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SOME SALIENT ASPECTS OF ME354 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS LABORATORY

30 December 1997 (Version 1c) compiled by Michael G. Jenkins, University of Washington

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NOTE: These notes represent selected highlights of ME354 and are not intended to replace conscientious study, attendance of lecture, reading of the textbook, completion of homework assignments, and performance of laboratory work. These notes are corrected, modified, and upgraded periodically with date and latest version number appearing in the header.

Mechanics of Materials - a branch of mechanics that develops relationships between the external loads applied to a deformable body and the intensity of internal forces acting within the body as well as the deformations of the body External Forces - classified as two types: 1) surface forces produced by a) direct contact between two bodies such as concentrated forces or distributed forces and/or b) body forces which occur when no physical contact exists between two bodies (e.g., magnetic forces, gravitational forces, etc.). Internal Forces - non external forces acting in a body to resist external loadings Support Reactions - surface forces that develop at the support or points of support between two bodies. Support reactions may include normal forces and couple moments. Equations of Equilibrium - mathematical expression of vector relations showing that

for a body not to translate or move along a path then

rotate. Alternatively, scalar equations in 3-D space (i.e., x, y, z) are:

Â

F =0

.

Â M =0 for a body not to

Â

Â

F x =0

M x =0

Â

Â

F

M

y =0

y =0

Â

Â

F z =0

M z =0

Some nomenclature used in these notes

Roman characters a - crack length; A- area; A f - final area; A o - original area; c - distance from

neutral axis to farthest point from neutral axis or Griffith flaw size; C - center of Mohr's circle; E- elastic modulus (a.k.a., Young's modulus); F - force or stress intensity factor coefficient; FS - factor of safety; G - shear modulus (a.k.a. modulus of rigidity); I - moment of inertia;

J - polar moment of inertia; K - strength coefficient for strain hardening; K - stress intensity

factor, k - bulk modulus; L - length; L f - final length; L o - original length; M or M(x) - bending moment; m - metre (SI unit of length) or Marin factor for fatigue; N - Newton (SI unit of force) or fatigue cycles; N f - cycles to fatigue failure; n - strain hardening exponent or stress

exponent; P - applied load; P cr - critical buckling load; P SD - Sherby-Dorn parameter;

P LM - Larson-Miller parameter; p - pressure; Q - first moment of a partial area about the

neutral axis or activation energy; R - radius of Mohr's circle or radius of shaft/torsion

specimen or stress ratio; S f - fracture strength; S uts or S u - ultimate tensile strength;

r - radius of a cylinder or sphere; S y - offset yield strength; T - torque or temperature;

T mp - melting temperature; t - thickness of cross section or time; t f - time to failure; U - stored energy; U r - modulus of resilience; U t - modulus of toughness; V or V(x) - shear force; v or v(x) - displacement in the "y" direction; w(x) - distributed load; x or X - coordinate direction or axis; y or Y - coordinate direction or axis; z or Z - coordinate direction or axis; Greek characters

D - change or increment; e - normal strain or tensoral strain component;

e o - normal strain at s o ; f - angle or angle of twist; g - engineering shear strain;

 n - Poisson's ratio; w - angular velocity; r - variable for radius or radius of curvature; s - normal stress; s 1 , s 2 , s 3 - greatest, intermediate, and least principal normal stresses;

s '- effective stress; s o - proportional limit, elastic limit, or yield stress; t - shear stress; t max - maximum shear stress; t o - yield shear strength; q - angle; q p - principal normal stress angle; q s - maximum shear stress angle

SOME SALIENT ASPECTS OF ME354 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS LABORATORY

30 December 1997 (Version 1c) compiled by Michael G. Jenkins, University of Washington

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Stress

Stress: i) the ratio of incremental force to incremental area on which the force acts such

that: lim

D AÆ 0

D

F

D

A .

ii) the intensity of the internal force on a specific plane (area) passing through

a point.

Normal Stress: the intensity of the internal force acting normal to an incremental area

such that: s

= lim

D F n

D A Note: +s =tensile stress = "pulling" stress

D AÆ 0

and

-s =compressive stress = "pushing" stress

Shear Stress: the intensity of the internal force acting tangent to an incremental area

General State of

such that: t = lim

D AÆ 0

D F t

D

A

Stress: all the internal stresses acting on an incremental element y
s
y
t
yx
t
t
yz
xy
s
x
t
zy
t
t
xz
x
zx
s
z z

Note: A +s acts normal to a positive face in the positive coordinate direction and a +t acts tangent to a positive face in a positive coordinate direction Note: Moment equilibrium shows that t xy =t yx ;t xz =t zx ;t yz =t zy

Complete State of Stress: Six independent stress components (3 normal stresses, s x ;s y ;s z and

3 shear stresses, t xy ;t yz ;t xz

describe the stress state for each particular orientation

) which uniquely

Units of Stress: In general: Force Area

F

L 2 ,

=

In SI units, Pa = N 2 or MPa =10 6 N

m

N

m 2 = mm 2

In US Customary units, psi = lb f 2 or ksi =10 3 lb f

in 2

in

= kip

in 2

SOME SALIENT ASPECTS OF ME354 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS LABORATORY

30 December 1997 (Version 1c) compiled by Michael G. Jenkins, University of Washington

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Stress Transformation

For the plane stress condition (e.g., stress state at a surface where no load is supported on the surface), stresses exist only in the plane of the surface (e.g., s x ;s y ;t xy )

The plane stress state at a point is uniquely represented by three components acting on a element that has a specific orientation (e.g., x, y) at the point. The stress transformation relation for any other orientation (e.g., x', y') is found by applying equilibrium equations

(

Â

F =0 and

Â M =0 ) keeping in mind that F n =s A and F t =tA

Rotated coordinate axes and areas for x and y directions  y
x'
txyD Ax
q
s x'
D A
s x D Ax
y'
q
q
tx'y' D A
q
Rotated coordinate
axes and components of
txy D Ay
q
X stress/forces for
original coordinate axes
s y D Ay
q

Â

F x ' =0 gives

s x ' =s x cos 2 q +s y sin 2 q +2t xy cos q sin q

or s x ' = s x +s y

2

+ s x - s y

2

cos2q + t xy sin 2q

Â

F y ' =0 gives

t x 'y ' =(s x - s y )cos q sin q + t xy (cos 2 q + sin 2 q ) ort x 'y' =- s x - s y sin2q + t xy cos2q

Similarly, for a cut in the y' direction,

s y ' =s x sin 2 q +s y cos 2 q - 2t xy cos q

2

s x -

sin q or s y ' = s x +s y

2

-

s y

2

cos2q - t xy sin 2q

SOME SALIENT ASPECTS OF ME354 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS LABORATORY

30 December 1997 (Version 1c) compiled by Michael G. Jenkins, University of Washington

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Principal Normal Stress - maximum or minimum normal stresses acting in principal directions on principal planes on which no shear stresses act. Note that s 1 >s 2 >s 3 ±
2
Ê s x -
Á Ë
2

s y

ˆ

˜

¯

2

2

+t xy

For the plane stress case s 1,2 = s x +s y

and tan 2 q p =

and t max = Ê s x -
Á Ë
2

s y

ˆ

˜

¯

2

+t xy , s ave = s x +s y

2

2

and tan 2q s =

-

(

)

s

x

- s

y

2t xy

2t xy

s x -

s y

Mohr's Circles for Stress States - graphical representation of stress

Examples of Mohr's circles t
max for x-y plane
s
s
2
s
1
t

Mohr's circle for stresses in x-y plane

s s
-
s
t
1
3
max =
2
s
3
s 2
s
1
t

Mohr's circle for stresses in x-y-z planes

SOME SALIENT ASPECTS OF ME354 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS LABORATORY

30 December 1997 (Version 1c) compiled by Michael G. Jenkins, University of Washington

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Graphical Description of State of Stress

2-D Mohr's Circle Y
s
y
t xy
s
x
X

Fig. 1- Positive stresses acting on a physical element. +s
y

y-face +t
xy
+s x

Fig. 2 - Directionality of shear acting on x and y faces. +s
,-t
y
f =2q
s
t
+s ,+t
x
s
s
x +
y
C=
2
s
2
2
R
= (
x - C)
+
t
)

2

tan

f

-t

= -

s

(

x - C)

Fig. 3 - Plotting stress values on Mohr's circle.

In this example all stresses acting in axial directions are positive as shown in Fig. 1.

As shown in Figs. 2 and 3, plotting actual sign of the shear stress with x normal stress requires plotting of the opposite sign of the shear stress with the y normal stress on the Mohr's circle.

In this example s x > s y and t xy is positive. By the convention of Figs. 2 and 3, f = 2q on the Mohr's circle is negative from the +s axis. (Mathematical convention is that

positive angle is counterclockwise).

Note that by the simple geometry of Fig. 3, f = 2q appears to be negative while

by the formula, tan 2q = 2t xy /(s x -s y ), the physical angle, q, is actually positive.

In-plane principal stresses are: s 1 = C+R s 2 = C - R

Maximum in-plane shear stress is:

t max = R =(s 1 -s 2 )/2

SOME SALIENT ASPECTS OF ME354 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS LABORATORY

30 December 1997 (Version 1c) compiled by Michael G. Jenkins, University of Washington

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Y s
2
s
1
Direction
of +q
q
X

Fig. 4 - Orientation of physical element with only principal stresses acting on it.

The direction of physical angle, q, is from

the x-y axes to the principal axes. Principal
Note that the sense (direction) of the
physical angle, q, is the same as on the
Mohr's circle from the line of the x-y stresses
to the axes of the principal stresses.
Axis
Direction of
q
Line of X-Y
Stresses
Fig. 5 - Direction of q from the line of x-y
stresses to the principal stress
axis.

Same relations apply for Mohr's circle for

s

¤ e and t ¤ g

2

strain except interchange variables as

SOME SALIENT ASPECTS OF ME354 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS LABORATORY

30 Decmber 1997 (Version c) compiled by Michael G. Jenkins, University of Washington

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Strain

Strain: normalized deformations within a body exclusive of rigid body displacements

Normal Strain: elongation or contraction of a line segment per unit length such that

e =

B Æ

lim

A along n

 A' B'- AB L f - L o L o AB

and a volume change results.

Note: +e =tensile strain = elongation

and

-e =compressive strain = contraction

Shear Strain: the angle change between two line segments such that

g

=(q = 2 ) - q 'ª h D (for small angles ) and a shape change results.

p

Note: +g occurs if p 2 >q '

and

-g occurs if

p 2 <q '

General State of

Strain: all the internal strains acting on an incremental element e
y
e yx
e
e xy
x
A
Engineering shear strain,
g = e
+
e
xy
xy
yx

Complete State of Strain: Six independent strain components (3 normal strains, e x ;e y ;e z and 3 engineering shear strains, g xy ;g yz ;g xz ) which uniquely describe the strain state for each particular orientation

Units of Strain: In general:

Length

Length = L

L ,

In SI units, m m

In US Customary units, in

and m

for e

m or

in for

 e and in or radian for g in

SOME SALIENT ASPECTS OF ME354 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS LABORATORY

30 Decmber 1997 (Version c) compiled by Michael G. Jenkins, University of Washington

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Strain Transformation

For the plane strain condition (e.g., strain at a surface where no deformation occurs normal to the surface), strains exist only in the plane of the surface (e x ;e y ;g xy )

The plane strain state at a point is uniquely represented by three components acting on a element that has a specific orientation (e.g., x, y) at the point. The strain transformation relation for any other orientation (e.g., x', y') is found by summing displacements in the appropriate directions keeping in mind that d
=e L o and D
y
x'
D =
dyg
Q*
}
=
dy
Q d
y
y
y'
dy ds
q
= e
dx
d x
x
dx
x
}
}

=g h

Rotated coordinate axes and displacements for x and y directions

Â y
x'
d
= e
dx
{
ds
x'
x'
cos q
=
q
ds
Q*
dy
D
= g
dy
sin q
=
ds
q
d
=
e
dy
Q
y
y
q
d
=
dx
e
x
x
x
gives

displacements in x 'direction for Q to Q *

Displacements in the x' direction for strains/ displacements in the x and y directions

e x ' =e x cos 2 q +e y sin 2 q +g xy cos q sin q

Â

rotation of dx ' and dy'

gives

or e x ' = e x +e y

2

+ e x - e y

cos2q + g xy sin2q

2 2

g x 'y '

2

=(e x - e y )cos q sin q + g xy (cos 2 q + sin 2 q ) or g x 'y '

Â

2

displacements in y 'direction for Q to Q *

2

=- e x - e y

2

gives

Similarly,

sin 2q

+ g xy cos2q

2

e y ' =e x sin 2 q +e y cos 2 q -

g xy cos q sin q

or e y ' = e x +e y

2

-

e x - e y

cos2q - g xy sin2q

2 2

SOME SALIENT ASPECTS OF ME354 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS LABORATORY

30 Decmber 1997 (Version c) compiled by Michael G. Jenkins, University of Washington

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Principal Normal Strain - maximum or minimum normal strains acting in principal directions on principal planes on which no shear strains act. Note that e 1 >e 2 >e 3 Ê
± Á
2
Ë
2

e x - e y ˆ

˜

¯

2

Ê g xy

Ë 2

+ Á

ˆ ˜ 2 and tan 2q p =
¯

For the plane strain case e 1,2 = e x +e y Ê e x - e y
=
2
Ë 2

ˆ

¯

2

+

Ê

Á

Ë

g

xy

2

ˆ

˜

t xy

¯

2

and g max

,

e ave = e x +e y

2

(

e x - e

y

)

and tan2q s = -

g

xy

g xy

e x - e y

Mohr's Circles for Strain States - graphical representation of strain

Examples of Mohr's circles g
for x-y plane
max /2
e
e
2
e
1
g/2

Mohr's circle for strains in x-y plane

Strain Gage Rosettes

e g
e
-
e
max =
1
3
e
3
e 2
e
1
g/2

Mohr's circle for strains in x-y-z planes

Rosette orientations and equations relating x-y coordinate strains to the respective strain gages of the rosette y
60°
c b
c
b
60°
45°
a
a
x
x
45° Rectangular
60° Delta
e
e
x =e a
x =e a
1
e
e
y = 3 (2e b +2e c - e a )
y =e c
g
xy =2e b - (e a +e c )
g
xy = 2 3 (e b - e c )

SOME SALIENT ASPECTS OF ME354 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS LABORATORY

30 Decmber 1997 (Version c) compiled by Michael G. Jenkins, University of Washington

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Continuum Mechanics and Constitutive Relations

Equations which relate stress and strain (a.k.a., Generalized Hooke's Law)

{s } =[C]{e}

s x =

s y =

E

(1+ n ) e x

E

(1+ n ) e y

n E

+ (1+ n )(1- 2 n ) (e nE + (1+ n )(1- 2 n ) (e x

x +e y +e z )

+e y +e z )

s

z =

E

nE

(1+ n ) e z + (1+ n )(1- 2n ) (e x +e y +e z )

t

xy =Gg xy

t yz =Gg yz

t

xz =Gg xz

[

C ] = S ] - 1 and

[

[

S ] = C

[

] - 1

 Elastic relation (1-D Hooke's Law) s =Ee Plastic relation (Strain -Hardening) s =Ke n Stress - strain relations
for plane stress (x - y plane)
E
s
(
e
x )
+ ne
y
(
y )
(1-
n 2 )
s
z =t xz =t yz =0
t
=Gg xy
xy

x =

(1-

n 2 ) E

s

y =

e

+ ne

x

{e} =[S]{s }

e x = 1

E

e y = 1

E

e z = 1

E

[

[

[

g xy

g yz

1

= G

1

= G

s

s

s

x

y

z

t xy

t yz

- n (s

-

-

n (s

n (s

y

x

x

+s

+s

+s

z

z

y

)

)

)

]

]

]

g

xz

=

1

G t

xz

Poisson's ratio, n = - e transverse

e

longitudinal

Plane strain

+e y )

: e z =0, s z 0 =n (s x +s y )

Plane stress

:

s z

=0, e z

0 = - n n (e x

1-

Elastic Modulus, E= D s De

Poisson's ratio, n = -

e lateral

e longitudinal

Shear Modulus, G= D t

Dg

E

2(1+n )

=

Bulk Modulus, k =

 ( s x +s y +s x ) E ( 3 e x +e y +e x ) = 3(1- 2n )

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30 Decmber 1997 (Version c) compiled by Michael G. Jenkins, University of Washington

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PLASTIC DEFORMATION Non recoverable deformation beyond the point of yielding where Hooke's law (proportionality of stress and strain) no longer applies. Flow curve is the true stress vs. true strain curve describing the plastic deformation.

Simple Power Law Strain
Hardening
s o
E
e
e
p
e
 Elastic: s =Ee (s £ s o ) Plastic: s =He n (s s o )

Strain

Approximate flow curves  E

s o

e T

Elastic-Perfectly Plastic Power

Linear  s o E

s o

e T

Rigid-Perfectly Plastic

e T

Elastic-Linear Hardening Elastic-Power Hardening

Ramberg-Osgood Relationship

1 s
Ê s
ˆ
n
Total strain is sum of elastic and plastic e =e e +e p = E +e p
s =H e p
n ﬁ
e = s
E +
Ë H
¯
Deformation Plasticity
2
=
(s 1 - s 2 ) 2 +(s 2 - s 3 ) 2 +(s 3 - s 1 ) 2 and e eff =
(e 1 -
e 2 ) 2 +(e 2 - e 3 ) 2 +(e 3 - e 1 ) 2
s eff
1 2
3

Effective stress-effective strain curve is independent of the state of stress and is used to estimate the stress-strain curves for other states of stress.

SOME SALIENT ASPECTS OF ME354 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS LABORATORY

30 Decmber 1997 (Version c) compiled by Michael G. Jenkins, University of Washington

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Failure Theories

Two types: Fracture and Yield Criteria. Generally used to predict the safe limits of a material/component under combined stresses.

Factor of Safety, FS = Material Strength

Component

Stress , Failure occurs if FS<1

Maximum Normal Stress Criterion Fracture criterion generally used to predict failure of brittle materials.

FS =

S UTS

MAX(

s 1

,

s 2

,

s 3

)

Maximum Shear Stress (Tresca) Criterion Yield criterion generally used to predict failure in materials which yield in shear (i.e. ductile materials)

FS =

(t o = S y / 2 =s 0 / 2) Ê
-
s 2 -
s 1
s 2
s 3
MAX
Á Ë
,
2
2 -
ˆ
s 1
s 3
,
˜
2
¯ Von Mises (Distortional Energy)
or Octahedral Shear Stress Criterion
Yield criterion generally used to predict failure in materials. which yield in shear (i.e. ductile
materials)
(s o =S y )
FS =
s
'
s
'=
(s 1 - s 2 ) 2 +(s 2 - s 3 ) 2 +(s 3 - s 1 ) 2
1 2
2
2
2
s
'=
(s x - s y ) 2 +(s y - s z ) 2 +(s z - s x ) 2 + 6(t xy
)
+t yx +t zx
1 2

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Mechanical Testing

The results of materials tests (e.g. tensile, compressive, torsional shear, hardness, impact energy, etc.) are used for a variety of purposes including to obtain values of material properties for use in engineering design and for use in quality control to ensure materials meet established requirements

Tensile Testing s
s
1 =P/Ao
s 1
Ao
e =(Li-Lo)/Lo
t
s
=
s
= 0
P
2
3
Lo
Mohr's Circle for Uniaxial
Tension

Elastic Modulus : E = ds

de Yielding : Proportional limit, s p ; elastic limit; offset yield (S ys at 0.2% strain) where s o is used to generally designate the stress at yielding.

Ductility : % elongation = L f - L o x 100 =e f x100 or %RA = A o - A f x 100

of the linear part of the stress-strain curve.

L

o

A o

Necking is geometric instability at S UTS and e U

Strain hardening ratio = S UTS s o

where 1.4 is high and £ 1.2 is low.

Energy absorption (energy/volume):

Modulus of Resilience

= measure of the ability to store elastic energy

= area under the linear portion of the stress-strain curve

|

|

|

|

|

U R =

e o

Ú s de

o

ª s o e o

ª

2

s o

2 2E

|

Modulus of Toughness = measure of the ability to absorb energy without fracture = area under the entire stress-strain curve e f
ª (S UTS +s o )e f
U T =
Ú s de
("flat" s - e curves)
o 2
e f
ª 2S UTS e f
or
Ú s de
(parabolic s - e curves)
o 3

Strain-hardening: s T =K (e T ) n =H(e T ) n H=K=strength coefficient and n = strain hardening exponent (0£ n£ 1)

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Representative stress-strain curves for tensile tests of brittle and ductile materials Su
Su=Sy=Sf
Sf
X
X
E
Sy
E
Ut
Ut=Ur
Ur
Ur
Strain
Brittlle Material
Strain
Ductile Material

Table: Stress-strain definitions for tensile testing

 PARAMETER FUNDAMENTAL PRIOR TO AFTER DEFINITION NECKING NECKING Engineering Stress s E = P i s E = P i s E = P i (s E ) A o A o A o True Stress (s T ) s T = P i s T = P i s T = P i A i A i A neck s T =s E (1+ e E ) Engineering Strain e E = D L = L i -L o e E = D L = L i -L o e E = D L = L i -L o (e E ) L o L o L o L o L o L o True Strain (e T ) e T =ln L i e T =ln L i e T =ln A o L o L o A neck e T =ln A o e T =ln A o A i A i e T =ln(1+ e E )

Note: Subscripts: i=instantaneous, o=original; Superscripts: E=engineering, T=true

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Hardness Testing Resistance of material to penetration Brinell
Steel or
tungsten
carbide
P=3000 kg
or 500 kg
D=10 mm
ball
t
P
2P
d
BHN =HB =
p Dt =
p D D -
[
(
2
2
D
- d
)
]
Vickers

Diamond

pyramid

P=1-120 kg   q=136°=Included

angle of faces d=L

VHN =HV = 2P sin q

L 2

2

Rockwell Requires Rockwell subscript to provide meaning to the Rockwell scale.

Examples of Rockwell Scales

 Rockwell Hardness Indentor Load (kg) A Diamond point 60 B 1.588 mm dia. ball 100 C Diamond point 150 D Diamond point 100 E 3.175 mm dia. ball 100 M 6.350 mm dia. ball 100 R 12.70 mm dia. ball 60

Notch-Impact Testing Resistance of material to sudden fracture in presence of notch mass, m
h1
h2

IMPACT ENERGY=mg(h1-h2) IZOD
CHARPY
V-NOTCH Ductile
Ductile/Brittle
Brittle
Transition

TEMPERATURE

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Torsion Testing

s 2 t
s
=-t
=t
s 1

Torsional Shear Stress

Torsional Shear Strain

t

= TR

J

J

J

4

= p D

for solid shaft

32

= p (D

4

outer

- D 4

)

inner

for tube

32

g = Rq

L

Shear Modulus : G = t

E

=

g 2(1+ n )

For linear elastic behaviour, plane sections remain plane, so g = Rq

L

Modulus of Rupture (maximum shear stress) : t u = T max R

J

For nonlinear behaviour, plane sections remain plane, so

beyond linear region .

g = Rq

L

but t TR

J

=

Ê

Á

2p R 3 Ë

1

(q /L)

and t = TR

J

dT

ˆ

d(q /L) +3T ¯

3T max

Modulus of Rupture (maximum shear stress) when dT/d(q /L) = 0 so t u ª

2p R 3 Table: Comparison of stresses and strains for tension and torsion tests

 Tension Test Torsion Test s 1 =s max ;s 3 =s 2 =0 s 1 =- s 3 ; s 2 =0 t max = s 1 2 = s max 2 t = 2s 1 max 2 =s max e max =e 1 ; e 2 =e 3 =- e 1 e max =e 1 =- e 3 ; e 2 =0 2 g = 3e 1 max 2 g max =e 1 - e 3 =2e 1 effective stress s eff = 1 2 (s 1 - s 2 ) 2 +(s 2 - s 3 ) 2 +(s 3 - s 1 ) 2 effective strain e eff = 2 3 (e 1 - e 2 ) 2 +(e 2 - e 3 ) 2 +(e 3 - e 1 ) 2 s =s 1 s = 3s 1 e =e 1 = 2 3 e 1 = g 3 e

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Compression Testing s
1 =P/Ao
Ao
e =(Li-Lo)/Lo
P
P
Lo t
s
s 1
s
=
s
= 0
2
3 s
e

No necking and maximum load may not occur since pancaking allows load to keep increasing. For many metals and polymers, the compressive stress and strain relations are similar to those in tension (including elastic constants, ductility, and yield). For other materials, such as ceramics, glasses, and composites (often at elevated temperatures), compression behavior may be quite different than tensile behavior.

In an ideal column (no eccentricity) the axial load, P, can be increased until failure occurs wither by fracture, yielding or buckling. Buckling is a geometric instablity related only to the elastic modulus (stiffness) of the material and not the strength.

P cr

= p 2 EI

(KL)

2

or

s cr =

p

2 E

(KL / r) 2

where (L/r) is the slenderness ratio and (KL/r) is the effective slenderness ratio

Sometimes, L e =KL is the effective length. SOME SALIENT ASPECTS OF ME354 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS LABORATORY

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Creep and Time Dependent Deformation

Time dependent deformation under constant load or stress at temperatures greater than 30 and 60% of the melting point (i.e. homologous temperatures, T/T mp >0.3-0.6) I
II
III
d e
d
e
dt
dt I
II
III

.

STRAIN

CREEP

 . STRAIN e min e =e

RATE,

.

e

TIME, t

TIME, t

e˙ min =As n exp( - Q / RT )

Stress exponent, n, from isothermal tests:

e˙ min =Bs n so that loge˙ min =logB + n log s or n = loge˙ min,1 - loge˙ min,2 log s 1 - logs 2

Activation energy, Q, from isostress tests:

e˙ min =C exp(- Q / RT ) so that

ln e˙ min =ln C + ( - Q

or Q = - R (ln e˙ min,1 - ln e˙ min,2 )

1

/ R ) (1/ T )

1

T 1

-

T 2

log

.

e min

ln

.

e min n log
s
(-Q/R) 1/T

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Long term predictions from short term results - valid only if the creep/creep rupture mechanism does not change over time. Rule-of-thumb: short-time test lives should be at least 10% of the required long-term design life. Creep rupture occurs by the coalescence of the diffusional damage (creep cavitation by inter or intragranular diffusion and oxidation) which is manifested during secondary (steady-state creep).

Stress-rupture

Empirical relation s =A t f Important where creep deformation is tolerated but rupture is to be avoided.

N

Stress

s N

Failure time, t f

Monkman-Grant

Empirical relation e˙ min t f =C or e˙ min =Ct m f where m = - 1 if the relation is applicable . Important where total creep deformation (i.e. e˙ min t f ) is of primary concern.

.

e min m

t

f

Sherby-Dorn

Assumes that Q f(s or T) and suggests that the creep strains for a given stress form a unique curve if plotted versus the temperature compensated time, q =t exp(- Q/RT) .

A common physical mechanism is assumed to define the time-temperature paramter such

that the Sherby-Dorn parameter P SD =logq =logt f

-

Ê log (e)

ˆ

Ë

R

¯

Ê

Q Ë

1

ˆ

T

¯

s P SD

Larson-Miller

Assumes that Q=f(s ) and suggests that the creep strains for a given stress form a unique curve if plotted versus the temperature compensated time, q f =t f exp(- Q/RT) .

A

that the Larson-Miller parameter P LM =

common physical mechanism is assumed to define the time-temperature parameter such Ê log (e)

ˆ

Ë R

¯

Q =T (logt f +C)

s P LM

SOME SALIENT ASPECTS OF ME354 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS LABORATORY

30 Decmber 1997 (Version c) compiled by Michael G. Jenkins, University of Washington

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Material Damping Energy dissipation during cyclic loading - internal friction which is material, frequency, temperature dependent. s
= Ú s d
e

D u=internal damping energy

e

s

e s
a
t
d e
a
t

Dynamic Modulus : E * = s a e a

Loss Coefficient : Q - 1 = tan d =

D u

2p U e

Phase Angle : f =d

Storage Modulus: s ' e a

Elastic Energy: U e = 2 s ' e a at e a maximum extension

=E * cos d

1

(where s ' =s

at e a )

Fracture

Fracture is the separation (or fragmentation) of a solid body into two or more parts under the action of stress (crack initiation and crack propagation) Presence of cracks may weaken the material such that fracture occurs at stresses much less than the yield or ultimate strengths. Fracture mechanics is the methodology used to aid in selecting materials and designing components to minimize the possibility of fracture from cracks.

ALLOWABLE

STRESS,

s High K Ic
Low K
Ic
CRACK LENGTH, a

ALLOWABLE

STRESS,

s s o
a t
= transition crack length
between yield and fracture

CRACK LENGTH, a

Cracks lower the material's tolerance (allowable stress) to fracture.

SOME SALIENT ASPECTS OF ME354 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS LABORATORY

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Griffith Theory of Brittle Fracture

A crack will propagate when the decrease in elastic strain energy is at least equal to the

energy required to create the new fracture surfaces 2c
W
 s For completely brittle material : Elastic strain energy with no crack t

, U e = p c 2 s 2 t

E

Energy required to produce crack surfaces

Energy balance

, U s =2(2cg s )t

, D U= U s - U e = 4cg s t- p c 2 s 2 t

E

s Us
D U
Ue , dD U
At critical crack length fracture will occur
=0 =4g s t- 2p cs 2 t
dc
E
Such that
s f =
E2g s for plane stress and t =1
p c
s f = E 2(g s +g p )
p c
Eg p
If plastic deformation occurs
ª
c

Strain Energy Release Rate s f = E 2g s
If
p c
release rate.

let =2g s then = s 2 p c
E

where

is the linear elastic strain energy The stress intensity factor, K, uniquely defines the stress state at a crack tip in a linear- elastic, isotropic material. y
r
q
x
a

s x =

s y = K
È
cos q
2p
r
2 Î
È
K r cos q
2p
2
Î

1-sin q 2 sin 3q

2

˘

˚ +

1+sin q 2 sin 3q

2

˘

˚ +

2p r cos q 2 sin 2 cos 3q

2

K

q

t xy =

s z =0 for plane stress or s

t yz =t zx =0 +

z =n (s x +s y )

SOME SALIENT ASPECTS OF ME354 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS LABORATORY

30 Decmber 1997 (Version c) compiled by Michael G. Jenkins, University of Washington

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/ 36 In general
K =Fs
p a =Ys p a =as p a

where F, Y, and a are geometry correction factors Subscripts on K refer to fracture mode :

K I =Mode I, opening mode

K II = Mode II, sliding mode K III =Mode III, tearing mode

Note: 2
= K
E'

where E' = E (plane stress)

and

E'= E/(1-n 2 ) (plane strain) MODE I

OPENING

MODE

MODE II SLIDING

MODE  MODE III

TEARING

MODE

Plane strain fracture toughness K Ic is the critical stress intensity factor in plane strain conditions at stress intensity factors below which brittle fracture will not occur. The plane strain fracture toughness, K Ic , is a material property and is independent of geometry (e.g. specimen thickness).

Fracture toughness in design Fracture occurs when

K Ic =K I =Fs p a

where F is the geometry correction factor for the particularcrack geometery. Designer can choose a material with required K Ic , OR design for the stress, s ,to prevent fracture , OR choose a critical crack length, a, which is detectable (or tolerable). Cyclic Fatigue

Fatigue is failure due to cyclic (dynamic) loading including time-dependent failure due to mechanical and/or thermal fatigue. Fatigue analysis may be stress-based, strain based, or fracture mechanics based. Stress-based analysis
s
max
s
Ds
s
t
a
s min

s

m

SOME SALIENT ASPECTS OF ME354 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS LABORATORY

30 Decmber 1997 (Version c) compiled by Michael G. Jenkins, University of Washington

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s

s

max =Maximum stress

min =Minimum stress

m =Mean stress = s max +s min

s

D s

2

=Stress range = s max - s min

s

a =Stress amplitude = Ds

2

=(s max - s m ) =(s m - s min )

Note: tension =+s and compression =- s . Completely reversed R=- 1, s m =0.

R =Stress ratio = s min

s max

A = Amplitude ratio = s a s m

= 1- R

1+R

S-N Curves Stress (S)-fatigue (N f ) life curve where gross stress, S, may be presented as

D s , s a , s max ,or s m . High cycle N f >10 5 (sometimes 10 2 -10 4 ) with gross stress elastic. Low cycle N f <10 2 -10 4 with gross elastic plus plastic strain. s

e

10

6

log N

f

10

Ferrous and Ti-based alloys

Non-ferrrous materials (e.g Al or Cu alloys) (

s e

S

8

= fatigue limit or endurance limit (s

e

6

@10 cycles) @ 10