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UNIT 2 COMPLEX NUMBERS

Structure
2.1 Introduction
Objectives

2.2 What A Complex Number Is


23 Geometrical Representation
24 Algebraic Operations
2.4.1 Addition And Subtraction
2.4.2 Multiplication And Divison

25 De Moiver's lleorem
2.5.1 Trigonometric Identities
2.5.2 Roots of A Complex Number
26 sUrmnary
27 Solutions 1 Answers

1 2.1 INTRODUCTION

In your studies so far you must have dealt with numbers, integers, rational numbers and real
numbers. You also know that a shortcoming in N led mathematicians of several centuries ago
to define negative numbers. Hence, the set Z was born. For similar reasoiis Z was exteqded to
Q and Q to R at various stages in history. Then came a point when mathematicians looked for
solutions of equations like xZ+ 1 = 0. Since x2+ 1 = 0 has no solution in R, for a long time it
was accepted that this equation has no solution. The Indian mathematicians Mahavira
( in 850 A.D.) and Bhaskara ( in 1150 A. D.) clearly stated that the quare root of a negative
quantity does not exist. Then, in the 16th century the Italian mathematician Cardano tried to
solve the qudatic equation x2- lox +40 = 0. He found that x, = 5 + a and x, = 5 +
f i satisfied the equation. But then, what is ,& ? He, and other mathematicians, tried to
give this expression some meaning. Even while making mathematical models of real life
solutions, the mathematicians of the 17th and 18th centuries were coming across more and
more examples of equations which had no real roots. To overcome this shortcoming the
concept of a complex number slowly came into being. It was the famous mathematician Gauss
(1777-1855) who used and popularised the name 'complex number' for numbers of the type 5 +
a.
In the early 1800s,a geometric representation of complex numbers was developed. This
representationfinally made complex numbers acceptable to all mathematicians. Since then
complex numbers have seeped into all branches of mathematics. In fact, they have even been
necessary for developing several areas in modem physics and engineering.

In this unit we aim to familiarise you with complex numbers and the different ways of
representing them. We shall also discuss the basic algebraic operations on complex numbers.
Finally, we shall acquaint you with a very useful result, namely, De Moivre's theorem. It has
several applications. We shall discuss only two of them in some detail.

We would like to reiterate that whatever mathematics course you study, you will need the
knowledge of the subject matter covered in this unit So please go through it carefully and
ensure that you have achieved the following objectives.
- -
Soluhna of Polynomial Equatjons
Objectives
After studying this unit you should be able to :
define a complex number ;
describe the geometrical, polar and exponential representations of a complex number ;
apply the various algebraic operations on complex numbers ;
prove and use de Moivre s theorem.

2.2 WHAT A COMPLEX NUMBERS IS

When you consider the linear equation 2x + 3 = 0, you know that it has a solution, namely
-3
x= -
2
. But, can you always find a real solution of the equation ax + b = 0, where a, b E R
-b
and a # O? Is the required solution x = -? It is, since ( ? ) + b = O
a

Now, what happens if we try to look for real solutions of any quadratic equation over R ?
Consider one such equation namely x2+ 1 = 0, that is x2 = -1. This equation has no solution
in R since the square of any real number must be non-negative.
From about 250 A. D. onwards, nathematicians have been coming across quadratic equa-
tions, arising from real life situations, which did not have any real solutions. It was in the
16th century that the Italian mathematicians Cardano and Bombelli started a serious discus-
sion on extending the number system to include square roots of nagative numbers. In the
next two hundred years more and more instances were discovered in which the use of square
roots of negative numbers helped in finding the solutions of real problems.
In 1777the Swiss mathematician Euler introduced the "imaginary unit", which he denotesby
the Greek letter iota, that is i. He defined i = f i .Soon after, the great mathematician Carl
Friedrich Gauss introduced the term complex numbers for numbers such as

Nowadays these numbers are accepted and used in every field of mathematics.
Let us define a complex number now.
Definition :A complex number is a number of the form x + iy, where x and y arereal numbers
andi2=-1.
We say that x is the real part and y is the imaginary part of the complex number x + iy.
Wewritex=Re(x+iy)andy=Im(x+iy).
Caution :i) i is not a real number.
ii) Im (x + iy) is the real number y, and not iy.
We denote the set of all complex numben by C.
S o , C = { x + i y ( x , y ~R).
By convention, we will usually denote an element of C by z. So, whenever we will talk of a
complex number z, we will mean z = x + iy for some x, y E R In facf z = Re z + i Im z.
There is another convention that we follow while writing complex numbers, which we give in
the following remark.
Remark 1: When you go through Sec. 2.4.2, you will see that iy = yi v y E R That is why
we can write the complex number x + iy as x + y i also.
By convcntion, wewrite any complex number x + iy for which y E Q, as x +yi. For example,
3 5 ' 3' 5
we prefer towrite 2 + i, 2 + - i and 2 + - i for 2 + il, 2 + i - and 2 + i - , respectively.
2 9 2 9
Complex Number
But if Z E C is the form z = a + i Ji; ,b e It,then we prefer to write z in this form and not as
z = a + &i.
Now that you know what a complex number is, would you agree that the following numbers
belong to C ?

5+&5,3i,JZ,J-T
Each of them is 'a complex number because

5+J-15=5+ifi
3i = 0 +i3

f i = f i+iO

From these examples you may have realised that some complex numbers can have their real
part or their imaginary part equal to zero. We have names for such numbers.
Definition :Consider a complex number z = x + iy.
If y = 0 we say z is purely real.
If x = 0, we say z is purely imaginary.
We usually write the purely real number x + oi as x only, and write the purely imaginary
number 0 + iy as iy only.
Try these exercises now.

El) Complete the following table :

z Re z Irnz

1+ ,I25
2

1 0 0

-1 + JS
5

Now, given any complex number, we can define a related complex number in a very natural
way, as follows.
Definition :Let z = x + iy E C. We define the complex conjugative (or simply the conjugate)
of z to be the complex number

T h u s , R e ? = Re z a n d ImZ = - h n z
Forexample, if z = 15 + i then Z = 15 - i.
Try this simple exercise now.

E3) Obtain the conjugates of


2+3i,2- 3i, 2,-5

In section 2.4.2 you will see one important use of the complex conjugate.
So far we have shown you an algebraic method of representing complex numbers. Now let us
consider a geometrical way of doing so.
Mutioms of Poiylro~nlrlEgurtloas
2.3 GEOMETRICAL REPRESENTATION
You know that we can geometricallyrepresent real numbers on the number line. In fact there is
-
a one one correspondonce between real numbers and points on the number line. You have
also seen that a complex number is determined by two real numbers, namely, its real and
imaginaxy par@. This observation led the mathematicians WesseZ and Oauss to think of
representing complex numbers as points in a plane. This geometric representation was given
in the early 1800. It is called an Argand diagram, after the Swiss mathematician J. R Argand,
who propagated this idea.
Let us see what an Argand diagram is.
Take a rectangular set of axes OX end OY in the XOY plane. Any point in the plane is deter-
mined by its Cartesian coordinates. Now we consider any complex number x + iy. We represent
it by the point in the plane with Cartesia~~
coordinates (x, y). This representation is an Argand
diagram. For example in Figure 1, P represents the complex number 2 + 3i, whose real part H
i 2
and imaginary part is 3. And what number does P' represent? P' corresponds to 2 - 3i.

Fig. 1 :An Argand diagram

You may have realised that in an Argand diagram the purely real numbers lie along the x-axis
and the purely imaginary numbers lie along the y-axis. .
So, you have seen that, given x + iy E C we associate with it the unique point (x,y) E R2 .The
converse is also true. That is given (x, y) E R ~we
, can associate with it the unique complex
number x + iy. This means that the following definition of a complex number is equivalent to
our previous definition.
Definition : A complex number is an ordered pair of real numbers. In the language of sets, we
can say that C = R x R.
With the help of this definition can you say when two complex numbers are equal ?
Definition :We say that two complex numbers (x,, y,) and (x,, y,) are equal iff x, = x,
and y, = y,.
In other words, xl + iyl = x2+ iy, iff x, = x,and y, = y2.
II Thus,two elements of C are equal iff their real parts are equal and their imaginary parts arc
equal.

So, for example,


-1 + J Z - --1
2
- 2
+i-,but
2
J5
Complex Number

1 Try these exercises now.

E4) a) Plot the following elements of C in an Argand diagram :


-
3, -1.t i, -1 + i, i

Ii E5) Write down the elements of C represented by the points


(0,2)in the plane.
(T. r). ( 2 , 0 )
-1 1

/
1
E6)Forwhatvduesofkandmislr+)i=-+im?
2
1

, While solving E4 you may have observed that in an Argand diagram the point that repre-
sents Z is the reflection in the x-axis of the point that represent z, for any z E C.
Here are two more exercises about complex conjugates.
I
/ E7) For which z E C will z = Z ?

, E8) For any z E C, show that = z, that is, the conjugate of the conjugate of z is z.

Now consider any non-zero complex number z = x + iy. We represent it by P in the Argand
diagram in Figure 2. We call the distance OP the modulus of z, and denote it by ( z 1.

Ft.2: Modulus .adargument

Using the pythagoras theorem, we see that

If z is real, what is lz I ? It is just the absolute value of z.


Here's another important remark on the modulus.
Sdutlolu wu8tbm
Mmdd Remark 2 : Z E C, but 1 z 1 6 R
z-Oifflzl-0 Now, if you see Figure 2 again, you will see that L XOP = 8. We call 8 an argument of z = x + iy.
For z = 0, ( z I = 0 and its argument is not defined.
Now if z E C, z t 0, will it have a unique argument ? If 8 is an argument so are 2%+ 8,4x + 8,
etc. If we insist the 8 lie in the range -n < 8 5 x, then we get a unique argument. We call this
value of 8 the argument of z, and denote it by Arg z.

Y
If, in Figure 2, we write ( z I = r. Then you can see that sin 8 = - and cos8 = - .
X
r . r
:. x=rcos8,y=rsin8. ......(1)
So, we can also write z as
z=r(cos8+isin8),wherer=~z~and8=Argz.
This is called the polar form of z.

Note that, give z = r + iy we can use (1) to obtain ATg z = (9- HOW~VCI,
as than

one angle between -n and x have the same tan value, we must draw in argand diagram to find
the right value of Arg z.
Let us look at an example.
Example 1: (a) Obtain the modulus and argument of 1 + i.

X
(b) 3
ObtainqifIz)=2andArgz==-.

Solution :(a) Let z = 1+ i.


Then Re z = 1, Im z = 1.Thus, 1 + i corresponds to (1, I), which lies in the first quadrant. We
find that

X
Thus, Arg z = - .
4

b) z = I z I (cos (Arg z) + i sin (Arg z))

= 1+ i J5
Try the following exercises now.
- ---- - - - -

E9) Write down the polar f o m of the complex numbers listed in E4 (a).
ElO) Show that (z E C 1 z 1 = 1) is the equation of the circle x2+ 9 = lin R2,and
vice versa.

There is yet another way of rqresenting a complex number. In fact this method is closely
related to the polar representation. It uses the expression ez,where z E C. Let us define this
expression.
Definition :For any z = x + iy E C, we defiie
eL= ex(cos y + i sin y).
In particular, if z= iy, a purely imaginary number, then we get

Euler's formula : eiy = cos y + i sin y y e R

This formula is d u ~.J the famous Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler. You will be using it
quite often w h i l ~dealing with complex numbers.
Now consider an. , E C. We write it in its polar form,
. z == r (cos8 + i sin B ).
IJow, using Eule: * s fo~mulawe find that
z = re'@.
This is the exponential form of the complex number z.

345 + -
For example, the exponential from of z= - 3i
2 2

Try this exercise now.


Fig. 3: Eulcr (1707-1713)

E 11) Write the following complex numbers in polar form and exponential from:

By now you must be thoroughly familiar with the various ways of representing a complex
number. Let us now discuss some operations on complex numbers.

2.4 ALGEBRAIC OPERATIONS

In this section we will discuss the addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of complex
-, numbers. Let us first coilsider '+ ' and '-' in C.
2.4.1 Addition and Subtration
We will now define addition in C using the definition of addition in R.

Definition: The sum of two complex numbers z,= x, + iy, and z, = x2 + iy, is the complex
number z, + z, = (x, + x, ) + i (y, + y, ), that is

Let us look at an example.

Example 2 :Find the sum of


i)3+iand-2+4i,
ii) -5 and 5 - i.
Solution :i) (3 + i) + (-2 + 4i) = (3 + (-2) ) + i (1 + 4)
Have you observed that any complex number is the sum of a purely real and a purely imagi-
nary number ? This is because x + iy = (x + Oi) + (0 + iy).
In the following exercises we ask you to verify some very important properties of addition
in C.

b) Showthatz+Z=2Rezforanyz~C.
Addition in C is commutative
and associative. - - -
E13) Show that zl + z2 = z, + z2 V z l , z2 EC.
E14) a) Showthatz,+z2=z2+z,foranyz,,z2~C.
b) Show that (z, + z2)+ z3= z, + (z, + 2,) for any z,, z,, z, E C.
E 15) Find the element a + ib E C such that

If you have solved these exercises, you must have realised that the addition in C satisfies
most of the properties that addition in R satisfies. Also, because of what you proved in El5,
we say that 0 + iO (= 0) is the additive identity in C.
Now, can you define subtraction in C ? We give you a very natural definition.
-
Definition :The difference z, z, of two complex numbers z, = xl + iy and ,
2,-x,+iy,isz,+(-z2),
where - Z, = (- x,) + i (- y,).
Thus, z, - z2= z, + (-z,)
=(x,--i~,)+[(-~)+i(-~~)l
= (x, - x2) -Y ~ ) '
+ i (Y,

-
So, what do you think z z is, for any z e C ?
h t ' a see.TBka z -x + iy. Then
z-zm(x-x)+i(y-y)=O, theadditiveidmtityiuC.
For my z e C, (-2) is the
additive inverse of z. Try the following exercise now.
-- --

E 16) Find (- 6 + 3i) - (- 3 - 2i).

t I E 18) Find the relationship between

b) Arg z and Arg ( z ) ,


for any z E C. (see Figure 4.)

I'
fig. 4 : z r n d -z
(-z)
We will now make a brief remark on the graphical representation of the sum of complex
numbers.
Remark 3 :The addition of two complex numbers has an important geometrical representa-
tion. Consider an Argand diagram (Figure 5) in which we represent two complex numbers (x,,
y,) and (x2, yZ)by the points P and Q.
If we complete the parahelogram whose adjacent sides are OP and OQ, the fourth vertex R
represents the sum (x,,y ,) + (x,, y2).
Complex Number

Fig. 5: Addition in C.

In vector algebra you will come across a similar parallelogram law of addition.

So far you have seen how naturally we have defined addition (and subtraction) in C by ushg
addition (and subtraction) in R. Let us see if we can do the same for multiplication.
2.4.2 Multiplication And Division
We will now use multiplication in R to define multiplication in C. But the route is slightly
circuitous. Consider the following product of two linear polynomials a + bx and c + dx, where
a, b, c, d E R.
(a + bx) (c + dx) = ac + (ad + bc) x + bd x2.

Now, if we put x = i in this, we get

(a + ib) (c + id) = (ac - bd) + i (ad + bc), since i2= -1.

This is the way we shall define a product in C.

Definition :The product z, z2 of two complex numbers z, = x, + iy, and z, = % + iy2is the
complex number

Or, in the language of ordered pairs.

~ ~ , ~ Y , ~ . ~ ~ , ~ Y , ~ = ~ ~ , ~ , - Y , Y , ~ ~ , Y ~ + ~ ~ Y , ~ ~
For example,

. (1,2)(-3,2)=[1.(-3)-2.2,1.2+(-3).2].

Let us check and see what i2 is according to this definition.


i2 = i,j = (0 + i) (0 + i) = ( 0 -1) + i (0-0) = -1, which is as it should be!

Multiplication has several properties, which you will discover if you try the following
exercise.

E 19) Obtain (x, y) (1,O). (x, y) (0, I), (x, Y)(O,O), (x, 0) (Y,0) and
fY.,;r)(J ,X!/X c
X . I \ ~
E20) Prove that
4 'iz,=z,z, VZ,,z,E C.

Note that x2 + # 0, since (x, y ) # (0, O).)

If you've solved these exercises, you must ,haverealised that z . 1 = z v z E C,


This means that 1 is the multlpllcatlve ldentlty of C. Exercise El9 also says that
2.0-0 y Z E C,
i(x+iy) = -y+ix y x , y R, ~
and that in case zl and 3 are purely real numbers. our definition of multiplication coincides
with the usual one for R
Also, fiomE20 (a) you can see that multiplication is commutative, and fiom E20 (b) you can
see that multiplication is associative.
And, what does E20 (c) say? It says that for any non-zero element z of C, 3 z' E C, such that
1
-.z
zz' = 1. In this case we say that z' is the multiplicative inverse of z. So z' =
'

Using E20 let us see how to obtain the standard form of the quotient of a complex number by

non-zero complex number. We will use a process similar to'the one you must have used for
a+bh
rationalising the denominator in expressions like -Consideran example.
2+3i c +d h
Example 3 :Obtain l_i in the form a + ib, a, b E R

Solution :E20 (d) gives us a clue to a method for making the denominator a rcal number. Let
, 2+3i
us multiply and divide by F i . What do we get ?

2+3i - --1 5.
+ -1.
So, -iq-- 2 2
If you've understood the way we have solved the example, you will have no problem in doing
the following exercises.

a+ib
E 22) For a, b, c, d E R and c2+ d2# 0, write -as an element of C.
. c+id
1
E23) a) Show that
1 6
b) Show that ;= 1,z , v , ~ c \ { o j .
If you have done E22,then you know how to write the quotient of one complex number by a
non-zero complex number in standard form.
Complex Numb3
Suppose we lcnow z,, z2 E C in their polp forms, say
z, = r , (cos 8, +isin0,)andz,=r2 (COS8,+isin0,). Then
z, z, = r, r, (cos 0, + i sin 0, ) (cos 0, + i sin 8, )
el
= rl rZ {(COS cos 0, - sin 0, si%) + i (sin 8, cgs 8, + cos 0, sin 0, ))
= r, r, (cos (8, + 8, ) + i sin (8, + 8, )) ..,.(2)

S O , I Z ~=rlr2=lz1
~~I lIz2land
Arg (z, z2) = (8, + 8, ) + 2k x, where we choose k E Z eo that
-n<(8, + e l ) +2kx 5 n .
In Figure 6 we give a graphic illustration of what we have just said.

cos (A + B) = cos A cos B-


sin A sin B sin (A + B) = sin
A cos B + cos A sin B

Flgurc 6: Productlon polar form.

Let us consider an example.

Example 4 :Obtain the product of z, = 2(cos 1 + i sin 1) and z2= cos 3 + i sin 3.

Therefore, z, z2 = 2 (cos (1 + 3) + i sin ( 1 + 3))

Note the Arg (z, z2)= 4, since 4 > x. We need to choose an integer k such that
- x < 4 + 2k x Ix, k = -1 serves the purpose. thus, ,

k g (2,Z2)= 4 - 2 ~ .
Hence (z, z,) = 2(cos (4 - 2x ) + i sin (4 - 2x)) is the polar form of z, z,.
We have a very nice method of finding the multiplicative inverse of a non zero complex
number in an Argand diagram. Let us see what it is.
Let z E C \ (0) be represented by a point P (see Figure 7). Let Q represent the real number
( z 12. Let R be the reflection of P in the x-axis, so that R represents 2 .

Now, through (1,O) draw a line parallel to QR. Let it intersect the line OR in S. Then S
1
represents - .
Z
Solutions of Polynomial Equations

Figure 7: Finding the multiplication inverse.

Try the following exercises now.

E 24) Find the polar forms of z, and z2where z, = - 6 and z2= 1 + i. Hence obtain I z, z2 I and
Arg (z, 2,).
21
E25) Knowing the polar forms of z , , z2E C, z2 # 0,obtain the polar form of -*
22
Z - 1
E26) Obtain 2in the polar form, where zl and z2are as in E 24.Represent z, , z 2 , z 2 , -
- z2 2 -2
and 3 in an Argand diagram.
z2

We will use multiplication and division in the polar form a great deal in the next section. Before
going to it, let us give you a rule that relates '+' and 'x' in C. Do you know of such a law in R?
You must have used the distributive law often enough. It says that
a (b + c) = ab + ac v a, b, c E R. The same law holds of C. Why don't you try and prove it?

E27) a) Checkthat
Multiplicatin distributes over (1 + i) { ( h - 3i) + (5 +i))
addition.

b) Prove that z, (z, + z,) = z, z, + z, z, v z, z, z, E C.


- -

Now let us discuss a very useful theorem.

2.5 DE MOIVRE'S THEOREM


In the previous section we proved that if
z, = r, (cos 8, + i sin 8,) and z2 = r, (cos 6, + i sin 8, ),
-
then z,zz r, r, {cos (8, + 0,) + i sin (6, +- 8, )).
- -
In particular, if z, z,, then r , =; r,, 6, 8,: and we find that
z: == I-: (COS 2 8 , + i sin 2 8,).
-
. - .-

i
1
I

1
In fact ~hisis a particular case of a very nice fourmula, namely, that if z = r (cose + i sine ),
then zn- it' (cosn0 + i sinne) for any integer n. To prove this result we need De molvre'r
theorem, named after the French mathematician Abrahamne Moivre (1 667 - 1754 ). It may
Complex Number

1 amuse you to know that De Moivre never explicity stated this result. Rut he seems to have
1
I
known it and used it in his writings of 1730. It was Euler who explicitly stated and proved this
result in 1748.
t

I
b
Theorem 1 (De Mulvre s theorem): ( cose + i sine )n= cos ne + i sin no, for any n E Z and any
b
angle 8.

: Proof : Let us flrst prove it for n 3 0.We will prove this by using the following important
principle.
Princlple of Induction :Let P (n) be a set statements of one statement for each a positive
, integer n, such that
You can study induction in
i) P(l)istrue,and greater detail in the cours
"Absiract Algebra".
ii) if P (m) is true for some m E N, then P (m + 1) is true.
Then, P (n) is true y n E N. -- .
How will we use this principle ? For any n E N,we will take P (n) to be the statement
"(cose + i sine)" = cos ne + i sin ne ".
We will first prove that it holds for n = 1 that is, P (1)
is true. Then, we will assume that it holds for n = m for some m E N, and prove that it is true
I for
n = m + 1. This will show that if P (m) is true, then so is P (m +I).
Now. for n = 1,
I
I (cose + i sine )' = cose + i sine = cos 1 . 9 + i sin 10.
1
i
So the result is true for n =I.

1 Assume that it is true for n = m, that is,

j (cose + i sine )m = cos me -t. i sin me.


Now, (cosO + i sine)"'+'

: = (cos me + i sin m 8) (cose + i sine) by (3)


-
= cos (d+e ) + i sin (mfl+ 0), by the formula (2) far products.
% ,

I =cos(m+1)8+isin(m+~)9
Hence, the result is true for n = m + 1.
Thus, by the principle of induction, the result is true y n E N.
Now let us see what happens if n = 0.
We define z0 = 1, for any z E C \ (0). (As in the case of R, O0 is not defined.)
Therefore, (cose + i sin 8 )O = 1.
Also,cos0.8+isin0.8.=cosO+isinO=1.
Thus, the result is also true for n = 0.
I
. Now, what happens if n < O? May be, you can prove this case. You can do the following
exercises, which will lead you to the result.

1
E 28) Prove that cos + -
sine = cosO i sine, for any angle 8.
Use this fact and De Moivre's theorem for positive integers to prove that
(cos8 + i sin8 )" = cos n + i sin 8 .

So, De Moivre s theorem is true Q n E Z.


Now, if z = r ( c o d + i sin8 ) E C, then nE Z

ztl= r" ( C O S+ ~i sine)"


= r" (cos n 8 + i sin n 8), using De Moivre's theorem.

What we have shown is that .

[r (cos8 + sin8)ln = r" (cos n8 + i sin no) for r E R, 8 E R, n E Z.


This result has several applications in mathematics and physics. We shall discuss two of them
here.

2.5.1 TrigonometricIdentities
One of the most useful applications of Theorem 1 is in proving identities that involve trigono-
metric functions like sin 8 , cos 8 , etc. Let us look at an example.
Example 5 :Find a formula for cos 4 8 in terms of cos 8 and sin 8.
Solution :by De Moivre's theorem
(~os8+isin8)~=cos48+isin84 .........(4)
We can also expand the left hand side of (4) by using the binomial expansion. Then
(cos 8 + i sin S ~+ 4CI(COS8)l (i sin8 ) + 4C2( ~ 0 ~ (i8 ) ~
= ( C O )4

+ 4C3cos 8 (i sin 8 )I + ( i sin 8)4 I ..


I
= cos48 + 4 i sin 8 cod8 - 6 sin28cos28- 4 i sin38cos 8 + sin48 ......(5)
Thus, comparing the real parts in (4) and (5), we get i

cos 48 = cos48 - 6 sin% cos28+ sin48 .


You can try the following exercise on similar lines.
-- - - - -

E 30) Find formulae for cos 38 in terms of cos 8 and sin 38 in terms of sine.

Now, for any m E N let us look at zm,where z E C such that ( z I = 1. Then, by De Moivre's
theorem
z"' = cos me + i sin nl8
'and z-'" = cos m8 - i sin me,

Thus ztl1+ Z-'I1 = 2 cos 8 m, and


since cos (-8 ) = cos 8 and sin (-8) = -sin 8 for any angle 8.
1
zm-z-'"=2isinm8.
We can use these relations to express cosn18and sinn18in terms of cos me and sin me for
m = h 1, +2,. .....Let us consider an example.
Example 6 : Expand 24"-2 ( ~ 08 +ssin4"8
~ )~in terms of the cosines or sines of multiples of 8.
I
1
Solution: Putting m = 1 in the equations (6), we get 1
-
Complex ~ u m b c r
1 '1
2cos8 :I.- and 2sin8 = z - -
z Z

by the binomial expansion.

= 2{2 cos4n8 + 2 (4nc2) cos (4n - 4)8 + .......) + 2(4nc2,), using (5).

The procedure we have shown in Example 6 is very useful for solving differential equations
involving trigonometic functions. It is also usefbl for fmding the Laplace transform of such
functions.
Why don't you try this exercise now ?

E31) Apply De Moivre's formula to prove that


i) cos 28 = cos28- sin28
ii) sin 28 = 2 sin8 cos8
-
E32) Expand cos68 sin68 in terms of the cosines of multiples of 8.

Let us now look at another area in which we can apply De moivre's theorem with great
success.
2.5.2 Roots of A Complex Number
In Section 2.2 we told you thaf the whole subject of complex numbers first arose in an attempt'.
to find the square roots of - 1. By now you know that we can always find two distinct complex
square roots of any non - zero real number.
That is, given a E R \ {0),3 distinct z,z, E C such that zt = a, z; =a.
In fact, the set of complex numbers nas a much strongerproperty, which is a major reason for
its importance in mathematics. This property is :
given any n E N and z E C, z f 0, we can find distinct z,,.......,znE C such that %n = z

Each of these zk's is cilled an nth root of z.


To extract all the nth roots of a complex number, we need De Moivre's theorem as well as the
following result that we ask you to prove.
Solutlonn of Polynomial Equstionn
E33) Let x be a positive real number and n E N. Show that there is one and only one positive
real number b such that bn = x.
( Hint : Let r,s > 0 be such that rn = x = sn.Suppose r # s. Then r" -s" = 0 and r - s # 0.
Then you should reach a contradiction.)

We denote the unique positive nth root obtained in E 33 by x"? .


Now let us consider an example of extraction of roots of a complex number.
Example 7 : Obtain all the fifth roots of i in C.
Sotution :Let z = r ( cos0 + i sin0 )be any 5th root of i. Then z5 = i. The polar form of i is
n x
i = cos -
2
+ i sin :
- . Therefore

X X
rS( c o d + i = cos - + i sin -
2 2

by De Moivre's thorem.
Comparing the moduli (plural 'modulus') and arguments of the complex numbers on both sides
of (7),we get
n:
9-1 and50- -+Zknwherek=O,f 1, f 2 ,.......
2
r is the unique positive real fifth root of I (see E33 ). Since 1 E R, r e l , that is ( z I = 1.
The possible values of 8 are

Thus, the possibe 5th roots of i are

From this it seems that i has infinitely many 5th roots, one for each k E Z. But this is not true.
There are only 5 distinct ones among these. They will be the values of z for
K=-2, -1,0,1,2. Let us see why.

When k = - 2, = cos - - - (i
4~)+isin(~-%)

7X 3X
= cos- - i sin - = z - ~ say.
,
10 10
n 3x
When k = -1, z = cos--isin -= z-, say.
10 10
X X
When k = 0, z = cos-+isin -= zosay.
10 10
X X
When k = 1, z = cos- + isin - = z, say.
2 2
9n
When k = 2, z = c o s E +isin - = z,, say.
cos (2% + 6 1 - LO. 0 10 10
'"
,

and sin (2n + 01 , (+


13n:
When k = 3 , z = c o s - + i s i n - = c o s
(
y'J+isin(2n-$)=z-2.
2~--
10 10
.-.
....--

Complex Number

Similarly, when k = 5, you will get z ,and so on.


Thus, k = 5,6,7 ,..... don't give us new values of z.

NOW, ifwe put k = -3, we get z = cor [TI :-iT) - 7 ' In


22

Simlarly, k = -4, -5.... will not give us new values of z.


Therefore, the only 5th roots of i are

(;
cos - + 2k-
3 ' ;I
+ isitl - + 2k - for k
;(
Remark 4: We also get the 5th roots of i by takifig h
= (;.

- I!.
1, + 2.
1 , 2 . 3 , 4 in

,as you ha\-c :;r: -1. Qnly note that for k = 1and k = 4,
(10 5
the angles 0 will not lie in the range -rr < 0 S x. Thzt's why we had taken k = 0. + 1, 2. *
Now, look at all the fifth roots of i.. How are their rnodtl!i rels~ed:?They have the same rnodu-
lus, namely, I i ~""=l). Thus they all lie on the circle \viih centre (0,O) and radius i. These
points will be equally spaced on the circle, since the arguments of consecutive points differ by
2?r
-, a constant. We plot them in the Argrnd diagram in Figure 8.
5

1 \111gthe same procedure as above we can obtain the dis~inctnth roots-of 4ny non-zero
complex number, for any 11 E N. Thus given, any non-zero c o r n p l e x ! ~ l ~ , awe
: write~itinits
polar fonn
w = a ( c o s a + i s i n a ) , w h e r e a = /wIandQ=Argw,
-
By E33, there is a unique r E R, r > 0, such that r" =a, ahat is, r a"". Then the distinct nth
roots of w are

a +2 k ~
zk = a''" [cos
n
+ i sin -
n forli-dl; .........., n-I:

Geometrically, they lie on a circle of radius a"" and are equally spaced on it
Solutions of Polynonilul Equations Note that P

a non :zero complex number has exactly n distinct nth roots for
any n E N. If z is one root, then the others are
.
z a, ......,2% where al.........a,:, are the nth roots of unity.

Now you can do some exercises.

E 34) Find the complex cube roots of unity, that is, those z E C such that z3 = 1. Plot them in
an Argand diagram.

E35 ) Solve the equation z4 - 4z2+ 4 - 2i = 0.


(Hint :The equation can be rewritten as (z2- 2)2= (1 + i)2.)
-- -

The cube roots of unity that you obtained in E34 are vkry important. We usually denote the
-I + i&i
cube root - 2
by theGreek letter w (omega).

the other non - real cube root of unity. Thus,

-1 +i h
the three cube roots of unity are 1, w, w2, where
2

Also note that

1+ w+w2=0.

We will often use wand (8) in Unit 3.

We will equally often use the following results, that we ask you to prove.

E 36) a) Let a E R . Show that a has a real cube root r, and the cube roots of a are r, rw, rw'
, .*

b) Show that if a E R, a < 0 and n is an even positive'integer, then a will not have a
real nth root.

c) Let z E C \ R. Thgn show that z has three cube roots, and if any one of them is y,
the other two are y w, y w'.
- C '

With this we come to the end of our discussion on complex numbers. Thus does't mean that
you won't be dealing with them any more . In fact, you will often use whatever we have
covered in this unit, while studying this course as well as other mathematics courses.
Let us take a brief look at the points covered
:.'
in this
. ' , unit.
..;

2.6 SUMMARY
In this unit on complex numbers you have studied the following points.
1) The deflmition of a complex number:
A con~plexnumber is a number of the form x + iy where x, y E R and i = fi
Equivalently, ~tis apair (x,y) E R x R.
2) x is the real part and y is the imaginary part of x + iy.
Complex Numhcr
3) x,+iy,=x2+iy2iffx,=x2andy,=y2.
4) The conjugate of z = x + iy is 2 = x -'iy.

5) The geometric representation of complex numbers in Argand diagrams.

f i y 2 and
--

6) Thepolarformofz=n + i y i s z = r ( c o s R + i s i n R ) , w h e r e r = z =

0 = Arg
z = tan-' , where we choose the 0 that corrc.ponds to the position of z in
an Argand diagram.

7) Euler's formula: eie= cos 8 + i sin 8 t/ 8 E R.


8 ) The exponential form of z = x + iy is z = reie,where r = I z ( and 8 = Arg z
* "

9) Addition, subtraction, multiplication and division in C : t/ a, b, c, d, E R


(a+ib)*(c+id)=(a*c)+i(b*d),
(a +ib). @ + id)-= (ac - bd) + i (ad + bc), -

a+ib (a+ib) (c-id)


-=
c + id c2+d2
, for c + i d + 0.
10) For zl, z2E C,
) z ,z2 ) = I z , ( ( z 2(,Arg(z,z,)=Argz, +Argz2+2kx

where k, m E Z are chosen so that

- x < Arg ( z l z 2 ) < x and -X c Arg (2) 2 x

11) De Moivre's theorem : (case + i sine )" = cos ne + i sin ne t/ n E Z and any angle 8.
12) The use of De Moivre's theorem in proving trigonometric identities and for obtaining nth
roots of complex numbers, where n E N.

-1 + i J 5
13) The cube roots of unity are 1, o,w2,where o = - 2
.

Now that you have gone through this unit, please go back to the objectives listed in
Section 2.1. Do you think you have achieved them? One way of finding out is to solve all the
exercises that we have given you in this unit. If you would like to verify your solution or
answers, you can see what we have written in the following section.

2.7 SOLUTION 1 ANSWERS


z Re z Imz

1 +J-23 1
- J23
2 2' 2
1 0 1
0 0 0

-i+h -I+&
0
5 5
Solution6 of Polynomial Equatlonr
E 2 ) Yes,because every real number x P the complex w b e r x + Oi.
E3) 2-3i,2+3i2,-3i.
E.o)a)

Fig. 9

--.
P,Q, Rand S represent 3, - 1 + i, - 1 + i and i, respectively.

F la. 10
Id,, L, and L, reprorent the setr S,, S,nrt: S,, rerpcrctivo!y,

Es) k - ~1 , m - 3 ,
-
E 7 ) Loto x+iy.Then 'i-x-ly.
,; o m Z e x + i y - x - i y * y m - y d y - 0 ,
,*. y zeRz-2
E8) Loto-x+iy.Tksn E-x-iy,
7

.'. 'i = x-iy = x + iy = z


' 3-3(core+irine)
Nowl-l+iJ- a r/Z, = and
Arg (-1 +i)=tan-'(-1) = - x / 4 o r 3 ~ / 4 ,
3%
Since -1 + i corresponds to (-I,] ), which lies in the 2nd quadrant, Arg (-1 + i ) = -4

... (-1 +i j = f i (cos (2)+ (2))


i sin .

i = cos-
71
+ isin -.71
2 2

= J5 ei 'I4 ( exponential form )

71 X
1+i = fi (cos- = i sin --) (polar form)
4 4
= fi e i '14 ( exponential form)
-1 = cos rc + i sin x (polar form)
= ei w2 ( exponential from )

+ isin - (polar fom)


X X
i = cos -
2 2
= eilX(exponential from ) .

b) Let z = x + iy. Then


z+ Z = ( x + i y ) + ( x - i y ) = 2 ~ = 2 R e z .
E 13) Let z, = x, + iy, and z, = x2+ iy2. Then

--
a'. Z I + z2 =(x, + X ~ ) - ( Y I + Y * )

= %, + ZZ
E 14)a)Letz,=(x,,y, ) ~ d z , = ( x ~ ~ y ~ )

-
Then~l+za~(x,~~l)+(xa~~~)
(~,+~,IY,+Y,)
= ( x a + x I I y Z + y , ) , s i n c e a + b = b +yaa , b e Ra
'(x~~Y~)+(x~,YI)
=Z2+ZI
b ) Letz,m(xla~,),z2m(xa~a)az,=(x~a~,)*
Then, u8e the fact that ( a + b ) + c = r + (b + c ) yr, b, c E R to prove the resultl
E15) Letzmx+iy,
Thenz+(a+ib)=z
+(x+iy)+(a+ib)=x+iy
*(x+a)+i(y+b)=x+iy
* x+a=xandy+b-y
Arg (-2) = tan-' ):( = tan-' ):( = Arg z - n ,because (-2) is the reflection of

z in the origin.
El91 (&Y)(l,O)=(&Y)
(x,y)(O.l)=(-~,x)
( x,y) ( 0 ) =(0,O)
(~o)(Y,o)=(xY,o)
(x,y)(l, l)=(x-y,x+y).
E20) a) Let z, = (x,, y, ) andz, = ( x, ,y, ). Then
2, ? = ( x " Y ' ) ( x ~ , Y ~ )

'(XI 3-Y, Y ~ ' xY, Z + ~ 2 ~ 1 )


= ( ~ ~ ~ ~ - y ~ y ~ , ~ ~ y ~ + ~ ~ yv~a ), b, ~, ci ~R.
n c e a b = b a
=( 3 , Y2) (x',Y')
=z2z1.
b ) If z ' = ( x , , ~ ' ) ~ = ( x ~ , ~ ~ ) z ~ = ( x ~ ~ ~ ) t h e n
2' z2=( XI 3 - Y , Y2'Xl Y 2 + X 2 Y l )and
? z 3 = ( 3 x 3 - ~ 2 ~ 3 ' ~ ~~3 3+ ~ 2 )
Therefore, ( z, ?) z3

z, = (x+iy) (x-iy) = x 2 + Y 2= (,/=I2 = 1212.


-2 +i - -2 + i
-
since i2=- 1.
E21) i jS+ i(2i) -2 +i j S 3

I I
a +,ib
E22) c2+d2 # 0 means that c # 0 or d # 0. Thus, c + id # 0. Hence
is meaningful.
. , c + id
- - (a+ib) (c-id) - (ac+bd) + i(bc-ad) -- - + bd) + i [ b c - a d )
-a+ib
c+id (c+id) (c-id) c2 + d 2 c- + d 2 c2 + d 2
Cc~mplcrNumber
E23) a) L e t z = x + i y = O . T h e n , f i . o 1 ~ ~ E 2 0 ( d ) w e k n o w t l ~ a t z Z = z ~ ~ .

Therefore, (iF =
1 -
7 is the rnultipl;cative inverse of Z .
I z l-
1
b) F o r z # O , z . - =
Z I: I I,:.
n
1x1. - = I l l = I.:.
1

E21) z l = 6 ( c o s n + i ~ i n n ) , ~ , = ~4 [ C 0 ~ - + i ~ i ~ -

:. 1 z, zz I = 6 & and

Arg (z, z2 ) = .rr


( 3
+ - + 2kn , where k E Z such that -n < Arg (2, z,) < x.

z, r, (COSO, + isin0,)
then L-?
=
r2(~~~02jisin02)
---PA-

rl
= (cose, + i sine,) (cos 8, - i sin 8,)' multiplying and hviding by (cos - i sin 8?).
r2
r!
= - cos (8, + 8,) + i sin (8, - 8, ))
r2
rl
= - (cose,
r2
- 8, + 2kx) + i sin (8, - + 2kn)), where k E R such that

,261 5 = -- (cOs("
z,
6
%ti
- ): + i sin (n - :)

Fie.
- 11
1 21
The points P, Q, R, S and T in Figure 1 1 represent z l , 22, Z2, - and -, respectively.
z2 22

Here OT = --
I'? and LXOT = LXOP - LXOQ
oQ
E27) a ) L H S = ( l + i ) [ ( f i +5)-2i]=(7+ f i ) + i ( 3 + A)
LHS stands for let? hand side
RHS=[( f i + 3 ) + i ( & - 3 ) ] + ( 4 + 6 i ) = ( & + 7 ) + i ( & + 3 ) and RHS stands for right hand
sids
Thus, LHS -= M S .
Solutions of Polynomial Equntlons
b) Let 2, - x, T iy, , z, = X, r iy,, 2, = X, + iy3 .
Thenz, (zl+z3)-=(xl+lYl
)C(x2+x3)+i (y,+ Y3)1
= [ x ~ ( x ~ + x ~ () ~- Y
2 +~ ~ 3 ) I + i( [Y~ ~1 + Y ~ () xT ~Y+~x ~ ) I
=(xIx2-~I~2)+(xIx3-~,~3)+iCx,~Z+x~~,j+(x,~3+x3~1)1
=[(xi x 2 - ~ I ~ Z ) + i ( x I ~ 2 + x 2 ~ I ) l + C ( x , x ) - ~ I ~ 3 ) + i ( ~ 1 ~ 3 + x 3 ~ 1 ~ 1
= z l z2+z1Z3.
You can also solve this by writing z,, z, and z3 in polar form, If you do, you must remember to
be careful about zi = 0 for any i.

(COS- i sin@)n = - 1
- =
(case + i sin 0)"' (cosO + i sin 6
= ( cose - i sine)"
= [ cos (-0 ) + i sin (-8 )Im
=cos(-mQ)+isin (-me),sincem>O.
= cos ne + i sin n8.
E30) (cose + i sine )) = cos 38 + i sin 38.
Also, ( cose + i sine )3 = cos3 8 + 3 cos2@(i sine ) +3 cosC) ( i sin 8)2+ ( i sine )3
= ( cos38- 3 cose sin28) + i ( 3sinC) cos28- sin3@).
Thus, comparing real parts of the two equalities, we get
cos 38 = cos39 - 3 cose sin28= cos38 - 3 cos0 ( 1 - cc-rs'Q )
= 4 cos38 - 3 cos 8.
Similarly, comparing the imaginary parts we get
sin 38 = 3 sine ( 1 - sin28) - sin38 = 3 sine - 4 sin38 .
E 3 1) ( cose + i sine )2= cos 20 + i sin 20, and
( cose + i sine )2 = cos28+ 2i C O S sin8
~ - sin28.
:. cos 28 = cos28- sin28,and
sin 28 = 2 sine cose.
E 32) Let z = cos8 + i sine. Then, using (6)

= 4 cos 68 + 60 cos 28
1
Cos68 - sin68= - (cos 68 + 15 cos 28 )
16
E33) Let r, s E R,r, s > 0 and rn = x = sn.We will prove the result by contradiction(sec
appendix to this block ). Suppose r f s. Then
-
rll - Sll ( r - s ) ( rl'-l + r"-2 s + .....+ mll-2 + sn-l ) = 0
Since r > 0, s > 0, rll-' + r"-' s + ......+ rs11-2
+ sl'-' > 0.
Also, r - s # 0.
But then how can the product of two non - zero numbers be zero ? So we reach a
contradiction. Therefore, our assumption must be false. Thus, r = s.
E 34) Let z = (cos8 + Bsin8) be a cube root of 1 = cos 0 + i sin 0,
0+2kx 2kx
he^ r = 1113 = 1 0 = ----- - -for k = 0,1,- I. ,
3 3
2kn
:. The roots are 1. (COs j + i sin -
2 k K ) for t = Q I . - I
3
-1
- JJ -I , JJ
+ i- and - - 1 -,
Thus, the roots are 1,
-
3 2 2 2

Flgure 12: Cube root# o f unlty.


E35) We want to obtain those z E C for which
( z 2 - 2 ) = f ( 1 +i),thatis
z 2 - 2 = 1 +iandz2-2=-(l+i),thatis,
z 2 = 3 + i a n d z 2 = 1 -i.

Thus, we want to find the square roots of 3 + i and 1 - i.


1
I Now, 3 + i = cos (tan-'
I
I

I Thus.the square roots of 3 + i are

(COS
8
-+
. . 8
,sin -)2/ and 10"' {mr (:+n) +
fn
isin - +
\1
x, j ,
2 (2 1
I
where 8 = tan-' ;

Also 1 - i = f i (c:s (9 (9) + sin SO that the square mots of 1 - i are

These 4 square roots are the 4 roots of the given equation.


,
E 36) a) If a 2 0, then by E33, a has a real cube root, all3 .Now, a = a (cos 0 + i sin 0 ).
Thus, the cube roots of a are
I
3
I , u2.
that is, all3, all3u ' / ~ a'/'
If a < 0,then - a > 0. Thus, - a has a real cube root, say b. Then r = - b is a real cube root
of a. And I r I = I a Ill3 that is, r = - I a ('I3 ( since r is negative).
Now a = I a I (cosx;+ i sin x;). Therefore, the cube roots of a are

la ill3 (cos ( l k + 'In + i sin (2k+i)n),


3 k = 0, 1,2.
3

(since- 1 =cosx+isinx;)

Thus, the cube roots of a are r, rw rw2.


b) Letn-2-me N. Then,foranyb E R,
bn b2m = (bl)m 2 0.
3

Thus ,bn # a for any b E R.Hence, a can't have a real nth root.
c) h t z = r ( cos0 + i sin0 ) ,in polar form.
0+2kn
Then its cube mots are r1I3 (Cos

n u s , if y = r 113 (cos - + i sin


3
!3), then the other roots uo