SOME SALIENT ASPECTS OF ME354 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS LABORATORY
30 December 1997 (Version 1c) compiled by Michael G. Jenkins, University of Washington
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NOTE: These notes represent selected highlights of ME354 and are not intended to replace conscientious study, attendance of lecture, reading of the textbook, completion of homework assignments, and performance of laboratory work. These notes are corrected, modified, and upgraded periodically with date and latest version number appearing in the header.
Mechanics of Materials  a branch of mechanics that develops relationships between the external loads applied to a deformable body and the intensity of internal forces acting within the body as well as the deformations of the body External Forces  classified as two types: 1) surface forces produced by a) direct contact between two bodies such as concentrated forces or distributed forces and/or b) body forces which occur when no physical contact exists between two bodies (e.g., magnetic forces, gravitational forces, etc.). Internal Forces  non external forces acting in a body to resist external loadings Support Reactions  surface forces that develop at the support or points of support between two bodies. Support reactions may include normal forces and couple moments. Equations of Equilibrium  mathematical expression of vector relations showing that
for a body not to translate or move along a path then
rotate. Alternatively, scalar equations in 3D space (i.e., x, y, z) are:
Â
F =0
.
Â M =0 for a body not to
Â
Â
F _{x} =0
M _{x} =0
Â
Â
F
M
_{y} =0
_{y} =0
Â
Â
F _{z} =0
M _{z} =0
Some nomenclature used in these notes
Roman characters a  crack length; A area; A _{f}  final area; A _{o}  original area; c  distance from
neutral axis to farthest point from neutral axis or Griffith flaw size; C  center of Mohr's circle; E elastic modulus (a.k.a., Young's modulus); F  force or stress intensity factor coefficient; FS  factor of safety; G  shear modulus (a.k.a. modulus of rigidity); I  moment of inertia;
J  polar moment of inertia; K  strength coefficient for strain hardening; K  stress intensity
factor, k  bulk modulus; L  length; L _{f}  final length; L _{o}  original length; M or M(x)  bending moment; m  metre (SI unit of length) or Marin factor for fatigue; N  Newton (SI unit of force) or fatigue cycles; N _{f}  cycles to fatigue failure; n  strain hardening exponent or stress
exponent; P  applied load; P _{c}_{r}  critical buckling load; P _{S}_{D}  SherbyDorn parameter;
P _{L}_{M}  LarsonMiller parameter; p  pressure; Q  first moment of a partial area about the
neutral axis or activation energy; R  radius of Mohr's circle or radius of shaft/torsion
specimen or stress ratio; S _{f}  fracture strength; S _{u}_{t}_{s} or S _{u}  ultimate tensile strength;
r  radius of a cylinder or sphere; S _{y}  offset yield strength; T  torque or temperature;
T _{m}_{p}  melting temperature; t  thickness of cross section or time; t _{f}  time to failure; U  stored energy; U _{r}  modulus of resilience; U _{t}  modulus of toughness; V or V(x)  shear force; v or v(x)  displacement in the "y" direction; w(x)  distributed load; x or X  coordinate direction or axis; y or Y  coordinate direction or axis; z or Z  coordinate direction or axis; Greek characters
D  change or increment; e  normal strain or tensoral strain component;
e _{o}  normal strain at s _{o} ; f  angle or angle of twist; g  engineering shear strain;
n 
 Poisson's ratio; w 
 angular velocity; r  variable for radius or radius of curvature; 
s 
 normal stress; s _{1} , s _{2} , s _{3}  greatest, intermediate, and least principal normal stresses; 
s ' effective stress; s _{o}  proportional limit, elastic limit, or yield stress; t  shear stress; t _{m}_{a}_{x}  maximum shear stress; t _{o}  yield shear strength; q  angle; q _{p}  principal normal stress angle; q _{s}  maximum shear stress angle
SOME SALIENT ASPECTS OF ME354 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS LABORATORY
30 December 1997 (Version 1c) compiled by Michael G. Jenkins, University of Washington
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Stress
Stress: i) the ratio of incremental force to incremental area on which the force acts such
that: lim
D AÆ 0
D
F
D
A ^{.}
ii) the intensity of the internal force on a specific plane (area) passing through
a point.
Normal Stress: the intensity of the internal force acting normal to an incremental area
such that: s
= lim
D F _{n}
D A Note: +s =tensile stress = "pulling" stress
D AÆ 0
and
s =compressive stress = "pushing" stress
Shear Stress: the intensity of the internal force acting tangent to an incremental area
General State of
such that: t = lim
D AÆ 0
D F _{t}
D
A
Stress: all the internal stresses acting on an incremental element
Note: A +s acts normal to a positive face in the positive coordinate direction and a +t acts tangent to a positive face in a positive coordinate direction Note: Moment equilibrium shows that t _{x}_{y} =t _{y}_{x} ;t _{x}_{z} =t _{z}_{x} ;t _{y}_{z} =t _{z}_{y}
Complete State of Stress: Six independent stress components (3 normal stresses, s _{x} ;s _{y} ;s _{z} and
3 shear stresses, t _{x}_{y} ;t _{y}_{z} ;t _{x}_{z}
describe the stress state for each particular orientation
) which uniquely
Units of Stress: In general: ^{F}^{o}^{r}^{c}^{e} Area
F
L ^{2} ^{,}
^{=}
In SI units, Pa = ^{N} _{2} or MPa =10 ^{6} ^{N}
m
N
m ^{2} ^{=} mm ^{2}
In US Customary units, psi = ^{l}^{b} ^{f} _{2} or ksi =10 ^{3} ^{l}^{b} ^{f}
in ^{2}
in
_{=} kip
in ^{2}
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30 December 1997 (Version 1c) compiled by Michael G. Jenkins, University of Washington
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Stress Transformation
For the plane stress condition (e.g., stress state at a surface where no load is supported on the surface), stresses exist only in the plane of the surface (e.g., s _{x} ;s _{y} ;t _{x}_{y} )
The plane stress state at a point is uniquely represented by three components acting on a element that has a specific orientation (e.g., x, y) at the point. The stress transformation relation for any other orientation (e.g., x', y') is found by applying equilibrium equations
(
Â
F =0 and
Â M =0 ) keeping in mind that F _{n} =s A and F _{t} =tA
Rotated coordinate axes and areas for x and y directions
Â
F _{x} _{'} =0 gives
s _{x} _{'} =s _{x} cos ^{2} q +s _{y} sin ^{2} q +2t _{x}_{y} cos q sin q
or s _{x} _{'} = ^{s} ^{x} ^{+}^{s} ^{y}
2
_{+} s _{x}  s _{y}
2
cos2q + t _{x}_{y} sin 2q
Â
F _{y} _{'} =0 gives
t _{x} _{'}_{y} _{'} =(s _{x}  s _{y} )cos q sin q + t _{x}_{y} (cos ^{2} q + sin ^{2} q ) ort _{x} _{'}_{y}_{'} = ^{s} ^{x} ^{} ^{s} ^{y} sin2q + t _{x}_{y} cos2q
Similarly, for a cut in the y' direction,
s _{y} _{'} =s _{x} sin ^{2} q +s _{y} cos ^{2} q  2t _{x}_{y} cos q
2
s _{x} 
sin q or s _{y} _{'} = ^{s} ^{x} ^{+}^{s} ^{y}
2
_{}
s _{y}
2
cos2q  t _{x}_{y} sin 2q
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30 December 1997 (Version 1c) compiled by Michael G. Jenkins, University of Washington
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Principal Normal Stress  maximum or minimum normal stresses acting in principal directions on principal planes on which no shear stresses act. Note that s _{1} >s _{2} >s _{3}
s _{y}
ˆ
˜
¯
2
2
+t xy
For the plane stress case s _{1}_{,}_{2} = ^{s} ^{x} ^{+}^{s} ^{y}
and tan 2 q _{p} =
and t _{m}_{a}_{x} =
s _{y}
ˆ
˜
¯
2
+t xy , s ave = ^{s} ^{x} ^{+}^{s} ^{y}
2
2
and tan 2q _{s} =

(
)
s
x
 s
y
2t xy
^{2}^{t} ^{x}^{y}
s _{x} 
s _{y}
Mohr's Circles for Stress States  graphical representation of stress
Examples of Mohr's circles
Mohr's circle for stresses in xy plane
s
Mohr's circle for stresses in xyz planes
SOME SALIENT ASPECTS OF ME354 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS LABORATORY
30 December 1997 (Version 1c) compiled by Michael G. Jenkins, University of Washington
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Graphical Description of State of Stress
2D Mohr's Circle
Fig. 1 Positive stresses acting on a physical element.
yface
Fig. 2  Directionality of shear acting on x and y faces.
2
tan
f
t
= 
s
(
x  C)
Fig. 3  Plotting stress values on Mohr's circle.
In this example all stresses acting in axial directions are positive as shown in Fig. 1.
As shown in Figs. 2 and 3, plotting actual sign of the shear stress with x normal stress requires plotting of the opposite sign of the shear stress with the y normal stress on the Mohr's circle.
In this example s _{x} > s _{y} and t _{x}_{y} is positive. By the convention of Figs. 2 and 3, f = 2q on the Mohr's circle is negative from the +s axis. (Mathematical convention is that
positive angle is counterclockwise).
Note that by the simple geometry of Fig. 3, f = 2q appears to be negative while
by the formula, tan 2q = 2t _{x}_{y} /(s _{x} s _{y} ), the physical angle, q, is actually positive.
Inplane principal stresses are: s _{1} = C+R s _{2} = C  R
Maximum inplane shear stress is:
t _{m}_{a}_{x} = R =(s _{1} s _{2} )/2
SOME SALIENT ASPECTS OF ME354 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS LABORATORY
30 December 1997 (Version 1c) compiled by Michael G. Jenkins, University of Washington
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Y
Fig. 4  Orientation of physical element with only principal stresses acting on it.
The direction of physical angle, q, is from
the xy axes to the principal axes.
Same relations apply for Mohr's circle for
s
¤ e and t ¤ ^{g}
2
strain except interchange variables as
SOME SALIENT ASPECTS OF ME354 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS LABORATORY
30 Decmber 1997 (Version c) compiled by Michael G. Jenkins, University of Washington
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Strain
Strain: normalized deformations within a body exclusive of rigid body displacements
Normal Strain: elongation or contraction of a line segment per unit length such that
e =
B Æ
lim
A along n
A' B' AB 
_{} L _{f}  L o 
L _{o} 
AB 
and a volume change results.
Note: +e =tensile strain = elongation
and
e =compressive strain = contraction
Shear Strain: the angle change between two line segments such that
g
=(q = _{2} )  q 'ª _{h} ^{D} (for small angles ) and a shape change results.
p
Note: +g occurs if ^{p} _{2} >q '
and
g occurs if
^{p} _{2} <q '
General State of
Strain: all the internal strains acting on an incremental element
Complete State of Strain: Six independent strain components (3 normal strains, e _{x} ;e _{y} ;e _{z} and 3 engineering shear strains, g _{x}_{y} ;g _{y}_{z} ;g _{x}_{z} ) which uniquely describe the strain state for each particular orientation
Units of Strain: In general:
^{L}^{e}^{n}^{g}^{t}^{h}
Length ^{=} L
L ^{,}
In SI units, ^{m} _{m}
In US Customary units, ^{i}^{n}
and ^{m}
for e
_{m} or
_{i}_{n} for
radian for g
e 
and ^{i}^{n} 
or 
radian for g 
_{i}_{n} 
SOME SALIENT ASPECTS OF ME354 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS LABORATORY
30 Decmber 1997 (Version c) compiled by Michael G. Jenkins, University of Washington
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Strain Transformation
For the plane strain condition (e.g., strain at a surface where no deformation occurs normal to the surface), strains exist only in the plane of the surface (e _{x} ;e _{y} ;g _{x}_{y} )
The plane strain state at a point is uniquely represented by three components acting on a element that has a specific orientation (e.g., x, y) at the point. The strain transformation relation for any other orientation (e.g., x', y') is found by summing displacements in the
=g h
Rotated coordinate axes and displacements for x and y directions
Â
displacements in x 'direction for Q to Q *
Displacements in the x' direction for strains/ displacements in the x and y directions
e _{x} _{'} =e _{x} cos ^{2} q +e _{y} sin ^{2} q +g _{x}_{y} cos q sin q
Â
rotation of dx ' and dy'
gives
or e _{x} _{'} = ^{e} ^{x} ^{+}^{e} ^{y}
2
_{+} e _{x}  e _{y}
cos2q + ^{g} ^{x}^{y} sin2q
2 2
^{g} x 'y '
2
=(e _{x}  e _{y} )cos q sin q + ^{g} ^{x}^{y} (cos ^{2} q + sin ^{2} q ) or ^{g} ^{x} ^{'}^{y} ^{'}
Â
2
displacements in y 'direction for Q to Q *
2
_{=}_{} e _{x}  e _{y}
2
gives
Similarly,
sin 2q
+ ^{g} ^{x}^{y} cos2q
2
e _{y} _{'} =e _{x} sin ^{2} q +e _{y} cos ^{2} q 
g _{x}_{y} cos q sin q
or e _{y} _{'} = ^{e} ^{x} ^{+}^{e} ^{y}
2
_{}
e _{x}  e _{y}
cos2q  ^{g} ^{x}^{y} sin2q
2 2
SOME SALIENT ASPECTS OF ME354 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS LABORATORY
30 Decmber 1997 (Version c) compiled by Michael G. Jenkins, University of Washington
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Principal Normal Strain  maximum or minimum normal strains acting in principal directions on principal planes on which no shear strains act. Note that e _{1} >e _{2} >e _{3}
e _{x}  e _{y} ˆ
˜
¯
2
Ê ^{g} xy
Ë 2
+ Á
ˆ ˜ 2 and tan 2q _{p} =
¯
For the plane strain case e _{1}_{,}_{2} = ^{e} ^{x} ^{+}^{e} ^{y}
ˆ
¯
2
+
Ê
Á
Ë
^{g}
xy
2
ˆ
˜
^{t} xy
¯
2
and ^{g} ^{m}^{a}^{x}
,
e ave = ^{e} ^{x} ^{+}^{e} ^{y}
2
(
^{e} ^{x} ^{} ^{e}
y
)
and tan2q _{s} = ^{}
^{g}
xy
^{g} ^{x}^{y}
e _{x}  e _{y}
Mohr's Circles for Strain States  graphical representation of strain
Examples of Mohr's circles
Mohr's circle for strains in xy plane
Strain Gage Rosettes
e
Mohr's circle for strains in xyz planes
Rosette orientations and equations relating xy coordinate strains to the respective strain gages of the rosette
SOME SALIENT ASPECTS OF ME354 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS LABORATORY
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Continuum Mechanics and Constitutive Relations
Equations which relate stress and strain (a.k.a., Generalized Hooke's Law)
{s } =[C]{e}
s _{x} =
s _{y} =
E
(1+ n ) ^{e} ^{x}
E
(1+ n ) ^{e} ^{y}
n E
^{+} (1+ n )(1 2 n ) ^{(}^{e} nE ^{+} (1+ n )(1 2 n ) ^{(}^{e} ^{x}
^{x} ^{+}^{e} ^{y} ^{+}^{e} ^{z} ^{)}
^{+}^{e} ^{y} ^{+}^{e} ^{z} ^{)}
s
_{z} =
E
nE
(1+ n ) ^{e} ^{z} ^{+} (1+ n )(1 2n ) ^{(}^{e} ^{x} ^{+}^{e} ^{y} ^{+}^{e} ^{z} ^{)}
t
xy =Gg xy
t yz =Gg yz
t
xz ^{=}^{G}^{g} xz
[
C _{]} = S _{]} ^{} ^{1} and
[
[
S _{]} = C
[
]  1
Elastic relation 
(1D Hooke's Law) s =Ee 

Plastic relation 
(Strain Hardening) 
s 
=Ke ^{n} 
_{x} =
(1
n ^{2} ) ^{E}
s
_{y} =
e
+ ne
x
_{{}_{e}_{}} =[S]{s _{}}
e _{x} = ^{1}
E
e _{y} = ^{1}
E
e _{z} = ^{1}
E
[
[
[
^{g} xy
^{g} yz
1
= _{G}
1
= _{G}
s
s
s
x
y
z
^{t} xy
^{t} yz
 n (s


n (s
n (s
y
x
x
+s
+s
+s
z
z
y
)
)
)
]
]
]
g
xz
=
1
_{G} ^{t}
xz
Poisson's ratio, n =  ^{e} ^{t}^{r}^{a}^{n}^{s}^{v}^{e}^{r}^{s}^{e}
^{e}
longitudinal
Plane strain
+e _{y} )
: e _{z} =0, s _{z} 0 =n (s _{x} +s _{y} )
Plane stress
:
s _{z}
=0, e _{z}
0 = ^{} ^{n} _{n} (e _{x}
1
Elastic Modulus, E= ^{D} ^{s} De
Poisson's ratio, n = 
^{e} ^{l}^{a}^{t}^{e}^{r}^{a}^{l}
^{e} longitudinal
Shear Modulus, G= ^{D} ^{t}
Dg
^{E}
2(1+n )
=
Bulk Modulus, k =
( s 
x 
+s 
y 
+s 
x 
) 
^{E} 

( 3 e 
x 
+e 
y 
+e 
x 
) ^{=} 
3(1 2n ) 
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PLASTIC DEFORMATION Non recoverable deformation beyond the point of yielding where Hooke's law (proportionality of stress and strain) no longer applies. Flow curve is the true stress vs. true strain curve describing the plastic deformation.
Simple Power Law
Elastic: s =Ee 
(s 
£ s _{o} ) 
Plastic: s =He ^{n} 
(s 
s _{o} ) 
Strain
Approximate flow curves
E
^{s} o
e ^{T}
ElasticPerfectly Plastic
Power
Linear
^{s} o
^{s} o
e ^{T}
RigidPerfectly Plastic
e ^{T}
ElasticLinear Hardening ElasticPower Hardening
RambergOsgood Relationship
1
Effective stresseffective strain curve is independent of the state of stress and is used to estimate the stressstrain curves for other states of stress.
SOME SALIENT ASPECTS OF ME354 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS LABORATORY
30 Decmber 1997 (Version c) compiled by Michael G. Jenkins, University of Washington
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Failure Theories
Two types: Fracture and Yield Criteria. Generally used to predict the safe limits of a material/component under combined stresses.
Factor of Safety, FS = ^{M}^{a}^{t}^{e}^{r}^{i}^{a}^{l} ^{S}^{t}^{r}^{e}^{n}^{g}^{t}^{h}
Component
_{S}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s} , Failure occurs if FS<1
Maximum Normal Stress Criterion Fracture criterion generally used to predict failure of brittle materials.
FS =
^{S} ^{U}^{T}^{S}
MAX(
s 1
,
s 2
,
s 3
)
Maximum Shear Stress (Tresca) Criterion Yield criterion generally used to predict failure in materials which yield in shear (i.e. ductile materials)
_{F}_{S} _{=}
(t _{o} = S _{y} / 2 =s _{0} / 2)
SOME SALIENT ASPECTS OF ME354 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS LABORATORY
30 Decmber 1997 (Version c) compiled by Michael G. Jenkins, University of Washington
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Mechanical Testing
The results of materials tests (e.g. tensile, compressive, torsional shear, hardness, impact energy, etc.) are used for a variety of purposes including to obtain values of material properties for use in engineering design and for use in quality control to ensure materials meet established requirements
Tensile Testing
Elastic Modulus : E = ^{d}^{s}
_{d}_{e} Yielding : Proportional limit, s _{p} ; elastic limit; offset yield (S _{y}_{s} at 0.2% strain) where s _{o} is used to generally designate the stress at yielding.
Ductility : % elongation = ^{L} ^{f} ^{} ^{L} ^{o} x 100 =e _{f} x100 or %RA = ^{A} ^{o} ^{} ^{A} ^{f} x 100
of the linear part of the stressstrain curve.
L
o
A o
Necking is geometric instability at S _{U}_{T}_{S} and e _{U}
Strain hardening ratio = ^{S} ^{U}^{T}^{S} s o
where 1.4 is high and £ 1.2 is low.
Energy absorption (energy/volume):
Modulus of Resilience
= measure of the ability to store elastic energy
= area under the linear portion of the stressstrain curve





U _{R} =
e o
Ú s de
o
_{ª} s o e o
ª
2
^{s} ^{o}
2 2E

Modulus of Toughness = measure of the ability to absorb energy without fracture = area under the entire stressstrain curve
Strainhardening: s ^{T} =K (e ^{T} ) ^{n} =H(e ^{T} ) ^{n} H=K=strength coefficient and n = strain hardening exponent (0£ n£ 1)
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Representative stressstrain curves for tensile tests of brittle and ductile materials
Table: Stressstrain definitions for tensile testing
PARAMETER 
FUNDAMENTAL 
PRIOR TO 
AFTER 

DEFINITION 
NECKING 
NECKING 

Engineering Stress 
s 
^{E} = ^{P} ^{i} 
s 
^{E} = ^{P} ^{i} 
s 
^{E} = ^{P} ^{i} 

(s 
E ) 
A 
o 
A 
o 
A 
o 

True Stress (s T ) 
s 
^{T} = ^{P} ^{i} 
s 
^{T} = ^{P} ^{i} 
s 
^{T} = 
^{P} ^{i} 

A 
i 
A 
i 
^{A} 
neck 

s 
^{T} =s ^{E} (1+ e ^{E} ) 

Engineering Strain 
e 
^{E} = ^{D} ^{L} 
_{=} L _{i} L _{o} 
e 
^{E} = ^{D} ^{L} 
_{=} L _{i} L _{o} 
e 
^{E} = ^{D} ^{L} 
_{=} L _{i} L _{o} 

(e 
E ) 
L o 
L 
o 
L o 
L 
o 
L o 
L 
o 

True Strain (e T ) 
e 
^{T} =ln ^{L} ^{i} 
e 
^{T} =ln ^{L} ^{i} 
e 
^{T} =ln ^{A} ^{o} 

L 
o 
L 
o 
^{A} neck 

e 
^{T} =ln 
^{A} ^{o} 
e 
^{T} =ln 
^{A} ^{o} 

A i 
A i 

e 
^{T} =ln(1+ e ^{E} ) 
Note: Subscripts: i=instantaneous, o=original; Superscripts: E=engineering, T=true
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Hardness Testing Resistance of material to penetration
Diamond
pyramid
P=1120 kg
q=136°=Included
angle of faces
d=L
VHN =HV = ^{2}^{P} sin ^{q}
L ^{2}
2
Rockwell Requires Rockwell subscript to provide meaning to the Rockwell scale.
Examples of Rockwell Scales
Rockwell Hardness 
Indentor 
Load (kg) 

A 
Diamond point 
60 

B 
1.588 
mm dia. ball 
100 
C 
Diamond point 
150 

D 
Diamond point 
100 

E 
3.175 
mm dia. ball 
100 
M 
6.350 
mm dia. ball 
100 
R 
12.70 
mm dia. ball 
60 
NotchImpact Testing Resistance of material to sudden fracture in presence of notch
IMPACT ENERGY=mg(h1h2)
TEMPERATURE
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Torsion Testing
s
2
Torsional Shear Stress
Torsional Shear Strain
t
_{=} ^{T}^{R}
J
_{J}
J
4
_{=} ^{p} ^{D}
for solid shaft
_{3}_{2}
_{=} p (D
^{4}
outer
 D ^{4}
)
inner
for tube
32
g = ^{R}^{q}
L
Shear Modulus : G = ^{t}
^{E}
=
g 2(1+ n )
•
For linear elastic behaviour, plane sections remain plane, so g = ^{R}^{q}
L
Modulus of Rupture (maximum shear stress) : t _{u} = ^{T} ^{m}^{a}^{x} ^{R}
J
•
For nonlinear behaviour, plane sections remain plane, so
beyond linear region .
g = ^{R}^{q}
L
but t ^{T}^{R}
J
=
Ê
Á
2p R ^{3} Ë
1
Instead t
(q /L)
and t = ^{T}^{R}
J
dT
ˆ
d(q /L) ^{+}^{3}^{T} ¯
^{3}^{T} max
Modulus of Rupture (maximum shear stress) when dT/d(q /L) = 0 so t _{u} ª
2p R ^{3} Table: Comparison of stresses and strains for tension and torsion tests
Tension Test 
Torsion Test 

s 
_{1} =s _{m}_{a}_{x} ;s _{3} =s _{2} =0 
s 
_{1} = s _{3} ; s _{2} =0 

^{t} 
max ^{=} s 1 2 
_{=} ^{s} 
max 2 
t 
= ^{2}^{s} ^{1} max 2 
^{=}^{s} max 

e 
_{m}_{a}_{x} =e _{1} ; e _{2} =e _{3} = 
^{e} ^{1} 
e 
_{m}_{a}_{x} =e _{1} = e _{3} ; e _{2} =0 

2 

g 
= ^{3}^{e} ^{1} max 2 
g 
_{m}_{a}_{x} =e _{1}  e _{3} =2e _{1} 

effective stress s _{e}_{f}_{f} = ^{1} _{2} 
(s _{1}  s _{2} ) ^{2} +(s _{2}  s _{3} ) ^{2} +(s _{3}  s _{1} ) ^{2} 

effective strain e _{e}_{f}_{f} =
2
3 
(e _{1}  e _{2} ) ^{2} +(e _{2}  e _{3} ) ^{2} +(e _{3}  e _{1} ) ^{2} 

s 
=s _{1} 
s 
= 3s _{1} 

e 
=e _{1} 
= ^{2} _{3} e _{1} = ^{g}
3
e

SOME SALIENT ASPECTS OF ME354 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS LABORATORY
30 Decmber 1997 (Version c) compiled by Michael G. Jenkins, University of Washington
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Compression Testing
No necking and maximum load may not occur since pancaking allows load to keep increasing. For many metals and polymers, the compressive stress and strain relations are similar to those in tension (including elastic constants, ductility, and yield). For other materials, such as ceramics, glasses, and composites (often at elevated temperatures), compression behavior may be quite different than tensile behavior.
In an ideal column (no eccentricity) the axial load, P, can be increased until failure occurs wither by fracture, yielding or buckling. Buckling is a geometric instablity related only to the elastic modulus (stiffness) of the material and not the strength.
^{P} cr
_{=} p ^{2} EI
(KL)
_{2}
or
s _{c}_{r} =
^{p}
^{2} ^{E}
(KL / r) ^{2}
where (L/r) is the slenderness ratio and (KL/r) is the effective slenderness ratio
Sometimes, L _{e} =KL is the effective length.
SOME SALIENT ASPECTS OF ME354 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS LABORATORY
30 Decmber 1997 (Version c) compiled by Michael G. Jenkins, University of Washington
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Creep and Time Dependent Deformation
Time dependent deformation under constant load or stress at temperatures greater than 30 and 60% of the melting point (i.e. homologous temperatures, T/T _{m}_{p} >0.30.6)
.
STRAIN
CREEP
. 
STRAIN 
^{e} min 

e 
=e 
RATE,
.
e
TIME, t
TIME, t
e˙ _{m}_{i}_{n} =As ^{n} exp(  Q / RT )
Stress exponent, n, from isothermal tests:
e˙ _{m}_{i}_{n} =Bs ^{n} so that loge˙ _{m}_{i}_{n} =logB + n log s _{o}_{r} _{n} _{=} loge˙ _{m}_{i}_{n}_{,}_{1}  loge˙ _{m}_{i}_{n}_{,}_{2} log s _{1}  logs _{2}
Activation energy, Q, from isostress tests:
e˙ _{m}_{i}_{n} =C exp( Q / RT ) so that
ln e˙ _{m}_{i}_{n} =ln C + (  Q
_{o}_{r} _{Q} _{=}  R (ln e˙ _{m}_{i}_{n}_{,}_{1}  ln e˙ _{m}_{i}_{n}_{,}_{2} )
1
/ R ) (1/ T )
^{1}
T 1

T 2
log
.
^{e} min
ln
.
^{e} min
1/T
SOME SALIENT ASPECTS OF ME354 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS LABORATORY
30 Decmber 1997 (Version c) compiled by Michael G. Jenkins, University of Washington
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Long term predictions from short term results  valid only if the creep/creep rupture mechanism does not change over time. Ruleofthumb: shorttime test lives should be at least 10% of the required longterm design life. Creep rupture occurs by the coalescence of the diffusional damage (creep cavitation by inter or intragranular diffusion and oxidation) which is manifested during secondary (steadystate creep).
Stressrupture
Empirical relation s =A t _{f} Important where creep deformation is tolerated but rupture is to be avoided.
N
Stress
s
Failure time, t _{f}
MonkmanGrant
Empirical relation e˙ _{m}_{i}_{n} t _{f} =C or e˙ _{m}_{i}_{n} =Ct ^{m} _{f} where m =  1 if the relation is applicable . Important where total creep deformation (i.e. e˙ _{m}_{i}_{n} t _{f} ) is of primary concern.
.
^{e} min
m
t
f
SherbyDorn
Assumes that Q f(s or T) and suggests that the creep strains for a given stress form a unique curve if plotted versus the temperature compensated time, q =t exp( Q/RT) .
A common physical mechanism is assumed to define the timetemperature paramter such
that the SherbyDorn parameter P _{S}_{D} =logq =logt _{f}

Ê log (e)
ˆ
Ë
R
¯
Ê
^{Q} Ë
1
ˆ
T
¯
s
^{P} SD
LarsonMiller
Assumes that Q=f(s ) and suggests that the creep strains for a given stress form a unique curve if plotted versus the temperature compensated time, q _{f} =t _{f} exp( Q/RT) .
A
that the LarsonMiller parameter P _{L}_{M} =
common physical mechanism is assumed to define the timetemperature parameter such Ê log (e)
ˆ
Ë R
_{¯}
Q =T (logt _{f} +C)
s
^{P} LM
SOME SALIENT ASPECTS OF ME354 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS LABORATORY
30 Decmber 1997 (Version c) compiled by Michael G. Jenkins, University of Washington
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Material Damping Energy dissipation during cyclic loading  internal friction which is material, frequency, temperature dependent.
D u=internal damping energy
e
s
e
Dynamic Modulus : E ^{*} = ^{s} ^{a} e a
Loss Coefficient : Q ^{} ^{1} = tan d =
^{D} ^{u}
2p U _{e}
Phase Angle : f =d
Storage Modulus: ^{s} ' e a
Elastic Energy: U _{e} = _{2} s ^{'} e _{a} at e _{a} maximum extension
=E ^{*} cos d
1
(where s ^{'} =s
at e _{a} )
Fracture
Fracture is the separation (or fragmentation) of a solid body into two or more parts under the action of stress (crack initiation and crack propagation) Presence of cracks may weaken the material such that fracture occurs at stresses much less than the yield or ultimate strengths. Fracture mechanics is the methodology used to aid in selecting materials and designing components to minimize the possibility of fracture from cracks.
ALLOWABLE
STRESS,
s
ALLOWABLE
STRESS,
s
CRACK LENGTH, a
Cracks lower the material's tolerance (allowable stress) to fracture.
SOME SALIENT ASPECTS OF ME354 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS LABORATORY
30 Decmber 1997 (Version c) compiled by Michael G. Jenkins, University of Washington
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Griffith Theory of Brittle Fracture
A crack will propagate when the decrease in elastic strain energy is at least equal to the
energy required to create the new fracture surfaces
s 

For completely brittle material : 

Elastic strain energy with no crack 

t 
, U _{e} = ^{p} ^{c} 2 ^{s} 2 ^{t}
E
Energy required to produce crack surfaces
Energy balance
, U _{s} =2(2cg _{s} )t
, D U= U _{s}  U _{e} = 4cg _{s} t ^{p} ^{c} 2 ^{s} 2 ^{t}
E
s
Strain Energy Release Rate
let
=2g _{s} then
where
is the linear elastic strain energy
The stress intensity factor, K, uniquely defines the stress state at a crack tip in a linear elastic, isotropic material.
s x =
s _{y} =
1sin ^{q} _{2} sin ^{3}^{q}
2
˘
˚ ^{+}
1+sin ^{q} _{2} sin ^{3}^{q}
2
˘
˚ ^{+}
_{2}_{p} _{r} cos ^{q} _{2} sin _{2} cos ^{3}^{q}
2
K
q
t xy =
s _{z} =0 for plane stress or s
t _{y}_{z} =t _{z}_{x} =0
^{+}
_{z} =n (s _{x} +s _{y} )
SOME SALIENT ASPECTS OF ME354 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS LABORATORY
30 Decmber 1997 (Version c) compiled by Michael G. Jenkins, University of Washington
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p a =as
where F, Y, and a are geometry correction factors Subscripts on K refer to fracture mode :
K _{I} =Mode I, opening mode
K _{I}_{I} = Mode II, sliding mode K _{I}_{I}_{I} =Mode III, tearing mode
Note:
where E' = E (plane stress)
and
E'= E/(1n 2 ) (plane strain)
MODE I
OPENING
MODE
MODE II
SLIDING
MODE
MODE III
TEARING
MODE
Plane strain fracture toughness K _{I}_{c} is the critical stress intensity factor in plane strain conditions at stress intensity factors below which brittle fracture will not occur. The plane strain fracture toughness, K _{I}_{c} , is a material property and is independent of geometry (e.g. specimen thickness).
Fracture toughness in design Fracture occurs when
K _{I}_{c} =K _{I} =Fs p a
where F is the geometry correction factor for the particularcrack geometery. Designer can choose a material with required K _{I}_{c} , OR design for the stress, s ,to prevent fracture , OR choose a critical crack length, a, which is detectable (or tolerable).
Cyclic Fatigue
Fatigue is failure due to cyclic (dynamic) loading including timedependent failure due to mechanical and/or thermal fatigue. Fatigue analysis may be stressbased, strain based, or fracture mechanics based.
s
m
SOME SALIENT ASPECTS OF ME354 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS LABORATORY
30 Decmber 1997 (Version c) compiled by Michael G. Jenkins, University of Washington
page 23
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s
s
_{m}_{a}_{x} =Maximum stress
_{m}_{i}_{n} =Minimum stress
_{m} =Mean stress = ^{s} ^{m}^{a}^{x} ^{+}^{s} ^{m}^{i}^{n}
s
D s
2
=Stress range = s _{m}_{a}_{x}  s _{m}_{i}_{n}
s
_{a} =Stress amplitude = ^{D}^{s}
2
=(s _{m}_{a}_{x}  s _{m} ) =(s _{m}  s _{m}_{i}_{n} )
Note: tension =+s and compression = s . Completely reversed R= 1, s _{m} =0.
R =Stress ratio = ^{s} ^{m}^{i}^{n}
^{s} max
A = Amplitude ratio = ^{s} ^{a} s m
_{=} 1 R
1+R
SN Curves Stress (S)fatigue (N _{f} ) life curve where gross stress, S, may be presented as
D s , s _{a} , s _{m}_{a}_{x} ,or s _{m} . High cycle N _{f} >10 5 (sometimes 10 2 10 4 ) with gross stress elastic. Low cycle N _{f} <10 2 10 4 with gross elastic plus plastic strain.
s
e
10
6
log N
f
10
Ferrous and Tibased alloys
Nonferrrous materials (e.g Al or Cu alloys) (
^{s} e
S
8
= fatigue limit or endurance limit (s
e
6
@10 cycles)
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