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www.constitutionalconcepts.org

Two or three times a week I get an e-mail that makes the following claim.
The United States is a private corporation owned by the British Crown (Rothchilds), the Bank of England
(Rothchilds) and the Vatican (Rothchilds again). It was previously called the Virginia Company until 3/9/33 when it
was dissolved by Roosevelt under the Emergency Banking Act. On 5/5/33 Congress elected to dissolve the Gold
Standard and Sovereign Authority of the U.S. and all of its official capacities including government offices,
departments and officers. The U.S. is a corporation, not a nation. The Federal Reserve is neither Federal, nor a
Reserve. It is a private counterfeiting organization run by Jewish bankers who lend the money they print out of
thin air at interest while we keep on paying these criminals to fleece the People.
This is blatantly false and a whole bunch of HOGWASH ! ! !
The United States, and each of the several States, are all
Republics, set up and established by We, the People, in our
authority to create a Government for the sole purpose of
protecting and defending our unalienable rights.
Where does our authority to establish the various
governments come from?
It comes from our Creator.
The same person who gave us our unalienable rights.
The Chain of Command Chart, shown at right, defines our
relationship to our God and to the various governments that
We, the Sons and Daughters of God, have created.
It is interesting to note that only the first two levels of the
Chain of Command are living souls. Everything else is an
entity that has been created by the mind of man, as
authorized by our Creator.
Only living souls are capable of having Sovereignty.
It is also interesting to note that every time you step down
to a lower level there is less power, less authority, and
absolutely no ability to order anyone on a higher level to do
anything.

Let me repeat that so you thoroughly understand it.


It is also interesting to note that every time you step down to a lower level there is less power, less authority,
and absolutely no ability to order anyone on a higher level to do anything.
An order coming down from above is a mandate that must be obeyed by the servants on the lower levels. A petition
going up from a lower level is merely a prayer asking that something be done. If everyone on a lower level got
together and unanimously agreed that someone above them must do something, they have no power to enforce their
desires.
When we, the Creators and masters of our governments, petition our public servants to do what we want, we have
accepted their turning our Chain of Command upside down. We, the People, have the power to issue Mandates, not
our Public Servants, and especially not our governments.
Without a Chain of Command the organization would end in Chaos. Which is where we are now.
Gods Kingdom is a House of Order.
A cite from the Doctrine and Covenants, a book considered to be sacred scripture by the Church of Jesus Christ of
Latter Day Saints (the Mormons) may be of interest at this point.
According to the laws and constitution of the people, which I have suffered to be established, and should be maintained for the
rights and protection of all flesh, according to just and holy principles; That every man may act in doctrine and principle pertaining
to futurity, according to the moral agency which I have given unto him, that every man may be accountable for his own sins in the
day of judgment. Therefore, it is not right that any man should be in bondage one to another. And for this purpose have I
established the Constitution of this land, by the hands of wise men whom I raised up unto this very purpose, and redeemed the
land by the shedding of blood. - Doctrine and Covenants, Section 101:77 - 80)
When God prepared the Bible for us, he raised up wise men to write the books of the Bible. Since he raised up wise
men to write the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution should we consider them to be Sacred
Documents?
I think so.
Please note that God refers to the document as the laws and constitution of the people, and commands that they be
maintained for the rights and protection of all flesh, according to just and holy principles.
Are those who are trying to destroy the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution fighting against God?
If they are, they are doing the work of Satan.
If you look at the Chain of Command and consider that if it were flipped up-side down, then God would be nothing
and the Federal Government would rule over everything.
Does that sound familiar?
Our public servants subscribe to an oath of office between themselves and We, the People, that they will protect and
defend the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution for the united States of America, and the Constitutions for
the several States.
The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them
against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against
domestic Violence. Article IV, Section 4, Constitution for the United States of America

We still place our right hand over our heart and solemnly pledge our allegiance to our Republic, not to a Democracy,
or to an Oligarchy.
I pledge allegiance to the Flag of the United States of America, and to the Republic for which it stands: one Nation under God,
indivisible, With Liberty and Justice for all.
What is a Republic?
Republic:
A form of government where Gods law is supreme and the people are free to pursue and to enjoy their Life, Liberty and Pursuit
of Happiness. Each Citizen retains their own Sovereignty and has control over his personal environment. The Sovereign Citizens
are subject to Gods Laws, primarily the Ten Commandments, the Golden Rule, and especially, Love thy Enemy. Each level of
government is under the direct control of the Sovereign People concerned with that government.
Then, what is a Democracy?
Democracy:
A form of government where the majority rules. This type of system is fraught with the ever present potential that the majority will
make slaves of the minority, or, that power hungry men and women will subvert the system for their own benefit. God is outlawed,
and Gods laws are totally disregarded. Eventually the majority attempts to install themselves as the god of the nation. Today,
in our court rooms in every State, the attorneys PRAY to the judge for the orders they seek.
What did our Founding Fathers think about a Democracy?
"Hence it is that such democracies have ever been spectacles of turbulence and contention; have ever been found incompatible with
personal security or the rights of property; and have in general been as short in their lives as they have been violent in their
deaths." - James Madison, Federalist Paper 10:
What does our own government have to say about a Democracy?
Democracy, n. "A government of the masses. Authority derived through mass meeting or any form of "direct" expression. Results
in mobocracy. Attitude toward property is communistic - negating property rights. Attitude toward law is that the will of the majority
shall regulate, whether it be based upon deliberation or governed by passion, prejudice, and impulse, without restraint or regard
to consequences. Results in demagogism, license, agitation, discontent, anarchy." - U.S. Army Training Manual TM2000-25, 1928
But we may have already been forced into an Oligarchy.
Oligarchy:
A form of government where a select group of individuals have gained control over the actions and activities of the government
and have placed themselves, and their cohorts, above the law, by claiming immunity from redress for themselves and their
associates.
In our Republics, the people are the real power behind any and all lawful actions taken by our several governments.
Just the way our Creator designed the system.
We, the People, formed our Federal and State Republics for the sole purpose of securing our unalienable rights
In a Republic, the unalienable rights of each individual are superior to the laws
Our public servants have no power, no authority, and no right to do anything other than what they have sworn to
do.
Anything they do outside of the powers and authority granted by We, the People, is null and void before the ink is
dry.

Before we proceed, we need to define a Constitution.


Constitution:
In public law. The organic and fundamental law of a nation or state, which may be written or unwritten, establishing the character
and conception of its government, laying the basic principles to which its internal life is to be conformed, organizing the
government, and regulating, distributing, and limiting the functions of its different departments, and prescribing the extent and
manner of the exercise of sovereign powers. In a more general sense, any fundamental or important law or edict; as the Novel
Constitutions of Justinian; the Constitutions of Clarendon.
In American law:
The written instrument agreed upon by the people of the Union or of a particular state, as the absolute rule of action and decision
for all departments and officers of the government in respect to all the points covered by it, which must control until it shall be
changed by the authority which established it, and in opposition to which any set or ordinance of any such department or officer
is null and void. -- Black's Law Dictionary - 1st Edition - 1891
Bouvier's Law Dictionary - 6th Edition - 1853 defines the constitution of the United States of America as follows:
The fundamental law of the United States.
It was framed by a convention of the representatives of the people, who met at Philadelphia, and finally adopted it on the
17th day of September, 1787. It became the law of the land on the first Wednesday in March, 1789.
According to Bouvier's Law Dictionary - 6th Edition - 1853
Unconstitutional:
That which is contrary to the constitution. When an act of the legislature is repugnant or contrary to the constitution, it is, ipso
facto, void. The courts have the power, and it is their duty, when an act is unconstitutional, to declare it to be so; but this will
not be done except in a clear case and, as an additional guard against error, the supreme court of the United States refuses
to take up a case involving constitutional questions, when the court is not full.
Black's Law Dictionary - 1st Edition - 1891
Unconstitutional:
That which is contrary to the constitution. The opposite of "constitutional".
Why did I define Unconstitutional?
Because any action taken by our public servants that is beyond the powers and authority granted by We, the People,
the Creators of the Constitutions, is Unconstitutional, and is null and void ipso facto (from the beginning).
"Public officers are merely the agents of the public, whose powers and authority are defined and limited by law. Any act without
the scope of the authority so defined does not bind the principal, and all persons dealing with such agents are charged with
knowledge of the extent of their authority," - Continental Casualty Co. v. United States, 113 F.2d 284 (5th Cir. 1940): , at 286.
Carefully note that we are charged with knowledge of the extent of the authority of all agents that we deal with. This
is why the Constructive Notice is a binding Summons served on the Agent who confronts us.
"When the right to do a thing depends upon legislative authority, and the Legislature has failed to authorize it, or has forbidden
it, no amount of acquiescence, or consent, or approval of the doing of it by a ministerial officer, can create a right to do the thing
which is unauthorized or forbidden," - Department of Ins. of Indiana v. Church Members Relief Ass'n., 217 Ind. 58, 26 N.E.2d 51
(1940): 26 N.E.2d, at 52.
As I have repeatedly pointed out the Constitution for the United States of America is nothing more than the
Handbook that We, the People, put together to guide the actions and activities of our public servants. Unless you are
a government employee, Members of We, the People, are not subject to any of the provisions of the Constitution.

Why do I say that?


Let me answer that with a couple of questions.
What date do we celebrate as the birth date of our Country?
July 4, 1776
What happened on that date that is important?
The Declaration of Independence was signed.
Why is the Declaration of Independence so important?
It is the Partnership Agreement between the Citizens who live within the boundaries of the several States that make
up the United States. It is a General Partnership because it declares that "all men are created equal."
If the Constitution is so important, can you tell me what date the Federal Convention sent the Constitution to the
States for ratification?
September 17, 1787. I hope you remembered that date from where it is mentioned earlier.
That's over 11 years after the Declaration of Independence was signed.
It's also 6 years after the Articles of Confederation were signed. The Articles of Confederation was the first attempt
at a Constitution and when it was determined that it did not meet the needs of the people it was dissolved.
The Declaration of Independence correctly states that We, the People have the right to dissolve any of the
governments that we establish. It also states that the sole purpose of creating a government is to protect and
secure our unalienable rights. The rights that our Creator gave us. There is no other purpose for a government.
That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed,
that whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and
to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles, and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem
most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness - Declaration of Independence
Our public servants can only do those things that we have authorized them to do in the Constitution.
Congress can exercise no power by virtue of any supposed inherent sovereignty in the general government. Indeed it may be
doubted whether the power can be correctly said to appertain to sovereignty in any proper sense, as an attribute of an independent
political community. The power to commit violence, perpetrate injustice, take private property by force without compensation to
the owner, and compel the receipt of promises to pay in place of money, may be exercised, as it often has been, by irresponsible
authority, but it cannot be considered as belonging to a government founded upon law. But be that as it may, there is no such thing
as a power of inherent sovereignty in the government of the United States. It is a government of delegated powers, supreme within
its prescribed sphere but powerless outside of it. In this country, sovereignty resides in the people, and Congress can exercise no
power which they have not, by their Constitution, entrusted to it; all else is withheld . - Justice Field - Legal Tender Case, Julliard
vs Greenman - 110 U.S. 421 (1884)
Also, just so you fully understand the power of our public servants. We, the People, are not subject to any of the laws
created by the Federal Government.
"All codes, rules and regulations are applicable to the government authorities only, not human/Creators in accordance with God's
laws. All codes, rules and regulations are unconstitutional and lacking in due process ..." Rodriques v Ray Donavan [U.S. Department
of Labor,] 769 F. 2d 1344, 1348 [1985]

We did not give any of our governments the right to rule over us. We created the government to protect and defend
our unalienable rights nothing else.
The Federal Government is granted the power to prosecute 3 crimes ONLY ! ! !
Counterfeiting the current coins and securities of the United States
To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the High Seas
Offenses against the Law of Nations
To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current coin of the United States: Article 1, Section 8, Paragraph
6, Constitution for the United States of America
To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and offences against the law of nations: Article 1, Section
8, Paragraph 10, Constitution for the United States of America
If you haven't done any of those things why are you being persecuted by the Government?
The U. S. Supreme Court had this to say concerning the Declaration of Independence. NOTE: The black is the original
wording of the Declaration of Independence, the blue is what the Supreme Court said, and the red is my comment.
We hold these truths to be self-evident that is, so plain that their truth is recognized upon their mere statement that all men
are endowed not by edicts of emperors, or decrees of parliament, or acts of congress, but by their Creator with certain
unalienable rights. that is, rights which cannot be bartered away, or given away, or taken away, except in punishment of crime
and that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; and to secure these not grant them, but secure them
governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. Among these unalienable
rights, as proclaimed in that great document, is the right of men to pursue their happiness, by which is meant the right to pursue
any lawful business or vocation, in any manner not inconsistent with the equal rights of others, which may increase their prosperity
or develop their faculties, so as to give to them their highest enjoyment. The common business and callings of life, the ordinary
trades and pursuits, which are innocuous in themselves, and have been followed in all communities from time immemorial, must
therefore be free in this country to all alike upon the same conditions. The right to pursue them, without let (Editors Note: To let
is to grant a charter or contract to a person or group who has made a proposal) or hindrance, except that which is applied to all
persons of the same age, sex, and condition, is a distinguishing privilege of citizens of the United States, and an essential element
of that freedom which they claim as their birthright. Butchers Union Slaughterhouse and Livestock Company v. Crescent City
Livestock Landing and Slaughterhouse Company Argued April 9-10, 1884 Decided May 5, 1884 U. S. Supreme Court 111 U. S. 746
Only when you own something can you Let it to someone else. You cannot Let an apartment you do not own, nor
can you lease, lend, or give away something you do not have.
Our State and Federal Governments own nothing. We did not give them anything in the Constitutions and anything
they claim to have they have unlawfully seized from We, the People.
The "Letting" or control of licences to General Contractors, Real Estate Agents, Insurance Agents, Attorneys, Mining
Companies, and others, by either the Federal Government or any of the Several States is strictly prohibited and cannot
be pursued. Nor can any of the several States or the Federal Government involve themselves in the Letting of Bank
and other financial institution charters. These actions are against the unalienable right to the Pursuit of Happiness
as set forth in the Declaration of Independence and as acknowledged by the Supreme Court. The granting of licenses
destroys the equality of all men because it gives special rights to a select group determined by the Government.
Neither the Federal Government nor any of the several States has the power to grant a right or a privilege to one
person in deference to another person. As the Declaration of Independence clearly states all men are created equal.
The granting of licenses and charters by a government destroys the equality of all men.
In the same ruling, just cited, the Supreme Court also said:

All grants of this kind are void at common law, because they destroy the freedom of trade, discourage labor and industry, restrain
persons from getting an honest livelihood, and put it in the power of the grantees to enhance the price of commodities. They are
void because they interfere with the liberty of the individual to pursue a lawful trade or employment. Butchers Union
Slaughterhouse and Livestock Company v. Crescent City Livestock Landing and Slaughterhouse Company Argued April 9-10, 1884
Decided May 5, 1884 U. S. Supreme Court 111 U. S. 746
Take careful note that the Supreme Court said "Common Law."
Common Law exists.
Be sure that you completely and thoroughly understand and know that all actions concerning the Life, Liberty, and
Pursuit of Happiness, our unalienable rights, are the sole venue of the Common Law Courts, and that these are the
Courts of We, the People. The power and authority of the Common Law Courts are as set forth in the 7th Article of
the Bill of Rights of the Constitution for the united States of America. The several governments created by the People
have no power or authority concerning the Common Law Courts.
In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and
no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise reexamined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common
law. - 7th Article of the Bill of Rights of the Constitution for the united States of America.
In order to assure ourselves that We, the People, retained our power to control our several governments the Founding
Fathers firmly established the power of the "Peoples Courts", our Common Law Courts, in the 7th Article of the Bill
of Rights.
Please note, that We, the People, are guaranteed a Trial by Jury. This is not a jury trial. Trial by Jury is a Common Law
trial where the members of the jury are the justices who conduct the trial and question everyone concerned with the
case in order to arrive at a unanimous decision. There are no attorneys and there is no judge in a Common Law trial.
It is also interesting to note that Article 3, Section 2, Paragraph 3 declares that the trial of all crimes is to be by Jury.
This demands a Common Law trial and effectively takes the power away from the government to try any Citizen in
any Civil Court.
The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury; and such trial shall be held in the state where the said
crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any state, the trial shall be at such place or places as the
Congress may by law have directed - Article 3, Section 2, Paragraph 3, Constitution for the United States of America
Why?
The above cite says "trial of all crimes shall be by jury." It does not say in front of a jury, it says BY jury.
There is a VAST difference between a Trial by Jury and a Jury Trial.
A Jury Trial is the civil substitute for a Trial by Jury and has been foisted upon the people as part of the scam the elite
and corrupt, politicians and judges are putting forth.
Trial by Jury is a Common Law Trial, as specified in Article 7 of the Bill of Rights.
There is no Judge. There are no Attorneys to speak on behalf of the parties. The Jury members are referred to as
Justices and they conduct the trial, directly question the parties before the court, and render the verdict.
If you want to see a Common Law Court in action, simply watch the United States Supreme Court. Even though it
allows attorneys, it basically functions as a Common Law Court. The Justices question the participants and render a
decision.

We the People retained all rights to the Common Law, and We made the Common Law Courts Superior to any other
court in the land so that We the People could step in at any time and overturn a decision that is not in keeping with
the Laws that We established in our Federal and State Constitutions.
Even the Supreme Court acknowledges the fact that the Constitution does not grant any rights to the Common Laws,
which are the very basis of all laws in this Country.
There is no federal general common law. Congress has no power to declare substantive rules of common law applicable in a state
whether they be local in their nature or 'general,' be they commercial law or a part of the law of torts. And no clause in the
Constitution purports to confer such a power upon the federal courts. - Erie R.R. Co. v. Tompkins, 304 U.S. 64 (1938)
The Department of Justice recognizes the validity of our Common Law System, and acknowledges that the Common
Law belongs to the People. The following banner is posted as the heading of their web site.

The only system of laws that applies to We, the People, is the Common Law, and only We, the People, can change
that fact. We did not authorize, or empower, any of our public servants to change our system of laws.
We, the People, did not give any of our governments any power or authority to use the Common Laws against us.
Even though the Attorneys (who cannot practice in Common Law Courts), and the bureaucrats (who stand to lose the
empires they are building), and the judges (because they can no longer legislate from their bench), will all say that
Common Law Courts do not exist, the above cites from the U. S. Supreme Court, from the Declaration of
Independence, the United States Department of Justice, and from the Constitution itself, all state very clearly that the
Common Law Courts are the Superior Courts of the Land, and that they belong to the People.
It is clear from the notes of the Federal Convention that the Supreme Court and the Common Law Superior Court are
two separate and independent courts.
On Friday, June 15, 1878 Mr. William Patterson of New Jersey submitted nine propositions to be substituted for those
of Mr. Edmund Randolph of Virginia.
In Convention:
Mr. PATTERSON laid before the Convention the plan which he said several of the Deputations wished to be substituted in lace of
that proposed by Mr. RANDOLPH, After some little discussion of the most proper mode of giving it a fair deliberation, it was agreed,
that it should be referred to a Committee of the Whole; and that, in order to place the two plans in due comparisons the other
should be recommitted. At the earnest request of Mr. LANSING and some other gentlemen, it was also agreed that the Convention
should not go into Committee of the Whole on the subject till tomorrow; by which delay the friends of the plan proposed by Mr.
PATTERSON would be better prepared to explain and support it, and all would have an opportunity of taking copies.
Resolved, that, in addition to the powers vested in the United States in Congress, by the present existing Articles of Confederation,
they be authorized to pass acts for raising a revenues by levying a duty or duties on all goods or merchandises of foreign growth
or manufacture, imported into any part of the United States; by stamps on paper, vellum or parchment; and by a postage on all
letters or packages passing through the general post-office; to be applied to such Federal purposes as they shall deem proper and
expedient; to make rules and regulations for the collection thereof; and the same, from time to time, to alter and amend in such
manner as they shall think proper; to pass acts for the regulation of trade and commerce as well with foreign nations as with each
other; provided that all punishments, fines, forfeitures and penalties, to be incurred for contravening such acts, rules and
regulations, shall be adjudged by the common law Judiciaries of the State in which any offence contrary to the true intent and
meaning of such acts, rules, and regulations, shall have been committed or perpetrated, with liberty of commencing in the first
instance all suits and prosecutions for that purpose in the Superior common law Judiciary in such State; subject, nevertheless, for
the correction of all errors, both in law and fact, in rendering judgment, to an appeal to the Judiciary of the United States.
Proposition 2 from Mr. Patterson:

Article 7 of the Bill of Rights took away the right of the Judiciary of the United States to review any decision by the
Superior Common Law Judiciary in each State. This was done to eliminate the possibility of the Judiciary of the United
States gaining unlawful power over the Sovereign We, the People.
In spite of all of our efforts, the corrupt politicians and attorneys have manipulated our government to where We,
the People, cannot hold a major office in the Judiciary Branch and they are trying desperately to destroy our ability
to have any rights or power over their actions.
But this is all to no avail, provided, We, the People wake up and take the necessary steps to correct the problems.
The system of laws that each Sovereign Citizen has agreed to be subject to is the Common Laws.
Common Law Courts have sole jurisdiction over the Life, Liberty, and pursuit of Happiness conferred upon us by
our Creator. These are the rights that we call our unalienable rights. The corrupt Civil courts cannot lawfully render
decisions in these matters.
Further, it must be noted that the only law enforcement powers granted in the Constitution for the united States of
America is retained by the State Militias, which consist of all able bodied men in each State.
The National Guard is not the Militia. To become a member of the National Guard you have to enlist. You are
automatically a member of the Militia as soon as you reach the age established by your State.
To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the union, suppress insurrections and repel invasions: - Article 1,
Section 8, Paragraph 15, Constitution for the united States of America.
As a sample of a State Constitution:
Militia [How constituted.] The militia shall consist of all able-bodied male inhabitants of the State, between the ages of eighteen
and forty-five years, except such as are exempted by law. - Article XV, Section I, Utah State Constitution
Please note that the words police, marshal, sheriff, prosecutor, agent, and prison, do not appear anywhere in our
Federal Constitution, nor does any form of any word that implies any grant of law enforcement powers appear
anywhere in the Constitution for the United States of America, other than the powers retained for the Peoples Militia.
Remember, the government does not have any INHERENT right to do anything other than what We, the People, have
authorized.
Congress can exercise no power by virtue of any supposed inherent sovereignty in the general government. Indeed it may be
doubted whether the power can be correctly said to appertain to sovereignty in any proper sense, as an attribute of an independent
political community. The power to commit violence, perpetrate injustice, take private property by force without compensation to
the owner, and compel the receipt of promises to pay in place of money, may be exercised, as it often has been, by irresponsible
authority, but it cannot be considered as belonging to a government founded upon law. But be that as it may, there is no such thing
as a power of inherent sovereignty in the government of the United States. It is a government of delegated powers, supreme within
its prescribed sphere but powerless outside of it. In this country, sovereignty resides in the people, and Congress can exercise no
power which they have not, by their Constitution, entrusted to it; all else is withheld. - Justice Field - Legal Tender Case, Julliard
vs Greenman - 110 U.S. 421 (1884)
Each and every Citizen who is arrested by the FBI, the BATF, or some other government organization, and is
incarcerated in a Federal Prison, has been unlawfully kidnaped by the government, and under the Common Laws, the
damaged Citizen is entitled to redress against the individuals who have exceeded their authority and violated their
Oath of Office.
It's time to organize the Militia and to place it's operation in each county under the direction of the duly elected
Sheriff.

It's time for the Sheriff to tell the Government law enforcement agencies to vacate their county and go back to
Washington D.C. where they belong.
It's time for the Counties to seize the land within their boundaries that is claimed by the Federal Government. The
Counties are damaged because they are not on an equal footing with the other counties that have no federal land grab
involved. This is a violation of the provisions of the Constitution.
It's time to limit the term of service for any government servant to 8 years. Two terms. This would include the
Supreme Court and all judges.
It's time to recognize the fact that all Attorneys, as officers of the court, are members of the Judicial Branch of the
Government and cannot hold any office in the Executive or Legislative Branches of the government. It is a conflict
of interest and is specifically banned by the Constitution.
No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority
of the United States, which shall have increased during such time; and no person holding any office under the United States, shall
be a member of either House during his continuance in office - Article 1, Section 6, Paragraph 2 - Constitution for the United States
of America

Let's get back to the true Republic that we swear allegiance to! ! ! !
We still place our right hand over our heart and solemnly pledge our
allegiance to our Republic, not to a Democracy, or to an Oligarchy.
I pledge allegiance to the Flag of the United States of America, and to the
Republic for which it stands: one Nation under God, indivisible, With Liberty
and Justice for all.
Yes, It's way past time for some governor to simply tell the Federal
Government that they do not interpret the Constitution the way they do and
do not, and will not, recognize any effort to exert control or authority over
the State.
The so called Commerce Clause does not grant any power over the States.
Congress shall have the power to...regulate Commerce with foreign Nations and among the several States, and with the Indian
Tribes. Article 1, Section 8, Paragraph 3, Constitution for the United States of America
When you diagram this sentence in accordance with the basic rules of the English Language you see that the
Constitution for the United States of America grants exactly the same powers over Foreign Nations that it grants over
the several States and the Indian Tribes.
It makes no special statement about the States.
The federal government has no power to regulate anything in England, France, Germany, Russia, or any other foreign
Nation, and it therefore has no additional powers over the States and Indian Nations.

What the commerce clause really does is establish the fact that the States
and the Indian Tribes are as independent and sovereign from the Federal
Government as the Foreign Nations are.
Simply tell the Federal Government that it doesn't matter what court the
Feds sue in, it will be ignored because the Courts are part of the Federal
Government, created by the States, and it has no power or authority to order
any State to do anything.
In the meantime, while we are waiting for a governor to get enough backbone to stand up to the Federal Government,
We, the People, can start by NOT doing anything to help strengthen or promote the unlawful actions of the Federal
and State Governments.
Read the Constitution very carefully.
Make sure you understand what it really says.
On December 3, 2011, Fox News had a 2 hour program where the Republican Candidates all had a chance to talk and
answer questions. I was totally appalled at the lack of understanding about the Constitution that was shown. None
of the candidates exhibited a decent knowledge of the Constitution. I sent an e-mail to Governor Huckabee, who was
the moderator of the program expressing my concerns.
No wonder we are in trouble.
If you have a dispute with your neighbor, take it to a Common Law Court, where it really belongs anyway.
The Supreme Court has said that any time you are confronted by someone claiming to hold an office created under
the provisions of the Federal or one of the several State Constitutions you are to challenge them as to their authority,
their right to hold the office, and make them cite the Article and section of the Constitution that gives them that
authority.
The Document that is used to challenge this person is called: Constructive Notice and Challenge to Authority.
This is a very effective way to get someone to go away.

I have seen it happen several times.


They realize they have no authority, and that makes them personally liable for any damages you suffer.
I have attached a copy of this document for your use.
Many of the things that appear in this document, also appear in the Constructive Notice.
Please understand The Constructive Notice is a legal document that must be addressed by the person who it is
served on. Just like a summons. If they do nothing about answering it, then they cannot proceed without obligating
themselves personally.

CONSTRUCTIVE NOTICE AND CHALLENGE TO AUTHORITY

IMPORTANT
You, __________________________________________, have just been lawfully served with a challenge that mandates
a written response from you concerning the authority you claim as a government officer or agent.
In case you dont understand what a Constructive Notice is, I present the following definitions.
Constructive notice is a legal fiction used in the law of both common law and civil law systems to signify that a person or entity is legally
presumed to have knowledge of something, even if they have no actual knowledge of it. - Wikipedia
Constructive notice is a legal fiction that attributes notice of something to a person or entity, even though actual notice did not exist. For
example, a court may allow a person who is unable to be served personally with notice of a lawsuit to be served by publication in a
newspaper, especially when a person has left the state to avoid service (legal delivery of a legal notice). The legal advertisement of the
summons in an approved newspaper is treated as constructive notice, just as if the summons and petition had been served personally. U. S. Legal at www.uslegal.com
What you have received is the equivalent of a Summons that challenges your claim that you have the authority to
confront me, and it requires a prompt answer.
You have been served on this ____ day of ________________, 20___, and you have TWENTY (20) calendar days to
respond, or I will have the right, and the power, to seek judgment against you, in such fashion as I determine, in order to
alleviate the situation between us, or to compensate me for any financial losses I have incurred.
In its ruling, the Supreme Court established the fact that until such time as you have answered this Constructive Notice
and Challenge to Authority, and proven your right and authority to confront me, you have no power to proceed with any
action against me.

Do not ignore this service!


I have made various claims pursuant to my understanding of the Federal Constitution and the several State Constitutions
created by We, the People. Unless you respond in a timely manner and refute my claims with absolute truth and proof
derived from the said Constitutions, what I have claimed will, by law, be the basis of any further discussion or actions
between us.
You have now been placed into a position where you have no choice but to respond.
You have come to me in the guise of being an officer, or agent, of a government agency.
As you are aware, each and every government employee, agent, or officer is required to subscribe to an Oath of Office
wherein they promise to honor, obey, support, and defend the Constitution for the United States of America.
The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial
Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no
religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States. - Article IV, Paragraph 3,
Constitution for the United States of America
You need to understand that your oath of office is a binding contract between you, as an individual, and your employer,
We, the People of the United States of America, of which I am not only a member, but, because the Declaration of

Independence declares all men to be equal, I am a General Partner in the We, the People of the United States of
America partnership. As a general partner, it is my right, my duty, and my obligation to assure myself, and the other
general partners, that anyone who claims powers and authority under one of the Several State Constitutions, or the
Constitution for the United States of America, does in fact have that power granted by the said Constitution.
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Your failure to properly answer this Constructive Notice and Challenge to Authority shall be construed to be
a violation of your Oath of Office, which places your ability to hold the position you claim in jeopardy. A violation of your
Oath of Office could be grounds for your immediate dismissal based on your failure to respond to your employers.
This Constructive Notice and Challenge to Authority demands that you prove that the powers and the authority
granted to the Government by the We, the People, under the provisions of the Constitution for the United States of America,
or under the provisions of the State Constitution you are relying upon, does in fact, permit such Government to create your
position, and to empower your actions pursuant to your dealings with me.

This is not an idle request


The United States Supreme Court has ruled that it is MY duty, MY responsibility, and MY obligation, to determine the
valid authority of anyone representing themselves to be an officer of the government.
As Per RYDER v. UNITED STATES, 115 S.Ct. 2031, 132 L.Ed.2d 136, 515 U.S. 177, I am required to initiate a direct
challenge to the authority of anyone representing himself, or herself, to be a government officer or agent prior to the
finality of any proceeding in order to avoid implications of de facto officer doctrine. When challenged, those posing
as government officers and agents are required to affirmatively prove whatever authority they claim.
"Public officers are merely the agents of the public, whose powers and authority are defined and limited by law. Any act without the scope
of the authority so defined does not bind the principal, and all persons dealing with such agents are charged with knowledge of the extent
of their authority," - Continental Casualty Co. v. United States, 113 F.2d 284 (5th Cir. 1940): , at 286.
"When the right to do a thing depends upon legislative authority, and the Legislature has failed to authorize it, or has forbidden it, no
amount of acquiescence, or consent, or approval of the doing of it by a ministerial officer, can create a right to do the thing which is
unauthorized or forbidden," - Department of Ins. of Indiana v. Church Members Relief Ass'n., 217 Ind. 58, 26 N.E.2d 51 (1940): 26 N.E.2d,
at 52.
My right to challenge you comes from the unalterable fact that all governments are created by the People for the sole
purpose or securing and protecting my unalienable rights. Rights given to me by my Creator, not by some government
agency.
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable
Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men,
deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, that whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends,
it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles, and
organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. - Declaration of Independence
What must be remembered, and never forgotten, is that governments are created to serve the needs of those who create
them. No power, authority, or rights are granted to the government servants to persecute or prosecute those who created
the government. You cannot find the words police, sheriff, marshal, prison, attorney, or prosecutor anywhere in the
Constitution for the United States of America. And no form of those words appear anywhere in the Constitution. And, as
is clearly shown below, governments have no inherent power to do anything beyond what We, the People of the
United States, authorized in our Constitutions.
In the absence of proof of proper authority, whomsoever represents themselves to be an officer, or an agent, of either
the Federal Government or any of the several State or Local Governments may be held personally liable, and accountable,
for any loss, injury and damages that I may incur as a result of their actions.
I understand that if I fail to make this challenge in a timely manner then I have chosen to accept whatever lawful, or
unlawful acts, and actions, may befall me, therefore I am taking this opportunity to lawfully serve you with this Constructive
Notice and Challenge to Authority.
However, I understand that Subject Matter Jurisdiction may never be waived and may even be charged after the trial.

Page 14 of 56

Subject matter jurisdiction can never be waived and can be raised at any time, even after trial. /Zenith Radio Corp. v. Matsushita Elec. Indus.
Co., Ltd./, 494 F.Supp. 1161 (D.C. Pa., 1980).*
Thus, the de facto officer doctrine may be set aside at any time, thereby assuring due process as required by the
Constitution and protecting the rights of the accused.
The de facto officer doctrine confers validity upon acts performed by a person acting under the color of official title even though it is later
discovered that the legality of that person's appointment or election to office is deficient. Norton v. Shelby County, 118 U.S. 425, 440 (1886).
I have no intention of ignoring my God given unalienable rights. I have no intention of being persecuted by someone
who lacks the proper authority to come before me.
It is inconceivable that public servants would allow someone to violate the rights of the People by claiming that it would
result in multiple and repetitious suits that challenge the actions taken by other public servants, and yet, that is exactly what
some of the corrupt officials have claimed.
The de facto doctrine springs from the fear of the chaos that would result from multiple and repetitious suits challenging every action taken
by every official whose claim to office could be open to question, and seeks to protect the public by insuring the orderly functioning of the
government despite technical defects in title to office.
It is, and always has been, the established fact that an unconstitutional law is null and void from its inception.
To allow someone to be prosecuted by unlawful authority is the worst kind of persecution and cannot be allowed under
any circumstances.
In Buckley v. Valeo, supra, at 125, we said the Appointments Clause could, of course, be read as merely dealing with etiquette or protocol
in describing "Officers of the United States," but the drafters had a less frivolous purpose in mind.
The Clause is a bulwark against one branch aggrandizing its power at the expense of another branch, but it is more: it "preserves another
aspect of the Constitution's structural integrity by preventing the diffusion of the appointment power." Freytag v. Commissioner, 501 U.S.
868, 878 (1991). In Glidden Co. v. Zdanok, 370 U.S. 530 (1962), we declined to invoke the de facto officer doctrine in order to avoid
deciding a question arising under Article III of the Constitution, saying that the cases in which we had relied on that doctrine did not involve
"basic constitutional protections designed in part for the benefit of litigants." Id. at 536 (plurality). We think that one who makes a timely
challenge to the constitutional validity of the appointment of an officer who adjudicates his case is entitled to a decision on the merits of
the question and whatever [515 U.S. 183] relief may be appropriate if a violation indeed occurred. Any other rule would create a
disincentive to raise Appointments Clause challenges with respect to questionable judicial appointments.
Therefore, what is being challenged is
C Your claim to be Constitutionally qualified to hold the position you claim
C Your claim to hold a position as an officer of either a Local, State, or the Federal Government
C Whether or not the underlying constitution allows for the creation of the position you claim
C Whether or not such position, if allowed, has the power and the authority you are attempting to exercise
You are required to affirmatively prove that you are Constitutionally qualified to hold the position you now claim, as
well as prove that you have been properly appointed to the position you claim, and that the authority you claim is actually
authorized by the Constitution for the United States of America, or the State Constitution that you are relying upon. Your
answer must be by written citation of the Articles and Sections of the Constitution that pertains to your claim.
Do not cite sections of law, code, rules, or regulations as they are applicable to government authorities only. Besides,
they may have been created by persons acting beyond their authority under the Constitution, and, only properly appointed
government officials are entitled to function in an official capacity.
"All codes, rules and regulations are applicable to the government authorities only, not human/Creators in accordance with God's laws.
All codes, rules and regulations are unconstitutional and lacking in due process ..." Rodriques v Ray Donavan [U.S. Department of Labor,]
769 F. 2d 1344, 1348 [1985]

Page 15 of 56

When Congress delegates its authority to a bureaucrat for the development of rules, regulations, code, or other color
of law provisions they have not only violated the limitation on their ability to delegate, but have crossed the line by
delegating their Legislative powers to employees of the Executive Branch. They have knowingly, and willingly, violated the
Separation of Powers demanded by the Constitution, and thereby violated their Oath of Office.
Do not cite Executive Orders as the President of the United States has no power or authority to enact any kind of law
that would have any affect on the People of this Nation.
Legislative powers; in whom vested. All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall
consist of a Senate and House of Representatives. - Article 1, Section 1, Constitution for the United States of America.
Nor can you cite any rule from any court, or quote from Case Law, as the Judicial Branch has no power or authority
to enact any binding law.
Case Law is unconstitutional since it is enacted by the Judicial Branch of Government. The Judicial Branch has no
legislative powers and therefore cannot create any type of law.
When a lawyer-judge instructs, directs, or gives orders to a jury, the lawyer-judge is TAMPERING WITH THE JURY.
He also tampers with testimony when he orders the answers to be either "Yes" or "No," and he also tampers, fixes, and
rigs the trial when he orders anything stricken from the record, or when he "rules" certain evidence and the truth to be
inadmissible.
This makes the trial and transcript FIXED and RIGGED, because the jury does not hear the REAL TRUTH and ALL THE
FACTS.
Only a Common Law Jury, where the truth will be fully revealed, through the questioning by the Justices that comprise
the Common Law Jury, can offer true due process, as required by the Constitution.
Only Congress has the power, the authority, and the ability to enact a law. But, even then it may only enact laws withing
the scope of the powers granted by We, the People. Also, the Senate has no power to adopt a treaty that is beyond the
powers granted by We, the People.
When the Constitution says ALL it means ALL. Congress holds ALL Legislative Powers. That means there are no powers
left over for the President to use to issue Executive Orders, nor are there any powers available for the Judicial Branch to make
Case Law or lawful rulings from the bench.
If the President does issue an Executive Order it falls into the same category as the codes, rules and regulations that are
only applicable to the government authorities, or if a Judge makes a ruling from the bench, it only concerns those who are
parties to the action before the court, not human/Creators in accordance with God's laws. Executive Orders, and Judges
rulings, just like codes, rules and regulations are unconstitutional and lacking in due process.
Officer or employee of the United States
Whoever falsely assumes or pretends to be an officer or employee acting under the authority of the United States or any department, agency
or office thereof, and acts as such, or in such pretended character demands or obtains any money, paper, document, or thing of value, shall
be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than three years, or both. - Title 18 Part I, Chapter 43, 912.
Your failure to answer this mandate will be construed by me to be an admission of my assertion that you are not properly
vested with the power to act in behalf of the office you claim. I will then be entitled to take my case to the Superior
Common Law Courts and demand judgement against you for any damages that I have suffered.
Failure to contest an assertion . . . is considered evidence of acquiescence . . .if it would have been natural under the circumstances to object
to the assertion in question." US Supreme Court - Mitchell v. United States - No. 97-7541 Argued December 9, 1998
For purposes of this subdivision an evasive or incomplete disclosure, answer, or response is to be treated as a failure to disclose, answer,
or respond Cunningham v. Hamilton County No. 98-727 Argued April 19, 1999 Decided June 14, 1999 527 U.S. 198
Page 16 of 56

Before you decide to ignore this lawful service, you need to understand that this Nation is a Republic and so is every
State within this nation. Neither this Nation nor any of the several States has ever been a Democracy.
The United States shall guarantee to every state in this union, a republican form of government, and shall protect each of them against
invasion; and on application of the legislature, or of the executive (when the legislature cannot be convened), against domestic violence Article 4, Section 4, Constitution for the United States of America.
Republic:
A form of government where Gods law is supreme and the people are free to pursue and to enjoy their Life, Liberty and Pursuit of
Happiness. Each Citizen retains their own Sovereignty and has control over his personal environment. The Sovereign Citizens are subject
to Gods Laws, primarily the Ten Commandments, the Golden Rule, and especially, Love thy Enemy. Each level of government is under
the direct control of the Sovereign People concerned with that government.
Democracy:
A form of government where the majority rules. This type of system is fraught with the ever present potential that the majority will make
slaves of the minority, or, that power hungry men and women will subvert the system for their own benefit. God is outlawed, and Gods
laws are totally disregarded. Eventually the majority attempts to install themselves as the god of the nation. Today, in our court rooms
in every State, the attorneys PRAY to the judge for the orders they seek.
What did our Founding Fathers think about a Democracy?
"Hence it is that such democracies have ever been spectacles of turbulence and contention; have ever been found incompatible with personal
security or the rights of property; and have in general been as short in their lives as they have been violent in their deaths." - James
Madison, Federalist Paper 10:
What does our own government have to say about a Democracy?
Democracy, n. "A government of the masses. Authority derived through mass meeting or any form of "direct" expression. Results in
mobocracy. Attitude toward property is communistic - negating property rights. Attitude toward law is that the will of the majority shall
regulate, whether it be based upon deliberation or governed by passion, prejudice, and impulse, without restraint or regard to
consequences. Results in demagogism, license, agitation, discontent, anarchy." - U.S. Army Training Manual TM2000-25, 1928
But we may have already been forced into an Oligarchy.
Oligarchy:
A form of government where a select group of individuals have gained control over the actions and activities of the government and have
placed themselves, and their cohorts, above the law, by claiming immunity from redress for themselves and their associates.
We, the People, using our God given unalienable rights created the State and Federal Constitutions for the sole purpose
of securing our unalienable rights.
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable
Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men,
deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. . . Declaration of Independence
When this country achieved its independence the prerogatives of the crown devolved upon the people of the States. And this power still
remains with them, except so far as they have delegated a portion of it to the Federal government. U. S. Supreme Court - Wheeler v.
Smith, 9 How. 33
Neither the Federal Government, nor any of the several State Governments has any inherent right to exercise any powers,
or authority, or to do anything beyond what the people have granted
Congress can exercise no power by virtue of any supposed inherent sovereignty in the general government. Indeed it may be doubted
whether the power can be correctly said to appertain to sovereignty in any proper sense, as an attribute of an independent political
community. The power to commit violence, perpetrate injustice, take private property by force without compensation to the owner, and
compel the receipt of promises to pay in place of money, may be exercised, as it often has been, by irresponsible authority, but it cannot
Page 17 of 56

be considered as belonging to a government founded upon law. But be that as it may, there is no such thing as a power of inherent
sovereignty in the government of the United States. It is a government of delegated powers, supreme within its prescribed sphere but
powerless outside of it. In this country, sovereignty resides in the people, and Congress can exercise no power which they have not, by their
Constitution, entrusted to it; all else is withheld. - Justice Field - Legal Tender Case, Julliard vs Greenman - 110 U.S. 421 (1884)
The U. S. Supreme Court had this to say concerning the Declaration of Independence
We hold these truths to be self-evident that is, so plain that their truth is recognized upon their mere statement that all men are
endowed not by edicts of emperors, or decrees of parliament, or acts of congress, but by their Creator with certain unalienable rights.
that is, rights which cannot be bartered away, or given away, or taken away, except in punishment of crime and that among these are
life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; and to secure these not grant them, but secure them governments are instituted among men,
deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. Among these unalienable rights, as proclaimed in that great document, is the
right of men to pursue their happiness, by which is meant the right to pursue any lawful business or vocation, in any manner not inconsistent
with the equal rights of others, which may increase their prosperity or develop their faculties, so as to give to them their highest enjoyment.
The common business and callings of life, the ordinary trades and pursuits, which are innocuous in themselves, and have been followed
in all communities from time immemorial, must therefore be free in this country to all alike upon the same conditions. The right to pursue
them, without let (Editors Note: To let is to grant a charter or contract to a person or group who has made a proposal) or hindrance, except
that which is applied to all persons of the same age, sex, and condition, is a distinguishing privilege of citizens of the United States, and
an essential element of that freedom which they claim as their birthright. Butchers Union Slaughterhouse and Livestock Company v.
Crescent City Livestock Landing and Slaughterhouse Company Argued April 9-10, 1884 Decided May 5, 1884 U. S. Supreme Court 111 U.
S. 746
The Letting or control of licences to General Contractors, Real Estate Agents, Insurance Agents, Attorneys, Mining
Companies, and others, by either the Federal Government or any of the Several States is strictly prohibited and cannot be
pursued. Nor can any of the several States or the Federal Union involve themselves in the Letting of Bank and other financial
institution charters. These actions are against the unalienable right to the Pursuit of Happiness as set forth in the Declaration
of Independence and as acknowledged by the Supreme Court.
Neither the Federal Government nor any of the several States has the power to grant a right or a privilege to one person
in deference to another person. As the Declaration of Independence clearly states all men are created equal. The granting
of licenses and charters by a government destroys the equality of all men.
In the same ruling the Supreme Court also said:
All grants of this kind are void at common law, because they destroy the freedom of trade, discourage labor and industry, restrain persons
from getting an honest livelihood, and put it in the power of the grantees to enhance the price of commodities. They are void because they
interfere with the liberty of the individual to pursue a lawful trade or employment. Butchers Union Slaughterhouse and Livestock
Company v. Crescent City Livestock Landing and Slaughterhouse Company Argued April 9-10, 1884 Decided May 5, 1884 U. S. Supreme
Court 111 U. S. 746
Take careful note that the Supreme Court said Common Law.
Common Law exists.
Be sure that you completely and thoroughly understand and know that all actions concerning the Life, Liberty, and
Pursuit of Happiness are the sole venue of the Common Law Courts, and that these are the Courts of We, the People. The
power and authority of the Common Law Courts are as set forth in the 7th Article of the Bill of Rights of the Constitution for
the united States of America. The several governments created by the People have no power or authority concerning the
Common Law Courts.
In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact
tried by a jury, shall be otherwise reexamined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law. - 7th Article
of the Bill of Rights of the Constitution for the united States of America.
In order to assure ourselves that We, the People, retained our power to control our several governments the Founding
Fathers firmly established the power of the Peoples Courts, our Common Law Courts, in the 7th Article of the Bill of Rights.
Page 18 of 56

Please note, that We, the People, are guaranteed a Trial by Jury. This is not a jury trial. Trial by Jury is a Common Law
trial where the members of the jury are the justices who conduct the trial and question everyone concerned with the case
in order to arrive at a unanimous decision. There are no attorneys and there is no judge in a Common Law trial.
It is also interesting to note that Article 3, Section 2, Paragraph 3 declares that the trial of all crimes is to be by Jury.
This demands a Common Law trial and effectively takes the power away from the government to try any Citizen in any Civil
Court.
The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury; and such trial shall be held in the state where the said crimes shall
have been committed; but when not committed within any state, the trial shall be at such place or places as the Congress may by law have
directed - Article 3, Section 2, Paragraph 3, Constitution for the United States of America
Why?
The above cite says trial of all crimes shall be by jury. It does not say in front of a jury, it says BY jury.
Because there is a VAST difference between a Trial by Jury and a Jury Trial.
A Jury Trial is the civil substitute for a Trial by Jury and has been foisted upon the people as part of the scam.
Trial by Jury is a Common Law Trial, as specified in Article 7 of the Bill of Rights. There is no Judge. There are no
Attorneys to speak on behalf of the parties. The Jury members are referred to as Justices and they conduct the trial, directly
question the parties before the court, and render the verdict.
If you want to see a Common Law Court in action, simply watch the United States Supreme Court. Even though it allows
attorneys, it basically functions as a Common Law Court. The Justices question the participants and render a decision.
We the People retained all rights to the Common Law, and We made the Common Law Courts Superior to any other
court in the land so that We the People could step in at any time and overturn a decision that is not in keeping with the Laws
that We established in our Federal and State Constitutions.
Even the Supreme Court acknowledges the fact that the Constitution does not grant any rights to the Common Laws,
which are the very basis of all laws in this Country.
There is no federal general common law. Congress has no power to declare substantive rules of common law applicable in a state whether
they be local in their nature or 'general,' be they commercial law or a part of the law of torts. And no clause in the Constitution purports
to confer such a power upon the federal courts. - Erie R.R. Co. v. Tompkins, 304 U.S. 64 (1938)
The United States Department of Justice has the following on the header of its web site:

The Department of Justice recognizes the validity of our Common Law System, and acknowledges that the Common Law
belongs to the People.
We, the People, did not give any of our governments any power or authority to use the Common Laws against us.
Even though the Attorneys (who cannot practice in Common Law Courts), and the bureaucrats (who stand to lose the empires
they are building), and the judges (because they can no longer legislate from their bench), will all say that Common Law Courts
do not exist, the above cites from the U. S. Supreme Court, from the Declaration of Independence, the United States
Department of Justice, and from the Constitution itself, all state very clearly that the Common Law Courts are the Superior
Courts of the Land, and that they belong to the People.
It is clear from the notes of the Federal Convention that the Supreme Court and the Common Law Superior Court are
two separate and independent courts.

Page 19 of 56

On Friday, June 15, 1878 Mr. William Patterson of New Jersey submitted nine propositions to be substituted for those
of Mr. Edmund Randolph of Virginia.
In Convention:
Mr. PATTERSON laid before the Convention the plan which he said several of the Deputations wished to be substituted in lace of that
proposed by Mr. RANDOLPH, After some little discussion of the most proper mode of giving it a fair deliberation, it was agreed, that it
should be referred to a Committee of the Whole; and that, in order to place the two plans in due comparisons the other should be
recommitted. At the earnest request of Mr. LANSING and some other gentlemen, it was also agreed that the Convention should not go into
Committee of the Whole on the subject till tomorrow; by which delay the friends of the plan proposed by Mr. PATTERSON would be better
prepared to explain and support it, and all would have an opportunity of taking copies.
Resolved, that, in addition to the powers vested in the United States in Congress, by the present existing Articles of Confederation, they be
authorized to pass acts for raising a revenues by levying a duty or duties on all goods or merchandises of foreign growth or manufacture,
imported into any part of the United States; by stamps on paper, vellum or parchment; and by a postage on all letters or packages passing
through the general post-office; to be applied to such Federal purposes as they shall deem proper and expedient; to make rules and
regulations for the collection thereof; and the same, from time to time, to alter and amend in such manner as they shall think proper; to
pass acts for the regulation of trade and commerce as well with foreign nations as with each other; provided that all punishments, fines,
forfeitures and penalties, to be incurred for contravening such acts, rules and regulations, shall be adjudged by the common law Judiciaries
of the State in which any offence contrary to the true intent and meaning of such acts, rules, and regulations, shall have been committed
or perpetrated, with liberty of commencing in the first instance all suits and prosecutions for that purpose in the Superior common law
Judiciary in such State; subject, nevertheless, for the correction of all errors, both in law and fact, in rendering judgment, to an appeal to
the Judiciary of the United States. Proposition 2 from Mr. Patterson:
Article 7 of the Bill of Rights took away the right of the Judiciary of the United States to review any decision by the
Superior Common Law Judiciary in each State. This was done to eliminate the possibility of the Judiciary of the United States
gaining unlawful power over the Sovereign We, the People.
The system of laws that each Sovereign Citizen has agreed to be subject to is the Common Laws.
Common Law Courts have sole jurisdiction over the Life, Liberty, and pursuit of Happiness conferred upon us by our
Creator. These are the rights that we call our unalienable rights. The corrupt Civil courts cannot lawfully render decisions
in these matters.
Further, it must be noted that the only law enforcement powers granted in the Constitution for the united States of
America is retained by the State Militias, which consist of all able bodied men in each State.
The National Guard is not the Militia. To become a member of the National Guard you have to enlist. You are
automatically a member of the Militia as soon as you reach the age established by your State.
To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the union, suppress insurrections and repel invasions: - Article 1, Section 8,
Paragraph 15, Constitution for the united States of America.
As a sample of a State Constitution:
Militia [How constituted.] The militia shall consist of all able-bodied male inhabitants of the State, between the ages of eighteen and
forty-five years, except such as are exempted by law. - Article XV, Section I, Utah State Constitution
Please note that the words police, marshal, sheriff, prosecutor, agent, and prison do not appear anywhere in our
Federal Constitution, nor does any form of any word that implies any grant of law enforcement powers appear anywhere in
the Constitution for the United States of America, other than the powers retained for the Peoples Militia.
You also need to be aware of the fact that there are only three crimes that the Federal Government has the power to
prosecute. These are:
Counterfeiting the current coins and securities of the United States
To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the High Seas
Offenses against the Law of Nations
Page 20 of 56

To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current coin of the United States: Article 1, Section 8, Paragraph 6,
Constitution for the United States of America
To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and offences against the law of nations: Article 1, Section 8,
Paragraph 10, Constitution for the United States of America
I have done none of those things, so why are you here?
Remember, this nation, and each of the several States were established as a Republic and the people have never changed
their form of government
The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them against
Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestic Violence.
Article IV, Section 4, Constitution for the United States of America
We still place our right hand over our heart and solemnly pledge our allegiance to our Republic, not to a Democracy,
or to an Oligarchy.
I pledge allegiance to the Flag of the United States of America, and to the Republic for which it stands: one Nation under God, indivisible,
With Liberty and Justice for all.
In our Republics, the people are the real power behind any and all lawful actions taken by our several governments.
We, the People, formed our Federal and State Republics for the sole purpose of securing our unalienable rights
In a Republic, the unalienable rights of each individual are superior to the laws
There can be no limitation on the power of the people of the United States. By their authority the State Constitutions were made, and by
their authority the Constitution of the United States was established; U. S. Supreme Court - Hauenstein vs Lynham (100 US 483)
Even though there is no limitation on the power of the People of the United States, there is a restriction on the power
of the government they created. This restriction is the Constitution for the United States of America and it defines and limits
the powers granted to the government and to our public servants, our government employees. The Constitution is the
Employees Handbook created by We, the People, to control the actions and activities of our public servants.
The power to commit violence, perpetrate injustice, take private property by force without compensation to the owner, and compel the
receipt of promises to pay in place of money, may be exercised, as it often has been, by irresponsible authority, but it cannot be considered
as belonging to a government founded upon law. But be that as it may, there is no such thing as a power of inherent sovereignty in the
government of the United States. It is a government of delegated powers, supreme within its prescribed sphere, but powerless outside of
it. In this country, sovereignty resides in the people, and congress can exercise no power which they have not, by their constitution, intrusted
to it; all else is withheld. It seems, however, to be supposed that, as the power was taken from the states, it could not have been intended
that it should disappear entirely, and therefore it must, in some way, adhere to the general government, notwithstanding the tenth
amendment and the nature of the constitution. The doctrine that a power not expressly forbidden may be exercised would, as I have
observed, change the character of our government. If I have read the constitution aright, if there is any weight to be given to the uniform
teachings of our great jurists and of commentators previous to the late civil war, the true doctrine is the very opposite of this. If the power
is not in terms granted, and is not necessary and proper for the exercise of a power which is thus granted, it does not exist. And in
determining what measures may be adopted in executing the powers granted, Chief Justice MARSHALL declares that they must be
appropriate, plainly adapted to the end, not prohibited, and consistent with the letter and spirit of the constitution. Now, all through that
instrument we find limitations upon the power, both of the general government and the state governments, so as to prevent oppression
and injustice. No legislation, therefore, tending to promote either can consist with the letter and spirit of the constitution. A law which
interferes with the contracts of others, and compels one of the parties to receive in satisfaction something different from that stipulated,
without reference to its actual value in the market, necessarily works such injustice and wrong. - U. S. Supreme Court - JUILLIARD vs.
GREENMAN - 110 U. S. 421, 468
The De-Facto Officer principle is based on the underlying concept that only when a Sovereign specifically agrees to be
subject to a law, bill, regulation, code, or ordinance will the Sovereign be subject to such law, bill, regulation, code, or
Page 21 of 56

ordinance. My failure to serve this Constructive Notice and Challenge to Authority may be misconstrued as an acceptance
of the unlawful Civil actions that may be brought by the government, or its agents.
This is why the system of Common Laws is not detailed in either the Federal or State Constitutions. The Sovereign
People retained all rights to Common Law and in doing so granted no rights to the Federal or State entities.
Your failure to properly respond to this challenge of your authority is tantamount to telling your employer, the
Sovereign People of the United States, you are not going to comply with their orders. Your failure to properly respond
makes you personally liable for any and all losses that may occur because of your actions
Be very careful that you do not get carried away with ideas of your own importance, or the importance and power of
the office your claim. You are an employee of the General Partnership, We, the People of the United States of America. If,
you can prove you validly hold an office, it is an office created by We, the People, under the provisions of one of our several
Constitutions, for the sole benefit of We, the People, and to assure We, the People, that our unalienable rights are not
infringed upon, or impaired. As an employee, you have no right to disregard our mandates and edicts, and you have no
privilege of immunity from prosecution by us, your employers.
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of
speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances. Article 1, Bill of Rights, Constitution for the United States of America
We, the People of the United States, as the creator of the several governments, and as the employer of the officers and
agents who staff our governments, have the full and complete right to petition the government for a redress of grievances,
and, if necessary, to bring suit against any employee who violates their Oath of Office, or otherwise demonstrates a lack of
responsibility in performing their prescribed duties. Such suit will be brought in our own Court, the Superior Common Law
Court, in accordance with the Common Law system of laws.
Our governments belong to us, and we fully intend to maintain total and complete control for our own benefit.
Remember, no Section of the Organic Constitution for the United States of America grants any law enforcement powers
over the people. The Constitution does not mention Police, Sheriff, Marshal, Agent, Prison, Prosecution, or any other term
that could be misconstrued to grant law enforcement powers over the people.
This is true because no individual has the inherent right to bring any action against another person unless such person
has violated the unalienable rights of the individual, and then such action must be brought in the Superior Common Law
Court, which is the only proper venue for such actions, concerning Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.
Thus, since an individual cannot lawfully use force against the person, liberty, or property of another individual, then the common force
-- for the same reason -- cannot lawfully be used to destroy the person, liberty, or property of individuals or groups. Frederic Bastiat The Law
Each Sovereign Citizen holds total and supreme power in his, or her, realm. No Sovereign Citizen has the right, the
power, or the authority to invade, or even infringe upon the Sovereignty of another person.
The law is the organization of the natural right of lawful defense. It is the substitution of a common force for individual forces. And this
common force is to do only what the individual forces have a natural and lawful right to do, to protect persons, liberties, and properties;
to maintain the right of each, and to cause justice to reign over us all. Frederic Bastiat - The Law
Even if a majority of the Sovereign Citizens banded together to grant a power that no one of them held, they cannot
grant that power simply because they do not have that power to grant.
If you are still confused about the ability of the People to grant powers to their Governments the following should
answer all of your questions.
A category of government activity that not only requires the closest scrutiny but that also poses a grave danger to our continued freedom
is the activity not within the proper sphere of government. No one has the authority to grant such powers as welfare programs, schemes
Page 22 of 56

for redistributing the wealth, and activities that coerce people into acting in accordance with a prescribed code of social planning. There
is one simple test. Do I as an individual have a right to use force upon my neighbor to accomplish this goal? If I do, then I may delegate
that power to my government to exercise it in my behalf. If I do not have that right, I cannot delegate it. - Elder Ezra Taft Benson,
Conference Report, October 1968, First DayMorning Meeting, p.19
The heartbreak and problems that have been caused by those who would unlawfully foist their personal practices and
programs upon We, the People, through a malicious and corrupt use of the non-existent powers of the government is far
greater than what has been caused by all of the criminals in society.
Simply showing me a badge or some form of official looking Identification, or the fact that you may be wearing a
uniform, or driving what appears to be an official vehicle proves nothing. As you and I are both aware, there are hundreds
of cases where these things have been created by those who would prey upon the public
You may claim that Congress passed a law granting you the authority you claim. This may be, but, unless Congress has
the valid power and authority to pass such a law it is null and void from the outset. Also, when Congress delegates its
authority to a bureaucrat for the development of rules, regulations, code, or other color of law provisions they have not
only violated the limitations of the powers that have been granted to Congress, but their attempt to delegate is a violation
of the Separation of Powers provisions of the Constitution, which provisions are basic to our Constitutional Law. They have
crossed the line by delegating their Legislative powers to employees of the Executive Branch.
Do not cite Article I, Section 8, Paragraph 3, the so called Commerce Clause the government relies on to assume many
of its unconstitutional powers.
Congress shall have the power to...regulate Commerce with foreign Nations and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes.
Article 1, Section 8, Paragraph 3, Constitution for the United States of America
When you diagram this sentence in accordance with the basic rules of the English Language you see that the
Constitution for the United States of America grants exactly the same powers over Foreign Nations that it grants over the
several States and the Indian Tribes.

If you examine this paragraph in truth and honesty you will see that it grants no more power over the States and the
Indian Tribes than it does over the foreign Nations. It makes no special statement about the States.
The federal government has no power to regulate anything in England, France, Germany, Russia, or any other foreign
Nation, and it therefore has no additional powers over the States and Indian Nations.
What the commerce clause really does is establish the fact that the States and the Indian Tribes are as independent
and sovereign from the Federal Government as the Foreign Nations are.

Page 23 of 56

Or, if you have approached me concerning what you assume to be a use of the so called Public Lands, then you need
to understand the following:
With the full knowledge and understanding that the only provision in the Constitution for the United States for the
Federal Government to own land is in the following cite, be sure you address the reasoning and logic that shows the
extensive land holdings of the federal government are covered by the land holding provisions allowed under the Constitution
for the United States of America. If you are claiming ownership pursuant to a purchase of the land from the State, please
present the appropriate documents to support your claim.
To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular
States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United States, and to exercise like Authority over all
Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals,
dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings. - Article VIII, Paragraph 17, Constitution for the United States of America
Which category do the vast holdings of the Bureau of Land Management, the Forest Service, and the National Park
Service fall into?
Are they Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, or other needful Buildings?
Perhaps we should classify the Forest Service lands as Dock-Yards and the BLM lands as Needful Buildings.
Or, if you have approached me concerning what you assume to be my activities in the banking industry, then you need
to understand the following:
There is only one place the word bank appears in the Constitution, thats as a part of the word Bankruptcies.
To establish an uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States: - Article 1,
Section 8, Paragraph 4, Constitution for the United States of America
The Federal Government has no power, no authority, and no rights to control or establish banks or banking
relationships.
President Jackson, in 1838, vetoed the 2nd National Bank Charter because he understood it was unconstitutional.
The Following Elements Are Essential
When Challenged, the standing, venue, and all elements of subject matter jurisdiction, including, but not limited to,
compliance with constitutional authority, and with substantive and procedural due process requirements, must be
established in record.
The facts of the case must be established in record. Unless stipulated by agreement, all facts must be verified by
competent witnesses via testimony (affidavit, deposition or direct oral examination).
The valid LAW of the case, as enacted by the Legislative Branch, must affirmatively appear in record (See United States of America v. Menk.
260 F. Supp. 784 at 787 , and United States of America v. Community TV. Inc.. 327 F.2d 79 (10' Cir.. 1964):
The advocate of a position must prove the valid application of law to all stipulated or otherwise provable facts.
The trial court, whether administrative or judicial, must render a written decision that includes findings of fact and
conclusions of valid law.
I am duty bound to ask that you also prove your Personal Authority as an authorized government agent.
Please provide me with certified copies of the following:

Page 24 of 56

1.

Your precise title (constable, sheriff, police officer, Judge, prosecutor, "revenue officer", "revenue agent",
"appeals officer", "special agent", or such other title as you may claim) and cite the Articles and Sections of the
Constitution for the United States of America, or of the Constitution for the State that you claim to work for, that
authorized the Legislative Branch of the government to enact a law that lawfully created the office you claim to
occupy;

2.

A written copy of your constitutional oath of office, as required by Article VI, Paragraph 3 of the Constitution for
the United States and 5 U.S.C. 3331;

3.

A written copy of your civil commission as agent or officer of the Government you claim to work for, as required
by Article II 3 of the Constitution of the United States and attending legislation;

4.

Your affidavit declaring that you did not pay for or otherwise make or promise consideration to secure the office
(5 U.S.C. 3332);

5.

Your personal surety bond; and

6.

Documentation that establishes your complete line of delegated authority, including all intermediaries, beginning
with the President of the United States, or the Governor of the State you claim authority from.

7.

Documentation that establishes your Constitutional right to hold the office you claim, i.e., if you claim to be a
Representative, you must prove that you meet the residence and age requirements set forth in the Constitution,
if you claim to be a Senator, then you must prove that you meet the residence and age requirement set forth in the
Constitution, and if you claim to be the President then you must prove that you are Constitutionally qualified to
hold that office, you are a natural born Citizen, over the age of 35.

These documents should all be filed as public records. See 5 U.S.C. 2906 for requirements concerning filing oaths of
office. In the event you do not have a personal surety bond, you may provide a copy of your financial statement, which you
are required to file annually. Your financial statement will be construed as a private treaty surety bond in the event that you
exceed lawful authority.
Collateral issues other than the above requests intended to document your personal standing will be addressed
separately from this request.
You may provide the requested items within a reasonable period of twenty (20) calender days from receipt of this
request. See the Administrative Procedures act for deadlines.
In the event you do not formally answer this demand, you may be considered a party to any past or subsequent adverse
action. You may withdraw, in writing, any and all claims, demands and/or encumbrances issued directly or indirectly within
the scope of your alleged administrative authority.
Failure to comply with this constructive notice of demand to verify the authenticity of your authority will be an admission
that all parties are wilfully, AND WITH EVIL INTENT, engaging in criminal activity against me.
NOTICE:
I reserve the right to enter this demand and all evidence attached within, to be preserved as evidence under Rule 902
(4), (5), (8), (9) and (10) of the Federal Rules of Evidence, upon the records of such public recorder's office at such place
or places as I alone determine, which as a matter of public record shall be subject to submission and use in any legal
proceeding thereafter as utilized by any person having cause to rely thereupon for evidence purpose, under the aforesaid
Federal Rules of Evidence, and as for any other reasons that a public record of debt may be used, accordingly.
As a resident of the ______________ Republic, I, the undersigned, _______________________, claim to be a sovereign
living soul, as created by my God,
And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.
(Old Testament | Genesis 2:7)

Page 25 of 56

I further declare that the laws of the land, pursuant to my activities, consist of only the Constitution for the United States
of America and the Constitution of the Republic of ______________________, both of which were established by We, the
People, for the sole purpose of securing the unalienable rights that were given to us by our Creator, and to those laws that
have been lawfully created by the Legislative Branch under the provisions set forth in the said Constitutions.
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable
Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men,
deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed Declaration of Independence
We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the
common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish
this Constitution for the United States of America. Preamble to the Constitution for the United States of America
After considerable review of the Law, it appears that most officers, agents, and representatives of the people are
operating outside of venue and subject matter jurisdiction of the law.
Article 7 of the Bill of Rights establishes a peoples court that has the power to override the unlawful actions of our
public servants. Common Law Courts are referred to as Superior Courts because they are Superior to all other courts in the
land. Common Law Courts are the Peoples Courts. They are staffed by the common folks living in the community. Judges
in the other courts are merely HIRED HANDS with no power to do anything outside the bounds established by the
Constitution. Attorneys have no standing in Common Law Courts.
To claim ignorance of the law is not an excuse to disobey the law as written. It is the responsibility of every person to
know what the law says and to stay within the limitations of said law. The courts have upheld this time and time again. The
excuse that I was just following orders will not work now any more than it did at the Nuremberg Trials following World
War II.
I, _____________________________________, attest to the facts stated in this Constructive Notice and Challenge to
Authority to be true and accurate to the best of my knowledge.

________________________________________
________________________________________
Printed Name
Dated: __________________________________

Page 26 of 56

CONSTRUCTIVE NOTICE WORKSHEET


FOR
PUBLIC SERVANTS
This worksheet is being provided to assist you in complying with your obligation to establish your true and proper
authority, which you appear to claim pursuant to your actions and statements to me.
Pursuant to the Privacy Act of 1974, American Citizens are authorized to require full, written disclosure from any
government official who is seeking information from said Citizen. The Internal Revenue Service and other taxing agencies
are not exempt from this disclosure requirement and must use their full, legal name when answering the Questionnaire.
Pursuant to the 1938 Foreign Registration Act, Title 50 USC and Title 22 USC 6U 612 all foreign agents must provide
the following: Foreign Registration Statement, Green Card, License(s) to do business in the States they are operating, all
Oaths of Office, statutory Bonding Agent, and Tax I.D. Number, (includes: IRS Agents, BATF, Federal Marshals, FBI, Federal
Judges, U.S. Attorneys and any and all other federal agencies/agents as well as federalized State Officials working under the
U.S. Corporation).
Failure to produce any one of the aforesaid documents prohibits them from acting against any American and they will
be held personally liable should they continue to act.
The following questions are based upon the CONSTITUTION FOR THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA and must be
answered carefully in order for you to establish the authority you appear to claim.
Your Full Name:

_________________________________________________________________

Your Residence address: _________________________________________________________________


City
State
Zip
Name of department of government, bureau, or agency you claim to work for: ______________________
The Precise Job Title You Claim:

__________________________________________________________
Constable, Sheriff, Police Officer, Judge, Prosecutor, Revenue Officer or Agent, Appeals Officer, Special Agent,
or other title you may claim

The Article Numbers and Section Numbers of the Constitution for the United States of America, or of the Constitution for
the State that you claim to work for, that authorized the Legislative Branch of that government to enact a law that lawfully
created the office you claim to occupy:
Constitution for the United States of America:
Constitution for the State of ______________

Articles: ___________
Articles: ___________

Sections: ______________
Sections: ______________

NOTE: Do not cite Article 1, Section 8, Paragraph 3 of the Constitution for the United States of America as the empowering clause. If that
provision really granted the Federal Government power to regulate the Commerce within the States it would also grant it the power to
regulate the Commerce within all Foreign Nations. ALSO Do not cite Public Law, Case Law, Code, Rules, Regulations, Executive Orders,
or other Color of Law documents, as only the Legislature has the power to create laws, and, unfortunately, they have very often exceeded
the powers granted by the Constitution.
The Name of Your Supervisor:

__________________________________________________________

Mailing Address of Your Work:

__________________________________________________________
City
State
Zip

I have attached a written copy of my constitutional oath of office, as required by Article VI, Paragraph 3 of the
Constitution for the United States and 5 U.S.C. 3331.
I have attached a written copy of my civil commission as an agent or officer of the Government, as required by Article
II 3 of the Constitution of the United States and attending legislation.
Page 27 of 56

I have attached my affidavit declaring that I did not pay for or otherwise make or promise consideration to secure my
office (5 U.S.C. 3332).
I have attached my personal surety bond G my financial statement G which I am required to file annually. I understand
that my financial statement will be construed as a private treaty surety bond in the event that I have exceed my lawful
authority.
I have attached Documentation that establishes my complete line of delegated authority, including all intermediaries,
beginning with the President of the United States, or the Governor of my State.
If my Oath of Office is not already filed as a public record, pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 2906 you have my permission to so file
it.
I hereby certify that the questions to be asked of you are based upon a specific constitutional law not on regulations,
rules, codes, or other color of law documents.
I further certify that the questions I want to ask are voluntary and are not being used as a discovery process.
I also certify that the information gleaned from your answers to my questions will not be given to any other agency.
Should you choose to not answer my questions you will suffer no adverse effects.
I firmly declare that the Name of the Person who requested my confronting you is: _________________________, and
his/her Title is _____________________________________, at the ____________________________________ agency.
I declare that my investigation is of a:
G general nature in that this is a blanket investigation involving a number of persons because of geography,
type of business, income, or other activity
G special in that only you are being investigated
I G have, G have not, consulted, questioned, interviewed, or received information concerning this matter from a third
party.
Pursuant to my right, as defined in the Common Law, I have the right to be confronted by my accusers, therefore the
names of the third parties are: ___________________________________________________________
I reasonably anticipate either a G civil or G criminal action to be initiated or pursued based upon any of the information
that I seek
There G is, G is not, a file of information or correspondence relating to you that is being maintained by my agency.
My agency G is, G is not, using any information pertaining to you, which was supplied, by another agency or
government source. I guarantee that, if such information exists, it will not be used by any other department other than the
one by whom I am employed. If any request for information about you is received from any person or agency, I must advise
you in writing before releasing such information. My failure to do so may subject me to possible civil or criminal actions.
I understand that my failure to respond will destroy any charges that my be brought by any public servant pursuant to
the matter I am investigating.
I also understand that in order for a response to be considered to be a valid, lawful response it must address each item
contained herein on a point by point basis within the time frame set forth herein.
I also understand that any collateral issues other than the above requests intended to document my personal standing
will be addressed separately from this request.
I fully understand that I have only a period of twenty (20) calender days from my receipt of this request. I understand
that my response to your Constructive Notice and Demand and Direct Challenge to my personal authority lawfully falls under
the provisions of the Administrative Procedures act for deadlines.
Page 28 of 56

I further understand that In the event I do not formally answer your demand, it may cause you to be unlawfully
considered to be a party to any past or subsequent adverse action.
I understand that in lieu of answering your Demand, I may withdraw, in writing, any and all claims, demands and/or
encumbrances issued directly or indirectly against you within the scope of my alleged administrative authority.
My failure to comply with your Constructive Notice of Demand and Direct Challenge to my Authority will be an admission
that all parties with whom I am associated are wilfully, AND WITH EVIL INTENT, engaging in criminal activity against you.
AFFIRMATION
I declare under penalty of perjury that the foregoing is true and correct.

Signed:

_______________________________________________________

Printed Name:

_______________________________________________________

Date:

_______________________________________________________

Page 29 of 56

The following Truth Affidavit was properly served by registered mail, return receipt requested, on President Bush in
December 2004.
The others were served by e-mail.
Then, on January 8, 2009, the Truth Affidavit was filed in the Congressional Record with the Library of Congress. See the
attached receipt.
To date, no response of any kind, from anyone has ever occurred.
Since the Truth Affidavit was filed by a General Partner in the We, the People of the united States General Partnership, in
behalf of the Partnership, it becomes the ruling provisions of any actions the Federal Government attempts to make.

Respond to:
James Comet; Barrus, Jr.
Salt Lake City, Utah
Address to:
George W. Bush
President
The White House
1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW
Washington, DC 20500
Copies to:
All Members of the Cabinet of the President of the united States
(Sent by e-Mail)
All Members of the Congress of the united States
(Sent by e-Mail)
All Members of the Supreme Court of the united States
(Sent by e-Mail)
The Governor of each State
(Sent by e-Mail)
The Attorney General for each State
(Sent by e-Mail)
Each member of the several State Legislatures
(Sent by e-Mail)

Page 30 of 56

TRUTH AFFIDAVIT
IN THE NATURE OF SUPPLEMENTAL
RULES FOR ADMINISTRATIVE AND MARITIME CLAIMS RULES C (6)
December 13, 2004
Verified declaration in the nature by an Affidavit for Truth in Commerce and Contract by Waiver for Tort Presented by
me James Comet; Barrus, Jr., a living soul, one for We the People under Original Common Law Jurisdiction by the Utah
republic and united States of America contracts, the Constitution, a General Partner in the We the People General
Partnership.
Plain Statement of Facts
An Affidavit not rebutted stated as Truth in commerce. An Affidvit not rebutted, after ten (10) days, becomes the
judgement in commerce. A Truth affidavit, under commercial law, can only be satisfied: by Truth Affidavit rebuttal, by
agreement, by resolution, or under Common Law Rules, by a jury.
COMES NOW the Affiant, James Comet; Barrus, Jr., and after being duly sworn, deposes and says:
FACT 1 -

Although many of the FACTS set forth herein are obvious truths, some of them have been further
substantiated by a Jury decision of the Superior Common Law Court of the Nevada republic, and others have
been substantiated through the failure of the Officers of the State of Utah to respond to a Truth Affidavit.

FACT 2 -

The Superior Common Law Courts are the Courts of We the People. These Courts existed before the Articles
of Confederation were ratified. They existed before the Constitution for the united States of America was
written. They came from the deep recesses of the past. Common law came down from the top of Mount
Sinai in the form of The Ten Commandments. It was strengthened by the Law of Moses, and refined by our
Lord and Savior Jesus Christ.

FACT 3 -

Moses was not an attorney, and yet, God called him to be the Great Lawgiver to the Nations. Moses is one
of three figures that stand above the east entrance to the Supreme Court Building of the United States.
Moses is one of the figures of historical lawgivers depicted in the building. And, the Ten Commandments
is displayed in several places within the building

FACT 4 -

Nothing was done by the Founding Fathers to take any power or authority away from the Common Law
because they considered it synonymous with Gods Law, and something they had no power to amend or
destroy.

FACT 5 -

On Friday, June 15, 1878 Mr. William Patterson of New Jersey submitted nine propositions to be substituted
for those of Mr. Edmund Randolph of Virginia.

In Convention:
Mr. PATTERSON laid before the Convention the plan which he said several of the Deputations wished to be substituted in place
of that proposed by Mr. RANDOLPH, After some little discussion of the most proper mode of giving it a fair deliberation, it
was agreed, that it should be referred to a Committee of the Whole; and that, in order to place the two plans in due
comparisons the other should be recommitted. At the earnest request of Mr. LANSING and some other gentlemen, it was also
agreed that the Convention should not go into Committee of the Whole on the subject till tomorrow; by which delay the friends
of the plan proposed by Mr. PATTERSON would be better prepared to explain and support it, and all would have an opportunity
of taking copies.
Resolved, that, in addition to the powers vested in the United States in Congress, by the present existing Articles of
Confederation, they be authorized to pass acts for raising a revenues by levying a duty or duties on all goods or merchandises
of foreign growth or manufacture, imported into any part of the United States; by stamps on paper, vellum or parchment; and
by a postage on all letters or packages passing through the general post-office; to be applied to such Federal purposes as they
shall deem proper and expedient; to make rules and regulations for the collection thereof; and the same, from time to time,
to alter and amend in such manner as they shall think proper; to pass acts for the regulation of trade and commerce as well

Page 31 of 56

with foreign nations as with each other; provided that all punishments, fines, forfeitures and penalties, to be incurred for
contravening such acts, rules and regulations, shall be adjudged by the common law Judiciaries of the State in which
any offence contrary to the true intent and meaning of such acts, rules, and regulations, shall have been committed
or perpetrated, with liberty of commencing in the first instance all suits and prosecutions for that purpose in the
Superior common law Judiciary in such State; subject, nevertheless, for the correction of all errors, both in law and fact,
in rendering judgment, to an appeal to the Judiciary of the United States. Proposition 2 from Mr. Patterson:

FACT 6 -

Article 7 of the Bill of Rights took away the right of the Judiciary of the United States to review any decision
by the Superior Common Law Judiciary in each State. This was done to eliminate the possibility of the
Judiciary of the United States gaining unlawful power over the Sovereign We the People.

FACT 7 -

Among the proposals submitted by Mr. Edmund Randolph of Virginia was:

The Governor, Senators, and all officers of the United States, to be liable to impeachment for mal, and corrupt conduct; and
upon conviction to be removed from office, and disqualified for holding any place of trust or profit: all impeachments to be
tried by a Court to consist of the Chief , or Judge of the Superior Court of Law of each State, provided such Judge shall hold
his place during good behaviour and have a permanent salary. Item IX from Mr. Randolph.

FACT 8 -

Both proposals recognize the fact that the Superior Common Law Court of each State is the proper venue and
has the jurisdiction for all matters concerning We the People. There was never any discussion or
contemplation about changing this fact. It was essentially etched in stone.

FACT 9 -

On Monday August 6, 1878 - Mr John Rutledge of South Carolina - presented a Rough Draft of the
Constitution to the delegates at the Federal Convention. This included the provision:

Every commissioner shall, before he sit in judgment, take an oath to be administered by one of the judges of the Supreme or
Superior Court of the State where the cause shall be tried, "well and truly to hear and determine the matter in question,
according to the best of his judgment, without favor, affection, or hope of reward." - Article IX, Section 2, Rough Draft of
the Constitution for the United States of America.

FACT 10 -

It is very clear from the proposed provision shown in Fact 9, that the Supreme court and the Superior Court
are separate entities. The Supreme Court is created under the provisions of the Constitution for the State
and for the Federal union. No Common Law powers have been granted to either the State or the Federal
union by We the People. The Superior Common Law Court is the Court of We the People and is Superior to
any other court in the land. All powers and rights to the Common Law System were retained by We the
People.

FACT 11 -

Even though Utah is not one of the Original 13 Colonies, each State is guaranteed the same rights and
privileges as all the other States when they join the union. Therefore Utah, by ratifying the Constitution has
the same standing and status as all other States and because the States formed the Federal union, Utah is
superior to the Federal union, and Utahs acknowledgment of the truthfulness of the facts in the Truth
Affidavit, through their failure to respond, is binding upon the Federal union in those matters that apply to
the Federal union.

FACT 12 -

The Common Law Court System is superior to all other laws, courts, and judicial systems that were
authorized to be established by either the State or Federal Constitutions. The Common Law Courts are
Superior to all court that could, or may be validly established under the provisions of the said Constitutions,
or that could be unlawfully created by men and women who would pervert the valid system under the several
Constitutions for their own purposes.

FACT 13 -

The Seventh Article of the Bill of Rights, which is the Seventh Amendment to the Constitution for the united
States of America, provides that no court in the land, not even the Supreme Court, has the power to reexamine the decision of a Common Law Court, unless it is done in accordance with the rules and procedures
set forth in Common Law.

Page 32 of 56

In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be
preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to
the rules of the common law. Bill of Rights - Amendment VII

FACT 14 -

Common Law trials are those where the Common Law jury acts as the Judges, and in which they exercise the
authority to hear and decide questions of both Law and fact.

FACT 15 -

Common Law deals with the Legal Relationships between Sovereigns, the Property Rights of Sovereigns,
Powers and Liabilities, and Types of Actions, rather than merely theoretical definitions of abstract legal
concepts like the Equity Court.

FACT 16 -

Common Law preserves the Rights of Man and was recognized by Our Founding Fathers as superior to all
other forms of legal structure. This is why they made it the basis of all legitimate law in America today.

FACT 17 -

The power and the authority vested in the Common Law system was retained by We the People. Thats why
it is not discussed in the Constitution. It is the Peoples Court.

FACT 18 -

The people have the right to set up a Common Law Court in whatever manner, and under whatever
circumstances, seems to them to best meet their needs. We the People do not require any separate or special
authorization from any State or Federal entity in order establish a Common Law Court.

FACT 19 -

The people rule over the States and the Federal union and do not need anyones permission to exercise their
unalienable rights.

FACT 20 -

Neither the States, nor the Federal union, has the power or authority to tell We the People how to set up our
Court system. Nor do they have the power, the authority, or the right, to ignore the decisions from such
Courts.

FACT 21 -

Absolutely no powers of Common Law were granted to the States or to the federal union. Neither the State
Legislature, the State court system, the federal Congress nor the federal court system has the power or the
authority to declare, or make, any rules of Common Law that would be applicable in a State or anywhere in
the Federal system. As recently as 1938 the Supreme Court ruled:

There is no federal general common law. Congress has no power to declare substantive rules of common law applicable in a state
whether they be local in their nature or 'general,' be they commercial law or a part of the law of torts. And no clause in the
Constitution purports to confer such a power upon the federal courts. Erie R.R. Co. v. Tompkins, 304 U.S. 64 (1938)

FACT 22 -

We the People is a General Partnership wherein each member is a General Partner. We declared in the
Declaration of Independence that we are all equal, therefore there are no limited partners.

General partnerships are properly such, where the parties carry on all their trade and business for their joint benefit and
profit. Bouviers Law Dictionary 6th Edition 1865
Partnerships are created by mere act of the parties; and in this they differ from, corporations which require the sanction of
public authority, either express or implied. The consent of the parties may be testified, either in express terms, as by articles
of partnership, or positive agreement; or the assent may be tacit, and to be implied solely from the act of the parties. An
implied or presumptive assent has equal operation with one that is express and determined. And it may be laid down as a
general and undeniable proposition, that persons having a mutual interest in the particular business, carried on by them, or
persons appearing ostensibly to the world as joint traders, are to be recognized and treated as partners, whatever may be the
nature of the agreement under which they act, or whatever motive or inducement may prompt them to such an exhibition.
Bouviers Law Dictionary 6th Edition 1865

FACT 23 -

As a General Partner in We the People I have the power and the authority to speak in behalf of all the We the
People Sovereigns if I see something that is not right. Even if I did not represent a large group of Sovereign
People, my sole voice is adequate as a General Partner in the We the People Partnership.

Page 33 of 56

FACT 24 -

A General Partner in any Partnership has the power and the authority to speak, to act, and to bind the
Partnership to certain agreements. Every General Partner is also responsible for the actions and activities
of the Partnership.

FACT 25 -

Since Each General Partner in the We the People Partnership is a Sovereign Individual, any and all acts and
actions, taken by any General Partner must be in keeping with the might, mind, and will of the other General
Partners.

The object of the partnership must be legal. All partnerships, therefore, which are formed for any purpose forbidden by law
or good morals, are null and void. But all the partners in such a partnership are jointly liable to third persons who may contract
with them without a knowledge of the illegal or immoral object of the partnership Bouviers Law Dictionary 6th Edition
1865

FACT 26 -

Actions taken by any General Partner that are outside the bounds set by the other General Partners are
unlawful and illegal actions that are null and void. Even though an innocent third party may have contracted
with the Partnership, such parties are responsible for determining on their own the validity of the actions
of the General Partners they are dealing with, and the ability of those General Partners to bind the General
Partnership. General Partners who have acted in contravention to the will of the other General Partners
must, and will, be prosecuted to the fullest extent of the law.

FACT 27 -

It would be an act of unrighteous dominion, which is against the Laws of God, for a General Partner to amend
or alter the provisions set forth in the Constitution for the united States of America, or in any State
Constitution, on his own initiative.

FACT 28 -

Each and every General Partner is responsible to watch over and protect the several Constitutions that have
been created. It is their personal obligation to defend and protect the Constitutions from those who would
pervert the desires and wishes of the General Partners when the several Constitutions were created.

FACT 29 -

Therefore, any General Partner who is aware of, or discovers that there are Partnership Employees who are
not performing their Mandated tasks, or who are entering into Prohibited areas by exceeding their granted
authority, is obligated to take whatever action he, or she, deems necessary to correct the problem and once
more establish the order set by the General Partnership.

FACT 30 -

Each person who has received a copy of this Truth Affidavit considers themself to be either an elected or an
appointed officer of one of the several States, or of the Federal Government of the United States of America.

FACT 31 -

As employees of one of the entities established under the control of the General Partnership you are an
employee of the General Partnership. Whether you are employed by one of the several States, or by the
Federal union does not matter. You are an employee of the General Partnership because you are paid by the
General Partners in the General Partnership.

FACT 32 -

Each elected, or appointed, person who has received a copy of this Truth Affidavit has subscribed to an oath
of office prior to assuming the duties of their position.

FACT 33 -

This Oath of Office is a binding contract between We the People, who are the real power and authority
behind the Constitution for the united States of America, and the several Officers who have executed their
Oath of Office.

FACT 34 -

The contract created by the Oath of Office taken by the State and Federal Officers guarantees to We the
People that the Officers will in fact obey and defend the Constitution for the united States of America and
for each and every Constitution for the several States.

FACT 35 -

The contract created by the Oath of Office taken by an Officer of one of the several States guarantees to We
the People that the Officer will in fact obey and defend the Constitution of the State he is an officer for, and
the Constitution for the united states of America.

Page 34 of 56

FACT 36 -

The word obey implicitly implies that the officers will faithfully observe the mandates and prohibitions that
have been written into the Law of the Constitution by We the People.

FACT 37 -

The word defend requires each officer to be diligent in watching over their own actions and those of their
employees. They must also defend against the actions of the other Officers and employees of the several
States and the Federal Union in such a way as to insure that nothing is done to disparage, discredit, or in any
way diminish, harm, or destroy the basic concepts established by We the People in our Constitution for the
united States of America.

FACT 38 -

Treason against a State, or against the united States, is defined as levying war against the State, or against
the united States, or in giving aid and comfort to those who are levying war against the State, or the united
States. This definition was specifically used by our Founding Fathers so that those Sovereign Individuals who
are engaged in performing their obligation to effect the operation of the government in such a way as to best
protect their safety and happiness cannot be charged with treason because they intend to amend or abolish
a State government, or the Federal Union, and plan to institute a new government, laying its foundations,
and organizing its powers as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness.

Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them
aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or
on confession in open court. The Constitution for the united States of America - Article 3 - Section 3 - Paragraph 1

FACT 39 -

This definition of treason does not cover the actions of the Officers of the States, or the Federal Union. A
violation of their Oath of Office will be construed to be Treason against We the People, and will be
prosecuted as such through the Common Law Courts which are the validly existing Courts of the People.
Even though the Common Law Courts are discredited, demonized, and many attempts have been made to
destroy them by the very elected and appointed Officers who have sworn an Oath to protect and defend the
Constitution, Common Law Courts are the validly authorized and empowered courts to which We the People,
have granted sole jurisdiction over the People, their Property, and their Relationships, on with another.

FACT 40 -

Attempts to claim I was just doing my job are worthless. The same excuse was used at the Nuremberg trial
and the offenders were still hung.

FACT 41 -

This nation, when established, was founded on the principles of the Bible. Our Founding Fathers were well
versed in the teachings, doctrines, and concepts set forth in the Bible, which is our Book of Guidelines and
Laws.

Very often we hear people say, Where did the Founding Fathers get so many of their great ideas?
Recently, Dr. Donald S. Lutz and Dr. Charles S. Hyneman made an extensive study to determine which books the Founders relied
upon for the basic ideas that went into the formulation of the United States Constitution.
They reviewed an estimated 15,000 items, and closely perused the political content of 2,200 books, pamphlets, newspaper
articles, and monographs which were published between 1760 and 1805. The most significant items were selected which
amounted to 916 articles. These were carefully analyzed and numerically coded as to content as well as the references cited
by the leaders of that era.
It very quickly became apparent where the focus of interest was concentrated in the minds of the Founding Fathers. Of the
thousands of citations quoted to support their ideas, 34% came from one source the Bible. Most of these were from the book
of Deuteronomy which is the Book of Gods Law.
Other citations were scattered over a broad spectrum of writings from historians, philosophers and political thinkers including
Montesquieu, Blackstone, Locke, Coke, Cicero, and other intellectual luminaries from the so-called Enlightenment. But the
linchpin that united their thinking on every important principle was the Bible. The Majesty of Gods Law W. Cleon Skousen
1996

FACT 42 -

John Jay, the first Chief Justice of the united states Supreme Court, had this to say about Gods Law.

Page 35 of 56

Uninspired commentators have dishonored the law, by ascribing to it, in certain cases, a sense and meaning which it did not
authorize, and which our Savior rejected and reproved.
The inspired prophets, on the contrary, expressed the most exalted ideas of the law. They declare that the law of the Lord
is perfect; that the statutes of the Lord are right; and that the commandment of the Lord is pure; that God would magnify
the law and make it honorable.

FACT 43 -

The above facts are made abundantly clear and are fully verified by the statement in the Declaration of
Independence concerning our Sovereignty.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain
unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness.

FACT 44 -

The Declaration of Independence also states that Sovereign People institute governments to secure their
rights. These rights are the right to Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness with which we are endowed
by our Creator.

That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the
governed. . . .

FACT 45 -

The Sovereign People dwelling in America, authorized individuals, as delegates for the various States, to
establish a Constitution which would provide a better place to live, to work, and to pursue our God given
inalienable rights. We had just won a very costly war so that we could be Free and enjoy our Liberty. This
was not an assignment of our Sovereignty, it was merely a joint use of our Sovereignty to control the
environment in which we live.

When this country achieved its independence the prerogatives of the crown devolved upon the people of the States. And this
power still remains with them, except so far as they have delegated a portion of it to the Federal government. Wheeler
v. Smith, 9 How. 33

FACT 46 -

The authors of our Constitution were very familiar the various forms of government that had been in use for
the past two thousand years. They were astute history buffs, and knew and understood the blessings and
pitfalls in each form of government.

FACT 47 -

Using our Individual Sovereignty, we established, through our representatives, a system of laws that would,
and should, protect us. These laws are designed to protect us not only from outside influences but from the
very entities that we created.

Sovereignty itself is, of course, not subject to law, for it is the author and source of law; but in our system, while sovereign
powers are delegated to the agencies of government, sovereignty itself remains with the people, by whom and for whom all
government exists and acts. And the law is the definition and limitation of power. Yick Wo vs Hopkins and Woo Lee vs
Hopkins (118 US S. Ct. 356)

FACT 48 -

The Supreme Court, in the last cited decision, says that Sovereignty is not subject to Law because it is the
author and the source of the law. This does not mean that we, as Sovereign Individuals have the right to run
wild. We, as Sovereigns, live in a Republic and are subject to Gods Laws, because God created us, and the
creature, or entity, that is created is always subject to the laws of the creator.

FACT 49 -

Note also, that the Supreme Court defined law as the definition and limitation of power. This means that
when laws are established, such as the Constitution, which is the law and mandate of the people, they are
really created to define the limits of power that the created entity may enjoy. When God created man, he
gave them power, authority, and dominion over all things on the earth, but He declared laws that defined
the limits of our Sovereignty. We have all power and dominion here on earth, be we have no power,
authority, or dominion in Gods Heavenly Kingdom.

FACT 50 -

Each Sovereign Citizen holds total and supreme power in his, or her, realm. No Sovereign Citizen has the
right, the power, or the authority to invade, or even infringe upon the Sovereignty of another person.

Page 36 of 56

The law is the organization of the natural right of lawful defense. It is the substitution of a common force for individual
forces. And this common force is to do only what the individual forces have a natural and lawful right to do "to protect persons,
liberties, and properties; to maintain the right of each, and to cause justice to reign over us all. Frederic Bastiat - The Law

FACT 51 -

Bouviers Law Dictionary - 6th Edition - 1856, defines Sovereign as a chief ruler with supreme power; one
possessing sovereignty.

FACT 52 -

Blacks Law Dictionary - 1st Edition - 1891, defines Sovereign as a chief ruler with Supreme Power.

FACT 53 -

We the People hold the Supreme Power and all rights attendant thereto. The Declaration of Independence
establishes the fact that our rights are held as individuals, not collectively.

When this country achieved its independence the prerogatives of the crown devolved upon the people of the States. And this
power still remains with them, except so far as they have delegated a portion of it to the Federal government. U. S. Supreme
Court - Wheeler v. Smith, 9 How. 33

FACT 54 -

Bouviers Law Dictionary - 6th Edition - 1856, defines Sovereignty as the power to do everything in a state
without accountability; to make laws, to execute and to apply them: to impose and collect taxes, and, levy,
contributions; to make war or peace; to form treaties of alliance or of commerce with foreign nations, and
the like. Strictly speaking, in our republican forms of government, the absolute sovereignty of the nation
is in the people of the nation; and the residuary sovereignty of each state, not granted to any of its public
functionaries, is in the people of the state.

FACT 55 -

I am Sovereign, and thereby I am endowed with Sovereignty. I have the power and the authority to make
laws, to execute and to apply them, and to otherwise do all things that any nation may have the power to
do within my Realm. Just as when a person travels to a foreign country they become subject to the laws of
that country, whenever anyone enters my Realm they are subject to the laws that I have created.

FACT 56 -

Blacks Law Dictionary - 1st Edition - 1891, defines Sovereignty as the possession of Sovereign Power; supreme
political authority; paramount control of the constitution and frame of government and its administration;
the self-sufficient source of political power, from which all specific political powers are derived.

FACT 57 -

We the People, as individuals, hold all of the Sovereignty.

FACT 58 -

We the People granted our State the right to perform certain very specific and very restricted activities that
are normally reserved to the Sovereign. This did not, nor could it, make the State Sovereign. Fictitious
entities have no ability to claim Sovereignty as all Sovereignty resides in the Sovereign Citizens. In fact, the
very power of the Crown head of England devolved onto the head of each Sovereign Citizen.

FACT 59 -

Even though We the People granted specific powers to the State and to the Federal we did not grant them
sole use of those powers. This fact is attested to by the fact that We the People retained the right to
continue to exercise those same powers by modifying or abolishing the entities that we had created and
instituting new entities that we felt would most likely effect our Safety and Happiness.

that whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish
it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles, and organizing its powers in such form, as to them
shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Declaration of Independence

FACT 60 -

Each State, with the explicit approval of the Sovereign Citizens of that State, was then permitted to enter into
a Treaty called the Constitution FOR the united States of America. Thus, WE THE PEOPLE created the States
and through them, the Federal entity. We established the Constitution to define the laws and limits of the
powers granted to our creations. The Members of the Supreme Court recognized this fact when they stated
that Sovereignty is the author and source of law.

FACT 61 -

The use of the word FOR in the title to the Constitution indicates that the document was written FOR the
benefit of the Individual States and was not a document that created the government OF the United States.

Page 37 of 56

FACT 62 -

When the States created the treaty organization, they could only grant such powers to the treaty
organization as they themselves held, and even then, the States only granted such portions of their powers
as they were willing to grant. Therefore, the treaty organization, commonly referred to as the Federal
Government, even though that is not correct, can use even less of the Sovereign power of the Sovereign
Citizens of the States than what the States can.

FACT 63 -

According to the notes and documents the Founding Fathers left behind, we know that it was their intent
to establish a form of government that would insure freedom and liberty for themselves and for their
posterity.

FACT 64 -

With this firmly in mind, the Preamble to the Constitution was prepared as guide to the negotiations that
would occur in the Federal Convention. The Preamble implicitly specified what was to be accomplished and
to what extent the federal entity would have powers and authorities to operate. We shall discuss the specific
meanings within the Preamble at a later point.

FACT 65 -

Benjamin Franklin expressed the concerns of all when he said:

"Sir, there are two passions which have a powerful influence on the affairs of men. These are ambition and avarice; the love
of power, and the love of money. Separately, each of these has great force in prompting men to action; but when united in view
of the same object, they have in many minds the most violent effects. Place before the eyes of such men a post of honor, that
shall be at the same time a place of profit, and they will move heaven and earth to obtain it. The vast number of such places
it is that renders the British government so tempestuous. The struggles for them are the true sources of all those factions,
which are perpetually dividing the nation, distracting its councils, hurrying sometimes into fruitless and mischievous wars, and
often compelling a submission to dishonorable terms of peace. Benjamin Franklin

FACT 66 -

When they finished, they had created a system without any prior example either ancient or modern. This
was a system founded on the God given sovereignty of each member of the Society. A system of local
government combined with a federal form, all created as republics. It was planned that the sovereign people
would control the local republics which would in turn control the federal entity. In this way, they felt that
they could cover any defects of the local and federal and to thereby obtain the best advantage of all entities.

FACT 67 -

We, the Sovereign individuals who created the government, are still superior to our creation. Our superiority
is evidenced by the continuation of the previous quote from the Declaration of Independence.

. . . .that whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to
abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles, and organizing its powers in such form, as
to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.

FACT 68 -

What I have said is absolutely true. We the People have the POWER, the AUTHORITY, the RIGHT, the
OBLIGATION, and the DUTY, to ALTER or to ABOLISH our present government if We determine it does not
meet our needs, and to institute a new government in such a way as to effect our Safety and Happiness.

FACT 69 -

Only when We are the absolute master over something do we have the power to absolutely destroy or abolish
it.

FACT 70 -

Our Founding Fathers weighed each word carefully before using it. Please note that the they used the word
effect concerning our Safety and Happiness. To effect something refers to the power of the creator to
produce a desired outcome, or to achieve a specific result. If you are going to effect something you are going
to act upon that something to make it do or perform the way you want it to. You effect something in order
to bring about a cause.

FACT 71 -

The word affect could have been used, but, affect implies an action from an outside source that would
concern our Safety and Happiness. An event or happening occurs that is outside of the thing being
accomplished that affects the final outcome. This is not the case, We as Sovereigns effect our own Safety
and Happiness when we do the things that are necessary to maintain them.

Page 38 of 56

FACT 72 -

The above facts clearly indicate that in creating the various States, that in turn created the Constitution for
the united States no Sovereignty was transferred, sold, bartered or given away by the individuals who created
the States. We the People granted the several entities that We created a very limited right to use our
Sovereign rights, powers, and authority in order to accomplish the mandates that we established in the
Constitution.

FACT 73 -

We the People made the provisions of the Constitution both Mandatory and Prohibitory. The officers of the
several entities were mandated to do exactly what they were told, and were prohibited from doing anything
else.

FACT 74 -

The Rights of Sovereignty are the unalienable rights granted by our Creator. We cannot give them away, they
cannot be assigned, they cannot be traded or bartered, they cannot be sold. They are ours, and were sealed
upon us by our Creator when we, as descendants of Adam and Eve, inherited their dominion over the earth.

FACT 75 -

What I have said concerning Sovereignty and unalienable rights applies to every natural person who has lived,
who is now living, or who may live upon the earth. We are all equal before God, who is not a respecter of
persons but rewards all men and women according to their deeds, whether they be bondsmen or freemen.

Knowing that whatsoever good thing any man doeth, the same shall he receive of the Lord, whether he be bond or free. And,
ye masters, do the same things unto them, forbearing threatening: knowing that your Master also is in heaven; neither is there
respect of persons with him. New Testament - Ephesians 6:8 - 9

FACT 76 -

Governments are fictitious entities and are subject to the whims and fancies of the Sovereign Individuals, and
the Sovereign heirs of those individuals, who created them, and therefore Governments and Nations are not,
in the true sense of the word, Sovereign. What Sovereignty each Government or Nation may enjoy comes
from whatever portion of their Sovereign rights are granted by the people who created it.

There can be no limitation on the power of the people of the United States. By their authority the State Constitutions were
made, and by their authority the Constitution of the United States was established; Hauenstein vs Lynham (100 US 483)

FACT 77 -

No fictitious entity, i.e., government, corporation, partnership, contract, or other device created by the mind
of man can be Sovereign. They are all subject to their Creator, and therefore do not have all power. Because
of this they cannot, in and of themselves, hold Sovereignty. What Sovereignty it may claim comes through
the un-relinquished Sovereignty of its creators.

FACT 78 -

The entity referred to as The United States of America holds no Sovereignty of its own. It is a fictitious
entity and cannot be Sovereign. Also, the entities that created it, the States, had no Sovereignty to grant.
In both cases the sovereignty rests with the people, not the entity that the people created.

FACT 79 -

It is impossible for someone, or some thing to give what it does not have. The States have no Sovereignty
and therefore, cannot give the Federal entity what they themselves do not have Sovereignty.

FACT 80 -

Our Founding Fathers established a Republic, not a Democracy or an Oligarchy. We intend to keep our
Republic. We do not want a Democracy or an Oligarchy, or, for that matter, any other form of government.

Republic:
A form of government where Gods law is supreme and the people are free to pursue and to enjoy their Life, Liberty and Pursuit
of Happiness. Each Citizen retains their own Sovereignty and has control over his personal environment. The Sovereign
Citizens are subject to Gods Laws, primarily the Ten Commandments, the Golden Rule, and especially, Love thy Enemy.
Democracy:
A form of government where the majority rules. This type of system is fraught with the ever present potential that the
majority will make slaves of the minority, or, that power hungry men and women will subvert the system for their own benefit.
God is outlawed, and Gods laws are totally disregarded. Eventually the majority attempts to install themselves as the god of
the nation. Today, in our court rooms in every State, the attorneys PRAY to the judge for the orders they seek.
Oligarchy:

Page 39 of 56

A form of government where a select group of individuals have gained control over the actions and activities of the government
and have placed themselves, and their cohorts, above the law, by claiming immunity from redress for themselves and their
associates.

Please consider what our Founding Fathers understood about a Democracy.


"Hence it is that such democracies have ever been spectacles of turbulence and contention; have ever been found incompatible with
personal security or the rights of property; and have in general been as short in their lives as they have been violent in their
deaths." - James Madison, Federalist Paper 10:

And what our own government printed in a training manual for our Military Personnel.
Democracy, n. "A government of the masses. Authority derived through mass meeting or any form of "direct" expression. Results
in mobocracy. Attitude toward property is communistic - negating property rights. Attitude toward law is that the will of the
majority shall regulate, whether it be based upon deliberation or governed by passion, prejudice, and impulse, without restraint or
regard to consequences. Results in demagogism, license, agitation, discontent, anarchy." - U.S. Army Training Manual TM2000-05,
1928

FACT 81 -

Each and every person in the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA (sic) has at one time or another placed their right
hand over their heart and solemnly proclaimed their allegiance to the flag of the United States of America,
and TO THE REPUBLIC for which it stands.

I pledge allegiance to the Flag of the United States of America, and to the Republic for which it stands: one Nation under God,
indivisible, With Liberty and Justice for all.

FACT 82 -

We have not pledged our allegiance to the Democracy, or to the Oligarchy. We have pledged our allegiance
to the Republic.

FACT 83 -

The Organic Constitution for the United States of America creates a Republican Form of government and
guarantees that each State will also have a Republican Form of Government. Depending on where we live,
we are to have the blessings of a Republican Form of government. In a Republic, Gods Laws are supreme,
and each one of us is Sovereign. In a Republic the People are Superior to the government because we have
created the government.

The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of
them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened),
against domestic Violence. The Constitution for the United States of America - Article IV: Section. 4
There can be no limitation on the power of the people of the United States. By their authority the State Constitutions were
made, and by their authority the Constitution of the United States was established; U. S. Supreme Court - Hauenstein vs
Lynham (100 US 483)

FACT 84 -

We the People formed a republican form of government in each state and mandated that the federal treaty
organization was responsible for the continuance of that form of government. The federal treaty
organization has miserably failed in its adherence to our mandate.

FACT 85 -

We are now faced with the prospect of an Oligarchy where the bankers, attorneys and judges have unlawfully
seized the powers of the government. In direct defiance to the separation of powers established in the
Constitution, many judges are making laws from the bench.

FACT 86 -

The UNITED STATES CORPORATION, through unlawful and unconstitutional actions have assumed control
of my State, and through mandates to my State has destroyed my Original Republican Form of Government
and foisted upon me a Democracy, and it is now in the process of creating an Oligarchy.

FACT 87 -

In a Republic, the elected and appointed Officers are truly the Public Servants and have no power or authority
over the Sovereign Citizens because the Contract created by their Oath of Office is a one-way street and the
Sovereign Citizens cannot violate the terms and conditions of the Contract.

Page 40 of 56

FACT 88 -

Each Officer and employee of the several States and the Federal Union is paid by the Sovereign People and
are therefore Officers and Employees of the Republic because that is what We the People voted to accept
when we entered the union.

FACT 89 -

In order to establish a Republican Form of government, our representatives to the Federal Convention
carefully set forth our basic desires in a Preamble to the Constitution that they were creating for us.

We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility,
provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our
Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

FACT 90 -

The Preamble to the Constitution sets forth specific objectives that were to be accomplished in the writing
of the Constitution. As used in the Preamble, the words form, establish, insure, provide, promote, and
secure are all action verbs that require something be done.

We will form a more perfect Union.


We will establish Justice.
We will insure our domestic Tranquility.
We will provide for the common defense.
We will promote the general Welfare.
And, we will do all of this in order to secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our
Posterity.

FACT 91 -

Because the underlying meanings of words tend to change over time, and because the framers of the
constitution had a clear grasp of the laws when they created the Preamble, and the Constitution, what we
think they said is probably not what they really said.

FACT 92 -

FORM A MORE PERFECT UNION: Forming a more perfect Union is easily understood. Immediately prior to
the Revolutionary War, and just after the War, the Colonies formed a Confederation and elected a congress.
Articles of Confederation were written, but they fell short of what the people really wanted. There were
arguments between the States over a number of issues. It became obvious that a better system was needed.
By using the Articles of Confederation as a basis to start from, and properly addressing the existing problems
in a new Constitution, it was felt that these problems could be overcome, and we would have a more Perfect
Union between the States.

FACT 93 -

ESTABLISH JUSTICE: This was not the establishment of justice within each State, but the establishment of
justice between the States. Remember, the Constitution is a Treaty between the States. It has all of the
trappings of a Treaty. It has a non-aggression clause. It provides for the Sovereign Citizens of one State to
be recognized as Sovereigns and to be honored by all of the other States, it has a mutual defense clause, and
it provides for laws that regulate commerce between the States. And, again, remember, the States did not
relinquish any of their authority or independence to the Federal Government. Just like in todays United
Nations each State was a free and willing participant in the Treaty, but retained their individual powers and
authority to rule over the Sovereign People who dwell within the boundaries of the State. Just like the United
Nations, it is not possible for an individual to be a Citizen of a Treaty Organization.

FACT 94 -

The leaders of the Federal Government are well aware of the fact that no one can be a Citizen of a Treaty
Organization and tried to change that with the 14th Amendment to the Constitution. The 14th Amendment
purports to make every person equal. The problem is, we were all equal before the 14th Amendment and no
amount of bogus law will modify or change that situation. The only people who could be affected (notice
the use of the word affected because it is a change brought by an outside influence.) are the people who live
in the District of Columbia, which has no Statehood, and no standing or status as a State. Therefore those
people are not citizens of any State and were simply in limbo until the 14th Amendment made them
Citizens of the Federal Government because they live on land that is not a part of any State. The basic
concept behind the 14th Amendment is bogus because it is impossible to be a Citizen of a Treaty
Organization.

Page 41 of 56

It must be noted that the Legislature for the State of Georgia, in 1957, passed a memorial, that was signed
into law by the Governor, stating that Georgia never ratified the said 14th Amendment. Thus the Amendment
fails for lack of sufficient ratifying votes.
And, in 1968, the Supreme Court of the State of Utah, in Dyett vs. Turner, 439 P2d 266 @ 269, 20 U2d 403
[1968], declared the 14th Amendment to be unconstitutional based on the flawed procedure used to obtain
ratification. The decision was written by Chief Justice A. H. Ellett.
In 1967, Congressman Rarick, of Louisiana posted a complete expose of the 14th Amendment in the
Congressional Record -- House June 13, 1967 H7161
No rebuttal of any of these has ever been put forth.
FACT 95 -

INSURE DOMESTIC TRANQUILITY: The establishment of Domestic Tranquility would provide a peaceful
environment in which to live. Here again, this was pointed at stopping the bickering, threats, and problems
between the States, rather than any internal problems within the States. This also provided that we would
not live in fear of other governments, or even our own governments, which we created.

FACT 96 -

PROVIDE FOR THE COMMON DEFENSE: Providing for the Common Defense is the agreement between the
States to protect one another from any adverse outside influences. Several times during the early years of
this Country, the Congress and the President took what would be considered today as very drastic steps to
protect the young States. They suspended all trading with various other Countries in order to achieve the
goals they set forth for themselves. It is this clause, concerning common defense, that is so typical of all
treaties.

FACT 97 -

PROMOTE THE GENERAL WELFARE: Promoting the General Welfare is not providing food and clothing to the
poor and needy. It is more closely akin to the principles of Charity set forth in the scriptures. Notice that
Charity does not mean giving to the poor. It is our misunderstanding of the old-time meanings of words that
has opened the door to our present welfare society.

Though I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, and have not charity, I am become as sounding brass, or a tinkling
cymbal. And though I have the gift of prophecy, and understand all mysteries, and all knowledge; and though I have all faith,
so that I could remove mountains, and have not charity, I am nothing. And though I bestow all my goods to feed the poor, and
though I give my body to be burned, and have not charity, it profiteth me nothing. Charity suffereth long, and is kind; charity
envieth not; charity vaunteth not itself, is not puffed up, Doth not behave itself unseemly, seeketh not her own, is not easily
provoked, thinketh no evil; Rejoiceth not in iniquity, but rejoiceth in the truth; Beareth all things, believeth all things, hopeth
all things, endureth all things. Charity never faileth: but whether there be prophecies, they shall fail; whether there be
tongues, they shall cease; whether there be knowledge, it shall vanish away. For we know in part, and we prophesy in part. But
when that which is perfect is come, then that which is in part shall be done away. When I was a child, I spake as a child, I
understood as a child, I thought as a child: but when I became a man, I put away childish things. For now we see through a
glass, darkly; but then face to face: now I know in part; but then shall I know even as also I am known. And now abideth faith,
hope, charity, these three; but the greatest of these is charity. New Testament | 1 Corinthians 13:1 - 13

FACT 98 -

Any attempt by the government that was established by the Constitution to PROVIDE for the General Welfare
is above and beyond the powers granted by the States and the People. The government is only authorized
to PROMOTE the General Welfare, which can best be done by a passive attitude toward the actions of the
Sovereign Individuals who control their own General Welfare through their private Sovereign actions. This
clause was for the express purpose of limiting the ability of the federal entity to interfere with our businesses,
our lives, and our families.

FACT 99 -

Promote and Provide are very different in their meaning. To illustrate the difference, if a person is asked to
provide a salad for a picnic they accomplish the task by bringing a salad. If a person is asked to promote the
salad at a picnic they accomplish the task by telling everyone how good the salad is. The Federal entity is to
ONLY promote the General Welfare, not provide it.

Page 42 of 56

FACT 100 -

SECURE THE BLESSINGS OF LIBERTY: Who is responsible for securing the Blessing of Liberty? We are. Not
the federal entity. Not the States. But, WE THE PEOPLE. No one else is concerned about our Liberty. We,
the Sovereign People had to do it for ourselves.

FACT 101 -

How did we go about securing the Blessings of Liberty? By doing exactly what he have done. We, the
Sovereign people defined laws that created a more perfect union than what we currently had. We defined
laws that established justice between the States. We defined laws that would insure our peace and
tranquility. We defined laws that would bring all of the other States to the defense of any State that was
attacked. We defined laws that would promote the general Welfare. We created a republic that we felt would
Secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and to our Posterity.

FACT 102 -

English Common Law was adopted as the basis for the Laws of our new Republic. England called itself a
Kingdom, but it was really a Theocracy since the King of England was the head of the Church of England.
Because of this, English Common Law is strongly founded in Biblical Principles and Doctrines.

FACT 103 -

Under Common Law, the term Liberty actually defines the Property, Boundaries, and Extent of our Sovereign
Realm and the unalienable right to use, possess, sell, trade, or exchange our Property without interference
from anyone, or anything. Only the provisions of Common Law secure the unalienable rights of the Sovereign
People to hold Alloidal title to their property.

allodium estates
Signifies an absolute estate of inheritance, in contradistinction to a feud. In America the title to land is essentially allodial,
and every tenant in fee simple has an absolute and perfect title, yet in technical language his estate is called an estate in fee
simple, and the tenure free and common socage. 3 Kent, Com. 390; Cruise, Prel. Dis. c. 1, 13; 2 Bl. Com. 45. Bouviers Law
Dictionary - 6th Edition - 1856

FACT 104 -

The reference to Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness in the Declaration of Independence had a different
meaning to the Founding Fathers because the meanings of the words have changed in the 200 years since
the document was written.

FACT 105 -

The definition of Life defined it to begin when the mother first felt movement in her womb. This definition
has been totally destroyed. Under this definition many thousands of the people in America would be in
prison for murder.

FACT 106 -

The definition of Liberty is very different from todays concept. The following series of definitions is from
Blacks Law Dictionary - 1st Edition - 1891.

LIBERTY. 1. Freedom; exemption from extraneous control. The power of the will, in its moral freedom, to follow the dictates
of its unrestricted choice, and to direct the external acts of the individual without restraint, coercion, or control from other
persons.

FACT 107 -

The first definition of Liberty is closest to our current understanding of the meaning of the word, however,
this definition indicates that Liberty is the power to follow the dictates of unrestricted choice, without
restraint, coercion, or control from other persons.

Civil liberty is the greatest amount of absolute liberty which can, in the nature of things, be equally possessed by every citizen
in a state. Bouvier.
The term is frequently used to denote the amount of absolute liberty which is actually enjoyed by the various citizens under
the government and laws of the state as administered. 1 131. Comm. 125.
Civil liberty is guaranteed protection against interference with the interests and rights held dear and important by large
classes of civilized men, or by all the members of a state, together with an effectual share in the making and administration
of the laws, as the best apparatus to secure that protection. Lieb. Civil Lib. 24.

Page 43 of 56

Natural liberty is the right which nature gives to all mankind of disposing of their persons and property after the manner they
judge most consistent with their happiness, on condition of their acting within the limits of the law of nature, and so as not
to interfere with an equal exercise of the same rights by other men. Burlamaqui, c. 3, 15; 1 131. Comm. 125.
Personal liberty consists in the power of locomotion, of changing situation, of removing one's person to whatever place one's
inclination may direct, without imprisonment or restraint unless by due course of law. 1 Bl. Comm. 134.
Political liberty is an effectual share in the making and administration of the laws. Lieb. Civil Lib.

FACT 108 -

Civil Liberty, Natural Liberty, Personal Liberty, and Political Liberty are simply specific uses of our basic
Liberty granted as part of our Sovereignty.

The word also means a franchise or personal privilege, being some part of the sovereign power, vested in an individual, either
by grant or prescription.

FACT 109 -

This verifies, that under the Law, Liberty is a privilege granted by God as part of our unalienable rights.

In a derivative sense, the term denotes the place, district, or boundaries within which a special franchise is enjoyed, an
immunity claimed, a jurisdiction exercised. In this sense, the term is commonly used in the plural; as "the liberties of the city,"
"the northern liberties of Philadelphia."

FACT 110 -

The final part of the definition of Liberty completes the concept that Liberty is a God granted privilege that
is part of our Sovereignty. Liberty defines the boundaries of our Sovereign realm.

FACT 111 -

Thus, the Declaration of Independence has covered all aspects of our environment. It declares our God given
unalienable rights of Life, Property (Realm or Liberty), and Choice of profession (Happiness).

FACT 112 -

Because Common Law is the basis of the laws in America, Common Law is what is being referred to in almost
every place where the word Law appears within the Constitution, the Declaration of Independence, and the
Bill of Rights. These documents were designed to eliminate the vicious Equity, Maritime or Admiralty Laws
that we revolted against in Our Revolution against the totalitarianism of England.

FACT 113 -

The Constitution does grant the Federal union the power to establish Courts of Equity and Maritime Courts.
Because the federal entity is concerned with actions and activities between the States, dealing with the Indian
Nations, and International Associations it needs a system of laws to manage these responsibilities.

FACT 114 -

Equity Courts are concerned with contracts, and settlement of disagreements between fictional entities.
Since the States are fictional entities the arguments and disputes between the States are properly addressed
in Equity Courts. They have nothing to do with anything else. They do not deal with Sovereign Individuals,
with property rights, or other matters involving such things.

FACT 115 -

Maritime Courts are concerned only with actions and activities occurring in International activities and on
the high seas. Maritime Courts have jurisdiction over such things as captured naval vessels, piracy, salvage
of goods from sunken ships, and mutiny by the crew of a ship. They do not deal with Sovereign Individuals,
with property rights, or other matters involving such things.

FACT 116 -

The third type of Court that is only briefly mentioned in the Constitution is the Common Law Court. The
Seventh Amendment to the Constitution is very clear about the power and the authority vested in the
Common Law Courts.

In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be
preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to
the rules of the common law. Bill of Rights - Amendment VII

FACT 117 -

The significance of this is pointed up by the fact that any controversy involving Money (Gold and Silver Coins)
in an amount greater than twenty dollars, or any property such as real estate can only be tried in a Court of
Common Law with the right of trial by a jury who decides the Law as well as the Facts of the case!
Page 44 of 56

FACT 118 -

This means that any Mortgage Foreclosure action can be tried only in a Court of Common Law, and that
neither the Federal Congress, nor the State Legislature, has any Constitutional authority to provide that
mortgage foreclosure actions shall be actions in Equity or Maritime Courts! This means that Sheriff's Sales
as a result of these Mortgage Foreclosure actions are null and void! And it means that the Sheriffs have
participated in criminal confiscation of real property in violation of the Constitution and of their oaths of
office!

There is no federal general common law. Congress has no power to declare substantive rules of common law applicable in a state
whether they be local in their nature or 'general,' be they commercial law or a part of the law of torts. And no clause in the
Constitution purports to confer such a power upon the federal courts. Erie R.R. Co. v. Tompkins, 304 U.S. 64 (1938)

FACT 119 -

Even though the cited Decision refers to the Federal, it applies equally to the States, since the People retained
all Common Law rights.

FACT 120 -

No powers of Common Law were ever granted to any State government. All Common Law Powers were
reserved to the Sovereign People. Remember, All of the powers not specifically granted to the federal
government or to the States were retained and are still held by the people.

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the
states respectively, or to the people. Constitution for the united States of America - Amendment X

FACT 121 -

Our system of jurisprudence is the only one that developed out of what is called the Common Law, which
is the general law of private property known in the British Isles. Common Law was designed through the
centuries to secure the rights of individuals to hold absolute title to property and to make it difficult, if not
impossible, for that property to be taken away by a government or governmental structure (bureaucracy)
without due process of law (Common Law). Absolute title to property is referred to as Alloidal title. It
means that the registered owner of the property really does hold absolute title to the property. It cannot
be taken away by any type of governmental action, especially the failure to pay property taxes, which is a
basic Communistic Tax.

Thomas Jefferson placed great emphasis on the concept of Rights. He said we did not bring the English Common Law, as such,
to this continent; we brought the Rights of Man as evidenced through and by the tried and true ancient system of Common Law.

FACT 122 -

Common Law recognizes that the Power of Government lies in the common people and not in an elite group
of power brokers. Common Law deals in Property. Equity Laws deal in written abstractions of performance
(agreements or contracts). People living under Common Law are Masters, they own their Property, they
determine their employment, and they control their destiny. We are truly Masters when we truly own our
Property. Slaves do not own Property, they rent property according to some agreement or contract. The
unlawful corruption of our Constitution has made Serfs and Slaves of the American Sovereign. We live
on land that is rented from the County in which we live. If we do not pay our County Property Taxes then
our homes are taken from us, and, in direct opposition to the Constitution, we receive no compensation for
our property. If we do not pay our Vehicle Property Taxes to the County then we can not use them.

Under Common Law, Property is defined as Substance, and includes hard Money in the form of gold and silver coin, as demanded
by Our federal Constitution, and by every State Constitution, since they were all drafted to be in perfect harmony one with
another. Bouviers Law Dictionary 6th Edition 1865.

FACT 123 -

The laws of the Democracy and the laws of the Republic are different. Substantiated by the failure of the
State of Utah to respond to a Truth Affidavit.

FACT 124 -

The laws of the Republic not only comply with the Constitutional mandates that We the People established,
but they require all suits and legal actions between, or against, a Sovereign be heard in a Common Law Court
by a Common Law Jury of our peers. Each Sovereign Citizen has a full opportunity to defend himself in the
Court. The Sovereignty of the Individual Citizen is recognized and upheld. Substantiated by the failure of
the State of Utah to respond to a Truth Affidavit.

Page 45 of 56

FACT 125 -

Many of the laws of the Democracy are beyond the bounds set in the Constitution. Not only are Gods laws
outlawed, but God himself is a non-entity in government circles. The Common Laws are hidden and we face
courts that have no real jurisdiction, and are run by a Judge who has claimed honors, privileges, and titles
for himself, and we must be represented by attorneys who have also claimed these same honors, privileges,
and titles. The Sovereignty of the Individual Citizen is trampled on by the Politicians, the Bureaucrats, and
the Lawyers, because they have entered into an unholy alliance to establish an Oligarchy for their personal
wealth and aggrandizement. A government where they are the gods and exercise all powers and authority
over the people they have enslaved. Substantiated by the failure of the State of Utah to respond to a Truth
Affidavit.

FACT 126 -

In spite of the fact they have no power or authority in Common Law, the federal and state bureaucracies are
constantly writing and presenting codes, rules or statutes in an attempt to circumvent the original Common
Law foundation of Our Constitution.

FACT 127 -

Codes are not laws. Neither are bills, rules, regulations, or ordinances. Only the Legislature is empowered
to enact laws, and even then, they must be enacted in strict accordance with the provisions set forth.

FACT 128 -

Even if a bill was validly enacted by the legislature, if it is not properly published, it is not a valid law.
Publication requires that the title, the enacting clause, and the full body of the law be published. If the law
is not properly published then it is of no force or effect, and cannot be enforced.

FACT 129 -

Because of the unlawful attempts by legislatures, judges and bureaucracies to modify or abrogate Common
Law and to thus modify Our Constitution we are in dire straights. The basic concepts behind our establishing
the Constitution is now are risk Our freedom is under attack. Not from an armed outside enemy, but from
trusted officials whom we have elected, or appointed, to watch over our Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of
Happiness. The most insidious assault is the attack by trusted individuals from within the system.

FACT 130 -

Our biggest problem is the fact that We the People have purposely not been taught the true Constitutional
Laws, their true meanings, and the knowledge and understanding necessary to protect ourselves from the
Federal Monster we created.

FACT 131 -

We must understand what the Constitution for the united States of America is, why it was written, and most
important, how it really affects us.

FACT 132 -

A Constitution is the binding laws set forth by the Citizens of a nation to secure their God given unalienable
rights. These binding laws are set forth in the form of mandates from the Sovereign People holding supreme
power to command that the people who will staff the offices being created do and perform exactly as they
have been mandated to do. There are another set of binding laws in the Constitution that are prohibitions
set forth to prohibit the people who will staff the offices being created from doing or performing any act or
action not mandated by the Sovereigns holding supreme power.

FACT 133 -

Since a Constitution defines the laws to control the actions of the people who will staff the offices being
created, it may be considered to be the cage that the Sovereign People have built to protect themselves from
the monster they are creating.

FACT 134 -

We have the right, and, more importantly, we have the duty and the obligation, as set forth in the
Declaration of Independence. We have the obligation to alter or amend our form of government in a such
a way as to best protect our Life, Liberty, and Pursuit of Happiness for us and for our posterity. If we fail to
do this now, we may have to take up arms, as our forefathers did, in order to once again claim our
Sovereignty.

FACT 135 -

By their very actions, many of the individuals listed at the head of this document have violated their
Constitutional duties. They have violated their Oaths of Office. They have destroyed the more perfect Union.
They have established a false system of Justice. They have ruined the domestic Tranquility. They have
provided for the common defense, but only because it enhances their ability to abscond with the money and
power they have created. They do not properly promote the general Welfare, they use the term General

Page 46 of 56

Welfare to create a Socialistic Welfare State that is in direct conflict with the Constitutionally mandated
Republican form of government. And, they have totally emasculated our opportunity to secure the Blessings
of Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness, to ourselves and our Posterity. They have totally destroyed the
safe environment that was established by the Founding Fathers. No longer can we reside in our homes
without the fear of home invasions. No longer can we walk the streets without the fear of being mugged.
No longer can we travel the roads without the fear of Road Rage, or Sniper Attacks or perhaps something
just as bad, or worse.
FACT 136 -

Our Founding Fathers had opposition from many sources during the period between the signing of the
Declaration of Independence and the adoption of the Constitution for the united States of America. A war
was fought, lives were lost in order to establish the freedoms and blessing put forth by the Founding Fathers.

FACT 137 -

In a blatant attempt to enable the slavery of the Sovereign Citizens, the predecessors of the above individuals
quietly removed a valid Amendment to the Constitution for the united States of America. Their actions were
timed to coincide with the tumult and confusion of the War of 1812, when the Capital Building and many
of the original records were destroyed by the British. The removal was completed following the Civil War.

FACT 138 -

Pursuant to the findings of the Superior Common Law Court of the Nevada republic, this Amendment, the
13th, was properly ratified in 1812. It has never been reversed, and so, it is still the valid law of the land
Today. The 13th Amendment bars all individuals who claim a title of nobility, or who claim honors, from
holding any office of honor or trust.

"If any citizen of the United States shall accept, claim, receive, or retain any title of nobility or honour, or shall without the
consent of Congress, accept and retain any present, pension, office, or emolument of any kind whatever, from any emperor,
king, prince, or foreign power, such person shall cease to be a citizen of the united States, and shall be incapable of holding
any office of trust or profit under them, or either of them." The true 13th Amendment to the Constitution for the united
states of America

FACT 139 -

Anytime anyone claims special honors, privileges, or titles they have tried to place themselves on a plane
above the rest of us. This is anathema to the basic principles and concepts used in the establishment of both
the Constitution for the United States of America and the several State Constitutions.

FACT 140 -

Our Founding Fathers went to great lengths to establish the equality of all citizens.

No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no person holding any office or profit or trust under them, shall,
without the consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title, of any kind whatever, from any king,
prince, or foreign state. The Constitution for the United States of America - Article I, Section 9, Paragraph 8
No state shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation; grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money; emit bills of
credit; make any thing but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or
law impairing the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility. The Constitution for the United States of America Article I, Section 1, Paragraph 1
If any citizen of the United States shall accept, claim, receive, or retain any title of nobility or honour, or shall without the
consent of Congress, accept and retain any present, pension, office, or emolument of any kind whatever, from any emperor,
king, prince, or foreign power, such person shall cease to be a citizen of the united States, and shall be incapable of holding
any office of trust or profit under them, or either of them." The Constitution for the United States of America - 13th
Amendment

FACT 141 -

The Superior Common Law Court of the Nevada Republic has, after hearing the evidence and reviewing the
facts, ruled that the above stated 13th Amendment is a true and lawful Amendment to the Constitution and
must be considered as a part of the Law of the Land.

FACT 142 -

The decision of the Superior Common Law Court of the Nevada Republic, concerning the 13th Amendment
has been recorded for public record in various County Recorders Offices in several States, and since the initial
recording in Clark County, Nevada Republic, on the 25th day of October, 2004, there has been no response,

Page 47 of 56

and no attempt at rebuttal. The time is now long past for any comments or rebuttal and the decision of the
Common Law Court will stand.
In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved,
and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise reexamined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of
the common law. Bill of Rights - 7th Article - or - 7th Amendment to the Constitution for the united States of America

FACT 143 -

As I will show in the following analysis, The Constitution for the united States of America grants no powers,
nor authority, and no right to the Federal Officials to do many things they have done in the past, and are
currently doing. While I will not address any State Constitutional matters, the States are as far afield as the
Federal and it is critical that the State Officers conduct themselves in strict accordance with the provisions
of their respective State Constitution.

FACT 144 -

We have lived our entire lives with the knowledge that different kinds of laws exist.

FACT 145 -

Basically there are two types of Laws.

FACT 146 -

These laws are Natural Laws, known as the Laws of Nature


The Laws of God, as found in the scriptures
The Laws of Man, as found in the books and records of a Nation.

There are Laws that require us to perform certain tasks


There are Laws that prohibit us from doing certain things.

In considering a Law, or a System of Laws we must ask ourselves three things:

Who created the Laws?


What authority did they have to create the Laws?
Why, and how, do they affect us?

FACT 147 -

Our relationship to these various Laws differs depending on our circumstances.

FACT 148 -

While the Laws of Nature are constantly at work in our environment we are more apt to use the Laws of
Nature to enhance our ability to create modern tools and devices to make our lives more comfortable.

FACT 149 -

Laws of Nature affect us, and we are aware of them. If we violate some of them we may be severely injured
or incapacitated, perhaps even killed, but, we have no specific relationship with the laws of nature. There
are no contracts or agreements between us and the laws of nature, nor were we created by the laws of nature.
Our only obligation to obey the laws of nature is the fact that we are surrounded by nature and live within
the environment created by the laws of nature.

FACT 150 -

On the other hand, we are totally and fully bound by the Laws of God because He is our Creator.

So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them. Old Testament Genesis 1:27

FACT 151 -

Immediately upon creating man God granted them dominion over all things upon the earth. This made
Adam and Eve the Supreme Rulers of the earth and gave them Sovereignty over the earth.

And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have
dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth. Old
Testament - Genesis 1:28

FACT 152 -

As our Creator, God has defined, by His Law, the limits and bounds within which we are to operate and
function. He has mandated to us what he wants us to do, and has established prohibitions as to what we
should not do. He gave us the Ten Commandments, which form the basis for all laws within this State.

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AND God spake all these words, saying, I am the LORD thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the
house of bondage. Thou shalt have no other gods before me. Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness
of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth: Thou shalt not
bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon
the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me; And shewing mercy unto thousands of them that love
me, and keep my commandments. Thou shalt not take the name of the LORD thy God in vain; for the LORD will not hold him
guiltless that taketh his name in vain. Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy. Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy
work: But the seventh day is the sabbath of the LORD thy God: in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy
daughter, thy manservant, nor thy maidservant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates: For in six days the
LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore the LORD blessed the
sabbath day, and hallowed it. Honour thy father and thy mother: that thy days may be long upon the land which the LORD thy
God giveth thee. Thou shalt not kill. Thou shalt not commit adultery. Thou shalt not steal. Thou shalt not bear false witness
against thy neighbour. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife, nor his
manservant, nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbour's. Old Testament - Exodus 20:1 17

FACT 153 -

Being subject to Gods Laws is not a two-way street. We have no power, or authority, over God. When God
granted us our Sovereignty it was over this earth. He granted us no powers or authority in His Heavenly
Kingdom. A person who is Sovereign is only Sovereign within his own Realm.

FACT 154 -

Even though we may be upset because we didnt get as much money, or good looks, as our neighbor, and,
even though we may feel that we have been damaged, we cannot bring suit because God has not violated any
agreement with us, because there is no Contract with us concerning our creation.

FACT 155 -

God created us and placed us on this earth. He gave us our agency to choose, and told us, that if we choose
properly we would inherit His kingdom. But that is only after we have proven ourselves to be faithful in
obeying His wishes.

FACT 156 -

We are subject to Gods laws because of our relationship to God. He rules over us because he is our Creator.

FACT 157 -

God's Laws are supreme. If any of Man's Laws conflict with the Laws of God, then Man's Laws are null and
void, and of no force or effect. The higher law always prevails. We do not have to obey any Laws that are
in conflict with the Laws of God.

FACT 158 -

When we have children they are subject to our rules because we are the parents. They do not have to obey
us because we are bigger, or stronger, or smarter, they have to obey us because we created them. Just as
when God created us, there is no contract between us and our children. The contract concerning the children
is between God and us. Our children have no authority over us.

FACT 159 -

God allowed us to have His Children because we agreed to raise them in His ways.

NOW these are the commandments, the statutes, and the judgments, which the LORD your God commanded to teach you, that
ye might do them in the land whither ye go to possess it: That thou mightest fear the LORD thy God, to keep all his statutes
and his commandments, which I command thee, thou, and thy son, and thy son's son, all the days of thy life; and that thy days
may be prolonged. Hear therefore, O Israel, and observe to do it; that it may be well with thee, and that ye may increase
mightily, as the LORD God of thy fathers hath promised thee, in the land that floweth with milk and honey. Hear, O Israel:
The LORD our God is one LORD: And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, and with all
thy might. And these words, which I command thee this day, shall be in thine heart: And thou shalt teach them diligently unto
thy children, and shalt talk of them when thou sittest in thine house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest
down, and when thou risest up. And thou shalt bind them for a sign upon thine hand, and they shall be as frontlets between
thine eyes. And thou shalt write them upon the posts of thy house, and on thy gates. Old Testament - Deuteronomy 6:1 9
And again, inasmuch as parents have children in Zion, or in any of her stakes which are organized, that teach them not to
understand the doctrine of repentance, faith in Christ the Son of the living God, and of baptism and the gift of the Holy Ghost
by the laying on of the hands, when eight years old, the sin be upon the heads of the parents. For this shall be a law unto the
inhabitants of Zion, or in any of her stakes which are organized. And their children shall be baptized for the remission of their

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sins when eight years old, and receive the laying on of the hands. And they shall also teach their children to pray, and to walk
uprightly before the Lord. Doctrine and Covenants - Section 68:25 - 28

FACT 160 -

The contract between us and our God concerning our raising of His children does not provide for any Third
Party interference. If we do not raise the Children properly then the sin is on our head. If some Third Party
interferes with our ability to comply with our side of the Agreement with God, then the sin must, and will,
fall upon the head of the Third Party. Gods Laws are supreme.

FACT 161 -

Our children are subject to our rules because of their relationship to us. They must obey us because we, with
the permission and power of God, created them. We do not have any authority over someone elses kids. We
did not create them and they, therefore, have no obligation or duty to obey us.

FACT 162 -

We may, or may not be subject to the Laws of Man. Our situation depends on the authority of the person,
or persons, who created the Laws. If we live in one of the united States and we never visit France, we are
never subject to the Laws of France, no matter how good, or bad, they may be.

FACT 163 -

Even though we may live in one of the united States, if we never visit any other State we will never be subject
to the Laws of that State. We are only subject to the Laws that apply to us, and that have been created by a
person, or persons, who have the proper authority to create such Laws.

FACT 164 -

A general in the U. S. Army has supreme authority over a colonel, a sergeant, or a buck private. Not because
he created them, but because they have all entered into a contract that grants the general this authority. In
this case the lawful relationship is through contract, but it is still just as binding, and the buck private cannot
order the general to do things. Nor, can he sue the general unless he is damaged because of the actions of
the general that are outside the authority granted by the contract. By the same token, the general has no
power or authority to command a buck private in the German army. There is no lawful relationship since no
contract exists.

FACT 165 -

When you work for someone, you have entered into a contract it may not be written, but it is still a binding
contract because he expects you to provide your services in a manner that he has prescribed, and you expect
to be paid. The contract grants your employer the power to prescribe rules and regulations that you must
obey. If you violate those rules your employer has the right to terminate your contract. You cannot order
your employer to do things, nor can you sue your employer unless he has violated the terms of your contract
in such a way as to bring harm or damage to you. The contract creates the lawful relationship between you
and your employer, and each side must abide by its terms and conditions. Which means you must perform
in such manner as your employer tells you so that he is compelled to pay for your services.
This is the relationship that exists between We, the People, and the people we elect, or appoint, to the
various offices created by our Constitution. We expect them to do our bidding, and they expect us to pay
them.

FACT 166 -

A king is the sovereign of his realm, and as such has supreme power in the land. The king may even have
power over life and death of his subjects. When the king issues a mandate his subjects are required to obey.
If they do not then they may suffer the wrath of the king. The lawful relationship between the king and his
subjects is that the subjects must obey the king, and in return, the king provides protection for the kingdom.
Should the king travel to a different land, outside of his realm, then he is just another Joe on the street. He
has no sovereignty. He has no power or authority, and no one has any obligation to obey him because they
have no lawful relationship to him.

FACT 167 -

True and lawful authority is not derived from force or power. It does not come from wealth or knowledge.
It comes from the lawful relationship between the parties.

FACT 168 -

When laws exist because of force then you have a despotic form of government. It is tyranny, and is not
lawfully enforceable, but the fear that comes from the use of force compels the subjects into slavery.

FACT 169 -

In the case of our Federal and State Constitutions. Like God, we are the Creators. We hold and control the
Supreme Power. And, just like our situation with God, our creation has no power or authority over us.
Page 50 of 56

FACT 170 -

When we created the Constitution We as Sovereigns issued absolute mandates to our public servants, the
officers that would staff our creation in the form of the Laws of the Constitution. This amounted to a Writ
of Mandamus commanding them to do exactly as they were told.

Mandate: An order by a Sovereign to his subjects.


There can be no limitation on the power of the people of the United States. By their authority the State Constitutions were
made, and by their authority the Constitution of the United States was established; U. S. Supreme Court - Hauenstein vs
Lynham (100 US 483)

FACT 171 -

We the People also issued a Writ of Prohibition to our public servants that was designed to prohibit them
from performing actions that were not specifically set forth in the Constitution.

FACT 172 -

There is no contract between the Sovereign Citizens and the Constitution, We the People cannot violate the
terms and conditions set forth in the Constitution. We the People cannot violate the conditions of an
agreement that does not exist.

FACT 173 -

The contract that exists concerning the Constitutions that We the People created is by and between the
Sovereign People and our public servants. The Oath of Office, subscribed to by each public servant, is a
contract that they will defend and uphold the Constitution that We the People created.

FACT 174 -

We the People made no provisions that bound us to any performance within the language of either the State
or Federal Constitutions. The Oath of Office is therefore, a one-sided obligation to perform. The obligation
to perform is all on the side of the Constitutional officers.

FACT 175 -

There are not, nor can there ever be, any circumstances under which the Constitutional Offices that we
created through the Constitution, can have, or can exercise, any power to bring any law suit, or action at law,
against any Sovereign Citizen.

FACT 176 -

Using our God granted Sovereignty we created a form of government that seemed best to us to effect our
safety and happiness by creating a government that must serve our every command, and has no power to
interfere with or bother our daily lives.

FACT 177 -

The proof of these statements is found in the Declaration of Independence:

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain
unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments
are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, that whenever any Form of Government
becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government,
laying its foundation on such principles, and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their
Safety and Happiness.

FACT 178 -

The system of laws that each Sovereign Citizen has agreed to be subject to is the Common Laws. Only by a
Sovereign specifically agreeing to be subject to a law, bill, regulation, code, or ordinance will the Sovereign
be subject to that law, bill, regulation, code, or ordinance.

FACT 179 -

This is why the system of Common Laws is not detailed in either the Federal or State Constitutions. The
Sovereign People retained all rights to Common Law and in doing so granted no rights to the Federal or State
entities to do anything that would interfere with or impact upon our Sovereign rights.

There is no federal general common law. Congress has no power to declare substantive rules of common law applicable in a state
whether they be local in their nature or 'general,' be they commercial law or a part of the law of torts. And no clause in the
Constitution purports to confer such a power upon the federal courts. Erie R.R. Co. v. Tompkins, 304 U.S. 64 (1938)

IN SUMMARY WE OFFER THE FOLLOWING ADDITIONAL FACTS


FACT 180 -

Even though the following statements are concerned with the Federal union, each State, as well as the
Federal union, has blatantly exceeded its valid Constitutional powers in many ways.
Page 51 of 56

FACT 181 -

The powers that have been exclusively granted to the federal government are few, and they are highly
restrictive in their use and application.

FACT 182 -

The Legislative Division, which is the Federal Congress, is only empowered to:
a.

To borrow money on the credit of the United States. Such money as is borrowed must be used for the
specific purposes it is borrowed.

b.

To regulate commerce
(1)
(2)
(3)

(4)

With foreign nations. This is commerce between the several States and foreign nations as well
as any commerce that may occur directly between the Federal union and a foreign nation.
Among the several states. This is any commerce that may occur between the several States. Its
purpose is to give uniformity to the business transactions that cross State borders.
With the Indian tribes. This does not confer the power to regulate business within an Indian
nation, nor even between Indian nations. It confers only the power to deal with the Indian
nations on behalf of the Federal union.
The commerce between the individuals of the same state, being reserved to the state
governments.

c.

To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and the value of foreign coin. The only money authorized
in the Constitution is Gold and Silver coins. Thats why the term coin money is used. This provision
does not grant the Federal union the right to print money. And, nothing, anywhere in the Constitution,
grants the right for the Legislature to assign is authority to anyone, or anything else.

d.

To fix the standard of weights and measures. These last powers seem to be a necessary appendage to
that of regulating commerce, since the same standard of weights and measures must be used by each
of the several States.

e.

To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current coin of the United States.
This is the only place in the Constitution where the Federal union is granted the power to bring suit, or
actions, against an individual.

f.

To constitute tribunals, under the federal government, inferior to the supreme court. The Federal union
has the power to establish inferior tribunals, but they only have jurisdiction over the things the Federal
union has been granted power and authority to do.

g.

To define and punish,


(1)
Piracies. This is a crime committed on the high seas.
(2)
Felonies on the high seas; The Federal union is restricted to being able to prosecute only those
felonies that occur on the high seas.
(3)
Offences against the law of nations. According to Bouviers Law Dictionary 6th Edition 1856
This is essentially a reference to what we normally refer to today as International Law.

h.

And to declare the punishment of treason against the United States. The Federal union is granted the
power to punish treason against the United States, but treason is closely defined as conducting war
against the United States, or supporting those who are conducting war against the United States.

i.

To declare war; grant letters of marque and reprisal; and make rules concerning captures on land and
water. Here again, the Legislature is granted the power to deal in, and with, international affairs.

j.

To provide and maintain a standing navy. Since almost all international trade occurred through ships
it was necessary to have a standing navy to protect the international commerce being conducted by the
several States and the Federal union.

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k.

To make rules for the regulation and government of the land and naval forces. Since an Army and a Navy
are both authorized by the Constitution, the Federal union had to have the power to regulate them.

l.

To raise and support armies.


(1)
To provide for calling forth the militia, when necessary to be employed in the service of the
United States. The militia is defined to consist of every able bodied man.
(2)
And for governing them when so employed. Here again, if the Federal union has the power and
authority to call up the militia, it must have the power and the authority to create regulations
for the management of the militia.
(3)
To provide for organizing and disciplining the militia.

m. To exercise exclusive jurisdiction within the ten miles square, where the seat of government shall be
permanently established; and in forts, magazines, arsenals, dock-yards, and other places ceded for the
use of the federal government. The Federal union is empowered to own the land, note exceeding ten
square miles, where the Federal Capital is located. The Federal union is restricted so that it cannot own
land for purposes other than forts, magazines, arsenals, dock-yards, and other needful buildings. The
extensive holdings of the Bureau of Land Management, the National Forest Service, and the National Park
Service are way beyond the powers granted to the Federal union.

FACT 183 -

FACT 184 -

n.

To prescribe the manner in which the public acts, records and judicial proceedings of the states shall be
proved, in order to their obtaining faith and credit in other states, and the effect thereof. This has to do
with the acts of one State being recognized by another State, when necessary.

o.

To establish an uniform rule of naturalization. Without a uniform rule of naturalization each state
would be left to determine on what basis Citizenship would be granted. This could cause problems
between the States.

p.

And to make all laws necessary and proper for carrying the powers vested in the federal government into
execution. The Federal union must have the power to carry out those actions mandated by the People.

The powers vested in the executive department of the government of the United States, are all exclusive of
the authority of the state government. These are:
a.

To make treaties. This is a part of the power granted to deal in International Affairs.

b.

To appoint ambassadors, ministers, and consuls. This is all part of the International Scene.

c.

Judges of the supreme courts, and all other officers of the United States, except such as are
vested by congress in the president alone, in the courts of law of the United States, or, in the
heads of departments. The Executive Department has the power to staff the Federal union.

The judicial power of the Federal union is vested in the Supreme Court and the several inferior tribunals of
the Federal union, but they only have jurisdiction in such matters as are covered by the powers granted to
the Federal union by We the People.
a.

In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls. This has to do with
International Law.

b.

In all cases, of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction. This has to do with International Law.

c.

In controversies between two or more states. This has to do with its powers to regulate the
commerce between the States. It grants no power to interfere with the operation of the State
itself.

d.

In controversies between a state, and any foreign state. This again is International Law.

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e.

In all cases of impeachment against an officer of the federal government. This is an internal
function of the Federal union.

FACT 185 -

The preceding enumeration sets forth all powers and authority granted to the Federal union by We the
People. Any attempt to operate outside the SPECIFIC items that have been enumerated is unconstitutional
and cannot be enforced.

FACT 186 -

The officers of the several States and of the Federal union have exceeded their Constitutional authority in
many ways. Although some of the officers may be ignorant of this fact, they are still responsible for their
actions as they have taken an oath of office to support and defend the Constitution.

FACT 187 -

The statement by the judiciary that: Ignorance of the law is no excuse, is just as binding upon the officers
of the several States and the Federal union. If they are going to take an oath to support and defend the
Constitution, then they are responsible for knowing what the Constitution is, what it stands for, and what
it contains.

FACT 188 -

It is lawfully impossible for the officers of the several States, and for the Federal union, to claim immunity.
No employee has the right to essentially hide from the repercussions that may devolve upon him through
violation of the mandates and prohibitions set forth by his employers. Our employees cannot hold immunity
because it places them on a different level that is above the rest of us. The basic precept is the We the People
are all equal. Immunity is a farce that is totally indefensible.

FACT 189 -

The Federal union is controlling and managing an extensive prison system. This is in spite of the fact that
the word prison does not appear in the Constitution, and the fact that the Founding Fathers never even
discussed the probability. The management of a Prison System is not enumerated above. Where do the
Officers of the Federal union think they get their power and authority from? There is no specific authority
or power for the Federal union to do anything with prisons, or a prison system. Their intrusion into this area
is an open attack on Sovereignty of We the People and the basic principles of Common Law.

FACT 190 -

The Federal union is bordering on becoming a police state. This is in spite of the fact that the words Police,
Marshall, Sheriff, Agent, or any other word that closely resembles any form of law officer do not exist
in the Constitution. All references to police activity by the Founding Fathers at the Federal Convention were
in relation to the fact that the States were to retain all police powers. The comment was made several times
during the Convention that any Federal police force would be an affront to the State police. Where do the
Officers of the Federal union think they get their power and authority from? There is no specific authority
or power for the Federal union to do anything with any law enforcement system. Their intrusion into this
area is an open attack on the Sovereignty of We the People and the basic principles of Common Law. And
the establishment of any type of Police force, or Police system is not enumerated above.

FACT 191 -

The Federal union has an extensive regulatory system covering banks, and banking. This is in spite of the
fact that the letters b-a-n-k appear only once in the Constitution, and then it is part of the word bankruptcy.
Where do the Officers of the Federal union think they get their power and authority from? There is no
specific authority or power for the Federal union to do anything with banks or banking. And the
management of a Prison System is not enumerated above. Their intrusion into this area is an open invasion
of the Sovereignty of We the People and an attack on the basic principles of Common Law.

FACT 192 -

Even in the notes to the Federal Convention that were kept by James Madison the only reference to a bank,
which occurred on the 14th day of September, was the fear that if the Federal union was permitted to grant
corporate charters it would cause problems between the several States, so no Federal corporate charters are
allowed. All other appearances of the letters b-a-n-k were as part of the word bankruptcy.

FACT 193 -

The Federal union has assumed control of the ability of a business to raise needed capital through the sale
of its stock. This is in spite of the fact that the words stock, stockholder, security, and corporation
do not exist in the Constitution. The word securities appears only once in relationship to the
counterfeiting of the Federal Coins and Securities. Where do the Officers of the Federal union think they
get their power and authority from? There is no specific authority or power for the Federal union to do

Page 54 of 56

anything with regulation of the stock market. There is no specific authority or power for the Federal union
to do anything with public stocks, corporations, or securities. And the management of these items is not
enumerated above. Their intrusion into this area is an open attack on the basic principles of Common Law.
FACT 194 -

The Federal union, and the States, were all mandated to use only Gold and Silver Coin as the medium of
exchange. There are no Gold and Silver coins minted by the Federal or State entities that is used as the
common medium of exchange. Where do the Officers of the Federal union think they get their power and
authority to use a different medium of exchange. We the People, the General Partners of the Partnership,
never authorized anything else. There is no specific authority or power for the Federal union to use anything
but Gold and Silver coins.

FACT 195 -

The Officers of the Federal union have unlawfully adopted a different medium of exchange for We the People,
and in so doing have created massive debt and a fiat system of currency. In the process the Legislature has
assigned apart of its powers to a private corporation. These actions are above and beyond those that are
granted and authorized by the We the People Partnership. The debt that has been incurred is invalid because
it was unconstitutional, and is therefore cancelled. If the individual officers who created the debt think it
should be repaid, they are welcome to do so.

FACT 196 -

We a group of General Partners in the We the People Partnership, acting as spokesmen for many other
Sovereign Individuals in the several States, have banded together to declare these FACTS as Truth, and to
mandate that the Officers of the several States, and of the Federal union immediately cease all actions and
activities that are not SPECIFICALLY permitted under the Laws of the respective Constitutions. If the power
and the authority to do what you are doing is not SPECIFICALLY mandated to be done in the Constitution,
then you have no right to do it.

FACT 197 -

When a General Partner, or a group of General Partners, speak the employees and servants are lawfully
BOUND to obey.

James C. Barrus, Jr.


Affiant

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