent, odorless, colorless,
uniform

Equation:
Zn(s)+Pb(NO3)2(aq)Zn(NO3)2(aq)+Pb(s)
1 mol of Zinc and 1 mol of Lead (II) Nitrate yield 1 mol
of Zinc Nitrate and 1 mol of Lead.

Part #10
Method: Place about 25 mL of 0.1 mol dm-3 Ag(NO3)
solution into a 100 mL beaker and place into the beaker a freshly
cleaned copper strip.
Observations:

Copper: Shiny, brownish yellow, opaque,


malleable, ductile, solid.

Ag(NO3): Clear, odorless, transparent, liquid,


colorless, stains hand (brownish yellow) if come in contact.

Reaction: Grey streaks immediately appear. Dull


greyish black. After a while Whitish boundary appears,
becomes brighter, with dots of yellow and white amidst the
grey. Grey is then replaced by dull yellow

After Reaction: Solid + liquid


Solid: Greyish (yellowish/brownish) strand solids,
looks mushy, with strands of shiny silvery solids
within
Liquid: Clear, odorless, aqua/blue, transparent,
Equation:
Cu(s)+2AgNO3 (aq)Cu(NO3)2 (aq)+2Ag(s)
1 mol of Copper and 1 mol of Silver Nitrate yield 1 mol
of Copper Nitrate and 1 mol of silver.

Neutralization reaction-reaction of an acid and a base

Method: Place about 20 mL of 0.1 mol/dm3 HCl into a


beaker and add 5 drops of universal indicator. Using a dropper
gradually add 0.1 mol/dm3 NaOH solution until about 25 mL of
the base has been added. Note any color changes which take
place.

Observations:

HCl: Same as previous

NaOH: Same as previous

Universal indicator: Greenish, opaque liquid.

Reaction:

When the universal indicator is added, solution turns


bright pink
Nothing happens for the first few mL of NaOH added
Solution begins to darken. First to lavender, then a
deeper purple.
Solution is still clear, transparent
During the reaction, a small amount of heat is
produced
Equation:
HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq)H2O(l)+NaCl (aq)
1 mol of hydrochloric acid and 1 mol of Sodium
Hydroxide yield 1 mol of water and 1 mol of Sodium
Chloride.

1.
2.

Processing of results, and questions


See each individual Experiment
Write Word equations for reactions:
MgCO3 (s) MgO (s) + CO2 (g)
a.
H2SO4 (aq) + CuCO3 (aq) CuSO4 (aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)
b.
2Fe(s) + 3O2(g) Fe2O3
c.
H2SO4 (aq) + Ca (s) CaSO4 (aq) + H2 (g)
d.
Ba(NO3)2(aq) + Na2SO4(aq) BaSO4(s) + 2NaNO3(aq)
e.
Pb(s) + CuSO4 (aq) PbSO4 (aq) + Cu(s)
f.
H2SO4 (aq) + 2KOH(aq) K2SO4 (aq) + 2H2O(l)
g.