Structure
2.1 Introduction
Objectives
25 De Moiver's lleorem
2.5.1 Trigonometric Identities
2.5.2 Roots of A Complex Number
26 sUrmnary
27 Solutions 1 Answers
1 2.1 INTRODUCTION
In your studies so far you must have dealt with numbers, integers, rational numbers and real
numbers. You also know that a shortcoming in N led mathematicians of several centuries ago
to define negative numbers. Hence, the set Z was born. For similar reasoiis Z was exteqded to
Q and Q to R at various stages in history. Then came a point when mathematicians looked for
solutions of equations like xZ+ 1 = 0. Since x2+ 1 = 0 has no solution in R, for a long time it
was accepted that this equation has no solution. The Indian mathematicians Mahavira
( in 850 A.D.) and Bhaskara ( in 1150 A. D.) clearly stated that the quare root of a negative
quantity does not exist. Then, in the 16th century the Italian mathematician Cardano tried to
solve the qudatic equation x2 lox +40 = 0. He found that x, = 5 + a and x, = 5 +
f i satisfied the equation. But then, what is ,& ? He, and other mathematicians, tried to
give this expression some meaning. Even while making mathematical models of real life
solutions, the mathematicians of the 17th and 18th centuries were coming across more and
more examples of equations which had no real roots. To overcome this shortcoming the
concept of a complex number slowly came into being. It was the famous mathematician Gauss
(17771855) who used and popularised the name 'complex number' for numbers of the type 5 +
a.
In the early 1800s,a geometric representation of complex numbers was developed. This
representationfinally made complex numbers acceptable to all mathematicians. Since then
complex numbers have seeped into all branches of mathematics. In fact, they have even been
necessary for developing several areas in modem physics and engineering.
In this unit we aim to familiarise you with complex numbers and the different ways of
representing them. We shall also discuss the basic algebraic operations on complex numbers.
Finally, we shall acquaint you with a very useful result, namely, De Moivre's theorem. It has
several applications. We shall discuss only two of them in some detail.
We would like to reiterate that whatever mathematics course you study, you will need the
knowledge of the subject matter covered in this unit So please go through it carefully and
ensure that you have achieved the following objectives.
 
Soluhna of Polynomial Equatjons
Objectives
After studying this unit you should be able to :
define a complex number ;
describe the geometrical, polar and exponential representations of a complex number ;
apply the various algebraic operations on complex numbers ;
prove and use de Moivre s theorem.
When you consider the linear equation 2x + 3 = 0, you know that it has a solution, namely
3
x= 
2
. But, can you always find a real solution of the equation ax + b = 0, where a, b E R
b
and a # O? Is the required solution x = ? It is, since ( ? ) + b = O
a
Now, what happens if we try to look for real solutions of any quadratic equation over R ?
Consider one such equation namely x2+ 1 = 0, that is x2 = 1. This equation has no solution
in R since the square of any real number must be nonnegative.
From about 250 A. D. onwards, nathematicians have been coming across quadratic equa
tions, arising from real life situations, which did not have any real solutions. It was in the
16th century that the Italian mathematicians Cardano and Bombelli started a serious discus
sion on extending the number system to include square roots of nagative numbers. In the
next two hundred years more and more instances were discovered in which the use of square
roots of negative numbers helped in finding the solutions of real problems.
In 1777the Swiss mathematician Euler introduced the "imaginary unit", which he denotesby
the Greek letter iota, that is i. He defined i = f i .Soon after, the great mathematician Carl
Friedrich Gauss introduced the term complex numbers for numbers such as
Nowadays these numbers are accepted and used in every field of mathematics.
Let us define a complex number now.
Definition :A complex number is a number of the form x + iy, where x and y arereal numbers
andi2=1.
We say that x is the real part and y is the imaginary part of the complex number x + iy.
Wewritex=Re(x+iy)andy=Im(x+iy).
Caution :i) i is not a real number.
ii) Im (x + iy) is the real number y, and not iy.
We denote the set of all complex numben by C.
S o , C = { x + i y ( x , y ~R).
By convention, we will usually denote an element of C by z. So, whenever we will talk of a
complex number z, we will mean z = x + iy for some x, y E R In facf z = Re z + i Im z.
There is another convention that we follow while writing complex numbers, which we give in
the following remark.
Remark 1: When you go through Sec. 2.4.2, you will see that iy = yi v y E R That is why
we can write the complex number x + iy as x + y i also.
By convcntion, wewrite any complex number x + iy for which y E Q, as x +yi. For example,
3 5 ' 3' 5
we prefer towrite 2 + i, 2 +  i and 2 +  i for 2 + il, 2 + i  and 2 + i  , respectively.
2 9 2 9
Complex Number
But if Z E C is the form z = a + i Ji; ,b e It,then we prefer to write z in this form and not as
z = a + &i.
Now that you know what a complex number is, would you agree that the following numbers
belong to C ?
5+&5,3i,JZ,JT
Each of them is 'a complex number because
5+J15=5+ifi
3i = 0 +i3
f i = f i+iO
From these examples you may have realised that some complex numbers can have their real
part or their imaginary part equal to zero. We have names for such numbers.
Definition :Consider a complex number z = x + iy.
If y = 0 we say z is purely real.
If x = 0, we say z is purely imaginary.
We usually write the purely real number x + oi as x only, and write the purely imaginary
number 0 + iy as iy only.
Try these exercises now.
z Re z Irnz
1+ ,I25
2
1 0 0
1 + JS
5
Now, given any complex number, we can define a related complex number in a very natural
way, as follows.
Definition :Let z = x + iy E C. We define the complex conjugative (or simply the conjugate)
of z to be the complex number
T h u s , R e ? = Re z a n d ImZ =  h n z
Forexample, if z = 15 + i then Z = 15  i.
Try this simple exercise now.
In section 2.4.2 you will see one important use of the complex conjugate.
So far we have shown you an algebraic method of representing complex numbers. Now let us
consider a geometrical way of doing so.
Mutioms of Poiylro~nlrlEgurtloas
2.3 GEOMETRICAL REPRESENTATION
You know that we can geometricallyrepresent real numbers on the number line. In fact there is

a one one correspondonce between real numbers and points on the number line. You have
also seen that a complex number is determined by two real numbers, namely, its real and
imaginaxy par@. This observation led the mathematicians WesseZ and Oauss to think of
representing complex numbers as points in a plane. This geometric representation was given
in the early 1800. It is called an Argand diagram, after the Swiss mathematician J. R Argand,
who propagated this idea.
Let us see what an Argand diagram is.
Take a rectangular set of axes OX end OY in the XOY plane. Any point in the plane is deter
mined by its Cartesian coordinates. Now we consider any complex number x + iy. We represent
it by the point in the plane with Cartesia~~
coordinates (x, y). This representation is an Argand
diagram. For example in Figure 1, P represents the complex number 2 + 3i, whose real part H
i 2
and imaginary part is 3. And what number does P' represent? P' corresponds to 2  3i.
You may have realised that in an Argand diagram the purely real numbers lie along the xaxis
and the purely imaginary numbers lie along the yaxis. .
So, you have seen that, given x + iy E C we associate with it the unique point (x,y) E R2 .The
converse is also true. That is given (x, y) E R ~we
, can associate with it the unique complex
number x + iy. This means that the following definition of a complex number is equivalent to
our previous definition.
Definition : A complex number is an ordered pair of real numbers. In the language of sets, we
can say that C = R x R.
With the help of this definition can you say when two complex numbers are equal ?
Definition :We say that two complex numbers (x,, y,) and (x,, y,) are equal iff x, = x,
and y, = y,.
In other words, xl + iyl = x2+ iy, iff x, = x,and y, = y2.
II Thus,two elements of C are equal iff their real parts are equal and their imaginary parts arc
equal.
/
1
E6)Forwhatvduesofkandmislr+)i=+im?
2
1
, While solving E4 you may have observed that in an Argand diagram the point that repre
sents Z is the reflection in the xaxis of the point that represent z, for any z E C.
Here are two more exercises about complex conjugates.
I
/ E7) For which z E C will z = Z ?
, E8) For any z E C, show that = z, that is, the conjugate of the conjugate of z is z.
Now consider any nonzero complex number z = x + iy. We represent it by P in the Argand
diagram in Figure 2. We call the distance OP the modulus of z, and denote it by ( z 1.
Y
If, in Figure 2, we write ( z I = r. Then you can see that sin 8 =  and cos8 =  .
X
r . r
:. x=rcos8,y=rsin8. ......(1)
So, we can also write z as
z=r(cos8+isin8),wherer=~z~and8=Argz.
This is called the polar form of z.
Note that, give z = r + iy we can use (1) to obtain ATg z = (9 HOW~VCI,
as than
one angle between n and x have the same tan value, we must draw in argand diagram to find
the right value of Arg z.
Let us look at an example.
Example 1: (a) Obtain the modulus and argument of 1 + i.
X
(b) 3
ObtainqifIz)=2andArgz==.
X
Thus, Arg z =  .
4
= 1+ i J5
Try the following exercises now.
     
E9) Write down the polar f o m of the complex numbers listed in E4 (a).
ElO) Show that (z E C 1 z 1 = 1) is the equation of the circle x2+ 9 = lin R2,and
vice versa.
There is yet another way of rqresenting a complex number. In fact this method is closely
related to the polar representation. It uses the expression ez,where z E C. Let us define this
expression.
Definition :For any z = x + iy E C, we defiie
eL= ex(cos y + i sin y).
In particular, if z= iy, a purely imaginary number, then we get
This formula is d u ~.J the famous Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler. You will be using it
quite often w h i l ~dealing with complex numbers.
Now consider an. , E C. We write it in its polar form,
. z == r (cos8 + i sin B ).
IJow, using Eule: * s fo~mulawe find that
z = re'@.
This is the exponential form of the complex number z.
345 + 
For example, the exponential from of z=  3i
2 2
E 11) Write the following complex numbers in polar form and exponential from:
By now you must be thoroughly familiar with the various ways of representing a complex
number. Let us now discuss some operations on complex numbers.
In this section we will discuss the addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of complex
, numbers. Let us first coilsider '+ ' and '' in C.
2.4.1 Addition and Subtration
We will now define addition in C using the definition of addition in R.
Definition: The sum of two complex numbers z,= x, + iy, and z, = x2 + iy, is the complex
number z, + z, = (x, + x, ) + i (y, + y, ), that is
b) Showthatz+Z=2Rezforanyz~C.
Addition in C is commutative
and associative.   
E13) Show that zl + z2 = z, + z2 V z l , z2 EC.
E14) a) Showthatz,+z2=z2+z,foranyz,,z2~C.
b) Show that (z, + z2)+ z3= z, + (z, + 2,) for any z,, z,, z, E C.
E 15) Find the element a + ib E C such that
If you have solved these exercises, you must have realised that the addition in C satisfies
most of the properties that addition in R satisfies. Also, because of what you proved in El5,
we say that 0 + iO (= 0) is the additive identity in C.
Now, can you define subtraction in C ? We give you a very natural definition.

Definition :The difference z, z, of two complex numbers z, = xl + iy and ,
2,x,+iy,isz,+(z2),
where  Z, = ( x,) + i ( y,).
Thus, z,  z2= z, + (z,)
=(x,i~,)+[(~)+i(~~)l
= (x,  x2) Y ~ ) '
+ i (Y,

So, what do you think z z is, for any z e C ?
h t ' a see.TBka z x + iy. Then
zzm(xx)+i(yy)=O, theadditiveidmtityiuC.
For my z e C, (2) is the
additive inverse of z. Try the following exercise now.
 
I'
fig. 4 : z r n d z
(z)
We will now make a brief remark on the graphical representation of the sum of complex
numbers.
Remark 3 :The addition of two complex numbers has an important geometrical representa
tion. Consider an Argand diagram (Figure 5) in which we represent two complex numbers (x,,
y,) and (x2, yZ)by the points P and Q.
If we complete the parahelogram whose adjacent sides are OP and OQ, the fourth vertex R
represents the sum (x,,y ,) + (x,, y2).
Complex Number
Fig. 5: Addition in C.
In vector algebra you will come across a similar parallelogram law of addition.
So far you have seen how naturally we have defined addition (and subtraction) in C by ushg
addition (and subtraction) in R. Let us see if we can do the same for multiplication.
2.4.2 Multiplication And Division
We will now use multiplication in R to define multiplication in C. But the route is slightly
circuitous. Consider the following product of two linear polynomials a + bx and c + dx, where
a, b, c, d E R.
(a + bx) (c + dx) = ac + (ad + bc) x + bd x2.
Definition :The product z, z2 of two complex numbers z, = x, + iy, and z, = % + iy2is the
complex number
~ ~ , ~ Y , ~ . ~ ~ , ~ Y , ~ = ~ ~ , ~ ,  Y , Y , ~ ~ , Y ~ + ~ ~ Y , ~ ~
For example,
. (1,2)(3,2)=[1.(3)2.2,1.2+(3).2].
Multiplication has several properties, which you will discover if you try the following
exercise.
E 19) Obtain (x, y) (1,O). (x, y) (0, I), (x, Y)(O,O), (x, 0) (Y,0) and
fY.,;r)(J ,X!/X c
X . I \ ~
E20) Prove that
4 'iz,=z,z, VZ,,z,E C.
Using E20 let us see how to obtain the standard form of the quotient of a complex number by
nonzero complex number. We will use a process similar to'the one you must have used for
a+bh
rationalising the denominator in expressions like Consideran example.
2+3i c +d h
Example 3 :Obtain l_i in the form a + ib, a, b E R
Solution :E20 (d) gives us a clue to a method for making the denominator a rcal number. Let
, 2+3i
us multiply and divide by F i . What do we get ?
2+3i  1 5.
+ 1.
So, iq 2 2
If you've understood the way we have solved the example, you will have no problem in doing
the following exercises.
a+ib
E 22) For a, b, c, d E R and c2+ d2# 0, write as an element of C.
. c+id
1
E23) a) Show that
1 6
b) Show that ;= 1,z , v , ~ c \ { o j .
If you have done E22,then you know how to write the quotient of one complex number by a
nonzero complex number in standard form.
Complex Numb3
Suppose we lcnow z,, z2 E C in their polp forms, say
z, = r , (cos 8, +isin0,)andz,=r2 (COS8,+isin0,). Then
z, z, = r, r, (cos 0, + i sin 0, ) (cos 0, + i sin 8, )
el
= rl rZ {(COS cos 0,  sin 0, si%) + i (sin 8, cgs 8, + cos 0, sin 0, ))
= r, r, (cos (8, + 8, ) + i sin (8, + 8, )) ..,.(2)
S O , I Z ~=rlr2=lz1
~~I lIz2land
Arg (z, z2) = (8, + 8, ) + 2k x, where we choose k E Z eo that
n<(8, + e l ) +2kx 5 n .
In Figure 6 we give a graphic illustration of what we have just said.
Example 4 :Obtain the product of z, = 2(cos 1 + i sin 1) and z2= cos 3 + i sin 3.
Note the Arg (z, z2)= 4, since 4 > x. We need to choose an integer k such that
 x < 4 + 2k x Ix, k = 1 serves the purpose. thus, ,
k g (2,Z2)= 4  2 ~ .
Hence (z, z,) = 2(cos (4  2x ) + i sin (4  2x)) is the polar form of z, z,.
We have a very nice method of finding the multiplicative inverse of a non zero complex
number in an Argand diagram. Let us see what it is.
Let z E C \ (0) be represented by a point P (see Figure 7). Let Q represent the real number
( z 12. Let R be the reflection of P in the xaxis, so that R represents 2 .
Now, through (1,O) draw a line parallel to QR. Let it intersect the line OR in S. Then S
1
represents  .
Z
Solutions of Polynomial Equations
E 24) Find the polar forms of z, and z2where z, =  6 and z2= 1 + i. Hence obtain I z, z2 I and
Arg (z, 2,).
21
E25) Knowing the polar forms of z , , z2E C, z2 # 0,obtain the polar form of *
22
Z  1
E26) Obtain 2in the polar form, where zl and z2are as in E 24.Represent z, , z 2 , z 2 , 
 z2 2 2
and 3 in an Argand diagram.
z2
We will use multiplication and division in the polar form a great deal in the next section. Before
going to it, let us give you a rule that relates '+' and 'x' in C. Do you know of such a law in R?
You must have used the distributive law often enough. It says that
a (b + c) = ab + ac v a, b, c E R. The same law holds of C. Why don't you try and prove it?
E27) a) Checkthat
Multiplicatin distributes over (1 + i) { ( h  3i) + (5 +i))
addition.
i
1
I
1
In fact ~hisis a particular case of a very nice fourmula, namely, that if z = r (cose + i sine ),
then zn it' (cosn0 + i sinne) for any integer n. To prove this result we need De molvre'r
theorem, named after the French mathematician Abrahamne Moivre (1 667  1754 ). It may
Complex Number
1 amuse you to know that De Moivre never explicity stated this result. Rut he seems to have
1
I
known it and used it in his writings of 1730. It was Euler who explicitly stated and proved this
result in 1748.
t
I
b
Theorem 1 (De Mulvre s theorem): ( cose + i sine )n= cos ne + i sin no, for any n E Z and any
b
angle 8.
: Proof : Let us flrst prove it for n 3 0.We will prove this by using the following important
principle.
Princlple of Induction :Let P (n) be a set statements of one statement for each a positive
, integer n, such that
You can study induction in
i) P(l)istrue,and greater detail in the cours
"Absiract Algebra".
ii) if P (m) is true for some m E N, then P (m + 1) is true.
Then, P (n) is true y n E N.  .
How will we use this principle ? For any n E N,we will take P (n) to be the statement
"(cose + i sine)" = cos ne + i sin ne ".
We will first prove that it holds for n = 1 that is, P (1)
is true. Then, we will assume that it holds for n = m for some m E N, and prove that it is true
I for
n = m + 1. This will show that if P (m) is true, then so is P (m +I).
Now. for n = 1,
I
I (cose + i sine )' = cose + i sine = cos 1 . 9 + i sin 10.
1
i
So the result is true for n =I.
I =cos(m+1)8+isin(m+~)9
Hence, the result is true for n = m + 1.
Thus, by the principle of induction, the result is true y n E N.
Now let us see what happens if n = 0.
We define z0 = 1, for any z E C \ (0). (As in the case of R, O0 is not defined.)
Therefore, (cose + i sin 8 )O = 1.
Also,cos0.8+isin0.8.=cosO+isinO=1.
Thus, the result is also true for n = 0.
I
. Now, what happens if n < O? May be, you can prove this case. You can do the following
exercises, which will lead you to the result.
1
E 28) Prove that cos + 
sine = cosO i sine, for any angle 8.
Use this fact and De Moivre's theorem for positive integers to prove that
(cos8 + i sin8 )" = cos n + i sin 8 .
2.5.1 TrigonometricIdentities
One of the most useful applications of Theorem 1 is in proving identities that involve trigono
metric functions like sin 8 , cos 8 , etc. Let us look at an example.
Example 5 :Find a formula for cos 4 8 in terms of cos 8 and sin 8.
Solution :by De Moivre's theorem
(~os8+isin8)~=cos48+isin84 .........(4)
We can also expand the left hand side of (4) by using the binomial expansion. Then
(cos 8 + i sin S ~+ 4CI(COS8)l (i sin8 ) + 4C2( ~ 0 ~ (i8 ) ~
= ( C O )4
E 30) Find formulae for cos 38 in terms of cos 8 and sin 38 in terms of sine.
Now, for any m E N let us look at zm,where z E C such that ( z I = 1. Then, by De Moivre's
theorem
z"' = cos me + i sin nl8
'and z'" = cos m8  i sin me,
= 2{2 cos4n8 + 2 (4nc2) cos (4n  4)8 + .......) + 2(4nc2,), using (5).
The procedure we have shown in Example 6 is very useful for solving differential equations
involving trigonometic functions. It is also usefbl for fmding the Laplace transform of such
functions.
Why don't you try this exercise now ?
Let us now look at another area in which we can apply De moivre's theorem with great
success.
2.5.2 Roots of A Complex Number
In Section 2.2 we told you thaf the whole subject of complex numbers first arose in an attempt'.
to find the square roots of  1. By now you know that we can always find two distinct complex
square roots of any non  zero real number.
That is, given a E R \ {0),3 distinct z,z, E C such that zt = a, z; =a.
In fact, the set of complex numbers nas a much strongerproperty, which is a major reason for
its importance in mathematics. This property is :
given any n E N and z E C, z f 0, we can find distinct z,,.......,znE C such that %n = z
X X
rS( c o d + i = cos  + i sin 
2 2
by De Moivre's thorem.
Comparing the moduli (plural 'modulus') and arguments of the complex numbers on both sides
of (7),we get
n:
91 and50 +Zknwherek=O,f 1, f 2 ,.......
2
r is the unique positive real fifth root of I (see E33 ). Since 1 E R, r e l , that is ( z I = 1.
The possible values of 8 are
From this it seems that i has infinitely many 5th roots, one for each k E Z. But this is not true.
There are only 5 distinct ones among these. They will be the values of z for
K=2, 1,0,1,2. Let us see why.
When k =  2, = cos    (i
4~)+isin(~%)
7X 3X
= cos  i sin  = z  ~ say.
,
10 10
n 3x
When k = 1, z = cosisin = z, say.
10 10
X X
When k = 0, z = cos+isin = zosay.
10 10
X X
When k = 1, z = cos + isin  = z, say.
2 2
9n
When k = 2, z = c o s E +isin  = z,, say.
cos (2% + 6 1  LO. 0 10 10
'"
,
Complex Number
(;
cos  + 2k
3 ' ;I
+ isitl  + 2k  for k
;(
Remark 4: We also get the 5th roots of i by takifig h
= (;.
 I!.
1, + 2.
1 , 2 . 3 , 4 in
,as you ha\c :;r: 1. Qnly note that for k = 1and k = 4,
(10 5
the angles 0 will not lie in the range rr < 0 S x. Thzt's why we had taken k = 0. + 1, 2. *
Now, look at all the fifth roots of i.. How are their rnodtl!i rels~ed:?They have the same rnodu
lus, namely, I i ~""=l). Thus they all lie on the circle \viih centre (0,O) and radius i. These
points will be equally spaced on the circle, since the arguments of consecutive points differ by
2?r
, a constant. We plot them in the Argrnd diagram in Figure 8.
5
1 \111gthe same procedure as above we can obtain the dis~inctnth rootsof 4ny nonzero
complex number, for any 11 E N. Thus given, any nonzero c o r n p l e x ! ~ l ~ , awe
: write~itinits
polar fonn
w = a ( c o s a + i s i n a ) , w h e r e a = /wIandQ=Argw,

By E33, there is a unique r E R, r > 0, such that r" =a, ahat is, r a"". Then the distinct nth
roots of w are
a +2 k ~
zk = a''" [cos
n
+ i sin 
n forlidl; .........., nI:
Geometrically, they lie on a circle of radius a"" and are equally spaced on it
Solutions of Polynonilul Equations Note that P
a non :zero complex number has exactly n distinct nth roots for
any n E N. If z is one root, then the others are
.
z a, ......,2% where al.........a,:, are the nth roots of unity.
E 34) Find the complex cube roots of unity, that is, those z E C such that z3 = 1. Plot them in
an Argand diagram.
The cube roots of unity that you obtained in E34 are vkry important. We usually denote the
I + i&i
cube root  2
by theGreek letter w (omega).
1 +i h
the three cube roots of unity are 1, w, w2, where
2
1+ w+w2=0.
We will equally often use the following results, that we ask you to prove.
E 36) a) Let a E R . Show that a has a real cube root r, and the cube roots of a are r, rw, rw'
, .*
b) Show that if a E R, a < 0 and n is an even positive'integer, then a will not have a
real nth root.
c) Let z E C \ R. Thgn show that z has three cube roots, and if any one of them is y,
the other two are y w, y w'.
 C '
With this we come to the end of our discussion on complex numbers. Thus does't mean that
you won't be dealing with them any more . In fact, you will often use whatever we have
covered in this unit, while studying this course as well as other mathematics courses.
Let us take a brief look at the points covered
:.'
in this
. ' , unit.
..;
2.6 SUMMARY
In this unit on complex numbers you have studied the following points.
1) The deflmition of a complex number:
A con~plexnumber is a number of the form x + iy where x, y E R and i = fi
Equivalently, ~tis apair (x,y) E R x R.
2) x is the real part and y is the imaginary part of x + iy.
Complex Numhcr
3) x,+iy,=x2+iy2iffx,=x2andy,=y2.
4) The conjugate of z = x + iy is 2 = x 'iy.
f i y 2 and

6) Thepolarformofz=n + i y i s z = r ( c o s R + i s i n R ) , w h e r e r = z =
0 = Arg
z = tan' , where we choose the 0 that corrc.ponds to the position of z in
an Argand diagram.
11) De Moivre's theorem : (case + i sine )" = cos ne + i sin ne t/ n E Z and any angle 8.
12) The use of De Moivre's theorem in proving trigonometric identities and for obtaining nth
roots of complex numbers, where n E N.
1 + i J 5
13) The cube roots of unity are 1, o,w2,where o =  2
.
Now that you have gone through this unit, please go back to the objectives listed in
Section 2.1. Do you think you have achieved them? One way of finding out is to solve all the
exercises that we have given you in this unit. If you would like to verify your solution or
answers, you can see what we have written in the following section.
1 +J23 1
 J23
2 2' 2
1 0 1
0 0 0
i+h I+&
0
5 5
Solution6 of Polynomial Equatlonr
E 2 ) Yes,because every real number x P the complex w b e r x + Oi.
E3) 23i,2+3i2,3i.
E.o)a)
Fig. 9
.
P,Q, Rand S represent 3,  1 + i,  1 + i and i, respectively.
F la. 10
Id,, L, and L, reprorent the setr S,, S,nrt: S,, rerpcrctivo!y,
Es) k  ~1 , m  3 ,

E 7 ) Loto x+iy.Then 'ixly.
,; o m Z e x + i y  x  i y * y m  y d y  0 ,
,*. y zeRz2
E8) Lotox+iy.Tksn Exiy,
7
i = cos
71
+ isin .71
2 2
71 X
1+i = fi (cos = i sin ) (polar form)
4 4
= fi e i '14 ( exponential form)
1 = cos rc + i sin x (polar form)
= ei w2 ( exponential from )

a'. Z I + z2 =(x, + X ~ )  ( Y I + Y * )
= %, + ZZ
E 14)a)Letz,=(x,,y, ) ~ d z , = ( x ~ ~ y ~ )

Then~l+za~(x,~~l)+(xa~~~)
(~,+~,IY,+Y,)
= ( x a + x I I y Z + y , ) , s i n c e a + b = b +yaa , b e Ra
'(x~~Y~)+(x~,YI)
=Z2+ZI
b ) Letz,m(xla~,),z2m(xa~a)az,=(x~a~,)*
Then, u8e the fact that ( a + b ) + c = r + (b + c ) yr, b, c E R to prove the resultl
E15) Letzmx+iy,
Thenz+(a+ib)=z
+(x+iy)+(a+ib)=x+iy
*(x+a)+i(y+b)=x+iy
* x+a=xandy+by
Arg (2) = tan' ):( = tan' ):( = Arg z  n ,because (2) is the reflection of
z in the origin.
El91 (&Y)(l,O)=(&Y)
(x,y)(O.l)=(~,x)
( x,y) ( 0 ) =(0,O)
(~o)(Y,o)=(xY,o)
(x,y)(l, l)=(xy,x+y).
E20) a) Let z, = (x,, y, ) andz, = ( x, ,y, ). Then
2, ? = ( x " Y ' ) ( x ~ , Y ~ )
I I
a +,ib
E22) c2+d2 # 0 means that c # 0 or d # 0. Thus, c + id # 0. Hence
is meaningful.
. , c + id
  (a+ib) (cid)  (ac+bd) + i(bcad)   + bd) + i [ b c  a d )
a+ib
c+id (c+id) (cid) c2 + d 2 c + d 2 c2 + d 2
Cc~mplcrNumber
E23) a) L e t z = x + i y = O . T h e n , f i . o 1 ~ ~ E 2 0 ( d ) w e k n o w t l ~ a t z Z = z ~ ~ .
Therefore, (iF =
1 
7 is the rnultipl;cative inverse of Z .
I z l
1
b) F o r z # O , z .  =
Z I: I I,:.
n
1x1.  = I l l = I.:.
1
E21) z l = 6 ( c o s n + i ~ i n n ) , ~ , = ~4 [ C 0 ~  + i ~ i ~ 
:. 1 z, zz I = 6 & and
z, r, (COSO, + isin0,)
then L?
=
r2(~~~02jisin02)
PA
rl
= (cose, + i sine,) (cos 8,  i sin 8,)' multiplying and hviding by (cos  i sin 8?).
r2
r!
=  cos (8, + 8,) + i sin (8,  8, ))
r2
rl
=  (cose,
r2
 8, + 2kx) + i sin (8,  + 2kn)), where k E R such that
,261 5 =  (cOs("
z,
6
%ti
 ): + i sin (n  :)
Fie.
 11
1 21
The points P, Q, R, S and T in Figure 1 1 represent z l , 22, Z2,  and , respectively.
z2 22
Here OT = 
I'? and LXOT = LXOP  LXOQ
oQ
E27) a ) L H S = ( l + i ) [ ( f i +5)2i]=(7+ f i ) + i ( 3 + A)
LHS stands for let? hand side
RHS=[( f i + 3 ) + i ( &  3 ) ] + ( 4 + 6 i ) = ( & + 7 ) + i ( & + 3 ) and RHS stands for right hand
sids
Thus, LHS = M S .
Solutions of Polynomial Equntlons
b) Let 2,  x, T iy, , z, = X, r iy,, 2, = X, + iy3 .
Thenz, (zl+z3)=(xl+lYl
)C(x2+x3)+i (y,+ Y3)1
= [ x ~ ( x ~ + x ~ () ~ Y
2 +~ ~ 3 ) I + i( [Y~ ~1 + Y ~ () xT ~Y+~x ~ ) I
=(xIx2~I~2)+(xIx3~,~3)+iCx,~Z+x~~,j+(x,~3+x3~1)1
=[(xi x 2  ~ I ~ Z ) + i ( x I ~ 2 + x 2 ~ I ) l + C ( x , x )  ~ I ~ 3 ) + i ( ~ 1 ~ 3 + x 3 ~ 1 ~ 1
= z l z2+z1Z3.
You can also solve this by writing z,, z, and z3 in polar form, If you do, you must remember to
be careful about zi = 0 for any i.
(COS i sin@)n =  1
 =
(case + i sin 0)"' (cosO + i sin 6
= ( cose  i sine)"
= [ cos (0 ) + i sin (8 )Im
=cos(mQ)+isin (me),sincem>O.
= cos ne + i sin n8.
E30) (cose + i sine )) = cos 38 + i sin 38.
Also, ( cose + i sine )3 = cos3 8 + 3 cos2@(i sine ) +3 cosC) ( i sin 8)2+ ( i sine )3
= ( cos38 3 cose sin28) + i ( 3sinC) cos28 sin3@).
Thus, comparing real parts of the two equalities, we get
cos 38 = cos39  3 cose sin28= cos38  3 cos0 ( 1  ccrs'Q )
= 4 cos38  3 cos 8.
Similarly, comparing the imaginary parts we get
sin 38 = 3 sine ( 1  sin28)  sin38 = 3 sine  4 sin38 .
E 3 1) ( cose + i sine )2= cos 20 + i sin 20, and
( cose + i sine )2 = cos28+ 2i C O S sin8
~  sin28.
:. cos 28 = cos28 sin28,and
sin 28 = 2 sine cose.
E 32) Let z = cos8 + i sine. Then, using (6)
= 4 cos 68 + 60 cos 28
1
Cos68  sin68=  (cos 68 + 15 cos 28 )
16
E33) Let r, s E R,r, s > 0 and rn = x = sn.We will prove the result by contradiction(sec
appendix to this block ). Suppose r f s. Then

rll  Sll ( r  s ) ( rl'l + r"2 s + .....+ mll2 + snl ) = 0
Since r > 0, s > 0, rll' + r"' s + ......+ rs112
+ sl'' > 0.
Also, r  s # 0.
But then how can the product of two non  zero numbers be zero ? So we reach a
contradiction. Therefore, our assumption must be false. Thus, r = s.
E 34) Let z = (cos8 + Bsin8) be a cube root of 1 = cos 0 + i sin 0,
0+2kx 2kx
he^ r = 1113 = 1 0 =   for k = 0,1, I. ,
3 3
2kn
:. The roots are 1. (COs j + i sin 
2 k K ) for t = Q I .  I
3
1
 JJ I , JJ
+ i and   1 ,
Thus, the roots are 1,

3 2 2 2
(COS
8
+
. . 8
,sin )2/ and 10"' {mr (:+n) +
fn
isin  +
\1
x, j ,
2 (2 1
I
where 8 = tan' ;
(since 1 =cosx+isinx;)
Thus ,bn # a for any b E R.Hence, a can't have a real nth root.
c) h t z = r ( cos0 + i sin0 ) ,in polar form.
0+2kn
Then its cube mots are r1I3 (Cos
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