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A survey of pharmacy NHS Health

Check provision in England

Table of Contents
1. Introduction:................................................................................................................................2
1.1 Aims and Objectives:.................................................................................................................4
2. Literature Review........................................................................................................................5
2.1 Contribution made by the community pharmacy...................................................................6
2.1.1 Healthy Lifestyle.............................................................................................................6
2.1.2 Reduction of Smoking.....................................................................................................7
2.1.2 Reduction in Alcohol related ill effects or harm.............................................................7
2.1.3 Reduction of Alcohol misuse among the teenagers.........................................................8
2.2 The (HLP) Healthy living Pharmacy.........................................................................................8
2.2.1 Prevention...............................................................................................................................9
2.2.2 Testing and Screening...........................................................................................................10
The health checks of NHS.............................................................................................................10
2.2.3 Spreading Awareness............................................................................................................11
2.2.3.1 Cancer................................................................................................................................11
2.2.3.2 Immunisation.....................................................................................................................12
3. Research methodology...............................................................................................................12
4. Discussions................................................................................................................................14
5. Conclusion.................................................................................................................................16

References......................................................................................................................................16

Abstract
The research paper highlights the promotion of the NHS health check provision so that
NHS can make aware of the advantages of the health promotion campaigns which have
been organized by NHS Health provision located in England, UK. The research paper also
focuses on the different methods used for the conduction of the research so that the quality
of the research can be maintained. It also highlights the role of the pharmacists indulging
in changing the health habits of the people in UK. It also identifies the risk factors by the
promotion and the implementation of the health checkups in the UK. The NHS also
demonstrates the factors through which the lifestyle of the people in UK has been changed.
The study also illustrates the statistical assumptions which results in the findings of the
positive impacts on the lifestyle of the people of England, UK.

1. Introduction:
Healthcare is the cornerstone of the socialist state. It is the crown jewel of the welfare state. Monica Crowley
National Health Service is the most famous public funded healthcare systems in United
Kingdom. It is the largest and the oldest healthcare systems in the entire nation. National Health
Service is funded by the general taxation system and provides free medical services to all the
legal residents of United Kingdom (Norton, 2006). There is also emergency treatment and
treatment for infectious diseases which is absolutely free for all the denizens as well as the
visitors. NHS was founded in 1948 and since then it has controlled the entire health sector in
UK. The most promising way through which NHS carried out its campaigns since its inception is
through several videos for health awareness. NHS also carried out several video campaigns about
the hazards of smoking in human life and also informed the masses about the benefits of walking
to improvise the health condition of the people.
In UK public health is the most crucial concern as it is huge concern these days for so many
health issues in peoples life and it is directly affecting the heath and economy of the nation as
well. The UK Government has also become very serious and has proposed several policies in
order to undergo proper healthcare services in entire UK. In this study we have focused on the
community pharmacy which serves as the providers for the NHS health check program which
was conducted in 2009. Through NHS almost 10500 community pharmacies are providing health
care services throughout UK. This is the most promising strategies by NHS to provide the best

healthcare care service in entire UK is through the help of the community pharmacies. Now the
most promising feature of these community pharmacies is that they are located not only in the
heart of city but also in the small towns, rural as well as the inner backward cities. Here the
people have limited medical and health facility and this is the reason why they are quite
backward related to the healthcare awareness among themselves as well as their children.
There have been several growing opportunities available for the community pharmacy in the
public healthcare services through NHS health checks. They focus on the important areas of
alcohol and drug misuses among the teenage and younger generation of the society. We all know
that these days drugs and alcohol is the most crucial issues which the parents face for their under
aged and younger children. This not only affects their health but also their future as well. This is
the reason why so many rehabilitation centers are being opened to recover the health condition of
the people who are affected by drugs and alcohol. The community pharmacies conduct several
health campaign sessions and undergo lots of events in order to spread the awareness among the
people regarding consumption of alcohol, drugs and tobacco. Teenage girls are also trained about
premature pregnancy which is another crucial issues found among the young girls these days.
They also conduct several healthy lifestyle events and also increased the intake of seasonal flu
vaccination. Now if we consider the successful implementation of public healthcare services, a
community pharmacy plays a major role to conduct them as they are easily accessible among the
local masses of that region and this result in huge positive response to these health campaigns
among the people.
The NHS Health Check programme which was conducted in 2009 was initiated to understand the
risk of growing coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes and chronic kidney disease. This targeted
mainly the population of age between 40 and 74 years and this was supported by the Public

Health England. Commissioning of pharmacy-based NHS Health Checks was initially the
cancellation of Primary Care Trusts; however it shifted to Local Authorities in April 2013. So the
remote areas took the opportunity of using the pharmacists over there. However in many areas
pharmacies were not used at all to conduct NHS health checkups. However if gone deep into the
research, not much has been published about the health checkups conducted by the NHS Health
Checks in entire England.

1.1 Aims and Objectives:


The main aim of the research is to conduct more health checkup campaigns through the help of
community pharmacists conducted by the NHS Health Checks. The main objective of the
research is as follows:

To conduct more healthcare campaigns in order to spread awareness among the teenagers
and the younger generations in England to stop the usage of drugs and alcohol and

educate them about the drastic effects of it in their health as well as future.
To conduct healthier lifestyle events to reach the backward class of the society and those
areas who are not much aware about the general and crucial healthcare services and the

precautions they need to take.


Through the community pharmacists to reach the remote areas and the inner backward
cities where there is very few access to the latest medical services. To these areas
community pharmacists can easily reach and help and educate them with the health
issues. Moreover through them, NHS will also come to know about the health issues

which the people mostly face over there and the facilities of which they are deprived of.
To extricate the funding problems which the people in the rural areas and the remote
cities face to undergo the health treatments and the emergency health issues. NHS is

looking forward to provide more free medical and healthcare services specifically to the

people of these areas in order to undergo successful medical services.


To appoint more highly trained pharmacists in order to enhance the health care services in
entire England through NHS.

So NHS Health Checks need to concentrate on all these prime objectives and set their future
goals so that they successfully conduct the healthcare services in entire England and so that the
people in both urban and rural areas are more aware of the crucial health problems and are also
educated with the basic prevention activities in order escape these problems and make a better
place to live in.

2. Literature Review
Literature review can be significantly expressed as the overall evaluation or report of the
significant information or data obtained or gathered in the context of the particular research study
or research topic. The section of literature review extensively elaborates or highlights the various
evaluations or discussions of the several past observations, studies or researches that have been
comprehensively conducted on the undertaken field of research study. Literature review can be
effectively and extensively considered to be a crucial segment of the undertaken research study
that significantly highlights or showcases the importance and relevance of the undertaken
research topic. The literature review section has extensively showcased the overall importance of
pharmacy NHS health check provision in the nation of England. In this section of literature
review, the researcher has significantly studied, assessed and analyzed the past observations,
researches and other studies that holds significant relevance to the undertaken research study and
have been published in various journals or articles. The literature review segment provides the
researcher with an extensive theoretical overview or concept regarding the undertaken research

which comprehensively enables the respective researcher to conduct the overall research in the
most efficient, accurate and appropriate manner.
2.1 Contribution made by the community pharmacy
Community pharmacy can be effectively considered to make significant and extensive
contribution to the overall public health in the nation of England. Community pharmacy is seen
to play a major role in preventing or generating the rightful and proper awareness among the
public regarding various health issues which can significantly lead to severe diseases among the
individuals. The overall contribution made by the community pharmacy in public health can be
comprehensively explained as follows:
2.1.1 Healthy Lifestyle
It can be widely estimated that healthcare services contribute to nearly one third of the overall
life expectancy improvements, while changing the overall lifestyle of the people and eradication
of the various health inequalities significantly contributes to the rest one third. Obesity and
diabetes which are considered to be the biggest threats towards health are extensively related
with public health. The four basic factors that can be considered to be the significant behavioral
contributor towards various preventable diseases can be listed as follows:
Use of tobacco.
Physical inactivity.
Poor diet.
Excess consumption of alcohol.
2.1.2 Reduction of Smoking
Smoking can be considered to be the major significant cause behind premature death and
preventable morbidity in the nation of England. Smoking is forecasted to be significantly
responsible for more than 86,000 deaths in England on a yearly basis. The National Health

Services (NHS), spends around 2.75 billion GBP on an annual basis for treating smoking related
diseases and illness. Generating awareness among the public in relation to the ill effects of
smoking have become a prior concern towards eradicating the smoking related health problems
and issues in the nation of England. Over the years NHS has modified their overall smoking
services by modification of various treatment norms and protocols and enhancing the overall
treatment that are delivered to the community pharmacies. The community pharmacies are
responsible for generating the right awareness among the people regarding the ill effects of
smoking and have the capacity to reach out to a wide number of people who indulge themselves
in smoking.
2.1.2 Reduction in Alcohol related ill effects or harm
The rate of alcohol abuse has significantly risen in the nation of England over the last decade and
has continued to be one of the major significant reasons behind various health issues among the
overall population. Thus prevention of ill effects of alcohol and other harms related to alcohol
have become a major imperative of public health in the nation of England, United Kingdom
(UK). Misuse of alcohol can be considered to be a huge burden on the overall public as well as
health sector systems in context of both the cost related to treatment of diseases related to alcohol
as well as the overall impact of alcohol abuse on hospitals and other primary cares. For
significant reduction in alcohol related harm it is extensively necessary to identify the root causes
of hazardous drinking and implement proper strategies for controlling the causes. On a yearly
basis National Health Services (NHS), are reported to spend around 2.5 billion GBP for
reduction of health problems or issues related to alcohol abuse in the near future.

2.1.3 Reduction of Alcohol misuse among the teenagers


Alcohol misuse can be considered to be one of the major reasons behind the rising number of
health issues ranging from psychological to physical problems among the teenagers in the nation
of England, United Kingdom (UK). Alcohol consumption among teenagers have remained a
significant problem in United Kingdom (UK) and despite of the various governmental measures
and policies the overall insufficiency towards proper attention has significantly resulted in
various health issues among the young population of United Kingdom (UK). Over the years, it
has been seen that a wide number of teenagers have been admitted to the hospitals for health
issues related to alcohol misuse and other accidents. Drunk driving is considered to be the major
causes of deaths of people in the age group of 16-24 years. Thus in this context it can be
extensively said that community pharmacy plays a major significant and vital role in providing
efficient services that can be easily and timely accessed by the respective teenagers. Community
pharmacy holds the significant responsibility of generating the right kind of awareness among
the teenagers regarding the health issues and other health problems related to excessive
consumption of alcohol. The community pharmacies can also make the significant contribution
of generating awareness among the teenagers regarding the various sexual health problems,
issues and risks that are extensively and comprehensively related or linked to misuse of alcohol.

2.2 The (HLP) Healthy living Pharmacy


According to Bowerman, and Lamb-White, 2007; there is a new concept that has been
launched with a view to enhance the public health condition and fulfil every public health need
and desire. A framework which will be tiered commissioned with an aim to deliver local
pharmaceutical needs and services to NHS. The list of elevated services that HLP (Healthy
Living Pharmacy) offers include their intentions of making the local community a healthy and

hygienic place to live in. The quality services that HLP directs and provides help in contributing
towards providing health improving remedies that assists local communities to reduce the
inequalities that can be a major back hold for the societys health standards.
According to Bradley and Burls, 2000; one of the major objectives that HLP (Healthy Living
Pharmacy) serves is the objectives of promoting various methods and procedure of a healthy
living and several methods and procedure that will help local communities to improve their
standard of health.
In the geographical region of Portsmouth, United Kingdom, the PCT has helped the local
communities with an establishment of several HLPs (Healthy Living Pharmacies) that helped the
communities to improve their health condition by facilitating various services that are public
health oriented. They also have their several staffs that are trained in a special way that makes
them champions as of health training. This has helped the regional people of the Portsmouth to
improve their health standards using some special sort of training and procedure.

2.2.1 Prevention
As stated by Brown R in the year of 1973; the local community pharmacies play vital role in
the spreading the awareness among people of various communities. They perform a smart role
play in how to aware people regarding the disadvantage of illness of several diseases. They
forecast the reaction of community people regarding the effect of the disease and act accordingly.
They perform resting along with some screening procedure and then they immunise people of
those diseases. Local Community Pharmacies are solely responsible for spreading awareness of
healthy living and the procedure and way people can lead a healthy life. To test and screen
people that are aged between the ages of 40-74 and improve their health condition by providing

them various health improving methods and procedures that in the longer run will be beneficial
for them. Prevention is always better than cure is the conception HLPs (Healthy Living
Pharmacy) follow for every community they serve in.

2.2.2 Testing and Screening

The health checks of NHS


According to Carrier J. and Kendall I. 1998; there has been a national level check curriculum
that was initiated by the NHS. The check programme was conducted with an aim to concentrate
more upon the middle aged people ranging from the age of 40-74 that are prone to several
diseases. There are a group of people that are aged from the 40-74 are mainly attacked by various
vascular diseases. Local pharmacies help people that are mostly in need of medical assistance.
Local pharmacies help the people in spreading awareness and understand the concept of various
deadly diseases that has the potential to affect them the most. It also is the responsibilities of the
pharmacies to help people to manage their health conditions by assisting them with various
health exercises. It is vital for the pharmacies to be located in a spot that is easy reachable for
people, people would not have to spend much time in reaching the pharmacy.

2.2.3 Spreading Awareness

2.2.3.1 Cancer
According to Chacko in the year of 1979. The most feared disease and one of the primary
reasons that world has seen deaths that are untimely and uncertain. Although, results have shown

that if diagnosed on time lives can be saved but if its too late to discover the symptoms and is
not diagnosed on time it becomes hard for the medical professional to save a life. There are
researches that show that there are several methods that can help people to cure from the chances
of cancer. There are several situations that have the maximum potential to a human to catch the
chances of Cancer. Smoking being of the major reason that cause the cancer among people
aged from 15-30 and there are several other condition where human can have the chances of
infected by cancer. Improving diet chart and the food article those are in the food chart,
increasing activities that are physical greater than ever can help people to reduce the chances of
cancer that they can get infected by.
According to Coleman M in the year of 1999. Skin cancer being one of the top kinds that
affect more than any other kind of the cancer and it does affect young people aged from 15-24
and it also is observed that people do get affect by skin cancer majorly by Sun bed.
Community pharmacy can help community people to spread awareness regarding the effects of
Cancer and let people decide for their own health. Local community pharmacies play an
important role in making people aware of the severe effects of the Cancer and how deadly can
the effects be. Pharmacies can spread information over the remedies that people can use for the
purpose of helping people understand the concept of Cancer and how the remedies they provided
can help them to be safe from the deadly effects of cancer.

2.2.3.2 Immunisation
Immunisation is the procedure of making people aware and making people invincible from
deadly diseases. It is the procedure of facilitating community people with vital preventive

measures that can help them to protect themselves from various deadly diseases. It thus is vital
for the pharmacy to spread awareness regarding the deadly effects of various diseases that can
severely affect them and even can cause their death. Vaccination at well in advance, appropriate
training procedure and spreading awareness regarding the importance of cleanliness can help the
community to be healthy and people within the community to be protected from various deadly
diseases. There are various reasons regarding why people can get affected by various diseases,
sudden temperature change, dirt all round in the neighbourhood, smoking in a huge amount,
drinking in a huge quantity, are some of the major reason that can cause people to get affected by
the several deadly diseases.
According to Davis, H. and Martin, S. (2008); there are various local pharmacies within the
geographical territory of England that are trained with an aim to administer vaccinations and
pharmacy patient records. Records are being kept on an individual basis now; it helps the
community pharmacy to keep a track record of their patients and they can use the information
whenever they need it.

3. Research methodology
The research was conducted in the NHS Kent Community pharmacies. The total number of 76
pharmacies was included for the conduction of this research (Coleman, 1999). The target
population should be the patients who are suffering from the coronary heart diseases, stroke
prone patients and the diabetic patients who have the high risks of death at any point of time. The
semi- structured telephonic interview method has been recognized in this research. The
supervisor has allocated six students for interviewing the pharmacists.

The pharmacists have given the interviews through telephones and the interviews have been
recorded with the use of the electronic media like the digital device which was played back and it
has been transcribed. The same technique has been used for taking the interviews with the staff
of the NHS. The interviewer has transcribed the recording and it has been checked by the
research colleague so that accuracy can be ensured.
The researcher has done two surveys for the conduction of the research. From the first survey it
has been observed that the researcher should collect the list of all the LPC chairs in England and
it has been obtained from LPC online websites (Norton, 2006). From there the email address, the
telephone number and the contact numbers has been taken which is useful or the research. The
detailed information about the LPC chairs from the 3 areas where the NHS health checks have
been introduced in three pharmacies has been taken. The questionnaire has been developed
where the survey from the different LPC chairs located in various areas and the raw data have
been taken from the questionnaire which has been developed (Carrier, 1998).
From the survey 2 the primary data has been collected like the interviews conducted with the
pharmacists who have the appointments in each NHS health checks which have been located in
various areas. The interviews are also conducted with the staffs of the pharmacies about what
type of patients generally comes for the checkups.
The other method for the collection of the data is the secondary data collection method which
includes the collection of the information from the online websites of NHS in England which
gives the details of the pharmacy providers in England so that the details of the pharmacy
providers have been taken. The details include the contact and name of the pharmacy providers.

From the website the researcher collects the name of the pharmacy providers who provides
medicines for the NHS health checks.
The questionnaires which have been designed should be distributed to three pharmacy providers
in the areas where the NHS health checkups are there in the areas. The open ended questions are
to be asked to the respondents which includes the multiple choice questions. The postal
questionnaires have been distributed to different pharmacy providers and to the pharmacist who
includes the free post envelopes and the questionnaire have been presented online. The LPC
chairs were sent the email reminders and the telephone reminders so that accurate information
can be gathered from the online questionnaire (Hall, 2011).
The researcher has to follow some of the ethical guidelines before the conduction of the research.
The researcher should ask the respondents before taking the interviews with the pharmacists and
the staffs of the NHS health checks. The researcher could not ask any personal questions to the
respondents so that the respondents feel uncomfortable in answering the questions. The
researcher should take the consent of the management authority of the NHS before asking any
questions to the pharmacy providers.
Descriptives

Descriptive Statistics
N

Letter

Minimu

Maximu

Mean

Std.

3.72

.933

Deviation

automatically

generated by computer 100


sent to GP by you
Other

100

3.55

.947

Smolking Cessation

100

2.26

.719

Weight Management

100

2.34

.714

Alcoholic Advice

100

2.28

.683

Exercise Prescription

100

2.36

.689

MUR

100

2.29

.715

100

3.31

1.354

Number of NHS Health


Checks
Valid N (listwise)

T-Test

100

H0: There is no significant difference between the feedback score for training and feedback score
for support provided by NHS to the retail pharmacists.
H1: There is a significant difference between the feedback score for training and feedback score
for support provided by NHS to the retail pharmacists.

Paired Samples Statistics


Mean

Pair 1

Std.

Std.

Deviation

Mean

Training 3.7900

100

.34185

.03419

Support 3.8020

100

.39028

.03903

Error

From the paired T-Test for the training and support given by the pharmacists of NHS for health
checkups it has been observed that there is no significant difference between the mean score of
the training required and the support level of the pharmacists.
Paired Samples Correlations

Training
Pair 1
Support

Paired Samples Test

Correlation Sig.

100

.079

&
.435

Paired Differences
Mean

Training
Pair 1

Std.

Std.

Deviation

Mean

Error 95% Confidence Interval of


the Difference
Lower

Upper

-.11084

.08684

-.01200

.49813

.04981

Support

Paired Samples Test

Pair 1

Training - Support

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

0.241

99

.810

T-Test
H0: There is no significant difference between the feedback score for training and feedback score
for referral provided by NHS to the retail pharmacists.
H1: There is a significant difference between the feedback score for training and feedback score
for referral method provided by NHS to the retail pharmacists.

Paired Samples Statistics


Mean

Training
Pair 1 Referral_metho

Std.

Std.

Deviation

Mean

3.7900

100

.34185

.03419

3.7550

100

.38084

.03808

Error

From the paired T-Test for the training and support given by the pharmacists of NHS for health
checkups it has been observed that there is no significant difference between the mean score of
the training required and the referral method of the pharmacists.

Paired Samples Correlations

Training
Pair 1
Referral_method

Paired Samples Test

Correlation Sig.

100

-.085

&
.400

Paired Differences
Mean

Std.

Std.

Deviation

Mean

Error 95%
Confidence
Interval

of

the
Difference
Lower
Training
Pair 1

.03500

.53298

.05330

-.07076

Referral_method

Paired Samples Test


Paired

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

.657

99

.513

Differences
95%
Confidence
Interval of the
Difference
Upper
Pair 1

Training - Referral_method .14076

T-Test

H0: There is no significant difference between the feedback score for training and feedback score
for promotion provided by NHS to the retail pharmacists.
H1: There is a significant difference between the feedback score for training and feedback score
for promotion provided by NHS to the retail pharmacists.

Paired Samples Statistics


Mean

Pair 1

Training

Std.

Std.

Deviation

Mean

3.7900

100

.34185

.03419

Promotion 3.7400

100

.33634

.03363

Error

From the paired T-Test for the training and support given by the pharmacists of NHS for health
checkups it has been observed that there is no significant difference between the mean score of
the training required and the promotion of the pharmacists.

Paired Samples Correlations

Training

Correlation Sig.

100

.275

&

Pair 1

.006

Promotion

Paired Samples Test


Paired Differences
Mean

Std.

Std.

Deviation

Mean

Error 95%
Confidence
Interval

of

the
Difference
Lower
Training
Pair 1

.05000

.40831

.04083

-.03102

Promotion

Paired Samples Test


Paired
Differences
95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Upper
Pair 1

Training - Promotion

.13102

1.225

99

.224

T-Test

H0: There is no significant difference between the feedback score for support level and feedback
score for promotion provided by NHS to the retail pharmacists.
H1: There is a significant difference between the feedback score for support level and feedback
score for promotion provided by NHS to the retail pharmacists.

Paired Samples Statistics


Mean

Std.

Std.

Deviation

Mean

Error

Pair 1

Support

3.8020

100

.39028

.03903

Promotion 3.7400

100

.33634

.03363

From the paired T-Test for the training and support given by the pharmacists of NHS for health
checkups it has been observed that there is no significant difference between the mean score of
the support level and the promotion of the pharmacists.

Paired Samples Correlations

Support
Pair 1

Correlation Sig.

100

-.003

&
.980

Promotion

Paired Samples Test


Paired Differences
Mean

Std.

Std.

Deviation

Mean

Error 95%
Confidence
Interval
the
Difference
Lower

of

Support
Pair 1

.06200

.51587

.05159

-.04036

Promotion

Paired Samples Test


Paired

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

1.202

99

.232

Differences
95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference
Upper
Pair 1

T-Test

Support - Promotion

.16436

Paired Samples Statistics


Mean

Pair 1

Support

Std.

Std.

Deviation

Mean

3.8020

100

.39028

.03903

Promotion 3.7400

100

.33634

.03363

Paired Samples Correlations

Support
Pair 1

Correlation Sig.

100

-.003

&

Promotion

Paired Samples Test


Paired Differences

.980

Error

Mean

Std.

Std.

Deviation

Mean

Error 95%
Confidence
Interval

of

the
Difference
Lower
Support
Pair 1

.06200

.51587

.05159

-.04036

Promotion

Paired Samples Test


Paired

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

1.202

99

.232

Differences
95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference
Upper
Pair 1

Support - Promotion

.16436

T-Test

H0: There is no significant difference between the feedback score for referral method and
feedback score for promotion provided by NHS to the retail pharmacists.
H1: There is a significant difference between the feedback score for referral method and
feedback score for promotion provided by NHS to the retail pharmacists.

Paired Samples Statistics


Mean

Pair 1 Referral_metho 3.7550


d

100

Std.

Std.

Deviation

Mean

.38084

.03808

Error

Promotion

3.7400

100

.33634

.03363

From the paired T-Test for the training and support given by the pharmacists of NHS for health
checkups it has been observed that there is no significant difference between the mean score of
the referral method and the promotion of the pharmacists.

Paired Samples Correlations

Referral_method

Correlation Sig.

100

.025

&

Pair 1

.803

Promotion

Paired Samples Test


Paired Differences
Mean

Std.

Std.

Deviation

Mean

Error 95%
Confidence
Interval
the
Difference
Lower

Referral_method
Pair 1

.01500

Promotion

.50168

.05017

-.08454

of

Paired Samples Test


Paired

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

.299

99

.766

Differences
95%
Confidence
Interval of the
Difference
Upper
Referral_method
Pair 1

.11454

Promotion

Regression

Model Summary
Model R

.155a

a. Predictors:

R Square Adjusted

.024

R Std. Error of

Square

the Estimate

-.017

1.365

(Constant),

Promotion,

Support,

Referral_method, Training
From the regression table it has been observed that the
independent variables taken are the promotion, training,
referral methods and support while the dependent variable
is the patients. It has been observed that the regression
value is in the lower side which is 0.155 which indicates
that there is very low dependency on the independent
variables.

ANOVAa

Model

Sum

of df

Mean Square F

Sig.

.676b

Squares

Regression 4.345

1.086

Residual

177.045

95

1.864

Total

181.390

99

.583

a. Dependent Variable: Number of NHS Health Checks


b. Predictors: (Constant), Promotion, Support, Referral_method, Training

Coefficientsa
Model

Unstandardized

Standardized t

Coefficients

Coefficients

Std. Error

(Constant)

5.889

2.649

Training

.038

.421

Support

.059

Sig.

Beta
2.223

.029

.010

.090

.929

.354

.017

.167

.868

-.214

.363

-.060

-.589

.557

-.573

.425

-.142

-1.348

.181

Referral_metho
d
Promotion

a. Dependent Variable: Number of NHS Health Checks

Frequencies

Statistics

Valid

Smolking

Weight

Cessation

Management Advice

Prescription

100

100

100

100

100

Missing 0

Frequency Table

Alcoholic

Exercise

MUR

Smolking Cessation
Frequency Percent

Provides this sevice

Valid

Cumulative

Percent

Percent

16

16.0

16.0

16.0

42

42.0

42.0

58.0

your 42

42.0

42.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Refers serviuce User for


health Checks
Valid Refer

Health

receipients

for

Check

service
Total

100

Weight Management
Frequency Percent

Provides this sevice

Valid

Cumulative

Percent

Percent

14

14.0

14.0

14.0

38

38.0

38.0

52.0

your 48

48.0

48.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Refers serviuce User for


health Checks
Valid Refer

Health

receipients

for

Check

service
Total

100

Alcoholic Advice
Frequency Percent

Provides this sevice

Valid

Cumulative

Percent

Percent

13

13.0

13.0

13.0

46

46.0

46.0

59.0

your 41

41.0

41.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Refers serviuce User for


health Checks
Valid Refer

Health

receipients

for

Check

service
Total

100

Exercise Prescription
Frequency Percent

Valid Provides this sevice

Valid

Cumulative

Percent

Percent

12

12.0

12.0

12.0

Refers serviuce User for 40

40.0

40.0

52.0

health Checks

Refer

Health

receipients

for

Check
your 48

48.0

48.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

service
Total

100

MUR
Frequency Percent

Provides this sevice

Valid

Cumulative

Percent

Percent

15

15.0

15.0

15.0

41

41.0

41.0

56.0

your 44

44.0

44.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Refers serviuce User for


health Checks
Valid Refer

Health

receipients

for

Check

service
Total

Oneway

100

ANOVA
Sum

of df

Mean Square F

Sig.

.414

.936

.400

.943

1.439

.177

Squares
Between
Support

.671

10

.067

Within Groups

14.409

89

.162

Total

15.080

99

.617

10

.062

Within Groups

13.741

89

.154

Total

14.359

99

1.559

10

.156

Within Groups

9.641

89

.108

Total

11.199

99

Groups

Between
Referral_metho Groups
d

Between
Promotion

Groups

It can be observed from the table that the ANOVA for training with respect to the support is
0.414 at the degrees of freedom (10, 99). Therefore it should be analyzed that there can
insignificant difference for training with respect to the support from the respondents.

It can be observed from the table that the ANOVA for training with respect to the referral method
is 0.400 at the degrees of freedom (10, 99). Therefore it should be analyzed that there can
insignificant difference for training with respect to the referral method from the respondents.

It can be observed from the table that the ANOVA for training with respect to the promotion is
1.439 at the degrees of freedom (10, 99). Therefore it should be analyzed that there can
significant difference for training with respect to the promotion from the respondents.

Oneway

ANOVA
Sum

of df

Mean Square F

Sig.

1.319

.238

1.014

.435

.550

.834

Squares
Between
Training

1.348

.150

Within Groups

10.221

90

.114

Total

11.570

99

1.322

.147

Within Groups

13.037

90

.145

Total

14.359

99

.584

.065

Within Groups

10.615

90

.118

Total

11.199

99

Groups

Between
Referral_metho Groups
d

Between
Promotion

Groups

It can be observed from the table that ANOVA for support with respect to the training is 1.319 at
the degrees of freedom at (9, 90). Therefore it has been analyzed that there is a significant
difference for support with respect to the training of the respondents.

It can be observed from the table that ANOVA for support with respect to the referral method is
1.014 at the degrees of freedom at (9, 90). Therefore it has been analyzed that there is a
significant difference for support with respect to the referral method of the respondents.

It can be observed from the table that ANOVA for support with respect to the promotion is 0.550
at the degrees of freedom at (9, 90). Therefore it has been analyzed that there is an insignificant
difference for support with respect to the promotion of the respondents.

4. Discussions
From the overall data analysis it is evident that National Health Services (NHS) health checkups
are an absolute necessity in prevention of some major harms and diseases among the population
in the nation of England, United Kingdom (UK). From the survey conducted among the
pharmacists as well as patients it has been seen that National Health Services (NHS) health
checkups have been successfully conducted across England, United Kingdom (UK) and the
patients have significantly benefited from the overall health services and facilities provided by
the various pharmacies across the nation. The overall survey has revealed that the pharmacies are
proficiently well equipped and are significantly supported by the National Health Services
(NHS) (Carrier, 1998). The pharmacies receive proper financial as well as equipment support
from the National Health Services (NHS) and are proficient enough to provide the people with
high quality health services and facilities such as coronary heart diseases, strokes, diabetes,
obesity and several other health issues and problems which are significantly related to alcohol
misuse and smoking. Thus from the above analysis it can be widely said that National Health
Services (NHS), provides efficient checkups for the people of England, United Kingdom (UK),

through various pharmacies located across the nation. The people or the respective patients were
found to respond positively to the overall survey. According to the patients, the initiation of
health checkups through the pharmacies by the National Health Services (NHS, is of a
significant importance in improving the overall health system in the nation of England, United
Kingdom (UK). The people have been extensively benefited from the health services and
facilities provided by the National Health Services (NHS) through incorporating various
pharmacies located across the nation.
However, it is needed for the pharmacies to provide efficient training and development of their
overall employees or staffs for providing the respective patients with high standardized quality of
products and services and addressing various health issues and problems that are been
significantly faced by the people. In addition the various pharmacies also need to generate the
awareness among the people especially among the younger generation regarding the ill effects of
alcohol misuse and smoking through effective and proficient promotional campaigns. Such
promotional campaigns are necessary for educating the people the right way of leading a healthy
lifestyle by avoiding the habits of smoking and drinking and indulging themselves in proper
exercise routines and well maintained diets.

5. Conclusion
The initiative of health checkups through various pharmacies that have been significantly
undertaken by the National Health Services (NHS, can be considered to a significant major
factor which can extensively improve or enhance the overall health system in the nation of
England, United Kingdom (UK). The conducted survey has revealed the success of the initiated
health checkups by the National Health Services (NHS), and it can be widely considered that

such initiatives must continue and improve in the near future for enhancing the overall health
system in the nation of England, United Kingdom (UK). It was seen from the conducted survey
that both the pharmacists as well as the respective patients are extensively satisfied with the
health check up initiatives of the National Health Services (NHS). This reflects the overall
success of the undertaken project (Bradley, 2000).

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