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Stress Around Bolt Hole Comparison Between A Closed

Form Calculation Method and Finite Element Analysis

Results
2013 Regional User Conference

May 14, 2013

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Introduction
In a FE model, a bolted joint can be modeled either by following
approaches:
1. Solid elements/Contact elements/preload model
Pros: can closely simulate a bolted joint/reduce local stress issue
Cons: time-consume-modeling and running effort/not suitable for a
complex or large model/cant be used for random analysis or any method
using modal approach
2. Shell/solid elements with wagon wheel RBE2 and CBUSH elements
Pros: less-time-consume-modeling and running effort/suitable for
random analysis or any method using modal approach
Cons: local stress results around bolt hole due to rigid body RBE2

This paper is to present stress comparison around bolt hole

between FE analysis results (Approach #2) and a hand
calculation method
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Hand Calculation Method

In the hand calculation method, maximum stress around bolt holt
is calculated using in-plane pin load, by-pass tension load, and
by-pass bending load as shown in the picture below
Stress concentration factors are also included in the calculation

Hand Calculation Method (cont.)

Determination of Stress Concentration Factor:

Hand Calculation Method (cont.)

Determination of Stress Concentration Factor: (cont.)

Hand Calculation Method (cont.)

Loads Determination: Pin and By-pass loads are determined
as following:

In-plane pin load: extracted loads from CBUSH that represents the bolt
By-pass tension and bending moment loads : extracted load within W =
4dhole from FE model using Free Body/Interface function in MSC Patran

Calculations:
Tensile area:

At (W d hole) T1

tp K t ( pin)

Ftp
At

2. Tensile stress from by-pass tension load:

tbp K t (bypass)

Ftbp

At
Where
Ftp = In-plane pin load (lbs)
Ftbp = By-pass tension load (lbs)
Kt(pin) = In-plane pin load stress concentration factor
Kt(bypass) = By-pass tension load stress concentration factor
W = assumed width = 4dhole
T1 = flange thickness
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Hand Calculation Method (cont.)

Calculations: (cont.)
Moment of inertia:

1
3
W d hole T1
12

3. Bending Stress from by-pass bending moment:

T
T
M bp 1
M bp 1
6 M bp
2K
2
tb K t (bend)

t ( bend)
t ( bend)
2
1
3
I

T
hole
1
W d hole T1
12
Where
Mbp = By-pass bending moment (in-lbs)
Kt(bend) = Bending stress concentration factor
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Hand Calculation Method (cont.)

Calculations: (cont.)
Total tensile stress:
tt tp tbp tb

Von-Mises stress:
2

VM

2
2
2
2

tt tt
tt tt
tt tt
tt

tt

tt
2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2

Margin of Safety:
Yield
MS y
SF VM

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A Study Case
A mounting flange FE model with wagon wheel RBE2 and
CBUSH element at the bolt hole locations is created and
analyzed under a static inertial load
Several layers of concentric circles are created around each bolt
hole to represent bolted joint clamping zone under bolt head or
washer
Maximum stress results from FE analysis will be derived at the
following locations:
At bolt hole location
At one-element-away from bolt hole location
Right outside of the clamping zone

A Study Case (cont.)

RBE2 (6 dofs) & CBUSH
Bolt Hole Location

One-Element-Away
Location

Clamping Zone
(~ Bolt Head or
Washer Diameter)

A Study Case (cont.)

Stress-at-bolt-hole
Max. Stress = 21.2 ksi

A Study Case (cont.)

One-element-away stress
Max. Stress = 19.5 ksi

A Study Case (cont.)

Out-Of-Clamping Zone stress
Max. Stress = 7.97
ksi

A Study Case (cont.)

Hand Calculations Results

Hole diameter dhole = 0.19

Width W = 4xdhole = 4x0.19 = 0.76
Plate thickness T1 = 0.188
In-plane pin load Ftp= 95.6 lbs
By-pass tension load Ftbp = 33.5 lbs
By-pass bending moment Mbp= 7.5 in-lbs
Kt(pin) = 4.0
Kt(bypass) = 2.43
Kt(bend) = 1.77
Tensile area:

A Study Case (cont.)

Hand Calculations Results (cont.)
1. Tensile stress from in-plane pin load:
tp K t ( pin)

Ftp
At

4.0

95.6
3,568 psi
0.1072

tbp K t (bypass)

Ftbp
At

2.43

33.5
761 psi
0.1072

tb K t (bend)

6 M bp

W d hole T12

1.77

6 7.5
3,918 psi
0.76 0.19 0.1882

A Study Case (cont.)

Hand Calculations Results (cont.)
Total tensile stress:
tt tp tbp tb 3,568 761 3,918 8,247 psi VM

FE 21,200 psi

Thus,
FE 21,200

2.6
tt
8,247

A Study Case (cont.)

Comparison Summary

Hand calculated stress is smaller than

stress at bolt hole location (< 2.6x)
Hand calculated stress is smaller than
stress at one-element-away location
(< 2.4x)
Hand calculated stress is slightly
greater than stress at out-of-clamping
zone location (> 1.03x)

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Study Case

dbolt (in)
dhole (in)
Sectional Cuts Dimensions dH (in)
Flange 1 Thickness T1 (in)
Emembers (psi)
Member Yield Strength (psi)
Member Ultimate Strength (psi)
Safety Factor on Yield
Safety Factor on Ultimate
In-plane Pin Load (lbs)
By-Pass Tension Load (lbs)
By-Pass Bending Moment (in-lbs)

0.190
0.190
0.760
0.188
1.00E+07
35,000
42,000
1.15
1.25
95.6
33.5
7.5

dhole/dH
T1/dhole
Pin Stress Concentration Factor Kt(pin)
By-pass Tension Stress Concentration Factor Kt(by-pass)
Out-of-plane Bending Stress Concentration Factor Kt(bend)
Moment of Inertia (in^4)
Tensile Area (in^2)
In-plane Pin Load Tension Stress (psi)
By-pass Tension Load Stress (psi)
By-pass Moment Bending Stress (psi)
Total Tensile Stress (psi)
Von-Mises Stress (psi)

0.2500
0.9895
4.00
2.43
1.77
0.0003
0.1072
3,568
761
3,918
8,247
8,247

Hand Calculation Von-Mises Stress (psi)

FE Results One-Element-Away Von-Mises Stress (psi)
(One-Element-Away FE Result / Hand Calc. Result) Ratio
FE Results at Bolt Hole Location Von-Mises Stress (psi)
(Bolt Hole FE Result / Hand Calc. Result) Ratio
FE Results at Out-of-Clamping Zone Location Von-Mises Stress
(psi)
(Bolt Hole FE Result / Hand Calc. Result) Ratio

8,247
19,500
2.4
21,200
2.6
7,970
0.97

A Study Case (cont.)

Summary of Other Study Cases

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Conclusions
At bolt hole location, stress is local and unrealistic ===> Margin
of safety will be too conservative
At one-element-away location (that is still within bolt head or
washer clamping zone), stress is more reasonable to be used for
margin of safety calculation