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# Chapter 25

## Capital Budgeting and Managerial

Decisions
QUESTIONS
1.

Capital budgeting is the process of planning the acquisition or sale of plant assets.

2.

Capital budgeting decisions are risky because: (1) the outcomes are uncertain, (2)
large amounts of money are usually involved, (3) the investment involves a longterm commitment, and (4) the decisions may be difficult or impossible to reverse.

3.

Capital budgeting decisions require careful analysis because they are generally the
most difficult and risky decisions that management faces.

4.

The payback period ignores both the present value of cash flows and all cash flows
after the payback period.

5.

## A shorter payback period is desirable because management prefers to reduce the

risk that the investment might not be profitable over the long run. As a result of
acquiring assets with shorter payback periods, a company is both less vulnerable to
inaccurate long-term predictions of future cash flows and is less subject to changes
in external factors that might adversely affect the investment project.

6.

If net income is earned evenly throughout each year and straight-line depreciation is
used, the average investment is the original cost plus the salvage value, divided by
2. For this machine, the average investment equals \$110,000, computed as
(\$200,000 + \$20,000)/ 2.

7.

When the present value of expected net cash flows, discounted at 10%, exceeds the
amount invested it indicates that the expected rate of return on the investment is
greater than 10 percent. On the other hand, when the present value of expected net
cash flows, discounted at 10%, is less than the amount invested it indicates that the
expected rate of return on the investment is less than 10 percent.

8.

Receiving \$100 one year from today is worth less than \$100 today because a return
can be earned on a \$100 investment during the year. If \$100 to be received one year
from today is discounted at 12%, the present value is \$100 x 0.8929 = \$89.29 (the
present value factor is taken from Table B.1). This means that if \$89.29 is invested at
12% for one year, it will be worth \$100 at the end of that year. This amount also can
be found by dividing \$100 by 1.12.

## McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005

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9.

The return on an investment must cover the interest and provide an additional profit
to reward the company for risk. For example, if money can be borrowed at 10%, a
required after-tax return of about 15% is usually acceptable for companies with
average risk projects.

10. Accelerated depreciation produces larger tax deductions and lower tax payments in
the early years of an assets life compared with straight-line depreciation. This is
because the larger depreciation expense for accelerated methods in earlier years
reduces both taxable income and taxes paid in the short run (in the long run there is
no difference except for the time value of money). Therefore, net cash inflows will
be larger in earlier years, which will increase the present value of future cash flows.
11. An out-of-pocket cost requires a current outlay of cash. An opportunity cost is the
potential benefit that is lost by choosing an alternative course of action.
Opportunity costs are not recorded in the accounting records.
12. Sunk costs are irrelevant because they remain the same whether the product is sold
in its present condition or processed further.
13. There are virtually no incremental costs associated with shipping the additional
compensation for handling one additional dozen, no ground transportation costs
would be incurred for picking it up at the senders location, additional fuel costs for
transportation would be minuscule, and no additional transportation costs would be
incurred at the destination.
14. Tastykake management could use one of the following common methods to evaluate
the potential oven investment: payback period, accounting rate of return, net
present value, or internal rate of return.
15. The company might be willing to sell the units internationally if (a) the company has
excess capacity, (b) the incremental costs of manufacturing and selling the units are
less than \$15 each, which it appears to be at \$13 variable cost per unit (c) the
international sales wont reduce domestic sales, and (d) the international buyer is
unwilling to pay more than \$15.

96

## Fundamental Accounting Principles, 17th Edition

QUICK STUDIES
Quick Study 25-1 (10 minutes)
1. If all else is equal, Investment A would be preferred over Investment B
because of As shorter payback period.
2. However, if the investments are different, then there are at least four
reasons why Investment B might be preferred over Investment A:
i. The present value of cash flows from Investment B might greatly exceed
the present value of cash flows from Investment A.
ii. Investment B might be expected to have total cash flows significantly in
excess of the total cash flows returned by Investment A.
iii. Risk of Investment B might be much less than the risk of Investment A.
iv. The growth potential of Investment B might be much greater than that
for Investment A.

## Quick Study 25-2 (10 minutes)

Payback period of Investment = \$18,000 / \$6,000 = 3.0 years
Quick Study 25-3 (15 minutes)
Net present value of investment*
Present value of seven \$20,000 cash inflows (20,000 x 4.8684)...............
\$ 97,368
Present value of \$12,000 at end of seven years (12,000 x 0.5132)........... 6,158
Present value of cash inflows.....................................................................103,526
Less immediate cash outflow......................................................................100,000
Net present value..........................................................................................
\$ 3,526
*Present value factors from tables at the end of Appendix B:
4.8684 = Present value of an annuity of 1, where n = 7, i = 10% (from Table B.3)
0.5132 = Present value of 1, where n = 7, i = 10% (from Table B.1)

## Quick Study 25-4 (10 minutes)

Accounting rate of return = \$1,300 / [(\$30,000 + 4,000)/2] = 7.65%

## McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005

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## Quick Study 25-5 (15 minutes)

X
Contribution margin per unit...................................................
\$10.00
Production hours per unit....................................................... 1/2
Contribution margin per production hour..............................
\$20.00

Y
\$ 8.00
1/3
\$24.00

Sales Mix Analysis: Since Memory Lane can sell all it can produce of both
products, it should allocate all of its production capacity to Product Y. This is
because Y yields a \$24 contribution margin per production hour (versus \$20 for X).

## Quick Study 25-6 (15 minutes)

Incremental cost analysis
Cost to purchase Product B....................................................\$5.00
Revenue loss from reduced price (\$9 - \$8)............................ 1.00
Total cost................................................................................... 6.00
Costs eliminated if Product B purchased (\$5 of \$6)............. 5.00
Net incremental cost of purchasing Product B.....................\$1.00
Analysis: Mo-Kan Co. should continue to manufacture and sell Product A.
Quick Study 25-7 (15 minutes)

Year

Cash flows

Present value
of 1 at 10%

Present value of
cash flows

Cumulative
present value of
cash flows

\$(100,000)

1.0000

\$(100,000)

\$(100,000)

35,000

0.9091

31,819

(68,181)

35,000

0.8264

28,924

( 39,257)

35,000

0.7513

26,296

( 12,961)

35.000

0.6830

23,905

10,944

35,000

0.6209

21,732

32,676

The break-even time point occurs in the 7th month of the 4th year [computed
as (\$12,961 / \$23,905) x 12 = 6.5 months]. Therefore, a reasonable estimate
would be approximately 3.5 years (or 3 7/12 years) for break-even time.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005
98

## Fundamental Accounting Principles, 17th Edition

EXERCISES
Exercise 25-1 (20 minutes)
a.
Payback period =

Cost of investment
Annual net cash flow

\$260,000
= \$125,000 = 2.08 years

where
Annual after-tax income.............................................
\$ 75,000
Plus depreciation*.......................................................
50,000
Annual net cash flow..................................................
\$125,000
*Annual depreciation =

\$260,000 - \$10,000
5

= \$50,000

b.
Payback period =

Cost of investment
\$190,000
Annual net cash flow = \$50,000

= 3.8 years

where
Annual after-tax income.............................................
\$ 30,000
Plus depreciation*.......................................................
20,000
Annual net cash flow..................................................
\$ 50,000
*Annual depreciation =

\$190,000 - \$10,000
9

= \$20,000

## Exercise 25-2 (20 minutes)

Annual Net
Cash Flows
Year 1.............................
\$30,000
Year 2.............................
20,000
Year 3.............................
30,000
Year 4.............................
60,000
Year 5.............................
19,000

Cumulative
Cash Flows
\$ 30,000
50,000
80,000
140,000
159,000

## Cost of investment........................... \$90,000

Paid back in years 1-3...................... 80,000
Paid back in year 4........................... \$10,000
Continued on next page.

## McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005

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Part of year =

## Amount paid back in year 4

Net cash flow in year 4

\$10,000
= \$60,000

= 0.167

## Payback period = 3 + 0.167 = 3.167 years, or 3 years and 2 months

Exercise 25-3 (30 minutes)
COMPUTATION OF ANNUAL DEPRECIATION EXPENSE

Annual Depr.
Beginning
(40% of
Accum. Depr.
Year
Book Value
Book Value)
at Year-End
1
\$300,000
\$120,000
\$ 120,000
2
180,000
72,000
192,000
3
108,000
43,200
235,200
4
64,800
14,800
250,000
5
50,000
0
250,000

Ending
Book Value
\$180,000
108,000
64,800
50,000
50,000

## ANNUAL CASH FLOWS

Year 1
Year 2
Year 3
Year 4
Year 5

Net
Income
\$ 20,000
50,000
100,000
75,000
200,000

Net Cash
Flow
\$ 140,000
122,000
143,200
89,800
200,000

Depreciation
\$120,000
72,000
43,200
14,800
0

Cost of machine.....................................
Paid back in years 1 and 2....................
Paid back in year 3................................

## Amount paid back in year 3

Net cash flows in year 3

Cumulative
Cash Flow
\$ 140,000
262,000
405,200
495,000
695,000

\$300,000
262,000
\$ 38,000

\$38,000
\$143,200

= 0.265

100

## Exercise 25-4 (15 minutes)

\$500,000 + \$100,000
Average investment =
= \$300,000
2
Accounting rate of return = \$15,000 / \$300,000 = 5%

## Exercise 25-5 (20 minutes)

COMPUTING NET CASH FLOWS FROM NET INCOME
Net income
Sales.............................................................\$150,000

Cash flows
\$150,000

## Materials, labor & overhead........................ 80,000

80,000

Depreciation................................................. 20,000

15,000

## Pretax income.............................................. 35,000

Income taxes (30%)..................................... 10,500

10,500

## Net income...................................................\$ 24,500

Net cash flows.............................................

1. Payback period =

\$240,000
\$44,500

## 2. Accounting rate of return =

\$ 44,500

= 5.39 years

\$24,500
\$120,000*

= 20.42%

*Average investment
Cost................................... \$240,000
Salvage.............................
0
Sum................................... \$240,000
Average (Sum/2)............... \$120,000

## McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005

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Annual
Net Cash
Flows

## Years 1 through 12...............................................

\$ 44,500

Present
Value of
Annuity
at 8%

7.5361

Present
Value of
Net Cash
Flows

\$ 335,356

Amount to be invested.........................................

(240,000)

\$ 95,356)

## Exercise 25-7 (35 minutes)

1.
PROJECT C1
Net Cash
Flows

Present
Value of 1
at 12%

Year 1.................................................
\$ 10,000
0.8929
Year 2.................................................
90,000
0.7972
Year 3.................................................
140,000
0.7118
Totals.................................................
\$240,000
Amount invested...................................................
Net present value..................................................

Present
Value of
Net Cash
Flows

8,929
71,748
99,652
\$180,329
(190,000)
\$ (9,671)

PROJECT C2
Net Cash
Flows

Present
Value of 1
at 12%

Year 1.................................................
\$ 80,000
0.8929
Year 2.................................................
80,000
0.7972
Year 3.................................................
80,000
0.7118
Totals.................................................
\$240,000
Amount invested...................................................
Net present value..................................................

Present
Value of
Net Cash
Flows

\$ 71,432
63,776
56,944
\$192,152
(190,000)
\$ 2,152

102

## Exercise 25-7 (Continued)

PROJECT C3
Net Cash
Flows

Present
Value of 1
at 12%

Year 1.................................................
\$150,000
0.8929
Year 2.................................................
50,000
0.7972
Year 3.................................................
40,000
0.7118
Totals.................................................
\$240,000
Amount invested...................................................
Net present value..................................................

Present
Value of
Net Cash
Flows

\$133,935
39,860
28,472
\$202,267
(190,000)
\$ 12,267

## Analysis and Interpretation: Both Project C2 and Project C3 yield a positive

net present value. Accordingly, both C2 and C3 are acceptable investments.
2.

## INTERNAL RATE OF RETURN VS. NET PRESENT VALUE FOR C2

Project C2 will have an internal rate of return higher than 12%. We know
this because Project C2 has a positive net present value using a 12% rate of
return.
3.

## = Amount invested / Net cash flows

= \$190,000 / \$80,000 = 2.375
(ii) Factor is approximately equal to the 13% discount factor of 2.375 for 3
years (see Table B.3*).
*Instructor note: There is not a 13% column in the PV tables; students will need to
interpolate 12% + [ (15%-12%) x ({2.4018 2.3750}/ 0.1186) ] = 12.68%.

## McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005

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## Exercise 25-8 (25 minutes)

Normal
Volume
Sales.................................................. \$3,000,000

Volume*
\$240,000

Combined
Total
\$3,240,000

## Costs and expenses

Direct materials...............................

400,000

40,0001

440,000

Direct labor......................................

800,000

80,0002

880,000

200,000

30,000

230,000

Selling expenses............................

300,000

514,000

86,000

600,000

\$236,000

\$2,450,000

\$ 790,000

## Net income........................................ \$ 786,000

300,000

4,000

2
(20,000 x \$2)
(20,000 x \$4)
Additional sales revenue = 20,000 units @ \$12 = \$240,000
Materials cost per unit = \$400,000/200,000 units = \$2 per unit
Labor cost per unit = \$800,000/200,000 units = \$4 per unit
Incremental overhead = \$200,000 x 15% = \$30,000

## RECOMMENDATION: The company should accept the offer because the

additional sales would yield an incremental net income of \$4,000.

104

## Exercise 25-9 (20 minutes)

INCREMENTAL COST OF MAKING THE PART
Variable costs (50,000 units @ \$1.50).....................................
\$ 75,000
Incremental fixed costs............................................................50,000
Total incremental cost of making 50,000 units......................
\$125,000

## INCREMENTAL COST OF BUYING THE PART

\$
2.70
Total incremental cost of buying 50,000 units.......................
\$135,000

RECOMMENDATION: Note that the allocated fixed costs of \$45,000 are not
relevant to this managerial decision because they will continue whether the
part is made or bought. Therefore, the incremental costs of making the part
are \$10,000 less per year than buying it. This implies that the company
should continue to make this part.
Note: We should recognize that this decision depends on the alternative uses for the
productive facilities dedicated to making the part. If they can be used to produce a profit
greater than the \$10,000 annual savings that the company attains by making this part,
the part should probably be purchased and the facilities used for the other more
profitable activities.

## McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005

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## Exercise 25-10 (25 minutes)

INCREMENTAL REVENUE AND COST OF ADDITIONAL PROCESSING
Revenue if processed further*................................................
\$ 700,000
Revenue if sold as is................................................................
500,000
Incremental revenue.................................................................
200,000
Less incremental cost of processing.....................................
300,000
Incremental net income (or loss)............................................
\$(100,000)
*Revenuefromprocessedproducts

Units
Product B.....................................................................
4,000
Product C.....................................................................
8,000
Total revenue from processed products..................

Price
\$75
50

Total
\$300,000
400,000
\$700,000

## ALTERNATE SOLUTION FORMAT

Net income (loss) from processed products
Revenue if processed further.................................................
Opportunity cost (lost sales of Product A)................. (500,000)
Net benefit to processing.......................................................

\$ 700,000
(800,000)
\$(100,000)

RECOMMENDATION: This analysis shows that the company will be worse off
by \$100,000 if it chooses to process Product A into the two products of B
and C. (Note that the \$20 per unit cost of manufacturing Product A is sunk
and irrelevant to this decision.)

106

## Exercise 25-11 (30 minutes)

Instructor note: In all three cases, the total unavoidable expenses of \$53,900 remain the same
because they cannot be avoided by eliminating departments.

1. NO DEPARTMENTS ELIMINATED
Total
M
Sales..................................
\$112,000 \$31,500
Expenses
Avoidable........................
60,200
4,900
Unavoidable...................
53,900
25,900
Total expenses...............
114,100
30,800
Net income (loss).............
\$ (2,100) \$ 700

N
\$17,500

O
\$28,000

P
\$21,000

T
\$14,000

18,200
6,300
24,500
\$ (7,000)

11,200
2,100
13,300
\$14,700

7,000
14,700
21,700
\$ (700)

18,900
4,900
23,800
\$ (9,800)

## 2. DEPARTMENTS WITH EXPECTED NET LOSSES ELIMINATED

Total
M
Sales.......................................................
\$ 59,500 \$31,500
Expenses
Avoidable..............................................
16,100
4,900
Unavoidable.........................................
53,900
25,900
Total expenses.....................................
70,000
30,800
Net income (loss)..................................
\$(10,500) \$ 700

N
\$

0
6,300
\$ 6,300
\$(6,300)

O
\$28,000

P
\$

T
0

11,200
0
2,100
14,700
13,300 \$ 14,700
\$14,700 \$(14,700)

0
4,900
4,900
\$(4,900)

## Explanation: This income statement reflects elimination of Departments N,

P, and T. The sales and avoidable expenses are the combined amounts for
Departments M and O. The net loss has actually increased because the
excess of sales dollars over avoidable expenses has declined and less
remains to cover unavoidable expenses.
3. DEPARTMENTS WITH LESS SALES THAN AVOIDABLE EXPENSES ELIMINATED
Total
M
Sales.......................................................
\$80,500 \$31,500
Expenses
Avoidable..............................................
23,100
4,900
Unavoidable.........................................
53,900 25,900
Total expenses.....................................
77,000 30,800
Net income (loss)..................................
\$ 3,500 \$ 700

N
\$

O
\$28,000

0
11,200
6,300
2,100
6,300
13,300
\$(6,300) \$14,700

P
\$21,000

T
\$

7,000
14,700
21,700
\$ (700)

0
4,900
4,900
\$(4,900)

## Explanation: This income statement reflects the Departments M, O, and P.

Departments N and T are eliminated because their sales dollars do not
cover their avoidable costs.

## McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005

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## Exercise 25-12 (30 minutes)

Preliminary computations
Contribution margin per hour
Product TLX
Selling price per unit...................................................
\$12.50
Variable costs per unit................................................ 3.75
Contribution per unit...................................................
\$ 8.75

Product MTV
\$ 7.50
4.50
\$ 3.00

## Machine-hours to produce 1 unit.............................. 0.50

Contribution margin per machine-hour
(or contribution/hours per unit)...............................
\$17.50

1.

0.20
\$15.00

## FOR PRODUCT TLX

Maximum sales.....................................................
Hours needed per unit.........................................
Total hours used (3,750 x 0.50)...........................

3,750 units
0.50
1,875 hours

## FOR PRODUCT MTV

Remaining hours (2,200 1,875).........................
Hours needed per unit.........................................
Maximum production* (325/0.20)........................

325 hours
0.20
1,625 units

## SALES MIX RECOMMENDATION: These results suggest the company

should manufacture as many units of Product TLX as it can produce
and sell until reaching a (market or production) constraint. Thereafter,
any remaining capacity should be devoted to Product MTV, up to the
maximum that can be produced and/or sold.
2.

## CONTRIBUTION MARGIN FROM THE RECOMMENDED SALES MIX

Un
its
Product TLX.................. 3,750
Product MTV................. 1,625
Total...............................

Contribution
per Unit
\$8.75
3.00

Total
\$32,813*
4,875
\$37,688

*Rounded

108

## Exercise 25-13 (15 minutes)

1. Recovery time computation
Payback Period

Break-Even Time

## 2. The advantage of break-even time is that it considers the time value of

money. This means break-even time should provide a superior estimate
of the recovery time relative to the payback period method.
3. When (1) the interest rate is very low, 1% for example, and (2) the
payback period is very short, then payback period and break-even time
will yield similar results.

## McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005

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109

PROBLEM SET A
Problem 25-1A (50 minutes)
Part 1
Annual straight-line depreciation =

\$300,000 - \$20,000
4 years

= \$70,000

Part 2
Net
Income

Net Cash
Flow

\$1,150,000

## Expected costs of new product

Direct materials.......................................................

(300,000)

(300,000)

Direct labor..............................................................

(420,000)

(420,000)

(210,000)

(210,000)

(70,000)

(100,000)

50,000

## Income taxes (30%)...................................................

(15,000)

Net income................................................................. \$
Net cash flow*............................................................

(100,000)
(15,000)

35,000
\$ 105,000

## * Alternatively, annual net cash flow can be computed as

Net income + Depreciation = \$35,000 + \$70,000 = \$105,000

Part 3
Payback Period =

\$300,000
\$105,000

= 2.86 years

110

## Problem 25-1A (Continued)

Part 4
Accounting rate of return =

\$35,000
\$160,000*

= 21.88%

* Average investment
Asset cost................................................
\$300,000
Final years book value...........................
20,000
Sum...........................................................
\$320,000
Average (Sum /2).....................................
\$160,000

Part 5
Present Value of Net Cash Flows
Net Cash
Flows
Year 1.............................
\$105,000
Year 2.............................
105,000
Year 3.............................
105,000
Year 4*............................
125,000
Totals.............................
\$440,000

Present
Value of
1 at 7%
0.9346
0.8734
0.8163
0.7629

Present
Value of Net
Cash Flows
\$ 98,133
91,707
85,712
95,363
370,915

Amount invested...............................

(300,000)

\$ 70,915

## McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005

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## Problem 25-2A (55 minutes)

Part 1
PROJECT Y
Net income........................................

\$112,000

Depreciation expense*.....................

175,000

## Net cash flow....................................

\$287,000

*Annual depreciation =

\$700,000 - \$0
4 years

= \$175,000

PROJECT Z
Net income........................................

\$ 72,800

Depreciation expense*.....................

233,333

## Net cash flow....................................

\$306,133

*Annual depreciation =

\$700,000 - \$0
3 years

= \$233,333

Part 2
PROJECT Y
Payback Period =

\$700,000
\$287,000

= 2.44 years

\$700,000
\$306,133

= 2.29 years

PROJECT Z
Payback Period =

112

## Problem 25-2A (Continued)

Part 3
PROJECT Y
Accounting rate of return =

\$112,000
\$350,000*

= 32%

*Average investment
Asset cost.................................................
\$700,000
Average (Cost/2).......................................
\$350,000

PROJECT Z
Accounting rate of return =

\$72,800
\$350,000*

= 20.8%

*Average investment
Asset cost.................................................
\$700,000
Average (Cost/2).......................................
\$350,000

## McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005

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## Problem 25-2A (Continued)

Part 4
PROJECT Y
Present Value of Net Cash Flows

Net Cash
Flows

Years 1-4........................
\$287,000

Present
Value of
1 at 8%
Annuity

Present
Value of
Net Cash
Flows

3.3121

\$950,573

Amount invested...................................................

(700,000)

## Net present value..................................................

\$250,573

PROJECT Z
Present Value of Net Cash Flows

Net Cash
Flows

Years 1-3........................
\$306,133

Present
Value of
1 at 8% Annuity

Present
Value of
Net Cash
Flows

2.5771

\$788,935

Amount invested...................................................

(700,000)

## Net present value..................................................

\$ 88,935

Part 5
Recommendation to management is to pursue Project Y. This is because
Project Y has a positive net present value, which means that we expect it to
earn at least 8% on our cash investment in the machine. Project Z also has
a positive net present value, but its present value is less than that of Project
Y. We also note that the accounting rate of return is higher for Project Y
compared with Project Z.

114

## Problem 25-3A (60 minutes)

Part 1
RESULTS USING STRAIGHT-LINE DEPRECIATION
(a)
Income
Before
Deprec.
Year 1.............................
\$12,000

(b)
StraightLine
Deprec.
\$ 3,000

(c)
Taxable
Income
(a) - (b)
\$9,000

(d)
40%
Income
Taxes
\$3,600

(e)
Net Cash
Flows
(a) - (d)
\$8,400

Year 2.............................
12,000

6,000

6,000

2,400

9,600

Year 3.............................
12,000

6,000

6,000

2,400

9,600

Year 4.............................
12,000

6,000

6,000

2,400

9,600

Year 5.............................
12,000

6,000

6,000

2,400

9,600

Year 6.............................
12,000

3,000

9,000

3,600

8,400

(d)
40%
Income
Taxes
\$2,400

(e)
Net Cash
Flows
(a) - (d)
\$9,600

Part 2
RESULTS USING MACRS DEPRECIATION
(a)
Income
Before
Deprec.
Year 1.............................
\$12,000

(b)
MACRS
Deprec.
\$6,000

(c)
Taxable
Income
(a) - (b)
\$6,000

Year 2.............................
12,000

9,600

2,400

960

11,040

Year 3.............................
12,000

5,760

6,240

2,496

9,504

Year 4.............................
12,000

3,456

8,544

3,418

8,582

Year 5.............................
12,000

3,456

8,544

3,418

8,582

Year 6.............................
12,000

1,728

10,272

4,109

7,891

## McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005

Solutions Manual, Chapter 25

115

## Problem 25-3A (Continued)

Part 3
NET PRESENT VALUE OF ASSET USING STRAIGHT-LINE DEPRECIATION
Present
Value of
1 at 10%
0.9091
0.8264
0.7513
0.6830
0.6209
0.5645

Present
Net Cash
Value of Net
Flows
Cash Flows
Year 1.............................
\$ 8,400
\$ 7,636
Year 2.............................
9,600
7,933
Year 3.............................
9,600
7,212
Year 4.............................
9,600
6,557
Year 5.............................
9,600
5,961
Year 6.............................
8,400
4,742
Totals.............................
\$55,200
40,041
Amount invested.......................................................................
(30,000)
Net present value......................................................................
\$10,041
Part 4
NET PRESENT VALUE OF ASSET USING MACRS DEPRECIATION
Present
Net Cash
Value of
Flows
1 at 10%
Year 1.............................
\$ 9,600
0.9091
Year 2.............................
11,040
0.8264
Year 3.............................
9,504
0.7513
Year 4.............................
8,582
0.6830
Year 5.............................
8,582
0.6209
Year 6.............................
7,891
0.5645
Totals.............................
\$55,199
Amount invested...............................
Net present value..............................

Present
Value of Net
Cash Flows
\$ 8,727
9,123
7,140
5,862
5,329
4,454
40,635
(30,000)
\$10,635

Part 5
Analysis: The net present value using MACRS depreciation is greater than the
net present value using straight-line depreciation because the cash flows are
larger in the earlier years of the assets life under MACRS depreciation. They
are larger because the depreciation deductions are larger, resulting in less
income taxes paid in the earlier years.

116

## Problem 25-4A (45 minutes)

CAYMAN PRODUCTS
COMPARATIVE INCOME STATEMENTS
(1)

(2)

(3)

Normal
Volume

New

Combined

Sales..................................................
\$1,200,000

\$172,000

\$1,372,000

64,000

448,000

24,000

120,000

36,000

324,000

120,000

4,000

84,000

## Total costs & expenses.................... 968,000

128,000

1,096,000

Operating income.............................
\$ 232,000

\$ 44,000

\$ 276,000

Supporting computations
Normal direct materials cost.........................................
\$384,000
Units of output................................................................
300,000
Cost per unit...................................................................
\$
1.28
\$ 64,000
Normal direct labor cost................................................
\$ 96,000
Units of output................................................................
300,000
Cost per unit...................................................................
\$
0.32
Overtime per unit (50%)................................................. 0.16
New business direct labor cost per unit......................
\$
0.48
\$ 24,000
\$288,000
\$216,000
Units of output................................................................
300,000
Cost per unit...................................................................
\$
0.72
\$ 36,000

## McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005

Solutions Manual, Chapter 25

117

Part 1
Product G

Product B

\$120

\$160

90

\$ 80

\$ 70

2.0

## Contribution per machine hour

(or contribution/[hours per unit]).....................
\$100

\$ 35

Part 2
Sales Mix Recommendation. To the extent allowed by production and
market constraints, the company should produce as much of Product G as
possible. With a single shift yielding 176 hours per month (8 x 22), the
company can produce these units of Product G:
Maximum output of G =

## 176 hrs. per mo.

0.8 hrs. per unit

## Contribution Margin at Recommended Sales Mix

Contribution margin = 220 units x \$80 per unit = \$17,600 per month

118

## Problem 25-5A (Continued)

Part 3
Sales Mix Recommendation with Second Shift. If the second shift is
added, the maximum possible output of G will double
352 hrs. per mo.
= 440 units per mo.
0.8 hrs. per unit
However, this level of output exceeds the companys market constraint of
400 units of G per month. This means the company should produce 400
units of Product G, and commit the remainder of the productive capacity to
Product B. This is computed as follows
Maximum possible output of G =

## Units of Product G.....................................................

= 400 units per month
Hours per unit............................................................ 0.8
Hours used for Product G.........................................320 hours
Hours available for Product B (352 hrs - 320 hrs)......... 32 hours

## The output of Product B with 32 production hours is

Units of Product B

2 hr. per unit

## Contribution Margin at This Sales Mix

Units
From G...............................................
400
From B...............................................
16
Less extra shift costs.......................
Total contribution margin................

Contr./unit
\$80
70

Total
\$32,000
1,120
(6,500)
\$26,620

## Management decision. The contribution margin of \$26,620 exceeds the

contribution margin of \$17,600 generated by one shift alone (see part 2).
Therefore, management should add the second shift.

## McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005

Solutions Manual, Chapter 25

119

## Problem 25-5A (Continued)

Part 4
Sales Mix Recommendation. By incurring additional marketing cost, the
company can relax the market constraint for sales of Product G up to the
point where 440 units can be sold. This means the company can produce
440 units of Product G, and commit the remainder of its productive
capacity, if any, to Product B. These computations are
Units of Product G...................................................
= 440 units per month
Hours per unit........................................................... 0.8
Hours used for Product G....................................... 352 hours
Hours available for Product B (352 hrs - 352 hrs)......
0 hours
The output of Product B with 0 production hours is
Units of Product B

2 hr. per unit

## Contribution Margin with This Sales Mix

Units
From G............................................... 440
From B............................................... 0
Less extra shift costs.......................
Less extra marketing costs.............
Total contribution margin................

Contr./unit
\$80
70

Total
\$35,200
0
(6,500)
(2,000)
\$26,700

## Management decision. This contribution margin of \$26,700 is only slightly

better than the contribution margin of \$26,620 generated under the existing
market constraint (see part 3). Therefore, management may decide to
undertake this marketing strategy or decide that the marginal benefits
generated do not warrant the marketing efforts.

120

## Problem 25-6A (60 minutes)

Part 1
HOME DECOR COMPANY
Analysis of Expenses under Elimination of Department 200
Total
Expenses

Eliminated
Expenses

Continuing
Expenses

\$ 938,000

\$414,000

\$524,000

Direct expenses
58,000

24,000

34,000

## Store supplies used...........................................

15,600

7,600

8,000

DepreciationStore equipment........................
16,600
Allocated expenses
Sales salaries*....................................................
208,000

16,600
104,000

Rent expense......................................................
28,320
36,000

104,000
28,320

16,200

Office salary*.......................................................
62,400

19,800
62,400

Insurance expense*............................................
6,200

1,540

4,660

## Miscellaneous office expenses*........................

8,000

800

7,200

Total expenses......................................................
\$1,377,120

\$568,140

\$808,980

*Computation notes. Closing Department 200 will eliminate 70% of its insurance
expense and 25% of its miscellaneous office expense. Sales salaries will be
reduced by the amounts paid to the two clerks who will not be replaced. The
office salary will not be eliminated, but it will be reclassified so that one-half will
be reported as sales salary and one-half as office salary.

## McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005

Solutions Manual, Chapter 25

121

## Problem 25-6A (Continued)

Part 2
HOME DECOR COMPANY
Forecasted Annual Income Statement
Under Plan to Eliminate Department 200
Sales......................................................................
\$872,000
Cost of goods sold...............................................
524,000
Gross profit from sales........................................
348,000
Operating expenses
34,000
Store supplies used...........................................
8,000
Depreciation of store equipment......................
16,600
Sales salaries.....................................................
135,200*
Rent expense......................................................
28,320
19,800
Office salary........................................................
31,200*
Insurance expense.............................................
4,660
Miscellaneous office expenses.........................
7,200
Total operating expenses....................................
284,980
Net income............................................................
\$ 63,020

Total
Sales
Salaries
Salaries
Salesclerks.........................................................................
\$104,000
\$104,000
62,400
0
31,200
Revised salaries.................................................................
\$166,400
\$135,200

Office
Salary
\$62,400
(31,200)
\$31,200

122

## Problem 25-6A (Continued)

Part 3
HOME DCOR COMPANY
Reconciliation of Combined Income with Forecasted Income
Combined net income ......................................................... \$ 74,880
Less Dept. 200's lost sales..................................................

(580,000)

568,140

## Forecasted net income........................................................

\$ 63,020

ANALYSIS
Department 200's avoidable expenses of \$568,140 are \$11,860 less than its
revenues of \$580,000. This means the company's annual net income would
be \$11,860 less from eliminating Department 200. This analysis suggests
the department should probably not be eliminated.

## McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005

Solutions Manual, Chapter 25

123

PROBLEM SET B
Problem 25-1B (50 minutes)
Part 1
Annual straight-line depreciation =

\$100,000 - \$25,000

= \$15,000

5 years
Part 2
Net
Income
Expected annual sales of new product........................
\$ 350,000

Net Cash
Flow
\$ 350,000

## Expected annual costs of new product

Direct materials............................................................ 150,000

150,000

50,000

100,000

23,000

## Income before taxes....................................................... 12,000

Income taxes (20%)........................................................

2,400

Net income......................................................................\$

9,600

2,400
\$ 24,600

## *Alternatively, annual net cash flow can be computed as:

Net income + Depreciation = \$9,600 + \$15,000 = \$24,600

124

## Problem 25-1B (Continued)

Part 3
Payback Period =

\$100,000
\$24,600

= 4.07 years

Part 4
Accounting rate of return =

\$9,600
\$62,500*

= 15.36%

*Average investment
Asset cost..................................................
\$100,000
Final years book value.............................
25,000
Sum............................................................
\$125,000
Average (Sum /2).......................................
\$ 62,500

Part 5
Present Value of Net Cash Flows
Net Cash
Flows
Year 1.............................
\$ 24,600
Year 2.............................
24,600
Year 3.............................
24,600
Year 4.
24,600
Year 5*............................
49,600

Present
Value of
1 at 12%
0.8929
0.7972
0.7118
0.6355
0.5674

Present
Value of Net
Cash Flows
\$ 21,965
19,611
17,510
15,633
28,143

Totals.............................
\$148,000

\$102,862

Amount invested...............................

(100,000)

2,862

## McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005

Solutions Manual, Chapter 25

125

## Problem 25-2B (55 minutes)

Part 1
PROJECT A
Net income...............................................\$ 31,500
Depreciation expense*............................ 160,000
Net cash flow...........................................\$191,500
\$480,000 - \$0
3 years

*Annual depreciation =

= \$160,000

PROJECT B
Net income............................................ \$ 51,800
Depreciation expense*........................

120,000

## Net cash flow........................................ \$171,800

\$480,000 - \$0
4 years

*Annual depreciation =

= \$120,000

Part 2
PROJECT A
Payback Period =

\$480,000
\$191,500

= 2.5 years

\$480,000
\$171,800

= 2.8 years

PROJECT B
Payback Period =

126

## Problem 25-2B (Continued)

Part 3
PROJECT A
Accounting rate of return =

\$31,500
\$240,000*

= 13.1%

*Average investment
Asset cost..................................................
\$480,000
Average (Cost/2)........................................
\$240,000

PROJECT B
Accounting rate of return =

\$51,800
\$240,000*

= 21.6%

*Average investment
Asset cost..................................................
\$480,000
Average (Cost/2)........................................
\$240,000

## McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005

Solutions Manual, Chapter 25

127

## Problem 25-2B (Continued)

Part 4
PROJECT A
Present Value of Net Cash Flows

Net Cash
Flows

Years 1-3........................
\$191,500

Present
Value of
1 at 10%
Annuity

Present
Value of
Net Cash
Flows

2.4869

\$ 476,241

Amount invested...................................................

(480,000)

## Net present value.................................................. \$ (3,759)

PROJECT B
Present Value of Net Cash Flows

Net Cash
Flows

Present
Value of
1 at 10%
Annuity

Present
Value of
Net Cash
Flows

Years 1-4........................
\$171,800

3.1699

\$544,589

Amount invested...................................................

(480,000)

## Net present value.................................................. \$ 64,589

Part 5
Recommendation to management is to pursue Project B. This is because
Project B has a positive net present value, which means that we expect it to
earn at least 10% on our cash investment in the machine. Project A has a
negative net present value, meaning that it is not expected to earn the
required rate of return. We might also note that the accounting rate of
return is also higher for Project B compared with Project A.

128

## Problem 25-3B (60 minutes)

Part 1
RESULTS USING STRAIGHT-LINE DEPRECIATION
(a)
Income
Before
Deprec.
Year 1.............................
\$15,000

(b)
StraightLine
Deprec.
\$2,500

(c)
Taxable
Income
(a) - (b)
\$12,500

(d)
30%
Income
Taxes
\$3,750

(e)
Net Cash
Flows
(a) - (d)
\$11,250

Year 2.............................
15,000

5,000

10,000

3,000

12,000

Year 3.............................
15,000

5,000

10,000

3,000

12,000

Year 4.............................
15,000

5,000

10,000

3,000

12,000

Year 5.............................
15,000

5,000

10,000

3,000

12,000

Year 6.............................
15,000

2,500

12,500

3,750

11,250

(d)
30%
Income
Taxes
\$3,000

(e)
Net Cash
Flows
(a) - (d)
\$12,000

Part 2
RESULTS USING MACRS DEPRECIATION
(a)
Income
Before
Deprec.
Year 1.............................
\$15,000

(b)
MACRS
Deprec.
\$5,000

(c)
Taxable
Income
(a) - (b)
\$10,000

Year 2.............................
15,000

8,000

7,000

2,100

12,900

Year 3.............................
15,000

4,800

10,200

3,060

11,940

Year 4.............................
15,000

2,880

12,120

3,636

11,364

Year 5.............................
15,000

2,880

12,120

3,636

11,364

Year 6.............................
15,000

1,440

13,560

4,068

10,932

## McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005

Solutions Manual, Chapter 25

129

## Problem 25-3B (Continued)

Part 3
NET PRESENT VALUE OF ASSET USING STRAIGHT-LINE DEPRECIATION
Net Cash
Flows

Present
Value of
1 at 15%

Present
Value of Net
Cash Flows

Year 1.............................
\$11,250
0.8696
\$ 9,783
Year 2.............................
12,000
0.7561
9,073
Year 3.............................
12,000
0.6575
7,890
Year 4.............................
12,000
0.5718
6,862
Year 5.............................
12,000
0.4972
5,966
Year 6.............................
11,250
0.4323
4,863
Totals.............................
\$70,500
\$44,437
Amount invested.......................................................................
(25,000)
Net present value......................................................................
\$19,437
Part 4
NET PRESENT VALUE OF ASSET USING MACRS DEPRECIATION
Present
Value of
1 at 15%

Present
Value of Net
Cash Flows

Year 1.............................
\$12,000
0.8696
Year 2.............................
12,900
0.7561
Year 3.............................
11,940
0.6575
Year 4.............................
11,364
0.5718
Year 5.............................
11,364
0.4972
Year 6.............................
10,932
0.4323
Totals.............................
\$70,500
Amount invested...............................

\$10,435
9,754
7,851
6,498
5,650
4,726
\$44,914
(25,000)

## Net present value..............................

\$19,914

Net Cash
Flows

Part 5
Analysis: The net present value using MACRS depreciation is greater than the
net present value using straight-line depreciation because the cash flows are
larger in the earlier years of the assets life under MACRS depreciation. They
are larger because the depreciation deductions are larger, resulting in less
income taxes paid in the earlier years.

130

## Problem 25-4B (45 minutes)

WINDTRAX COMPANY
COMPARATIVE INCOME STATEMENTS
(1)

(2)

(3)

Normal
Volume

New

Combined

Sales..................................................\$200,000

\$16,000

\$216,000

## Costs and expenses

Direct materials............................... 30,000

3,000

33,000

## Direct labor...................................... 12,000

2,400

14,400

1,000

51,000

Selling expenses............................

7,500

7,500

750

32,250

7,150

138,150

## Operating income.............................\$ 69,000

\$ 8,850

\$ 77,850

Supporting computations
Normal direct material cost...........................................
\$ 30,000
Units of output................................................................
200,000
Cost per unit...................................................................
\$ 0.15
20,000
\$ 3,000
Normal direct labor cost................................................
\$ 12,000
Units of output................................................................
200,000
Cost per unit...................................................................
\$ 0.06
Overtime per unit (100%)............................................... 0.06
New business direct labor cost per unit......................
\$ 0.12
20,000
\$ 2,400
\$ 50,000
40,000
\$ 10,000
Units of output................................................................
200,000
Cost per unit...................................................................
\$ 0.05
20,000
\$ 1,000

## McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005

Solutions Manual, Chapter 25

131

## Problem 25-5B (55 minutes)

Part 1
Product 22
Selling price per unit............................................ \$ 175
Variable costs per unit.........................................
100
Contribution margin per unit............................... \$ 75
Machine hours to produce 1 unit........................
0.8
Contribution per machine hour
(or contribution/[hours per unit])..................... \$93.75

Product 44
\$ 200
150
\$ 50
0.5
\$ 100

Part 2
Sales Mix Recommendation To the extent allowed by production and
market constraints, the company should produce as much of Product 44 as
possible. With a single shift yielding 184 hours per month (8 x 23), the
company can produce these units of Product 44:
Maximum output of 44 =

## 184 hrs. per mo.

0.5 hrs. per unit

## Contribution Margin at Recommended Sales Mix

Contribution margin = 368 units x \$50 per unit = \$18,400 per month

132

## Problem 25-5B (Continued)

Part 3
Sales Mix Recommendation with Second Shift If the second shift is added,
the maximum possible output of 44 will double:
368 hrs. per mo.
= 736 units per mo.
0.5 hrs. per unit
However, this level of output exceeds the companys market constraint of
450 units of Product 44 per month. This means the company should
produce 450 units of Product 44, and commit the remainder of the
productive capacity to Product 22. This is computed as follows:
Maximum possible output of 44 =

## Units of Product 44..................................................= 450 units per month

Hours per unit........................................................... 0.5
Hours used for Product 44...................................... 225 hours
Hours available for Product 22 (368 hrs - 225 hrs)...... 143 hours

## The output of Product 22 with 143 production hours is

Units of Product 22

## 143 hrs. per mo.

0.8 hrs. per unit

## Contribution Margin at This Sales Mix

Units
From 44.............................................. 450
From 22.............................................. 178
Less extra shift costs.......................
Total contribution margin................

Contr./unit
\$50
75

Total
\$22,500
13,350
(5,000)
\$30,850

## Management decision This amount of \$30,850 exceeds the contribution

margin of \$18,400 generated by one shift alone (see part 2). Therefore,
management should add the second shift.

## McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005

Solutions Manual, Chapter 25

133

## Problem 25-5B (Continued)

Part 4
Sales Mix Recommendation By incurring additional marketing cost, the
company can relax the market constraint for sales of Product 44 up to the
point where 500 units can be sold. This means the company can produce
500 units of Product 44, and commit the remainder of its productive
capacity to Product 22. These computations are:
Units of Product 44................................................= 500 units per month
Hours per unit........................................................ 0.5
Hours used for Product 44.................................... 250 hours
Hours available for Product 22
(368 hrs less 250 hrs)......................................... 118 hours

## The output of Product 22 with 118 production hours is

Units of Product 22

0.8 hr. per unit

## Contribution Margin with This Sales Mix

Units
From 44.............................................. 500
From 22.............................................. 147
Less extra shift costs.......................
Less extra marketing costs.............
Total contribution margin................

Contr./unit
\$50
75

Total
\$25,000
11,025
(5,000)
(500)
\$30,525

## Management decision This amount of \$30,525 is less than the contribution

margin of \$30,850 generated under the existing market constraint (see part
3). Therefore, management should not undertake this marketing strategy.

134

## Problem 25-6B (60 minutes)

Part 1
TURFTIME COMPANY
Analysis of Expenses under Elimination of Department Z
Total
Expenses

## Cost of goods sold...............................................

\$293,200

Eliminated
Expenses

Continuing
Expenses

\$62,550

\$230,650

1,500
700

13,500
2,800
10,500

Sales salaries*....................................................
46,800
Rent expense......................................................
13,800
12,500
Office salary*.......................................................
13,000
Insurance expense*............................................
2,800
Miscellaneous office expenses*........................
2,100

23,400

455
375

23,400
13,800
10,500
13,000
2,345
1,725

Total expenses......................................................
\$413,200

\$90,980

\$322,220

Direct expenses
15,000
Store supplies used...........................................
3,500
Depreciation of store equip...............................
10,500
Allocated expenses

2,000

## Computation Notes Closing Department Z will eliminate 65% of its insurance

expense and 30% of its miscellaneous office expense. Sales salaries will be
reduced by the amounts paid to the two clerks who will not be replaced. The
office salary will not be eliminated, but it will be reclassified so that one-half will
be reported as sales salary and one-half as office salary.

## McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005

Solutions Manual, Chapter 25

135

## Problem 25-6B (Continued)

Part 2
TURFTIME COMPANY
Forecasted Annual Income Statement
Under Plan to Eliminate Department Z
Sales......................................................................
\$350,000
Cost of goods sold...............................................
230,650
Gross profit from sales........................................
119,350
Operating expenses
13,500
Store supplies used...........................................
2,800
Depreciation of store equipment......................
10,500
Sales salaries.....................................................
29,900*
Rent expense......................................................
13,800
10,500
Office salary........................................................
6,500*
Insurance expense.............................................
2,345
Miscellaneous office expenses.........................
1,725
Total operating expenses....................................
91,570
Net income............................................................
\$ 27,780

## * Office salary reassignment

Total
Sales
Office
Salaries Salaries Salary
Salesclerks.........................................................................
\$23,400 \$23,400
Office clerk.........................................................................
13,000
\$13,000
Reassign office clerk to sales...........................................
0
6,500
(6,500)
Revised salaries.................................................................
\$36,400 \$29,900 \$ 6,500

136

## Problem 25-6B (Continued)

Part 3
TURFTIME COMPANY
Reconciliation of Combined Income with Forecasted Income
Combined net income ...................................................... \$ 24,300
Less Dept. Z's lost sales.................................................. (87,500)
Plus Dept. Zs eliminated expenses................................

90,980

## Forecasted net income..................................................... \$ 27,780

ANALYSIS
Department Z's avoidable expenses of \$90,980 are \$3,480 greater than its
revenues of \$87,500. This means the company's annual net income would
be \$3,480 higher from eliminating Department Z. This analysis suggests
management should probably go ahead with the elimination of the
department as planned.

## McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005

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137

SERIAL PROBLEM
Serial Problem, Success Systems (50 minutes)
COMPUTING NET CASH FLOWS FROM NET INCOME
Net income
Sales.............................................................\$150,000

Cash flows
\$150,000

## Materials, labor & overhead........................ (80,000)

(80,000)

Depreciation................................................. (20,000)

(15,000)

## Pretax income.............................................. 35,000

Income taxes (30%)..................................... (10,500)

(10,500)

## Net income...................................................\$ 24,500

Net cash flows.............................................

1. Payback period =

\$120,000
\$44,500

## 2. Accounting rate of return =

\$ 44,500

= 2.7 years

\$24,500
\$60,000*

= 40.8%

*Average investment
Cost................................... \$120,000
Salvage..............................
0
Sum................................... \$120,000
Average (Sum/2)............... \$ 60,000

138

## Fundamental Accounting Principles, 17th Edition

Reporting in Action

BTN 25-1

## 1. We cannot determine the incremental product cost because we do not

know how many times the promotion will be successful and how many
patrons will redeem ticket stubs.
If the Royals rarely achieve 12 hits then Krispy Kreme has a tremendous
advertising campaign at very low cost. However, the Royals might
surprise marketing managers at Krispy Kreme and achieve the 12 hits
much more frequently than expected.
2. 20,000 fans x .05 redemption rate = 1,000 dozen donuts.
3. 15 games x 20,000 fans x .05 redemption rate = 15,000 dozen donuts x \$2

## cost per dozen = \$30,000.

4. Krispy Kreme gains low cost exposure (Krispy Kreme may have been

## charged an upfront flat fee to be allowed to run the promotion) as the

Royals TV and radio announcers frequently mention the promotion on
air. The fans love the promotion and cheer wildly for MORE HITS and
DONUTS as the Royals approach 12 hits in a game. The excitement
added by Krispy Kreme to the ballgames can only be positive for its
reputation with customers.
donuts will also purchase coffee, additional donuts, or memorabilia
while they are in the store.

## continued the promotion it would be because it viewed the promotion

benefits as greater than the promotion costs. If it discontinued the
promotion the potential reasons would likely be that it viewed the
promotion costs as greater than the promotion benefits or that its
marketing executives wanted to keep their promotions fresh and everchanging.

## McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005

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139

Comparative Analysis

BTN 25-2

1. Answer depends on the newspaper selected and its price for advertising
U.S. city newspaper is probably near \$2,000.
2. If we assume that the average product of Krispy Kreme and Tastykake
sells for around \$5, then the contribution margin per product is about \$1
(using the 20% stated assumption in the problem). This would mean that
the company would need to sell at least 2,000 additional products
would support the profitability of this marketing strategy.
3.
TO:
FROM:
DATE:
SUBJECT:

MEMORANDUM

## Primary points for discussion of the importance of effective advertising:

(a) Students need to recognize that advertising is very expensive and
crucial to most merchandisers.
effective to justify its cost and the related product mix decision of
managers.

140

Ethics Challenge

BTN 25-3

## 1. Present value of \$100 to be received in 10 years assuming a 12%

discount rate is approximately \$32. This is computed as \$100 x 0.322.
2. We need to be concerned about any project with expected long-term
cash inflows. This is especially the case if the larger cash inflows are
expected later rather than sooner in the assets life. This concern is tied
to the riskiness of long-term predictions and the likely biases of
individuals proposing the project.
The answer to part 1 shows that long-term cash inflows are small when
factoring in their present values. Also, since the long-term predictions
are inherently more risky, the discount factor should probably increase
as the cash inflow gets further into the future.

Communicating in Practice

BTN 25-4

include some discussion of the following points for each method.

Payback
Period
Cash flows

Accounting
Rate of Return
Accrual
income

Net Present
Value
Cash flows

Internal Rate of
Return
Cash flows

Profitability

Profitability

Measurement
basis

Measurement
unit

Periods

Percent

Dollars

Percent

Strengths

Easy to
understand

Easy to
understand

Allows
comparison
of projects

Allows
comparison
of projects

Reflects time
value of
money
Reflects
different risk
levels over
projects life

Reflects time
value of
money
Allows
comparisons
of dissimilar
projects

Ignores
time value
of money

Ignores
time value
of money

Ignores
cash flows
after
payback
period

Ignores
annual
rates over
life of
project

Difficult to
compare
dissimilar
projects

Limitations

Ignores
varying risk
levels over
life of
project

## McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005

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141

BTN 25-5

## 1. The notion of capital appears to be similar in both the government and

private sector in the sense that the commissions report also defines
capital as having future value.
2. The investment analysis techniques (for example, payback period, NPV,
and IRR) may be useful depending on the nature of the investment. This
is because many of the capital investments that the federal government
makes have social/societal benefits, which are hard to quantify. For
example, it is hard to quantify investments in highways or education or
health care. For investments whose benefits are quantifiable, it would
be helpful to use the techniques explained in the chapter.

Teamwork in Action

BTN 25-6

Instructor note: Answers will vary across students. Yet the examples, while different, should
capture similar qualitative factors.

SAMPLE SOLUTION
Project
Investment in an improved baggage handling system. The new, improved
baggage handling system is expected to increase both customer
satisfaction and likelihood of repeat business.
Qualitative Factors
Competition has a new, more efficient and effective system.
Need to replace old system.
Increased customer demand for a new system because of special
baggage handling needs, for example, golf clubs to vacation destination.
Eases the workload of baggage handlers.
Improves employee morale.
Safety concerns with the older system--both employees and customers.

142

BTN 25-7

## 1. An investment in graduate education can increase an individuals future

cash flows. It is possible to measure the cost of the education against
the possible future benefits (increased cash flows) using the capital
budgeting techniques discussed in this chapter.
2. To calculate the payback, Stephan first figures out the students'
opportunity cost of attendingboth the tuition payments and the
forgone salary. He assumes a student in a two-year program loses 18
months of income (allowing for a summer internship). Then he projects
the graduates' earnings over the next eight years, folding bonuses and
other compensation into the post-MBA salary. Stephan assumes a 10%
raise each year after graduationwhich smoothes out differences in
occupations as well as economic ups and downs over the course of 10
years.
3. The average 2002 graduate will break even on the investment in an MBA
education after 5.6 years.
4. The European payback period is shorter at 5.1 years versus 5.6 years for
Americans.
5. A 35.5% annual return.

Entrepreneurial Decision

BTN 25-8

Since AnthroTronix can sell all it can produce of both products, it should
allocate all of its production capacity to the home model of the CosmoBot.
This is because the home model yields a \$1,600 contribution margin per
production hour (versus \$1,000 for the enhanced model).
Enhanced
Model
Contribution margin per unit............................... \$ 500
Production hours per unit...................................

Home
Model
\$ 400

1/2

1/4

\$1,600

## McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005

Solutions Manual, Chapter 25

143

BTN 25-9

## 1. Answers will vary among students.

Sample Example
For illustrative purposes, one sample solution would appear as
follows:
Lease terms\$400 per month for 35 months; plus \$10,000 final
payment at the end of 35 months; 12% annual interest rate.
To compute the present value of the lease payments
PV of 35 payments of \$400 per month discounted
at 1% (12%/12 months).......................................................
\$11,763*
PV of \$10,000 final payment at end of 35 months
discounted at 1%................................................................
7,059**
Total PV of lease....................................................................
\$18,822
* \$400 x 29.4086 (from Table B.3)
** \$10,000 x 0.7059 (from Table B.1)

Purchase terms\$16,500

## 2. In most cases the students will find it more costly to lease an

automobile than to purchase it outright. Also, getting the salesperson
to negotiate the outright purchase of the automobile is sometimes
challenging once youve shown interest in leasing. This is because of
the usually higher profit margin associated with leasing.
Using the sample numbers from part 1, the PV of the lease is \$18,822,
which is \$2,322 more than the outright purchase price of \$16,500.

144

Global Decision

BTN 25-10

## 1. Grupo Bimbo distributed 15,200 hand-held computers to its sales force

(70%) in 2002. The plan is to further this distribution in 2003.
2. Yes. Grupo Bimbo closed plants in Dallas, Vienna, and Mexico City.
3. Mrs. Bairds Honey 7 Grain and Sugar Free Breads, and Oroweats