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Puli Tcxi Society Translation Series No.

45

THE GROUP
OF DISCOURSES
(SU TTA -N IP T A )
Second edition

Translated
with
INTRODUCTION and NOTES
by
K. R. Norman

Published by
PI IE PALI TEXT SOCIETY
Oxford
2001

First published under the title


Group o f Discourses, Voi. II

1592

Reprinted

<995

Second edition

20 0 !

Pali Text Society

ISBN 0 860133036

Primed in Great Britain by


Antony Rowe Ltd. Chippenham. Wilis

Contents
Second edition, notice
First edition, notice
Preface

vii
viii
x

Bibliography
Abbreviations
Introduction
I. The name of the Suttanipia
II. The names o f the suttas
III. The relative ages o f the pans of the Suitampu

xii
xxv
xxix
xxix
xxx
xxxi

IV. Atoka's Calcuita-Bairal Edict

xxxiii

V. The text of the Suttanipta

xxxiv

VI. The metres of the Suttanipta

xxxv

VII. Portions o f the Suttanipta found elsewhere


in the Canon
V ili. The saAgiti and saftgTti-kras
IX. Quotations from the Suitanipta in the Pli Canon
X. The reciter's remarks

xxxv
xxxvi
xxxviii
xxxix

XI. The commentaries

xl

XII. The author of Paramaithajonk li

xlt

XIII. The interdependence of the commentaries


Translation

xln
I

I. The Snake Chapter

II. The Small Chapter

2$

III. The Great Chapter

30

IV. The Chapter of Eights

103

V. The Chapter on Going to the Far Shore

127

Notes

146

I. Uragavagga

147

II. Cjavagga

210

III. Mahvagga

145

vi

Contents
IV. Anhakavngga
V. Prayanavaggn

323
395

Index of Names

43 *

Index of words discussed or quoted in (he notes

436

Grammatical Index

450

List o f preferred readings

455

SECOND EDITION
NOTICE
The Group o f Discourses Volume M was reprinted unchanged in
1995. but by the time the need arose to make another reprint a number
of corrections to the translation and additions to the bibliography, notes
and indexes had been accumulated. It proved impossible to incorporate
these imo a photographic reprint and so (he decision was taken to-reset
the whole volume, which has led to changes in pagination.
The opportunity has also been taken to make a change to the title
of the book. The original intention was to have the translation in
Volume I. and the notes in Volume II. As I pointed out in the Notice to
the first edition, however, when Volume 11 was published eight years
after Volume 1 it included a revised version of the translation. Volume I
iltereby became redundant and was not reprinted when the print run was
exhausted.
The disappearance of 77te Group o f Discourses Volume I has/
'*ntw*d problems for a number of people who have wished to order a
copy o f die translation of the Sutta-nipata, butcould not understand
why Tiie Group o f Discourses Volume I! should be called Volume II if
there is no Volume 1. The publication of this second edition has given
(bechance of removing MVolume If* from the tide, and calling the book,
simply The Group o f Discourses.
A paperback version of the original translation entitled The
Rhinoceros Horn and other early Buddhist poems (Sutta-nipSta) is still
available for those who may find the alternative translations by Miss
Homer and Dr Rahula of interest.

FIRST EDITION
NOTICE
My translation of the Sutta-nipdia was begun in 1972. As in the
case o f Elders Verses 1 and II. Miss 1 B Homer read through (he entire
manuscript and made many helpful comments. Ven. Dr Walpola
Rabula, whom Miss Homer had consulted concerning certain difficult
passages in the Sutta-nipta, then expressed a desire to see the whole
translation, and he and Miss Horner met regularly for some time to
discuss and comment upon my version They produced a mass of notes,
written out by Miss Homer, sometimes giving an alternative for a
single word or phrase, but at times writing out a verse in its entirety,
even if the difference was merely that of a single word. They frequently
gave references to passages which helped to shed light on difficult
points.
Although I would have been happy to have incorporated some of
their suggestions into a revised version o f my translation, this would
have resulted in those I felt unable to accept remaining lost to readers*
That my translation eventually appeared in the way it did. regrettably
after Miss Homer's death io 19$ t , with the suggestions made by Miss
Homer and Dr Rahuia appended at the end o f each sutta, was entirely
due to Dr Steven Collins, who very generously volunteered to read
through the mass of Miss Homer*$ handwritten notes, extracted from
them every point of translation which differed from mine, added verse
numbers and p5da letters, and arranged for my typescript to be retyped
with all the additions inserted. My manuscript, as read by Miss Homer
and Dr Rahuia, contained the verses only, and $0 it was only those
portions which had their suggestions made upon them, except for the
few prose passages where Dr Collins added an alternative translation
which had been made upon a corresponding word or phrase in a verse
passage.

Notice

ix

In this revised version o f my translation I have omitted the


alternative versions by Miss Horner and Dr Rabula, in deference to a
number of complaints from reviewers and readers, who have found the
inclusion o f three sons o f bracket distracting. Where I have occasionally
preferred the Horocr/Rahula version to my own. I have drawn attention
to the fact in the notes. The opportunity has also been taken to change
my translation in a number o f places. These changes arc usually
intended to correct errors overlooked when proofs were being read, to
remove inconsistencies and to make the translation less ambiguous, or
easier to read, although a certain awkwardness o f style remains because
o f my attempt to give a fairly literal translation. I am gratefu to a
number o f readers, some known to me, some anonymous, who have
drawn my attenti) to various shortcomings since my translation first
appeared in 1984. Where the changes are matters of substance. I have
usually commented upon the change in.thc notes. Where changes are
due to a reconsideration o f the alternative readings or explanations given
in the commentaries, this will be clear from the commentarial
quotations which I include.

PREFACE
The justification I pul forward for new translations o f the TherngthS
and Therigftth3 in the prefaces to Elders* Verses 1 and II cannot be used
in connection with a new translation o f the Suttanipata. The latter test
has had the rare distinction for a PTS edition o f having the benefit of a
second edition, and that by two scholars who may justly be claimed as
two of the greatest Pali scholars produced in Europe Dines Andersen
and Helmer Smith. The first edition was, in any case, by that pioneer of
Pali.studies in Europe V. Fausboll. Moreover the commentary was
edited by Smith, and the third volume o f that editioo has a detailed
analysis o f the metres o f the text and an almost complete Vocabulary of
words which appear in it. In addition there are already four complete
translations into English, two into German, and several into other
European languages, as well as many translations o f individual suttas
into English and other languages.
Nevertheless, it is not difficulM o justify a new translation.
Fausboll s is literal but was based upon his own edition which was
superseded by that o f Andersen and Smith. Chalmers* was not intended
to be literal, and because o f his belief (his Preface, p. vii) that uali verse
when translated should receive a metrical rendering**, it was made into
verse. Hare*s too is in verse, and although both verse translations
present the spirit o f the P 3U. they are frequently forced by the
exigencies of metre to compress, expand, adapt, or omit. Yen. Dr
Saddhatissa's translation, o f which qnly portions had appeared by 1984.
is not a strict translation, but rather a rendering o f the spirit o f the
suttas. My aim in Volume I o f this work was, therefore, to translate the
SuttanipSta into simple English prose, trying to give the meaning of
the text as il'was intended to be understood by the original speakers, or
as it was accepted by the first hearers. This is not necessarily, therefore,
the meaning it had for the commentaries, even for Niddcsa I and H.

Preface

XI

The biggest omission of all is an adequate English commentary


upon the translation. Chalmers' translation has no notes at all.
Fausb0Hs are almost entirely restricted to quotations from the
SuuanipSta itself or the commentary upon it. Hare has more explanatory
notes, but even so passes over much. Nyanaponikas notes are probably
the best, but he too leaves many problems unsolved. In the Notes
which accompany this revised version of my translation I have therefore
given in as much detail as seemed necessary the exegetical,
grammatical, syntactical and lexicographical information which helped
me to produce my translation. Nor have 1 ignored the information to be
gained from any parallel versions, in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Pali, which
were known lo me.
It gives me great pleasure to acknowledge the help which 1 have
received from all earlier workers in the Held. My very great debt.to
Miss Homer and Dr Rahula has been made clear in the Notice to the
first edition. 1 have inserted the initials (1BH) in the notes to indicate
where I owe information or a rendering to thosc(\vo*scholars.*
As in the case of Elders* Verses 1 & II. it is the aids which have
become available since the older editions and translations were made
which have given this work any merit which it may have. I refer
particularly to the works on fli metre by Warder and Alsdorf, Smith's
edition o f the Saddanlti: and the continuing appearance o f A Criticot
Pti Dictionary.

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50
1979A. 'T w o Pli etymologies", BSOAS,42, pp..321-28 (=
C P U , pp. 71-83)
1979B. "Middle Indo-Aryan Studies XIV , 707 (B), XXIX,
PP- 37-41 (= C P II, pp. 113-18)
. 1979C. "Middle Indo-Aryan Studies XV . 707 (B). XXIX.
pp. 42-49 (= C P II. pp. 119-27)
' 979 D. "Dhammapada 97. a misunderstood paradox . IT.
VH. pp. 325-32 (= CP II. pp 287-93)
. 980A. Review o f Per Kvrcrne: An anthology o f Btuldhis.

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19810. Devas and Adhidevas in Buddhism**, JPTS. IX,
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1987B, "Asokas 'Schism* Edict . Buddhist Seminar. 46.
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1991 B. Rare as fig flowers , in Perspectives on IndoEuropean language, culture and religion (Studies in honor of
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Nyanatiloka, lyy^BuddhistDictionary, Colombo
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Radhakrishnan. S.. 1950. The Dhammapada, London
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Sanskrit classique", JA, pp. 321 -404
Rhys Davids. Mrs C.A.F., 1917-22. Kindred Sayings (transljiion of

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Rhys Davids. T.W., 1890-94, The Questions o f King Milinda
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Rilke. R.M 1948, Duino Elegies (cd. Leishman & Spender). 3rd
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Roth, G.. 1980, Text of the Patna Dharmapada . in The language of
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IX. pp. 175-77
Saddhaiissa, H., 1985, The Sutta-nipdta, London
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Schneider. Ulrich. 1954, Acht Etymologien aus dem Agganna-Suila ,
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3
Schrader. F. Otto, 1930. esa munjam pariharc". JRAS. pp. 107-9
Schubring. W 1905. Das Kolpo-Siitra, Leipzig
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Schwarzschild. L.A., 1964-65, Some sporadic changes o f vowels in
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X X IV

p p .169-83
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Wright, J.C.,1985. CDfAL: Addenda and corrigenda, lx>ndon

ABBREVIATIONS
Editions ot Sutla-nipla:

FausbplI, 1884

Chatihasaiigyana cd., Rangoon, 1956


Simon Hewavitamc Series ed., Colombo. 1965
= Andersen & Smith 1913

cc
F.c
Nc

Sc

s Chalmers, 1932
Devangari (Nland) ed.
2nd Siamese ed., Bangkok, 1916-28

Texts:

AV
AvS
yr
BI.*
Bbh
Bhag
Bh.G
Chaud Up.
CPS

Div>
CDfip
U1
MBli
Miln

MR
Mvti

N'ya
PDhp
Su\
Suvae

"lllli
Utlit'l.: *
Ull
The

Atharvaveda
Avadna-iataka (= Speyer 1906-9)
Ayramga (= Schubring 1910)
Brhadranyaka Upanisad
Bodhisauvabhumi
Bhagavalsutta
Bhagavadglta
Chandogya Upanisad
Caiusparisaisira (= Waldschmidi 1952-62)
Divyvadna (= Cowell and Neil 1886)
Gndhri Dharmapada
Laliia Vistara (= Lefmann 1902)
Mahbhrata
Milindapaftha
Manuscript Remains (= Hoemle 1916)
Mahdvastu
Nydhammakaho
Patna Dharmapada
Suvarnabhsouamasutra
Syagadamga
Tliananiga
Udanava/ga (= Bernhard 1965)
Unardhyayanastrat- CHarpcntier 1922
unions of the titles of Pali texts arc those adopted lo r 1

XXVI

The Group o f Discourses

Translations:
EVI

Eldere Verses I (= Norman, 1969)

EVII

Elders* Verses 11 (= Norman, ] 971A)

GDI

Norman, 1984A

GS

Gradual Sayings (= translation o f A)

KS

Kindred Sayings (= translation o f S)

MRI

Nnamdi. i960

Ncum

Neumann, 1911

Nyan

Nyanaponika, 1955

Saddh

Saddhalissa, 1985

SBEX

Fausb0)l>1881

WD

Word of the Doctrine (= Noonan, i 997)

Periodicals, Collections and Series:


ABORI

Annals o f the Bh'andarkar Oriental Research Institute

BDCRI

Bulletin o f the Deccan College Research Institute

BEI.

Bulletin djjtodes Injliennes

BSO(A)S

Bulletin o f the School o f Oriental (and African)


Studies

CP

Collected Papers

IA

Indian Antiquary

IHQ

Indian Historical Quarterly

1IJ

Indo-Iranian Journal

Ind. Ling.

Indian Linguistics

Norman, 1990-2001)

rr

Indologica Taurinensia

JA

Journal Asiatique

JAOS

Journal of the American Oriental Society

JBRS

Journal o f the Bihar Research Society

JOI(B)

Journal of the Oriental Institute (Baroda)

jp r s

Journal of the Pali Text Society

JRAS
K7.

Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society

MSS

Mnchener Studien zur Sprachwissenschaft

Kuhns Zeitschrift = ZVS

xxvii

Abbreviations

SUB

Sacred Books of the Buddhists

SUE

Sacred Books o f the East

s in

Sanskrithandschrifien aus den TuriaiifuiKlcii

SKPAW

Sitzungberichte der knigiischcn prcussischen

Sill

Studien zur Indologie und Iranistik

Sull

Suttgame ( - Phlchandjl Mahrj. 1933-54)

IPS

Transactions o f die Philological Society

i ;c:r

University o f Ceylon Review

Akademie der Wissenschaft

vk aw a

Verhaandlingen der Koninklijkc. Akadem ie van


Welcnschappeen Amsterdam

WZKM

Wiener Zeitschrift fr die Kunde des Morgenlandes

WZKS(O)

Wiener Zeitschrift fr die Kunde S d (- und

ZI >MG

Zeitschrift der Deutschen

Ost)asiens
Morgenlndischcn

Gesellschaft
/VS

Zeitschrift fr Vergleichende Sprachforschung (= KZ)

Dictionaries. Studies, etc.:


Kcob.

Beobachtungen ber die Spache des buddhistischen


Urkanons (= Ldcrs, 1954)

BHSD

Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary (= Edgerton,

HMSG

1953A)
Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar (= Edgeiton,

(D IAL

Comparative Dictionary of the Indo-Aryan Languages

I9S3B)

0=Turner, 1966)
(T D

Critical Pli. Dictionary. Copenhagen 1924-

l\*M

Dc&nmamlS

MPPN

Dictionary of Pali Proper Names f Malalasekcra.

It

>93 )
Jacobi, 1886

I \\A

Etymologisches Wrterbuch des Alimdischcn (=


Mayrhofer. 1956-80)

xxviii

The Croup o f Discourses

MW

Sanskrit-English Dictionary (= Monicr-Williams.

PED

The Pili Text Society* Pali-English Dictionary

PSM

Pi>sadda-mahannavo (= Shelh, 1963)

PTC

Pali Tipitakam Concordance

Tr.N

Trenckner's Notes (=Trcncknei 1908)

1899)

General:
(X>a

the atth;ikatln upon (X)

AMg

Ardhn-MgadhI

BHS

Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit

Bm etc.

(= sigla of.Ee)

cty/cties

commentary/conunntarii

f.n.

foot note

m.c.

metri causa

MIA

Middle Indo-Atyan

M$(s)

manuscripts)

OIA

Old Indo-iyan

Pkt

Prakrit

PTS

Pali Text Society

-s

-suna

Skt

Sanskrit

(X)-t

the nka upon (X)

Trsl.

translation

-v

-vagga

v(v).l.(l)

variant readings)

<>

add enclosed leading

()

delete enclosed reading

"

read as short metrically


read as long metrically

(IBH)
(LSC 1
(RFC)

information obtained from Miss I.B. Homer


information obtained from Mr L.S. Cousins
information obtained from Professor R.F. Combricl

INTRODUCTION
I.

THE NAME OF THE SUTTANIPTA

l. Jayawtckrama (UCR V), 2, p. 7X1 points out that the word nipdta
when applied to texts seems to mean section, e.g, the eka-, etc.,
ntpitas o f the Theragth and Thcrigiha: 'T h e section o f single
verses, etc.** If this is correct, then we must suppose that the title
means the section (perhaps, of the Khuddaka-nikya) made up o f
suttas . Against this suggestion is the fact that although every separate
discourse in the first four vaggas of the SuttanipSta is at present called
a sutta in the rubrics and in the uddnas, the sixteen sections o f the
P5r5 yana-v are called pucchas (although they ire called suttas in Pj II).
There is no uddiria to this vagga. and $0 we do not know what name
the early tradition gave to them, although they are called paiihas when
they ore quoted in other texts (see 26 below)
2. There are, however, hints that the present state o f affairs was not
always so. The Nlakasutta (679-723) is called Nlakapraioa in Mvu
111

389.12. and Nlakapajipad in Ja I $5.26. Similarly. S III 9.19 quotes

bhagavat
AuhakavoggikeMgandiyapanhe. In [* the sutta is called MSgandiyaa verse (844) which is said to have been spoken

sutta (835-47). It has been suggested tin the text referred to by Aioka
with the title Munigih (see 15 below) was the Munisutta (207-21)
and the Upatisa-pasina (< -prasna) was the Sriputtasuita (995-75).
3. It is. therefore, possible that at one time at least one tradition
called all the individual sections

m m iu s .

If this was so. then the title

perhaps means The sutta section'* or The section o f suttas*.


Winternitz (1933. p. 92) calls il ciao Section o f Discourses** and
Jayawickrama (UCR VI. 2. pp. 7X X11. having considered a number of
translations, states that Wintcntii/s title (which he quotes in the form
A Section o f Suttas ) to be ttic ieM so far.

adopt the meaning

"group for nipta. because this o tlic translation I adopted for the
word-in Elders* Verses I amt II I use discourse for sutta. litis

xxx

T h e C r o u p o f D isco u rs es

translation assumes that the word


rather than
II.

stra.

suttnis to be derived from skia

THE NAMES OF THE SUTTAS

4. There are sometimes slight variations of names in the uddnas,


which presumably pre-date the commentary. This suggests that there
was a second tradition, known to the commentary, existing alongside
the uddna tradition.
5. Sometimes the uddna abbreviates or lengthens names:
1:3. Visna for Khaggavisna
4.

Kasi for Kasibhradvja

8. Meitabhvan for Metta


11:4. MaAgaluttama for MahmnOgala
13. Paribbja for SafnmSparibhajanTya
111:3. Subh3 (su) for Subhsita.
4. Sundari for Sundarikabhradvja
to. Kokali for Kokaliya
I V:a. Guha for Guhatthaka
3. Duttha for Dutlhatthaka
4. Suddha for Suddhatthaka
5. Paroma for Paramatthaka
7. Metteyya forTissa-Metteyya
9. Magadhi for Magadhiya
to. Purabhedana for Purbhcda
1 1. Kalaka for Kalakavivda
14. Tuvattaka forTuvataka
15. Attadandavara for Attadanda
6. Sometimes the uddna gives alternative names:
1:9. Stgira for Hemavata
11:4. Kappa for Vahglsa
IV: 16. Tbcrapanha forSrputtn

Introduction

xxxi

7. W c fmd (hat Pj II gives alternative names for some o f the sutias.


which shows that varying traditions were still in existence even in the
fifth century A.D. Sometimes Pj II gives (he alternative name first,
presumably as a preference, with the one normally accepted given as
second {* = first name in Pj) :
1:7. Vasala-s = *Aggi(ka)bhradvja-$
9. *Hemavaia-s = Stgira-s
11. *Vijaya-s s K2 yavicchandanaka-$
11:6. *Dhanunacariya-s = Kapila-s
8. Nv-s = *L .iamsna-s
12. Vangisa-s = *Nigrodhakappa-s
13. *Sammaparibbjansya-$= Mahsamaya-s .
111:4. Sundariknbh5 radv3ja-s sPnilsa-$
10. Kokliya s (663-76)=Turitavatthug3 lh
IV: 16. *S 5 ripuua-$ = Therapafiha-s
8. There must, however, be some doubt about the value of the titles
o f suttas as we have them now, because they sometimes vary from one
tradition or edition to another, which suggests that some of them may
be late inventions, perhaps the product of a scribe or even a modern
editor. We find, for example that the sulla which is called Putto in E*
at S II 235.16 is called Ekaputtakasutta in Be.I.
III. THE RELATIVE AGES OF THE PARTS OF THE SUTTANIPTA
9. We may assume that Atthaka-v, Pryana-v ami Khaggavisna-s
are the oldest parts o f the Sn because they are commented upon by the
canonical Nidd. except for the Vauhu-gathSs o f the Pryana-v. which
are ascribed to nanda by Pj II. Nidd is reckoned to be laic by some
scholars, but the arguments put forward to support ihis belief do not
seem to be conclusive, and in any case Nidd cannot be later than *he
date o f (he fixing of the Canon. The fact that only pans of Sn are
commented upon m N'idd suggests that the vaggas were still

xxxii

V ie C ro u p o f D isco urses

independent at the lime of the composition of that text, and probably


some of the suttas 100. e.g. the Khaggavisna-s. Various suttas still
have an existence as independent works in BHS (in Mvu and Divy),
and the fact that the Sanskrit fragments of entire sutras which have
been found conic only from Arthaka-v and P&ryana-v suggests that the
vaggas still had an independent existence when those translations were
made.
to. The reciters remarks in vaggas 4-5 are commented upon by
Nidd, so they must be old. They are ascribed to the sanglti-kras by Pj
II.

Although the Vatthu-gths o f the P2 ryana-v are not commented

upon in Nidd, the prose on $n p. 218 and verses 1124-49 (which seem
very similar to the Vatihu-gths) are commented upon. Pj

11

says the

Vatihu-glhs are due to nanda, and says the prose on p. 21S and
(perhaps) 1124-49 are due to the sahgiii-kSras. There arc no prose
-introductions to the suttas of the Atihaka-v, as there are in the Sanskrit
and Chinese versions although they have introdufctiofts in Pj (I. These
differ from the introduction in the Sanskrit and Chinese versions, and
must therefore be from a different tradition.
11. We /nay assume that vaggas 1-3 . in their present form, are later
than vaggas 4-$. although individual suttas, e.g. Khaggavisna-s, may
be as old as vaggas 4 -5. The list o f texts In D ivy (20.23-14; 34.2935.1) does not mention Sn as such, but only the Arthavargiya and
PSrlyana, showing that when that list was compiled (which may have
been much earlier than (he composition o f Divy), Sn either did not
exist as a collection, or was siiti thought o f as separate vaggas. This
was perhaps still so at the time when the Sanskrit and Chinese
translations were made. A number o f suttas in vaggas 13 are found in
the Mvu and elsewhere, and are probably therefore pre-schism and
consequently old. If the suttas mentioned by name by Asoka (see (5
below) are correctly identified, then they were in existence (but not
necessarily in their present form) by (he middle o f the third century
B-C.

Introduction

xxxiii

12. We assume lhai tl>c reciter's remarks, certain verses, and (he prose
introductions are later than (he suitas, as such, bui since they arc all
ascribed (o nanda or the sangtti-knras. they were presumably regarded
by the tradition as being old. If tradition says they are later than the
text, then they probably are. since the tradition was more likely to date
texts too early than too late.
13. It is possible that some individual verses are later, since there is
no commentary upon them, e.g. Nidd I does not comment upon 83d.
and P] II states that there is no commentary on 677-78 in the Mah5 atthakath.
$ 14. Dating by metre is not particularly helpful. Warder speaks o f "the
elaborate techniques o f the Suuanipta (19 6 7 , 9 1), with the
implication that elaborate things are late, but 1 have pointed out
elsewhere that, with reference to the Sabhiya-s at (east, there is reason
to doubt this (Norman, 1980B). Two suttas in Sn are in the very old
Old ty metre, one in the younger part o f Sn and 00c in the
Atthaka-v. Warder speaks o f accent and ictus in early ganacchandas(with reference to the Upli-s and the Mctta-s). Nevertheless, the fact
that what we can. on other grounds, consider to be (he original core of
verses in the Atthaka-v, is in the Tristubh metre, which is generally a
sign o f an early composition in PSIi. supports the argument that the
Atthaka-v is old.
IV.

ANOKAS CALCUTTA-BAIRT EDICT

IS- This edict mentions a number o f texts, o f which Munigth


(which is also included in the list of texts in Divy), Moneyasutc and
Upatisapasine have been thought to be in Sn:
(a) Munigth is probably the Munisutta = 207-21 as Rhys
Davids suggested O896. p. 94).
(b) Moneyasutc is probably the second half o f the Nlakasutta
s 699-723. This was suggested by Kosambi (1912, p. 40),
although Wimcrniiz (1933. p. 607) followed Rhys Davids

lite Group o f Discourse*

XXXIV

(18 9 8 . p. 6 39) in believing that i( was probably the


moncyyani al It 56.4-ij (/ A I 273.1S-J6). Chalmers

0 9 3

2-

p. xi) states that the Nlakasuiia is called Moneyyasutta. but


he gives no authority Tor this statement. Jayawickrama (UCK
6.

4, p. 230) states that the corresponding section of Mvu

(Mvu III 387 foil.) is called Mauneya. but I can find no


evidence for this.
(c)

Kosambi (1912, p. 40) suggested that Upatisapastnc is

probably the Sriputtasutta (also called Therapafthasutu) =


9 5 5 -7 5 -

1 6 . The fact that suttas sometimes have alternative names


complicates the task o f identifying the suttas mentioned by Aioka.
Aoka s edict means only that suttas with these names were in
existence at the rime o f A ioka. If these identifications are correct, it
does not mean that these suttas were part o f die $n in Aiokas time,
nor that they were in their present forni. If they are correct, the fact that
the names used by ASoka are not those by which the suttas are known
at present shows that the nomenclature was not fixed in the third
century B.C.
V.

THE TEXT OFTH E SUTTAN 1PTA

1 7 . This translation is based upon (he edition o f $n by Helmer


Smith and Dines Andersen (PTS 1913). with certain emendations
which are discussed in the notes and listed in the Appendix entitled
"List o f preferred readings. I have also consulted Fausbpll s edition,
and the Burmese, Sinhalese and Siamese editions which are specified
in the List of Abbreviations. In determining the text I have translated, I
have taken noie o f Warder's comment (1967. p. 74 note 2) that "the
emendations of some o f the Burmese scribes (for instance in MSS of
Sn. adopted and extended by Fuusboll. and to a lesser extent by
Andersen and Smith) are not likely to be based on any ancient
tradition . He points out that the lack of authenticity is shown by such
cases as the omission o f

co in 263

and 267. because the scribal

x xx v

Introduction

tradition did noi rcnli.sc (hai the svjrabhakli vowel in

-ennmis lo be

ignored. I hove discussed such mailers in [he notes.


VI. THE METRES OF THE SUTTANIPTA
18. Since Helmer Smith has dealt al length with the metres of Sn in
Pj II Voi. HI. it seemed unnecessary for me to scan all the pdas again.
Although it woiild have been possible to justify doing this, on the
grounds that the analyses would then have been in the same form as
those in E V I and II, and therefore easily comparable with them. I have
preferred not to do so. I have, however, identified metres, commented
upon readings which are not metrical, and where possible suggested
ways in which the metre can be improved.
VII. PORTIONS OF THE SUTTANIPTA FOUND ELSEWHERE
IN THE CANON
19. Many single or small groups of verses are found elsewhere (sec
PTC), but more substantial portions are found, in part or in whole as
follows:
1:3. Khaggavisna-s = Ap II9-49 (= pp. 8-13)
4. Kasibhradvja-s = S 1 172-73
8.

Metta-s = Khp IX

to. lavaka-s =.S

213-15

Il:l. Ratana-s * Khp VI


3. Hiri-s = J III 196.10-13
4. Malimarigala-s = Khp V
5. SOciloma-s = S
12.

207-8

VahgTsa-s (verses only) = Thag 1263-78

111:3. Subhsita-s = S

188-89 = Thag 1227-30 (verses only =

4 5 1 -5 4 )

4. SundarikabhJradvja-s (prose only) - S I 167-68


7.

Sela-s = M II (92] =Thag 8 t 8 - 3 7 (548-67) am!


Thag 838-41 (570-73)- Cf. Dhp 396-423 (= 620 47)

xxxvi

T h e G rou p o f D isco ur v j

9. VOscuha-s ss M II ( 196)
10. Kokliya-s (prose and 657 60) = S 1 149-53
20. It is perhaps no! surprising that no pucch/panha from Vagga 5
occurs in its entirely elsewhere in the Canon, but it is strange that no
sutta from Vagga 4 occurs. This would seem to imply that these two
vaggas were regarded as a whole at the very earliest period of
Buddhism, and had already been given a status o f "original and
indivisible".
VITI. T ESANGlTl AND SANGITl-KRAS
2 1 . Nidd does not mention any sangiti. It is clear that to the
commentarla] tradition underlying Pj I and U (mah3 -)sahgTti refers to
the first council, since each time the word sahglii is used it occurs in a
context with the name nanda:

Anandena... paihwnamahdsangiikle(Pj 1 89.36; 99.}))


Anando... sangttiyam(Pj II 67.16 ad 35).
{iii)Anandena... pathamamahsungiiikfc(Pj M 134.29 ad prose
(i)

(ii)

introduction lo I.4 (p. 12.


(iv )

sangUim... Anando(Pj 1 1 483.u

ad vatthugSlh o f Nilaka-

sulta).
(v )

nando sangitikle (Pj II 580.29

ad vatthugtb o f

Pryanav).
$22. It is likely, therefore, that when the commentary refers 10
sangitikras it presumes that they were those who made the first
sangTti. Although it is possible that the Atthaka-v and Pryana-v wert
in approximately their present form in the Buddha's lifetime (although
we must note that the fact that their names are quoted in the canoi
gives no evidence about their contents at that time, except for 84
which is correctly allocated to the Mgandiyasuua at S III 9.19). ii i
less likely that the other three vaggas were complete at that time
Consequently references to sangitikras may refer to the second or ihir
councils, as deduced for T handT hi(E V I 11 ; II 1 1. 21).

Introduction

XXXVII

23. Wc cannot be certain that in all cases where (he commentary


refers to the sahgiiikras it is actually quoting an earlier commentano!
tradition on this sometimes it can be deduced from the context that
a passage is a later addition. If there was a commentarla! tradition it
seems to have been separate from the Nidd tradition, for Nidd I and

11

comment upon the reciters remarks and the prose additions which in
Pj 11 are ascribed to the sangitikras without further comment.
24. Pj II 387.2s records a disagreement which was clearly in the old

ayamaddhagth(42cd) sangTtikrehi vutl, "sakalagdthpT' ti eke. Here the commentator gives his own opinion on the
matter (sec 33 below): Bhagavat evapanapararti viya attAnain
niddisantena sabbamettha evam-jtikamvuttanti ayamamhdkani
khami. He also rejects the view that the saAgltikras added 449 :
"sangitikrdhqmsff*tieke, omhdkampan*etamnakkhamatTti(Pj 1!
commentary:

394.5). It is noteworthy that the equivalents of 429cd and 449 occur ai


Mvu I] 238.14* and 240.i6 * - i7 \ so if they were added by the
saAgitikras it was probably not later than the second council.
25. The following passages are ascribed to the safigTkras in Pj II:

tenhusangitikr. ninnaticathalancaprayanto
ti (3 0 ).
(ii) 44.19* (to* M
roppim) saAgltikrnametamvacanam.
sabbagthsucatdisni(reciter's remarks in 33-34)
(iii) 193.29: "iti Stgiro" ti di sangikrehi \vuttam
\
(i) 42.3:

(reciter's remarks in 153-69).

ito param icc etam atthan ti dve gth


songitikrehi vutt(251-52).
(v) 351.2: U
i BhagavTti idampn' etthasangitikrimam
vacanam(reciter's remark in 355)
(vi) 351.S: serrilo ti sangitikrnamev idamvacanam(355d =

(iv ) 292.30:

Thag 1275d. on which Th-a II! makes the same comment

pacchimaddhampana.Sangitikreh vantiti ti pi
hu(40icd)

(vnj 377.31:

The C ro u p o f Discourses

XXXVIII

387.25: ayam addhagih sangftikrehi vuttii,


sakalagthdpf li eke(429cd).
(ix) 394.5: sagTtikrham
stieke(449).
(x) 394.13: evamm
esutanti disongtikravacanam(prose

(v iii)

introduction to III.3 (on p. 7S)).

idni vattabbagthamdassent sabbametam


sangttikrhamsu(prose on p. 78).
(xii) 398.28: tarndossentsangiiikr"olita kho yasm
"li
Sdimuhanisu(prose on p. 79).
(xii) 400,14: evamm
esutamti disohgtikrnamvaconatn
(xi) 398.16:

(prose introduction to UL} (on p. 79)).

ti brhmanoti songUik&rnqmvacanam(reciter's

(xiv) 405.3:

remarks in 459).

sangtlikrnambrhmanassaBhagavtoti tumam
pi vacanamsamodhnetv(prose portions of IH.5 (on

(xv) 413.9:

p. 86)).
(xvi)

.424,28:

ten' hu sangitikr"ruba kho

(prose on

p. 87).
(xvii) 456.11 :

saAgUkruahtthakhoScio... ti hamsu(prose

onpp. IIO -II).


(xviii) 504.8:

idamavocti di sangtikrnamvacanam(prose

on pp. 39-40).
(xix)

603.28: itoparatasangitikrdesanamthom
ent idam
avoca bhagav ti di hamsu(prose on p. 218 and
perhaps 1124-49).IX
.

IX. QUOTATIONS FROM THE SUTTANIPTA IN THE PLI


CANON
26. The Atthaka*v and Pryana-v are quoted by name in the canon,
with the sutta or paAha name given (see Chalmers, 1932, pp. xv-xvi):
(1) Atthnka-v:
(a)

Sono ... solusa atthakavaggikni sarena abboni ...


snggahitni te bhikkhu schisa atfhaknvaggkni (Ud

Introduction

xxxix

59.33.a6 = Vin I 196.j6.38)


(b )

vutlam A* idam ... Bhagavutti Afthakavaggike


Mgandiyapaiihe(844), SIH 9^9= 12.1a.

(ii) P 5 riyana-v:
(a)

vuttamidamSriputta PryaneAjitopanhc<1038). S II

(b)

idam... bhsitaiti PryanePunnakapaithc(1048) without

(c)

idam... bhasitomPryane Udayapanhe(i 106-7), A 1

(d)

vuttamidam... Pryane Metuyyapanhe(1042) with

4 7 . 1 .

reciter's remarks. A 1 133.6 = II4535.


13 4 *

variation in pda a. A III 399. =401.34.


X.

TH E RECITER'S REMARKS

27. In or after a number o f verses (see the note 00^3-34) (here are
hypcr-mctric words which usually include the'namc oT the'spca'ker or
the person being addressed. I assume that these are remarks which were
originally made by the-reciter, to inform his audience o f the
circumstances in which the verse was uttered. Pj II says o f some o f
them that they were added by the saftgitikras:
(a)

sangitikrnamctamvacanam.sabbagitmxuai Tdisni
(Pj II 44.19 M 33));

(b)

iti StglYo ti di saigftikdrehi ... (Pj II 193.37-* fad


*5 3 i

(c)
(d)

sangitikrnametamvacanam(Pj li 351.X-V |ad 355)):


sangilikarnametamvacanam(Pj II 405.3-4 lad 4$9)).

28. These remarks must have been added at an early date, for those in
Atthaka-v and Par5 yana-v are commented upon by Nidd Pj II does nor
say that any o f these were added by the saAgMifciav presumably
because they arc included in Nidd.

TheGroupofDiscourses

xl
XI.

THE COMMENTARIES

29. In compiling my notes. I have made use o f Nidd I and II. Pj I


and II, and Nidd-a I and II. Nidd comments on every verse o f Auhakav (except for 836), P5 r5 yana-v (except the Vatthu-gth = 976-1031)
and Khaggavisana-s (35 -75). including the reciter s remarks. Nidd
gives no gloss on $44, but quotes S III 9.14-12.27 verbatim, wherein
844 is quoted (see 22 above) and discussed.
30. Nidd comments upon Auhaka-v and Pir-v in their present fonns.
with a very few, minor, exceptions. 1 have come across no evidence
that Nidd was written in any dialect other than Pli. This means that if
it existed in a pre-Pali form* the redactors made a good jo b o f their
redaction. The tradition takes

mule, etc., in 8S7 as - mutant, i.e. it is

taking them (incorrectly) as Eastern accusatives. Except for such forms,


Nidd comments upon Sn in its Pli form, i.e. after its "translation"
from an earlier Pkt.
31. Nidd explains by synonyms oc near-synonyms, sometimes
giving a list o f terms, which are not identical in meaning, so that the
reader can select a translation. It is possible that in some cases, at (east,
the list represents a narrowing down, so that the last meaniog given is
best. Nidd sometimes gives alternative explanations, showing that
even ai that early date the exact form o f a verse or meaning o f a phrase
was lost. In its style o f commenting it seems close to the Old
Commentary in the Vinaya. Sometimes Nidd giv es a wrong
explanation.
32 . 1 quote Nidd when it makes clear why I have translated in the
way I have. I add Pj II if this throws extra light. I sometimes quote Pj
II instead o f Nidd if it gives the sante interpretation more succinctly.
When

quote Nidd. I sometimes omit portions which are of no

importance for the matter 1 am considering, without necessarily


indicating this, although l sometimes use "
(near )synonyms

" o r .., to indicate

omit. To make it clear which commentary rum

quoting I consistently give the abbreviation o f (he title with page and

Introduction

x\i

line number, even when (here is little or no chance of confusion


XU. THE AUTHOR OF PARAM ATTHAJOTIKII
33. The author o f Pj II sometimes gives his own opinion, i.c does
not necessarily follow his sources, or perhaps has no source 10 follow :

tiyamamhkamkhanti
amhkaiJipan* etani nakhamati
(c) 292.3: ... ti nondhippdyo
(d) 450.16: evanlav' eke, ayampan* etthasabhvo:

(a) 387.27-28:
(b) 394.6:

34. He sometimes omits comment on verses, presumably because


they seem to present no problems. He specifically states (Pj II 477.13-t
14) that no comment is available on 677-78 in the Mah ntlhakaih.
but he does not invent any commentary. He docs comment on 836
although Nidd had not done so. which suggests that there was a
comment on this verse in the Mah-atthakath.
35. He sometimes gives a choice o f explanation:

yathruccati tathpathitabbarn
yam rueettu. tom
gahetabbam
(c) Pj 1 16 5 .17: yath vd tath v hoti\ kin uu hntiya
parikkhanya.
(a) Pj 1 78.19:

(b) Pj II 23.2.17; 43.25; 136.1 ; 378.11 :

36. The author o f Pj

11.

or the commentary he was following, was

sometimes inconsistent, giving different explanations for what is


probably the same thing:
(a)

yemepubbeviykanisu( 1084) ; yepubbenutyham


(596.13)

but:
(b)

ye'meviyakamsu(113 5 ); yeimepubbe(605.22)
sotesii gotto(250): S sotesu ti chant intlriyesu
(292.9)

but:

so tesagitilo(9 71): * so bhikkhu tesa funuwsu


gotto(5 7 3 -33)

TheCroupofDiscourses

xlii

XIII. THE INTERDEPENDENCE OFTHB COMMENTARIES


3 7 - Pj H presumes ihc existence o f Nidd its comments are
frequently identical, and occasionally it quotes Nidd I or refers to it for
further explanation. There seem to be >no references to Nidd IL Pj I!
sometimes differs from Nidd, but does not say so specifically. Pj II
refers to Nidd as follows:

iti(28,3)
anomanma(200.19)
(c) (in a general reference re) tdi(202.5)
(d) vittharopanaNiddesevuttanayen evaveditabbo(512.21)
(e) (a difference of reading) yuttipan' etthaNiddesevutteva
(a) (in a general reference re)

(b) (in a general reference re)

(5 5 U 6 )
(f) (a difference o f reading)

yuttipan*etthaNiddesevutteva

(5 5 2 -' 3 )

uppattividhicanesamNiddesevuttyeva(552,17)
Niddesevuttam(553.5)
(i) tasm
Niddesevuttam ... "r( 5 5 5 ^)
(j) sesamNiddesevuttameva(559.11)
(g)

(h) " . . . M

38. Pj U presupposes Pj I because it does not comment upon suttas


included in Pj 1. In style, however. Pj I differs somewhat from Pj II,
e.g. by including more references to Sanskrit grammarians, which
suggests that the two commentaries may have been written by different
authors.
39. Pj II sometimes refers to other commentarial works as follows:
(a) Jtakatthakath (2.52)
(b) Visuddhimagga (246.25; 248.29; 249,19; 4 4 4 * 0
(c) PapancasQdanT MajjhimatthakathS (300.7)

T h e g r o u p ok D isc o u r se s

I. The Snake Chapter


1.1.

The Snake

1. < I > 1 Thai bhikkhu who subdues his anger when it has arisen, as
(one subdues] with herbs snake-poison when it has spread [through the
body], leaves this shore and the far shore as a snake leaves its old wornout skin.

2. That

bhikkhu who has cut or' passion in its entirety, like one

picking a lotus, both flower and stalk [together], leaves this shore and
the far shore as a snake leaves its old worn-out skin.
3. That bhikkhu who has cut off craving in its entirety, like one drying
up a fast-flowing stream,*2 leaves this shore and th far shore as a snake
leaves its old worn-out skin.
4. That bhikkhu who has plucked out conceit in its entirety, i s a great
flood [plucks away] a very weak bridge o f reeds, leaves this hre and
the far shore as a snake leaves its old worn-out skin.
5. That bhikkhu who has not found any essence in existences, as one
searching among fig-trees [does not find] a flower, leaves this shore and
the far shore as a snake leaves its old worn-out skin.
6. That bhikkhu in whom there are no angers inwardly, and (who) has
gone beyond the state of [being rebom in] such and such an existence,
leaves this shore and the far shore as a snake leaves its old worn-out
skin. <2>

'Numbers in pointed brackets refer to the pages 'of the edition of hc


Suttanip&a by Dines Andersen and Mclmcr Smith (Pali Text Society. 19t.li.
upon which this translation is bawd, unless otherwise stated. Words m
round brackets arc those which need to* be supplied in lite fingliOi
translation, although not found in the original Pli.
2 Reading
iy j

styhasuram soMiyiini

The Group o f Discourses

7. That bhikkhu whose (wrong) thoughts are burnt up,1 well cut-off
internally, leaves this shore and the far shore as a snake leaves its old
wom-out skin.
8. Hiat bhikkhu who has not transgressed nor even caused (another) to
transgress,12 (and) has gone beyond all this diversified world, leaves this
shore and the far shore as a snake leaves its old worn-out skin.
9. That bhikkhu who has not transgressed nor even caused (another) to
transgress, knowing io respect o f the world that all this is unreal, leaves
this shore and the far shore as a snake leaves its old worn-out skin.
to. That bhikkhu who has.not transgressed nor even caused (another] to
transgress, (knowing that) all this is unreal, with greed gone leaves this
shore and the far shore as a snake leaves its old worn-out skin.
11. That bhikkhu who has not transgressed nor even caused [another to
transgress), [knowing that] all this is unreal, with passion gone leaves
this shore and the far-shore as a snake leaves its old worn-out skiti.
12. That bhikkhu who has not transgressed nor even caused (another) to
transgress, (knowing that) all this is unreal, with hatred gone leaves this
shore and the far shore as a snake leaves its old worn-out skin.
13. That bhikkhu who has not transgressed nor even caused (another) to
transgress, (knowing that) all this is unreal, with delusion gone leaves
this shore and the far shore as a snake leaves its old worn-out skin.
14. That bhikkhu in whom there are no latent tendencies, in whom evil
roots are destroyed, leaves this shore and the far shore as a snake leaves
its old worn-out skin.
15. That bhikkhu in whom there is nothing bom o f distress, [which is)
cause for return to this shore, leaves this shore and the far shore as a
snake leaves its old worn-out skin.

1 Reading vitlhpiise.
2 Reading yo nilccosart nn p ' accauirt(and in 9-13)-

1. The Snake Chapter

16. That bhikkhu in whom (here is nothing born o f desire, acting as a


cause o f bondage to existence, leaves this shore and the far shore as a
snake leaves its old wom-out skin. <3>
17. That bhikkhu who having left behind the five hindrances (is)
without affliction, has crossed over doubt, (and is) without barb. leaves
this shore and the far shore as a snake leaves its old worn-out skin.
I.2. Dhaniya
18. *1 have boiled my rice and done my milking', said Dhaniya the
herdsman. *1 dwell with my family near the bank o f the Mahi. M y hut
is thatched, my fire is heaped up (with fuel). So rain, sky(-deva], if you
wish.
19. la m free from anger, my (mental] barrenness has gone . said the
Blessed One. I am staying for one night near the bank o f the Mahl. My
hut is uncovered, my fire is quenched. S o rain, skyf-deva]. if you
wish.
20. No gadflies or mosquitoes are found (hereV, said Dhaniya (he
herdsman. 'The cows pasture in the water-meadow where the grass
grows lush. They could tolerate even the rain if it came. So rain.
sky(-deva), if you wish.
21. A well-made float is indeed lied together , said the Blessed One.
(I have) crossed over, gone to the far shore, having overcome the flood.
There is no need of a float. So rain. sky[-deva], if you wish.
22. <4> *My wife is attentive, not wanton*, said Dhaniya the
herdsman. 'She has lived with toe for a long time (and] is pleasant,
hear no evil of her at all. So rain, sky(-deva), if you wish.
23. My mind is attentive, completely released', said the Blessed One.
(It has been] developed for a long time (and] is well controlled
Moreover no evil is found in me. So rain, sky(-devu|, if you wish
24. I am supported by my own earnings', said Dhaniya the herdsman,
and my sons arc living with me in good health. I hear no evil o f (hem
at all. So rain,.sky| dcva). if you wish.

The Croup o f Discourses

25/I am no one*s hireling', said the Blessed One. *1 wander throughout


the whole world by means of my own earnings. There is no need of
wages. So rain, skyj-deva), if you wish.*
26. 'There are cows, bullocks, cows in calf, and breeding cows too
said Dhaniya the herdsman. There is a bull too here, the leader o f the
cows. So rain, sky(-deva), if you wish.
27. There are no cows, no bullocks, nor are there cows in calf or
breeding cows either', said the Blessed One. <5> 'There is not even a
bull here, the leader of the cows. So rain, sky(-dcva), if you wish.
28. *The stakes are dug*in, unshakable , said Dhaniya the herdsman.
[There are] new halters made of munja grass, o f good quality. Even the
bullocks will not be able 10 break them. So rain, sky[-deva). if you
wish.
29. 'Having broken my bonds like a bull', said the Blessed One. 'like
an elephant tearing a pflti-crepcr asunder, I shall not come to lie again
in a womb. So rain. sky[-deva], if yoii wish.
30. Straightway the great cloud rained forth, filling the low land and
the high. Hearing the sky[-deva] raining, Dhaniya said this:
3 1. 'The gains indeed are not small for us who have seen the Blessed
One. We come to you as a refuge, one with vision. Be our teacher, great
sage.
32. My wife and 1 are attentive. Let us practice the holy life in the
presence o f the Well-farer. Gone to the far shore o f birth and death, let
us put an end to misery.'
33. <6> 'One with sons rejoices because o f (his) sons , said MSra the
evil one. 'Similarly the cattle-owner rejoices because o f [his] cows. For
acquisitions,are joy for a man. Whoever is without acquisitions does
not rejoice.
34. One with sons grieves because of (his) sons , said the Blessed One.
'Sim ilarly the cattle-owner grieves because o f (his) cows. For

1 Reading xtivarnpat'u/ha.

1. The Snake Chapter

acquisitions are grief for a man. Whoever is without acquisitions docs


not grieve.
I.3. The Rhinoceros-bom
35. Laying aside violence in respect o f all beings, not harming even one
o f them, one should not wish for a son. let alone a companion. One
should wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.
36. Affection comes into being for one who has associations; following
on affection, this misery arises. Seeing the peril Iwhich is) born from
affection, one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros bom.
37. Sympathising with friends (and) compan 'ns one misses one's
goal being shackled in mind. Seeing this fear in acquaintance {with
friends), one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.
38. The consideration which (exists) for sons and wives is like a very
wide-spreading bamboo tree entangled (with others). <y> Like a
[young) bamboo shoot not caught up (with others), one should wander
solitary as a rhinoceros hom.
39. As a deer which is not tied up goes wherever it wishes in the forest
for pasture, an understanding man. having regard for his independence,
should wander solitary as a rhinoceros hom.
40. In the midst of companions, whether one is resting, standing, going
[or] wandering, there arc requests [from othersj. Having regard for the
independence (which is) not coveted (by others], one should wander
solitary as a rhinoceros hom.
41. In the midst of companions iherc-arc sport, enjoyment, and great
love for sons. (Although) loathing separation from what is dear, one
should wander solitary as a rhinoceros hom.
42. One is a man o f the four quarters and not hostile, being pleased
with whatever comes one's way. A fearless bearer of dangers, one
should wander solitary as a rhinoceros hom.

The Croup o f Discourses

43. Even some wanderers are not kindly disposed, and also (some)
householders dwelling in a house. Having little concern for the children
o f others, one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.
44. Having removed the marks o f a householder, like a KovilSra tree
whose leaves have fallen, <8> a hero, having cut the householder's
bonds, should wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.
4 5. If one can obtain a zealous companion, an associate o f good
disposition, [who is] resolute, overcoming all dangers one should
wander with him, with elated mind, mindful.
46. If one cannot obtain a z< lous companion, an associate o f good
disposition, [who is] resolute, (thenj like a king quitting the kingdom
(which he has] conquered, one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros
horn.
47. Assuredly let us praise the good fortune o f [having) a companion;
friends better [than oneself] or equal (to oneself) are to be associated
with. If one does not obtain these, (then) enjoying (only) blarfeless
things, one should wander solitary as >rhinoceros hom.
48. Seeing shining [bracelets] o f gold, well-made by a smith, clashing
together [whenj two are on [one] arm, one should grander solitary as a
rhinoceros bom.
49. 'In the same way, with a companion there would be objectionable
talk or abuse for me.' Seeing this fear for the future, one should wander
solitary as a rhinoceros hom.
50. For sensual pleasures, variegated, sweet [and] delightful, disturb the
mind with their manifold form. Seeing peril in the strands of sensual
pleasure, one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros hom.
51. T h is for me is a calamity, and a tumour, and a misfortune, and a
disease, and a-barb, and a fear. Seeing this fear in the strands o f sensual
pleasure, one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.
52. <9> Cold and heat, hunger [and| thirst, wind and the heat (of the
sun], gadflies and snakes, having endured all these, one should wander
solitary as a rhinoceros horn.

I. The Snake Chapter

53. As an elephant with massive shoulders, spotted, noble, may leave


the herds and live as it pleases in the forest, one should wander solitary
as a thinoccros.hom.
54. It is an impossibility for one who delights in company to obtain
(even] temporary release. Having heard the word o f the sun's kinsman,
one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.
55. Gone beyond the contortions o f wrong.view, arrived at the fixed
course (to salvation), having gained the way, (thinking] 'I have
knowledge arisen [in roe); I am not to be led by. others', one should
wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.
56. Being without covetousness, without deceit, without thirst, without*
hypocrisy, with delusion and faults blown away, without aspirations in
the whole world, one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.
57. One should avoid an evil companion, who does not see the goal,
(who has] entered upon bad conduct. One shpuM nq$ oneself associate
with one who is intent (upon wrong views, and is) negligent One
should wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.
58. <io> One should cultivate one o f great learning, expert in the
doctrine, a noble friend possessed o f intelligence Knowing one's goals,
having dispelled doubt, one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros
hom.
59. Noi finding satisfaction in sport and enjoyment, nor in the
happiness (which comes] from sensual pleasures in the world, (and)
paying no attention (to them], abstaining from adornment,1 speaking
the truth, one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros hom.
60. Leaving behind son and wife, and father and mother, and wealth
and grain, and relatives, and sensual pleasures to the limit, one should
wander solitary as a rhinoceros hom

1 R e a d in g v ihhlsan and excluding tthiu)

The Croup o f Discourses

6 1. T h is is an attachment; here there is-liule happiness, (and) little


satisfaction; here there is very much misery; this is a hook. Knowing
this, a thoughtful man should wander solitary as a rhinoceros hom.
62. Having torn one s fetters asunder, like a fish breaking a net in the
water, oot returning, like a fire [not going back] to what is [already]
burned, one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros hom.
63. With downcast eye and not foot-loose, with sense-faculties guarded,
with mind protected, not overnowing [with defilement], not burning,
one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros hom.
64. Having discarded the marks o f a householder, like a coral u

whose leaves have fallen, < i i > having gone out [from the house]
wearing the saffron robe, one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros
bom.
65. Showing no greed for flavours, not wanton, not supporting others,
going on an uninterrupted begging round, not shackled in mind to this
family or that, one should wandersolitary as a rhinoceros hom.
66. Having left behind the five hindrances o f the mind, having thrust
away all defilements, not dependent, having cut off affection and hate,
one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros hom.
67. Having put happiness and misery behind oneself, and joy and
dejection already, having gained equanimity (which is) purified
calmness, one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros hewn.
68. Resolute for the attainment o f the supreme goal, with intrepid
mind, not indolent, o f firm exertion, furnished with strength and
power, one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros hom.
69. Not giving up seclusjon [and) meditation, constantly living in
accordance with the doctrine in the world of phenomena, understanding
the peril (which is) in existences, one should wander solitary as a
rhinoceros horn.
70. Desiring the destruction o f craving, not negligent, not foolish,
teamed, possessing mindfulness, having considered the doctrine,
restrained, energetic, one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros bom

1. The Snake Chapter

7 1 . < il> Not trembling, as a lion (does not tremble] at sounds not
caught up [with others], as the wind [is not caught up) in a net, not
defiled (by passion), as a lotus (is not defiled) by water, one should
wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.
72. Wandering victorious, having overcome like a strong-toothed lion,
the king of beasts, one should resort to secluded lodgings, one should
wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.
73. Cultivating at the right time loving-kindness, equanimity, pity,
release and (sympathetic) joy. unimpeded by the whole world, one
should wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.
74. Leaving behind passion, hatred, and delusion, having torn the
fetters apart, not trembling at (the time of] the complete destruction o f
life, one should wander solitary as a rhinoceros horn.
75. (People] associate with and resort to (others) Tor some motive;
nowadays friends without a motive arc hard to find. Wise .as to their
own advantage, men arc impure. One should wander solitary as a
rhinoceros horn.
I4. Kasibhradvja
Thus I have heard. Once the Blessed One was staying among the
Magadhans at DakkhinSgiii <i3> in the brahman village UkanSU. At
that time the brahman Ka$ibh5radvja's five hundred ploughs were
fastened (to the yokes) at the sowing-lime. Then in the morning, having
dressed himself and taken bowl and robe, the Blessed One went to
where the brahman Kasibharadvja was at work. At (hat time the
brahman Kasibhradvjas food-distribution was taking place. Then the
Blessed One went to where the food-distribution (was taking place], and
stood on ooe side. The brahman Kasibhradvja saw the Blessed One
standing there for alms, and said this: I, ascetic, plough and sow, and
when I have ploughed and sown 1 cal. You too, ascetic, should plough
and sow, and eat when you have ploughed and sown.* T too. brahman,
do plough and sow. and when I have ploughed and sown, 1 cai. Bui
we do not sec die venerable Cioianias yoke, or plough, or ploughshare.

The Group o f Discourses

or goad, or oxen, but nevertheless the venerable Gotama speaks thus': I


too, brahman, do plough and sow, and when I have ploughed and
sown, I eat . Then the brahman Kasibhradvja addressed the Blessed
One with a verse.
76. 'You say you are a ploughman, but we do not see your ploughing.
Being asked, tell us about your ploughing, so that we may know your
ploughing/
77. 'Faith is the seed, penance is the rain, wisdom is my yoke and
plough; modesty is the pole, mind is the (yoke-}tie. mindfulness is my
ploughshare and goad.
78. <!4> I am guarded in body (and) guarded in speech, restrained in
my belly in respect o f food. I make truth my weeding-[hook], (and)
meekness my unyoking.
79. Energy is my beast o f burden; bearing me to rest-from-exertion it
goes without turning back to where having gone one docs not grieve.
80. Thus is this ploughing (of mine) ploughed. H has the death-free as
its fruit. Having ploughed this ploughing one is freed from all misery.'
Then the brahman Kasibhradvja, having heaped up rice-gruel in a
large bronze dish, offered it to the Blessed One (saying): 'Let the
venerable Gotama eat rice-gruel; the venerable one is (truly) a
ploughman, since the venerable Gotama ploughs the ploughing which
has the death-free as its fruit.
81. Tt is not right for me to eat what has been sung over with verses.
This, brahman, is not the doctrine of those who see [rightly). Buddhas
reject what has been sung over with verses. As long as the doctrine
exists, this is their way o f life.
82. But seryc with other food and drink a fully-accomplished great seer,
whose Ssavas are destroyed, whose rcinoise is calmed; for this is the
field for one who is looking for merit.
< 15> Shall 1 then, venerable Gotama, give this rice-gruel to
an yon e?' T do not see. brahman, in the world including the devas,
M 3ra. and Brahma, among beings including ascetics and brahmans.

I. The Snake Chapter

11

devas and men. that man by whom this rice-gruel, if eaten, could be
digested properly, except the TaihSgata or a disciple o f the Tathgata.
Therefore, brahman, either throw that rice-gruel away in a place where
there is little grass, or immerse it in water devoid o f living things. The
brahman KasibhradvSja immersed that rice-gruel in water devoid o f
living beings. Then that rice-gniel, immersed in the water, hissed and
seethed, and steamed and smoked. Just as a ploughshare (which has
been] heated all day, hisses and seethes, and steams and smokes when
thrown into water, in. the same way that ricc-giuel, when thrown into
the water, hissed and seethed, and steamed and smoked. Then the
brahman Kasibbradvja, trembling, with his hair standing on end.
went up to the Blessed One, and fell with his head at his feet and said
this to the Blessed One: 'Wonderful, venerable Cotanta, wonderful,
venerable Gotama. Just as, venerable Gotama. one might set upright
what has been overturned, or uncover that which has been covered, or
point out the way to one who had gone astray, or bring an oil-lamp into
the darkness, so that those with eyes might see shapes, in the same way
the doctrine has been declared by (he venerable Gotama in manifold
ways. I go to the venerable Gotama as a refuge, < i6 > and to the
Doctrine, and to the Order o f Bhikkhus. May I gain admission (to the
Order] in the presence o f the venerable Gotama, may I obtain
ordination.' The brahman Kastbhradvija obtained admission in the
presence of the Blessed One, (and) he obtained ordination.
Then when the venerable Bhradvja had not long been prdained.
(and) was dwelling alone, secluded, vigilant, ardent, resolute, after a
short time he himself learned, realised (and) attained in (this) world of
phenomena lhat unsurpassed goal o f the holy life, for the sake of which
men of good family rightly go forth from the house to the houseless
state. He understood: 'Birth is destroyed, the holy life has been lived,
that which was to be done has been done, there is nothing more for this
state. Then the venerable Bhradvja became one of the arahats.

TheOroufiofDiscourses

12

I.5.

Cunda

83. 'I ask the sage of abundant wisdom, (said) Ciinda the smith, 'the
Buddha, lord of the docuinc, (who is] free from craving, supreme
among two-legged (men), best o f charioteers: How many (kinds of]
ascetics are there in the world? Come, tell me this.*
84. There are four (kinds of] ascetics; there is no fifth. Cunda*. (said]
the Blessed One. <t7> Being asked in person I shall explain these to
you: (the one who) knows the way. and the teacher o f the way. (the one
who) lives in the way, and the one who defiles the way.
85. Whom do the Buddhas call (the one who) knows the way?*, (said)
Cunda the smith. How docs one become an unequalled teacher1 o f the
way? Being asked, tell me about (the one who) lives io the way. Then
explain to me the defiler o f theway.
86. T f anyone has passed beyond doubt, is without the barb (of
suffering), delights in quenching, is notgreedy, the leader o f the world
together with the tlevas, such a one the Buddhas call (the one who)
knows the way.
87. If anyone, knowing in this world the best as the best, proclaims
[and] analyses the doctrine in this very place, that sage, cutter-off of
doubts, without lust, [him] they call the second of the bhikkhus, the
teacher of the way.
88. If anyone lives in the way. in the well-taught path of the doctrine,
fully restrained, possessed o f mindfulness, following blameless paths,
(him] they call the third o f the bhikkhus, (the one who] lives in the
way.
89. Making (only) a semblance of those with good vows, insolent,
defiler o f families, reckless, deceitful, unrestrained, [mere] chaff, going
in disguise, one is a defiler of the way.
90. If any householder, a learned wise disciple o f the noble ones, has
understood these (four). <i8> (then) knowing (and) seeing them all not

Reading /naxxakkhihi.

I. The Snake Chapter

13

to be like this,1 his faith docs not disappear.2 For how could he equate
lite corrupt with the onconopted, the putc with the Impure?'

1.6 .

Failure

Thus have I beard. Once the Blessed One was staying at SvatthT in the
Jetavana in Anthapindika's park. Then, as night was passing away, a
deity o f surpassing radiance, illuminating the whole Jetavana, came up
to the Blessed One and stood on one side after saluting him. Standing
there that deity addressed the Blessed One with a verse.
91. Having come to ask the Blessed One, we ask Gotama about the
unsuccessful man. What is the cause of the unsuccessful [man]?'
92. The successful one is easy to know; the unsuccessful one is easy
to know. The successful one loves the doctrine; the unsuccessful one
hates the doctrine.
93. We know that'to be so indeed; that is the first failure. TeU us the
second one. Blessed One. What is the cause of the unsuccessful [man] ?*
94. Bad men arc dear to him; he docs not hold good men dear. He
approves o f the bad men's [evil] doctrine. That is the cause o f the
unsuccessful [man].
95. We know that to be so indeed; that is the second failure. Tell us
the third one. Blessed One. What is the cause o f the unsuccessful
[man]?*
96. <I9> If any man is fond of sleep, fond of society, and does not
exert himself, [but] is lazy, and has anger as a characteristic, that is the
cause o f the unsuccessful [man].
97. We know that to be so indeed; that is the third failure. TeU us the
fourth one. Blessed One. What is the cause o f the unsuccessful [man] V

1 Reading *sobbe n efdisd'.

14

The Group o f Discourses

9$. *If anyone, (although) being able, docs not support his mother or
father when they are old and past their youth, that is the cause of the
unsuccessful [man).
99. We know that to be $0 indeed: that is the fourth failure. Tell us
the fifth one. Blessed One. What b the cause o f the unsuccessful
[m anjr
100. If anyone by speaking falsely deceives a brahman or ascetic or
even another mendicant, that is the cause o f the unsuccessful [man].'
101. 'W e know that to be so indeed; that is the fifth failure. Tell us the
sixth one. Blessed One. What is the cause o f the unsuccessful (man]?*

to2. 'A man with abundant wealth, having gold (and) food, enjoys his
dainties alone. That is the cause o f the unsuccessful (man).*
103. *We know that to be so indeed; that is the sixth failure/Tell us
the seventh one. Blessed One. What b the cause o f the unsuccessful
[man]?'
104. If any man, being haughty because of his birth, wealth, and clan,
despises his own relative, that is the cause of the unsuccessful (man).*
105. We know that to be so indeed; that is the seventh failure. Tell us
the eighth one, Blessed One. What is the cause of the unsuccessful

fmahjr
106. If any man, being a rogue with women, drink, and dice,
squanders whatever he has received, that is the cause of the unsuccessful
(man).
107. <20> We know that to be so indeed; that is the eighth failure.
Tell us the ninth one, Blessed One. What is the cause o f the
unsuccessful (man)?
108. Being dissatisfied with his own wife, he is seen among
prostitutes, (and) he is seen among other men's wives. That is the cause
of the unsuccessful [man].
109. 'W e know that to be so indeed; that is the ninth failure. Tell us
the tenth one. Blessed One. What is (he cause of the unsuccessful
Iman I?

1. The Snake Chapter

is

i io . A man past his youth brings home [a girl] with breasts like
(imbon fruii. He cannot sleep for jealousy of her. Thai is (he cause of
the unsuccessful (man).
! 11. We know that to be so indeed; that is the tenth failure. Tell us
the eleventh one. Blessed One. What is the cause o f the unsuccessful
(man}?'
1 12. He places in (a position of] authority a woman who is addicted to
drink or a spendthrift, or even a man o f similar character. That is the
cause of the unsuccessful (man].
113. 'We know that to be so indeed ; that is the eleventh failure. Tell us
the twelfth one. Blessed One. What is the cause o f the unsuccessful
[man]?'
114. One with little wealth [but] great craving is born in a khattiya
family. He desires kingship in this world. That is the cause o f the
unsuccessful |man).
1 15. Seeing these failures in the world, a wise man, a noble one
endowed with insight, resorts to the blissful world.
I.7.

The outcaste

<2i> Thus have I heard. Once the Blessed One was staying at SvauhT
in the Jetavana in Anathapindikas park. Then in the morning, having
dressed himself and taken bow] and robe, the Blessed One entered
Svahi to beg. At that time the sacrificial fire was burning in the
house of the brahman Aggikabhradvja, [and] the offering was held
aloft. Then the Blessed One, going on an uninterrupted begging round
in Svanhi. came to the house of the brahman Aggikabharadvflja. The
brahman Aggikabhradv3ja saw the Blessed One coming from afar off,
and said this to him: Stop there, shaveling; stop there, wretched
ascetic : slop there, outcaste. When this was said, the Blessed One said
this to the brahman AggikabhSradvja: Do you know, brahman, [what]
an

ouicomc

|is]. or the things that make an outcaste? '1 do not know.

Gotama. (what) an outcaste (is), or the things that make an outcaste. It


would he a good thing for me for the venerable (ulama so to teach me

t6

The Croup o f Discourses

the doctrine, that i may know (what) an outcaste [is] and the things that
make an outcaste. Then listen, brahman, pay careful attention, 1 shall
tell you. *Yes, venerable one , replied the brahman Aggikabhfradv5ja
to the Blessed One.
! 16. Whatever] man is angry, rancorous, evil and hypocritical, has
wrong views [and is) deceitful, him one should know [to be) an
outcastc.
117. Who(cver) in this world harms living creatures, whether once*bom
r twice-born, whoever) has no compassion for a living creature, him
one should know [to be) an outcaste.
u 8 . <22> Who[ever) destroys or besieges villages and towns, [and] is
notorious as an oppressor, him one should know [to be) an outcaste.
1 19. Whofever] in a village or a forest takes by theft what has not been
given to him [and is] cherished by others, him one should know (to be]
an outcaste.
120. Who(ever) indeed having contracted a debt, when urged (td repay
it] absconds, saying: **(! have] no debt to you", him one should know
(tobe) an outcaste.
121. Who(ever] indeed because o f desire fer some trifle strikes a person
going along the road and takes the trine, him one should know (to be)
an outcaste.
122. Whatever] man for his own sake or for anothers sake or for
wealth, speaks falsely when asked in person, him one should know (to
be} an outcaste.
123. Whofever] is seen (misbehaving! among the wives o f relatives or
friends, by force or with [their] consent, him one should know (to be)
an outcaste.
124. Who(ever) (although) being able docs not support his mother or
father when they arc old and past their youth, him one should know [to
he I art outcaste.

I. The Snake Chapter

I?

[25. W hoever] strikes (or] angers with |his] words his mother or father
or brother or sister or mother-in law , him one should know (to be) an
outcastc.

126. Who[evcr] being asked for what is profitable leaches what is


profitless [and] gives advice in an obscure manner, him one should
know (to be] and outcaste.
127. Whenever] having done an evil action wants no one to know that
he [is responsible], whofever] has concealed his actions, him one should
know [to be] an outcaste.
12S.

Wbo[ever] indeed having gone to another's house [and] having

eaten pure food, does not honour (the other] in return when he comes
[to his bouse], him one should know (to be] an outcaste.
129. Who[cver] by speaking falsely deceives a brahman or ascetic or
even another mendicant, him one should know [to be] an outcaste.
130. <23> Who(ever) when mealtime has arrived angers with [his]
words a brahman or ascetic and does not give [food], him one should
know [to be] an outcaste.
131. Wbo(evcr) wrapped up in delusion [and] desiring some trifle (in
payment] relates here what has never happened,1 him one should know
[to be] an outcaste.
132. Whoever) both extols himself and disparages another, inferior
because of his own pride, him one should know (to be] an outcaste.
133 He makes [others] angry,12 and 1$ mean, desires evil, is avaricious,
crafty,.immodest, shows no remorse; him one should know [to be) an
outcaste.
134. Who(ever) reviles the Buddha or a disciple o f his. a wanderer or a
householder, him one should know (to be) an outcaste.
135. Who(ever) indeed [while] not being an arahat professes to be an
arahat, a thief in the world including Brahm, he indeed is the lowest of

1 Reading asantom.
2 Reading rosato ea.

18

The Group o f Disc ourses

theoutcastes. These indeed are called cmicastcs whom 1 have declared to


you.
136. Not by binh docs one become an ontcaste, not by birth does one
become a brahman. By (one's) action one becomes an outcaste, by
(ones) action one becomes a brahman.
137. Know it by this also, as I give this example: there was a low-caste
Candla. well known as MStaAga.
13$. <24> Thai MStanga gained the highest fame, which is very hard to
obtain. Many khattiyas (and) brahmans came to serve him.
130. He set out on the unpolluted great way which leads to the devns,
(and) having discarded passion and sensual pleasures, he reached the
world o f Brahm5. Birth did not keep him from being bom in the world
of Brahm.
140. (Although] brahmans are born into a family o f scholars (and) have
the vedas as their kinsmen, (nevertheless | they too are again and again
discovered in the midst o f evil deeds.
141. [They are] blameworthy in [this} world o f phenomena, and a bad
transition (is destined) in their future state. Birth does not keep them
from a bod transition or from blame.
142. Not by binh does one become an outcaste, not by birth does one
become a brahman. By (one s) action one becomes an outcaste, by
(one's) action one becomes a brahman
When this was said, the brahman Aggikabhradvja said this to the
Blessed One: Wonderful, venerable Gotama, wonderful, venerable

i 14 i

Gotama. Just as, venerable Gotama. one might set upright what

been overturned, or uncover that which has been covered, or point


the way to one who had gone astray, or bring an oil-lamp into

darkness. $0 that those with eyes might see shapes, in the same way

doctrine has been declared by the venerable Gotama in manifold ways. I


go to the venerable <25> Gotama as a refuge, and to the Doctrine, and
to the Order of bhikkhus. May the venerable Gotama accept me as a layfollower. who has taken refuge from this day forth as long as life lasts.

1. The Snake Chapter

*9

1.8. Loving-kindness
143. This is what is to be done by one who is skilful in respect o f the
good, having attained the peaceful state. He should be capable, straight,
and very upright, easy to speak to, gentle and not proud,
144. contented and easy to support, having few duties and of a frugal
way o f life, will) his sense-faculties calmed, zealous, not impudent,
(and) not greedy [when begging] among families.
145. And he should not do any mean thing, on account o f which other
wise men would criticize him. Let all creatures indeed be happy (and)
secure; let them be happy-minded.
146. Whatever living creatures there are. moving or still without
exception, whichever are long or large, or middle-sized or short, small
or great.
147. <26> whichever are seen or unseen, whichever live far or near,
whether they already exist or are going to be.Tct'all creatures be happyminded.
148. One man should not humiliate another; one should not despise
anyone anywhere. One should not wish another misery because of anger
or from (he notion of repugnance.
149. Just as a mother would protect with her life her own son, her only
son, so one should cultivate an unbounded mind towards all beings.
150. and loving-kindness towards all the world. One should cultivate,
an unbounded mind, above and below and acioss, without obstruction,
without enmity, without rivalry.
151. Standing, or going, or seated, or lying down, as long as one is
free from drowsiness, one should practise this mindfulness. This, they
say. is (he holy state here.
152. Not subscribing to wrong views, virtuous, endowed with insight,
having overcome greed for sensual pleasures, a creature assuredly docs
not come 10 lie again in a womb.

20

The Group o f Discourses

I.9. Hcmavaia
153. <27> Today is the 15th. a fast-day*, said the yakkha $5t2gira It
is a lovely night-Come one, lei us see Gotama, the teacher [who is]
perfectly named.
154. 'Is the mind o f such a one well-disposed towards all bungs?',
asked the yakkha Hemavata. Are his thoughts under control in respect
o f what is desirable and undesirable?'
155. The mind o f such a one is well-disposed towards all beings , said
the yakkha Siigira, and also his thoughts are under control in respect
of what is desirable and undesirable.
156. 'Does bo not take what has not been given?', asked the yakkha
Hemavata. 'Is he fully restrained towards living creatures? Is he far
[removed] from negligence? Does be not neglect meditation ?
157. He does not take what has not been given , said the yakkha
SStSgira, and be fu lly restrained towards living creaturesand he is
fa r [rem oved) from n egligen ce, Th< B uddha does n ot n eglect

meditation.
158. Does ben ot speak falsely?

asked the yakkha Hemavata :<28>

'Is he not of rouglr speech ? Does h e not niter untruths7 Does he not
talk foolishness
159. l i e does not speak falsely nor is he o f rough speech 12 said the
yakkha Satagiia *Nor does he utter untruths. [Being] a thinker he talks
sense.
160. 'Is he not attracted to sensual pleasures? , askec* the yakkha
Hemavata. Is his mind undisturbed? Has he gone beyond delusion?
Has he vision in resnect o f mental phenomena?
161. He is not attracted to sensual pleasures , said the yakkha SStSgira,
and his mind is undisturbed. He has gone beyond all delusion. The
Buddha has vision in respect of mental phenomena.*

1Reading nikhinavyappatho.
2Reading ndkhinavyappatho.

1. The Snake Chapter

21

162. Is he endowed with knowledge?', asked the yakkha Hemavata. Is


he of pure conduct ? Are his savas destroyed ? Will there be no renewed
existence for him?*
163. <29> 'H e is indeed endowed with knowledge, and o f pure
conduct*, said the yakkha Stgira, 'A ll his savas are destroyed. There
is no renewed existence for him.
163A. The mind o f the sage is endowed with action and speech. You
rightly praise him as endowed with knowledge and [good] conduct.
163B. The mind o f the sage is endowed with action and speech. You
rightly rejoice at one endowed with knowledge and [good] conduct.
164. The mind o f the sage is endowed with action and speech. Come
on, let us see Gotama (who is] endowed with'knowledge and [good)
conduct.
165. Come, let us see Gotama, with legs like' an antelope..thin; a hero,1
eating little food, not covetous, the sage meditating in the wood.
166. Having gone up to the nga, [who is) like'a lion, Wandering, alone,
having no regard for sensual pleasured, lette ask [about] release from
Deaths snare.
167. le i us t|sk Gotama, the proclaimed the preacher, [who has] gone to
the far shore o f all phenomena, the BuddKa; passed beyond hatred and
fear.
168. To what has the world arisen?', asked the yakkha Hemavata. Tn
what does it make acquaintance? From the grasping o f what (does! the
world [exist]? In what respect is the world afflicted?'
169. <3o> In six the world has arisen, Hemavata*, said the Blessed
One. Tn six it makes acquaintance. From the grasping o f six indeed (it
exists). In respect o f six the world is afflicted.*
(70. What is that grasping in which the world is afflicted? Being
asked about deliverance, tell how one is released from misery.

1 Reading

viram.

22

The Group o f Discourses

171. Five strands o f sensual pleasures are taught fn the world, with
mind as sixth. Having discarded desire for these, one is in this way
released from misery.
172. This deliverance o f the world has been proclaimed to you as it
really is. This I proclaim to you. In this way one is released from
misery.
173. Who crosses the flood here? Who crosses the ocean here? Who
does not sink into the deep, which has no standing point and no
support?
174. The one always eodowed with virtuous conduct, having wisdom,
well-concentrated, thinking inwardly possessing mindfulness, crosses
the flood which is hard to cross.
175. Abstaining from the perception o f sensual pleasures, passed
beyond all fetters, bereft of existence and pleasure, he does not sink, into
the deep.
176. See him, [the one] o f deep wisdom, seeing the subtle goal, having
nothing, not attached to sensual pleasures and existence, completely
released in every respect, the great seer going on the divine path.
177. See Mm, [the one who is] perfectly named, seeing the subtle goal,
imparting wisdom, not attached to clinging to sensual pleasures,. <31>
knowing all, very intelligent, the great seer, going on the noble path.
178. Truly it was well seen by us today. It has dawned well, arisen
well, in that we have seen the fully-awakened one, the flood-crosscr,
without Ssavas.
179. These ten hundred yakkhas, with supernormal powers, famous, all
go to you as a refuge. You are our incomparable teacher.
180. We shall wander form village to village, from mountain to
mountain revering the fully-awakened one and the essential rightness o f
the doctrine.

I. The Snake Chapter

23

I.io . lavaka

Thus have I heard. Once the Blessed One was slaying ai Alavi, in ihe
haunt o f the yakkha lavaka. Then the yakkha lavaka went up to (he
Blessed One and said to him: 'C o ou(, ascetic* Yes, sir*, said (he
Blessed One, and went out. Go ir ascetic t (said the yakkha). *Yes,
sir*, said the Blessed One, and went in. A second time the yakkha
Ajavaka said this to the Blessed One: *Go out. ascetic* 'Y es. sir*, said
the Blessed One, and went out. C o in, ascetic.* 'Y es, sir', said the
Blessed One, and went in. A third time the yakkha lavaka said this to
the Blessed One: 'Go out, ascetic*. 'Y es, sir*, said the Blessed One.
and went out. 'G o in, ascetic.' 'Y es, sir*, said the Blessed One, and
went in. A fourth time the yakkha lavaka said this to the Blessed
One: 'Go out, ascetic . <32> 'Then 1 shall not go out. sir; do whatever
you must* 1 shall ask you a question, ascetic. If you do not answer
me, 1 shall either strike down your mind or split your heart, or seize
you by the feet and throw you over (he Ganges.

Ldo ndt see anyone,

sir, in the world, including the devas, Mira and BrohmS, among beings
including ascetics and brahmans, devas and men, who could strike
down my mind; or split my heart, or seize me by the feet and throw me
over the Ganges. Nevertheless, ask what you wish. Then the yakkha
lavaka addressed the Blessed One with a verse.
181. 'What in this world <[s the best wealth for a man? What when well
practised brings happiness? What indeed is the sweetest o f flavours?
Living in what way do they say one's life is best?*
182. Faith is the best wealth for a man in this world. Righteousness
when well practised brings happiness. Truth is the sweetest o f flavours.
They say the life o f one living by wisdom is best.
183. 'How does one cross the flood? How does one cross the ocean?
How does one go beyond misery? How is one purific'd?
184. <33> By faith one crosses the flood, by vigilance the ocean. By
energy one goes beyond misery. By wisdom tie is purified.

24

The Group o f Discourses

185. 'How docs one obtain wisdom ? How does one find wealth ? How
docs one obtain fame ? How does one bind friends (to oneself)? Having
passed away from this world to the next world, how does one not
grieve?*
186. 'Having faith in the doctrine o f the arahats for the gaining o f
quenching, one obtains wisdom by willingness to hear, never being
negligent, clever.
187. Doing what is fitting, bearing the yoke, exerting oneself one nds
wealth. B y truth one gains fame. Being generous binds friends (to
oneself).
188. Whatever faithful house-seeker has these four things: truth,
righteousness, firmness, generosity, he indeed does not grieve when be
has passed away.
189. Com e now, ask others too. many ascetics and brahmans, if
anything & found in this world greater than truth, (self-]pmro),
generosity, and forbearance.
190. How now could I possibly a$Jc many ascetics and brahmans? I
now know what my future goal is.
19 1. Truly for my sake the Buddha came to Alavi to stay. I now know
where [a gift), when given, bears great fruit
192 .1 shall wander from village to village, from city to city, revering
the fully-awakened one and the essential rightness of the doctrine.
i . u . Victory
193* <34> I f going or standing (still), sitting or lying down, one bends
[or] stretches out [the limbs], this is movement of the body.
194. Joined together with bones and sinews, having a plastering of skin
and flesh, hovered with hide, the body is not seen as it really is
195. full o f intestines, full o f stomach, (full] of the lump of the liver,
o f bladder, o f heart, of lungs, of kidneys, and of spleen.

1. The Snake Chapter

25

196. o f mucus, o f saliva, and1 of sweat, and of lymph, o f blood, of


synovial fluid, of bile, and o f fat.
197. and impurity always flows from its nine apertures; eye excrement
[flows) from the eye. car excrement from the ear.
19$. and mucus from the nose; by way o f the mouth it vomits now
bile, now phlegm; sweat and dirt (flow) from the body,
199. and its hollow head is filled with brain. A fool, overwhelmed by
ignorance, thinks o f it as beautiful.
200. but when it lies dead, swollen up and discoloured, cast away in a
cemetery, relatives have no regard [for it).
201. Dogs devour it, and jackals, and wolves and worms. Crows and
vultures devour (it), and whatever other living creatures there are.
202. <3$> The bhikkhu possessing knowledge here, having heard the
Buddhas word, indeed understands it. for he secs (the body] as it really
is.
203. 'As is this, so is that; as is that, $0 is this*.' (Understanding this)
one would discard desire for the body, both inside and outside.
204. Having discarded desire and passion, the bhikkhu possessing
knowledge here has arrived at the death-free, peace, the unshakable state
o f quenching.
205. This impure, evil-smelling two-footed {body) is cherished. It is
full of various corpses, flowing out from here and there.
206. Wbo(ever) would think to exalt [himself] because o f such a body,
or would disparage another what is this except lack o f insight?
i.iz . The Sage
207. From acquaintance arises fear; from the house(-life) arises
pollution. The houseless state, the state without acquaintance, this
indeed is the sages view.

1 Reading sedassi! eit

26

The Group o f Discourses

208. Who[ever] having cut down what has grown, would not plant (any
new] growing thing, [and] would not bestow [moisture] upon it, him
they call a solitary wandering sage. That great seer has seen the state of
peace.
209. <36> Having considered (he fields [of activity], having crushed
the seed, he would not bestow the moisture (of affection) upon it. That
sage indeed, seeing the end o f birth and death, leaving speculation
behind, is not counted [in any category].
2to. Knowing Ml resting-places (of the mind) (but) not liking any of
them, that sage indeed, with greed gone, without greed, performs no
action [good or bad), for he has gone to the far shore.
211. Overcoming all. knowing all, very intelligent, unattached to all
phenomena, giving up all, completely released in the destruction of
craving, him indeed the wise know as a sage.
212. One with the strength o f wisdom, [who is) endowed with vows of
virtuous conduct, concentrated, delighting in meditation, possessing
mindfulness, released from attachment, without [mental] barrenness,
without savas, him indeed the wise know as a sage.
213. The sage wandering alone, vigilant, not shaking in the midst of
blame and praise, not trembling, as a lion (docs not tremble] at sounds,
not caught up (with others), as the wind (is not caught up] in a net, not
defiled (by passion), as a lotus (is not defiled] by water, a leader o f
others, not to be led by others, him indeed the wise know as a sage.
214. <37> Who(ever) in the midst o f oppression becomes [unmoved]
like a pillar, when others make statements about him in an extreme
manner, him indeed, with passion gone, with sense faculties wellconcentrated. the wise know as a sage.
215. Who(evcr) indeed, steadfast, as straight as a shuttle, is disgusted
with evil deeds, examining bad and good conduct, him indeed the wise
know as a sage.

I. The Snake Chapiei

27

216. Who(ever) with fully restrained self docs no evil, (being) young or
middle-aged or a sage will) restrained self, (and) cannot be angered (and)
does not anger anyone, him indeed (he wise know as a sage.
217. Who(cver) living or food given by others, would receive alms
from the top, or from the middle, or from what is left, (and docs) not
deign to praise and does not speak disparagingly, him indeed the wise
know as a sage.
218. A sage, wandering, abstaining from sexual intercourse, who in his
youth was not tied to anything, abstaining from intoxication and
negtigenc" completely released, him indeed the wise know as a sage.
219. Knowing the world, seeing the Highest goal, having crossed the
flood, the sea, such a one, <38 with his bonds cut. not fettered,
without savas, him indeed the wise know as a sage.
220. The two of them, with far different dwelling place and way o flife,
are not equal the householder supporting a wife and the unselfish
one of good vows. The householder is not fully restrained in respect o f
th$ killing o f other living creatures, the sage, being restrained,
constantly protects living creatures.
221. As the crested (peacock) with blue neck never attains the speed of
the goose [when] going through the sky, so a householder docs not
equal a bbikkhu, a sage (who is) apart, meditating in the wood.

Summary verse: The Snake, Dhaniya, the Horn, and Ploughing.


Cunda. Failure, the Outcast, the Promotion o f Loving-Kindness,
St&gira, lavaka. Victory and the Sage. These twelve discourses are
called the Snake Chapter.

II. The Small Chapter


H.I. The Jewel
222. <39> Whatever] beings have come together here, earthly ones or
those which [live] in the sky, may every one o f those beings be happy,
and may they pay attention and hear this utterance.
223. Therefore, ail you beings, listen, show loving-kindness to the
human race who day and night bring their offerings. Therefore protect
them carefulpy].
224. Wbat(ever) wealth there is here or elsewhere, or whatever] is the
outstanding jewel in the heavens, that is indeed not equal to a
Taihgaia. This outstanding jew el too is in the Buddha, by this truth
may there be well-being.
225. Destruction [of craving], absence o f passion, the outstanding (state
o f the) death-free which the Sakyao sage attained, when concentrated,
there is nothing equal to that doctrine. This outstanding jew el too is in
the Doctrine, by this truth may there be well-being.
226. The concentration which the best o f Buddhas described as pure,
the one which they call immediate, < 4 0 to that concentration no equal
is found. This outstanding jew el too is in the Doctrine; by this truth
may there be well-being.
227. The eight individuals who are praised by the good form these four
pairs. These disciples o f the Wcll-farer are worthy recipients [of
offerings]. [Gifts] given to them bear great fruit This outstanding jewel
100 is in the Order; by this truth may there be well-being.
228. Those who without sensual pleasures are well intent upon
Goiamas teaching, with firm mind, have gained the [highest] gain,
having plunged into the death-free, enjoying quenching, having
obtained it for nothing. This outstanding jewel too is in the Order; by
this truth may there be well-being.
229. As a locking-post resting (deepj in the earth would be unshakable
by the four winds, o f such a kind 1 say is the Good Man, who having

II. The Small Chapter

29

understood the noble truths sees them (clearly). This outstanding jew el
too is in the Order; by this truth may there be well-being.
230. Those who understand clearly the noble truths (which have been)
well taught by the one o f deep wisdom, even though they are very
negligent will not take an eighth existence. This outstanding jew el too
is in the Order ; by this truth may there be well-being.
231. At the same time as his attainment of insight, three things become
abandoned: <4i> the [false] view o f individuality, and doubt, and
whatever [misapprehension about] rules o f virtuous, conduct and vows
there may be. He i$ also completely released from the four bad
transitions and [isj not capable o f committing the six great crimes. This
outstanding jewel too is in the Order; by this truth may there be well
being.
232. Although he commits an evil deed, by body, speech, or by mind,
he is incapable o f hiding it. This incapability [s said [jo belong] to one
who has seen the state [of quenching]. This outstanding jewel too is in
the Order : by this truth may there be well-being.
233. As [is] a forest grove with variegated crests, in the heat in the first
month o f the hot season, o f such a kind is the excellent doctrine he
taught, leading to quenching, for the highest benefit This outstanding
jewel too is in the Buddha; by this truth may there be well-being.
234. The excellent ond. knowing what is excellent, giving what is
excellent, bringing what is excellent, beyond compare, taught the
excellent doctrine. This outstanding jewel too is in the Buddha, by this
truth may there be well-being.
235. 'The old is destroyed, the new is not arising. Those whose minds
are disgusted wiih future existence, their seeds (of rebirth) have been
destroyed |and| *hcy have no desire for growth. <42> The wise arc
quenched just like this lamp. This outstanding jewel too is in the
Order; by this truth may thctc be well-being.

30

V e G rou p o f D iscourses

236. Whai(cvcr) beings have come together here, earthly ones or those
which (live) in the sky, let us revere iheTathSgata honoured by devas
and men, the Buddha. May there be well-being.
237. Whatever) beings have come together here, earthly ones or those
which [live] in the sky, let us revere the TathSgata honoured by devas
and men, (and) the Doctrine. May there be well-being.
238. Whatever] beings have come together here, earthly ones or those
which (live] in the sky, let u$ revere the Tathdgata honoured by devas
and men, [and] the Order. May there be well-being.
11.2.

Tainted fare

239. [Those] eating millet seed, plants, beans, green leaves, roots and
creeper-fruits, obtained in accordance with the doctrine of the good, do
not tell lies from desire for sensual pleasure.
240. Ealing what is well-made, well-prepared, given by others, pure,
outstanding, <43> enjoying food (made! o f rice, one partakes, Kassapa,
of tainted fare.
241. Tainted fare does not apply to me, thus you speak, you relative
o f Bnhma, [although] enjoying food [made] o f rice, together with well*
dressed flesh o f birds. 1 ask you this, Kassapa: What form does your
(aimed fare have?*
242. Hurting living creatures, killing, cutting, and binding, stealing,
telling lies, fraud and deceptions, useless studies, intercourse with other
men's wives this is tainted fare, not the eating o f flesh.
243. If any persons here are completely unrestrained in respect o f
sensual pleasures, are greedy for flavours, associated with impurity,
having the view that nothing exists, wrong, hard to fathom this is
tainted fare, nbt the eating of flesh.
244. If any persons are rough, pitiless, back-biting, harming their

friends, heartless, arrogant, ungenerous, and do not give to anyone


this is tainted fate, not the eating o f flesh.

I], The Small Chapter

245. <44> Anger, arrogance, obstinacy, and hostility, delusion, envy,


and grandiloquence, and pride, and conceit, acquaintance with the bad
this is tainted fare, not (he eating o f flesh.
246. If any persons are o f evil moral conduct, debt-repudiators.
informers, cheats in their business dealings here, dissemblers, vile men
who commit sin here this is tainted fare, not the eating o f flesh.
247. If any persons here are completely unrestrained in respect o f living
creatures, taking others* property, intent on injury, o f bad moral
conduct and cruel, harsh, disrespectful this is tainted fare, not the
eating o f flesh.
24S. Those beings (who arc) very greedy, hostile, hurtful, constantly
intent (00 evil], who having passed away go to darkness, (and] fall
headlong into hell this is tainted fare, not the eating o f flesh.
249. Not the flesh o f fish, nor fasting, nor nakedness, nor shaven head,
malted hair, dirt, nor rough animal skins, nor observance o f (he fire
ceremony, nor even the many penances there arc in the world for
[gaining] immortality, nor hymns nor oblations, nor the performance o f
sacrifices at the proper season, purify a mortal who has not crossed
beyond doubt.
250. <4 S> Guarded in the apertures (of the sense-organs], one should
wander with one's sense-faculties conquered, standing firm in the
doctrine, delighting in uprightness and mildness. Gone beyond
attachment, with all miseries eliminated, a wise man does not cling to
things seen or heard.
251. Thus the Blessed One proclaimed this matter again and again, and
the (brahman] who had reached the far shore of the [vedic] hymns
understood it. With variegated verses the sage without taint, unfettered,
hard to fathom, declared it.

Reading etc sugiddhd.

32
352.

The Croup o f Discourses

Having heard the Buddha's well-spoken word, without taint,

thrusting away all miseries, with bumble mind he praised the


TathSgata's [feet]. On that very spot he chose to go forth.
II.3. Modesty
253. Him, flouting and loathing modesty, saying *1 am a friend', [but]
not undertaking xtions (which are) possible [for him to do), one should
know to be *nct my [friend]*
254. Who(ever] utters a pleasant word among his friends [which is] not
followed up, [him] wise men know to be one who speaks [but] does not
acL
255. <46> He is not a friend who is always assiduously) suspecting
dissension, and looking only for defects. Bui with whom one rests like
a son on [his father s] breast, be deed is a friend who cannot be
alienated by others.
756. While bearing the human yoke, having the advantage or the Unit
[of right effort], ho develop ibe bdSi* which causes joy, the happinesswhich brings praise.
257.

Tasting the flavour o f seclusion, and the flavour or quiescence, one

becomes without distress, without evil, lasting the flavour o f rapture in


the doctrine.
U 4. Great Good-fortune
Thus have I heard. Once the Blessed One was staying at Svatthi, in the
Jetavana in Anthapindikas park. Then, as night was passing away, a
deity of surpassing radiance, illuminating the whole Jetavana, came up
to the Blessed One and stood on one side after saluting him. Standing
there that deity addressed the Blessed One with a verse.
258. Manydevas and men have thought about good fortunes, longing
for well-being. Tell [me) the good fortune [which is) supreme.
259. Not associating with fools, but associating with the wise, and
honouring those who deserve honour this is supreme good fortune.

II. The Small Chapter

33

:6o. Living in suitable regions, the previous performance o f merit, and


voper self-application this is supreme good fortune.
61. <47> Creai learning and craft, and a discipline well-instructed, and
vhat(ever) utterance is well-spoken - this is supreme good fortune.
162. Service to mother and father, support o f wife and sons, and
itraightforward work this is supreme good fortune.
263. Giving, and living the just life, and support o f relatives, (and]
blameless deeds this is supreme good fortune.
264. Aversion 10 and abstinence from evil, complete restraint from
intoxicating drink, and vigilance in respect o f mental phenomena
this is supreme good fortune.
265. Reverence, and humility, and contentment, (and) gratefulness,
[and] hearing the doctrine at the right time this is supreme good
fortune.
266. Forbearance, and meekness when corrected, and seeing ascetics,
and discussion of the doctrine at the nght time this is supreme good
fortune.
267. Penance, and living the holy life, and seeing the noble truths, and
the realisation of quenching this is supreme good fortune.
268. Whose mind is not shaken when he is touched by the phenomena
o f the world, being without grief, unpolluted, secure this is supreme
good fortune.
269. Having done such things, [being] unconquered everywhere, they
go everywhere in safety this is their supreme good fortune.
II.5.

SGciloma

Thus have 1 heard. Once the Blessed One was staying at Gaya at
Taipkitamaftca. in the haunt o f the yakkha SGciloma. At that time <4$>
the yakkha Khuu and the yakkha SGciloma passed by not far from the
Blessed One. Then the yakkhd Khara said to (he yakkha SGciloma:
That is an asu-tu-

He is not an ascetic, he just looks like an ascetic.

1*11 soon find out if he is an ascetic or just looks like one . Then the

The Croup o f Discourses

34

yakkha Sciloma went up to the Blessed One and pressed his body
against him. Then the Blessed One drew away from him. Then the
yakkha Sciloma said to the Blessed One: You are afraid of me,
ascetic'. T am not afraid of you* sir, nevertheless your touch is evil*. T
shall ask you a question, ascetic. If you do not answer me, I shall either
strike down your mind, or split your heart, or seize you by the feet and
throw you over the Ganges'. 'I do not see anyone, sir, in the world,
including the devas. Mara and Brahma, among beings including
ascetics and brahmans, devas and men, who could strike down my
mind, or split my heart, or seize me by the feet and throw me over the
Ganges. Nevertheless, ask what you wish . Then the yakkha Sciloma
addressed the Blessed One wiih a verse.
270. "Whence do passion and hatred have their origin ? Whence are
aversion and delight and excitement bom ? Whence arising do thoughts
toss up the mind, as young boys toss up a (captive) crow.1
271. "From this (body] passion and hatred have their origin. From tbits
(body] aversion and delight and excifcntqnt are bom. Arising from this
(body) thoughts toss up the mind, as young boys toss up a (captive)
crow.12
272. <49> (They are) born from affection, arisen from oneself, like the
tnink'bora (shoots) o f the banyan tree. (They are] many, attached to
sensual pleasures, like a mJuv creeper stretched out in a wood.
273. Those who know whence il has its origin reject i t Hear [me),
yakkha. They cross this flood, hard to cross, not crossed before, for the
sake o f no more renewed existence.'

11.6.

The Righteous Life

274. Living the righteous life, living the holy life, this they say is
supreme power. If one has gone forth from the house to the houseless
state,

1 Reading
2 Reading

dhaAkom.
dhankam

II. The Small Chapter

35

275. if he is foul-mouthed by nature, delighting in doing injury, a


beast, his life is more evil, he increases his own pollution.
276. A bhikkhu who delights in quarrels, (and] is covered by the nature
of delusion, does not know the doctrine even when proclaimed (and]
taught by the Buddha.
277. Injuring someone with developed self, overwhelmed by ignorance,
he does not know that defilement (isl the road which leads to hell.
278. Arrived at downfall, (going] from womb to womb, from darkness
to darkness, that bhikkhu indeed being of such a kind goes to misery,
when he has passed away.
279. Just as a cess-pit used for a number o f years, completely full,
would be hard to clean, so too would anyone be [hard to clean], who
was of such a kind, full o f depravity.
280. Whom you know to be of such a kind, bhikkhus, (still) intent
upon the housef-holders life), having ev il desires, having evil
thoughts, having evil conduct and sphere o f activity.
281. < 5 0 all o f you, becoming united, shun him. Blow away the
sweepings, throw away the rubbish,
282. then remove the chaff, [that is) those who are not ascetics
(although) thinking they are ascetics. Having blown away those with
evil desires, o f evil conduct and sphere o f activity,
283. being pure, make your dwelling with the pure, being mindful.
Then, united, zealous, you will make an end o f misery.
U.7. B rahmanicai Lore
Thus have I heard. Once the Blessed One was staying at Svatth, in die
Jeiavana in Anthapindakas park. Then many wealthy brahmans of
Kosala, aged, old, elderly, advanced in years, in their old age, came to
the Blessed One and exchanged the customary friendly greetings with
him, and then sat on one side. Seated there those wealthy brahmans
said to the Blessed One: 'Do brahmans now, Gotama, live in
conformity with the brahmanica! lore of the brahmans of old?' 'No.

The Croup o f Discourses

brahmans, brahmans now do not live in conformity with (he


brahmanical lore o f the brahmans o f old. Then let the venerable
Ootama tell us about the brahmanical lore o f the brahmans of old, if it
is not too much trouble for him. Then listen, brahmans, pay careful
attention. 1 shall tell you.' 'Yes, venerable one', replied the wealthy
brahmans to the Blessed One.
284. 'The seers o f old had fully restrained selves, (and) were austere.
Having abandoned die five strands o f sensual pleasures, they practised
their own welfare.
285. <5i> The brahmans had no cattle, no gold, no wealth. They had
study as their wealth and grain. They guarded the holy life as their
treasure.
286. What was prepared for them, food made ready at the door, prepared
in faith, they thought this was to be given to those who soughL
287. Proisperous countries and kingdoms revered those brahmans with
multi-coloured clothes, beds and lodgings.
288. Brahmans were inviolable, unconquerable, protected by the law.
No one obstructed them at all at the doors o f families.
289. For forty-eight years they practised the life o f a young brahman;
in former times the brahmans practised the search for knowledge and
(good] conduci.
290. Brahmans did not go to another (caste for a wife), nor did they
buy a wife. Having come together by mutual consent only, they found
pleasure in living together.
291. Brahmans did not indulge in sexual intercourse at any other time
except at the cessati o f the menstrual period.
292. They raised the holy life, and virtuous conduct, uprightness,
mildness, and austerity, meekness and non-violence, and forbearance.
293. <52> Whichever o f them was the supreme brahman, of firm
endeavour, he indeed did not indulge in sexual intercourse even in a
dream.

U. The Small Chapter

37

294. Following his practice, some o f wise disposition here praised the
holy life, and viituous conduct, and forbearance too.
295. Having asked for rice, a bed, clothes, and butter and oil. having
collected them properly, from that they performed the sacrifice. When
the sacrifice occurred, they did not kill cows.
296. "Like a mother, father, brother, or other relative too, cows arc our
best friends, in which medicines are produced.
29 7. They give food, strength, (good) complexion, and likewise
happiness." Knowing this fact, (hey did not kill cows.
298. Tender, with large bodies, with [good] complexion, famous,
brahmans were eager in respect o f what was to be done and what was
not to be done, in accordance with their own lore. As long as (the lore)
existed in the world, (his race prospered in happiness.
299. (But) there was a change in them. Seeing little by little the
splendour o f the king, and women adorned,
300. and chariots yoked to thoroughbreds, well-made, with variegated
coverings, dwellings and bouses evenly .proportioned and [well] laidout,
301. [and] great human wealth, surrounded by herds o f cows, combined
with groups of excellent women, the brahmans coveted this.
302. Having composed hymns for this purpose, they then went up to
Okkka. <53> "You have much wealth and grain. Sacrifice, [for] your
property is much. Sacrifice, [for] your wealth is much."
303. And then the king, the lord o f warriors, induced by the brahmans,
having performed these sacrifices, the assamedha, the purisamedha, the
sammpsa, the vcapcyya, [and] the ni raggia, gave wealth to the
brahmans:
304. cows, and a bed, and clothes, and adorned women, and chariots
yoked to thoroughbreds, well made, with variegated coverings.
305. Having filled delightful dwellings, evenly proportioned, with
various sons of grain, he gave wealth to'the brahmans.

The Group o f Discourses

306. And they, receiving wealth there, found pleasure in hoarding it up.
Overcome by desire, their craving increased the more. Having composed
hymns for this purpose, they went up to Okkka again.
307. A s are water, earth, gold, wealth, and grain, so are cows to men.
For this is a requisite for living creatures. Sacrifice, [for] your propetty
is much. Sacrifice, [for] your wealth is much.*'
30$. And then the king, the lord of warriors, induced by the brahmans,
had many hundreds o f thousands o f cows killed in a sacrifice.
309. Not by their feet, nor by their boms, nor by anything [else] had
the cows harmed (anyone). They were like sheep, meek, giving pails of
milk. (Nevertheless) the king, seizing them by the horns, had them
killed with a knife.
310. <54> And then the devas, and1 the fathers. Inda, asuras and
rakkhasas cried out: "(This is) injustice, when the knife fell on the
cows.
3 1 1. Formerly there were three diseases: desire, hunger, and old age.
But from the killing o f cattle ninety-eight [diseases] came.
312. This injustice o f using violence has come down (to us] as an
ancient practice. Innocent [cows] are killed; the sacrificed fall away
from justice.
3 1 3 . Thus this ancient mean practice is blamed by those who
understand. Where people see such a thing [being done], they blame the
$acrificer.
314. When justice perished thus; suddas and vessikas were split;
khattiyas were split wide apart ; a wife despised her husband.
315. Khattiyas and the relatives o f Brahm and the others who were
protected by clan, putting aside talk about caste, came under the
influence of sensual pleasures.'
When this had been said, the wealthy brahmans said to the Blessed
One: 'Wonderful, venerable Gotama, wonderful, venerable Gotama.

Reading piloro ca.

]I. The Sm all Chcrxcr

y.)

J:isi as, venerable Gotama, one might set upright what has been
overturned, or -cover that which has been covered, or point out the
way to one whe had gone astray, or bring an oil-lamp into the darkness,
so that those w ih eyes might see shapes, in the same way the doctrine
has been decter :d by the venerable Gofama :n manifold ways. We go to
(he vcncrabie C otama as a refuge, and to the Doctrine, <55> and to the
Order o f bhik thus. M ay the venerable Gotama accept us as layfollowers, whe have taken refuge from this day forth as long as life
lasts.'

11.8 . The Boat


316. A man should honour one from whom he can learn the doctrine,
just as the delti is honour Inda. With clear mind, learned, he reveals the
doctrine to him when he is honoured.
317. If anyone cultivates such a man carcfulfly), making it his aim and
listening attentively], entering upon the delirine and what conforms
with (he doctrine, he becomes understanding, intelligent and subtle.
318. But consorting with a poor fool, who has not gained the goat and
is envious, one goes to one's death, having failed to understand the
doctrine clearly in this world, and not having overcome doubt.
319. How can a man who has gone down into a river, a swift-flowing
stream in spate, and is carried along with the current, help others to
cross?
320. In the same way, how can one who has fallet* to understand the
doctrine clearly, and has not listened to the explanation given by the
learned ones, who is ignorant of it himself and has not overcome doubt,
help others to realise it?
321. <56> Just as one embarking upon a strong boat provided with oar
and rudder, could bring many others across there, being skilful,
thoughtful, and knowing the means thereof.
322. In the satne way, one who has knowledge and has d e v e lo p !
himself, who is learned and unshakable, understanding it himself, could
make others realise it, if they have the ability to listen attentively.

40

The Croup o f Discourses

323. Therefore one should cultivate a good man who is wise and
learned. Understanding rhe meaning, and following (the pathj. knowing
the doctiir.e, one would attain happiness.
II.9.

What moral conduct?

324. Ha\ ing what moral conduct, having what practice, promoting what
deeds, would a man be properly established and gain the supreme goal?
325. He hould be one who honours older people, (is) not envious, and
he should be one who knows the (right) time for seeing teachers.
[Being] c who knows the occasion [for hearing] he should listen
attentively to a discourse o f the doctrine when it is uttered, [and] the
well-spoken [sayings].
326. He should go to the teachers presence at the right time, putting
aside stubbornness, being o f meek disposition, <57> and he should
remember the goal, and the doctrine, and practise self-restraint and the
holy life.
327. Taking delight in the doctrine. dfeltphtina in the doctrine, steadfast
in the doctrine, knowing* the exegesis o f the doctrine, he should not
make any utterance detrimental to the doctrine. He should pass his time
with true, well-spoken [sayingsj.
32S. Having abandoned laughter, mumbling, lamentation, hatred,
deception, hypocrisy, greed and pride, impetuosity, roughness, sin and
infatuation, he should wander without pride, with steadfast self.
329. [Savings] o f which the essence is understood are well-spoken, and
learning (when] understood is the essence o f concentration. The wisdom
and learning o f the man who is hasty and negligent do net increase.
330. But those who delight in the doctrine preached by the noble ones,
are unsurpassed in word, thought, and deed. Well-established in peace,
meekness, and concentration, they have attained the essence o f learning
and wisdom.

II. The Sm all Chapter.

41

It. io. Arousal

3 3 *- Arise! Sit up! What need have you o f sleep? For what rest is
there for the sick, pierced by the barb, tandj hurt?

33 2* <58> Arise! Sit up! Train yourselves hard for peace. May the
king of death, knowing you to be negligent, not delude you [so that
you] come under his influence.

333 - Cross over this attachment, tied to which and desiring which
devas and men remain [in existence]. Let not the opportunity pass you
by, for those who have missed the opportunity grieve when consigned
to hell.
334. Negligence is defilement; defilement arises from negligence; by
vigilance [and] knowledge one should pluck out one's own barb.
ii.U . Rbula
Introductory verses.
335- Do you not despise the wise man because o f living with him
constantly? Is the one who holds up the torch for men honoured by
you?
336. T do not despise the wise man because of living with him
constantly. The one who bolds up the torch for men is always honoured
by me.

337. Having abandoned the five strands o f sensual pleasures, delightful


in form, pleasing (he mind, having gone forth from the house in faith,
put an end to misery.
338.

' Cultivate noble friends, and a solitary lodging (which is) secluded,

with little noise. Be moderate in eating.


339. <59> A robe, and alms-food, requisites, a lodging, do not crave
for these. Do not come back to the svorld again.
340. Be restrained in respect of the rules o f discipline, and in the five
sense-faculties. Be mindful concerning the body. Be full of disgust
(with the world).

42

The Group o f Discourses

341. Avoid (any] sign which is pleasant [and] connected with passioh.
Develop a mind (which is) intent and well-concentrated on the
unpleasant.
342. And develop the signless, (and) cast out the latent tendency to
conceit. Then by the full understanding o f conceit you w ill wander.
stilled/
In this way with these verses the Blessed One constantly instructed
the venerable RShula.
II. 12. VangTsa
Thus have 1 heard. Ooce the Blessed One was staying at Alavi, at
the Aggelava shrine. At that time the preceptor o f the venerable
VaAgTso, the thera Nigodhakappa, had gained quenching not long before
at the Aggelava, shrine. Then this thought arose in the mind o f the
venerable VahgTsa as he meditated in solitude: Has my preceptor
gained quenching or not? Then the venerable VangTsa, rising from his
meditation in the evening, went to the Blessed One, greeted him and
sat on one side. <6o> So seated, the venerable VaftgTsa said to the
Blessed O ne: This thought arose in my mind as 1 meditated in
solitude: Has my preceptor gained quenching or not? * Then the
venerable Vangisa, rising from his seat and placing his robe over one
shoulder, saluted the Blessed One with cupped hands and addressed
him with a verse.
343. We ask the teacher who has perfect wisdom, who is the cutter-off
o f uncertainties in the world of phenomena: A bhikkhu has died at
Aggelava, well-known, famous, with self completely quenched.
344. The name Nigodhakappa was given to that brahman by you.
Blessed One. Longing for release, putting forth energy, he wandered
about revering you, seer of what is firm by nature.
345. Sakyan with all-round vision, we too all wish to know o f that
disciple. Our ears arc ready to hear. You are our teacher; you are
unsurpassed.

II. The S m all Chapter

43

346. Cut away our uncertainty, tell me this: tell [u$J. one o f great
wisdom, that he is quenched. Speak in the very midst o f us, one with
all-round vision, like Sakka the thousand-eyed one in the midst o f the
devas.
347. Whatever ties arc here, ways o f delusion, on die side o f ignorance,
causing uncertainty, < 6 i> they cease to exist when they reach the
Tathgata, for that eye is supreme among men.
348. For if no man were ever to disperse defilements, as the wind
disperses a mass o f clouds, the whole world, enveloped, would be
darkness indeed. Even illustrious men would not shine forth.
349. But wise men are light-makers. Therefore, hero.*11 think that you
are such [a one]. We have come to one who sees by insight and knows.
Reveal Kappa[*s fate) to us in the assemblies.
350. Quickly send forth your beautiful voice, beautiful one.2 Like geese
stretching out [their necks], honk gently with rounded voice wellmodulated. Every one of us is listening to you, bolt upright
351. Having constrained the one who has eliminated birth and death,
without remainder, being purified, I shall make him speak about the
doctrine. O f ordinary individuals there is no one who can indeed act
according to his desires, but Tathgatas can act deliberately.
352. This perfect explanation o f you who have upright wisdom is
accepted. This last salutation is proffered. Since you know, do not
delude [us], one o f perfect wisdom.
353. Knowing the noble doctrine from top to bottom, do not delude us.
since you know, one o f perfect energy. <6a> I long for your voice as
one burned by heat in summer longs for water. Rain on our ears.

' Reading vira.


1 Reading voggu vaggum.

44

Tte Group o f Discourses

354. Sutly the useful1 virtuous life which Kappa lived was not in
v ain ? Did he gain quenching [without grasping] or did he have some
grasping remaining? Let us hear how he was released.
355. He has cut o ff craving for nam&uid-forro in this world", said the
Blessed One. 'H e has passed beyond all birth and death, the stream o f
Kanha, which has long been latent [in him]/ So spoke the Blessed
One, the best o f the five.
3516. Hearing your voice, best o f seers, I am satisfied. Truly my
question was not in vain. The brahman has not deceived me.
3 5 7 . A s the Buddha's disciple spoke, so he acted. He cut the strong
stretchcd-out net o f deceitful death.
458. Kappiya saw the beginning o f grasping Blessed One. Kappyana
has truly passed beyond the realm o f death, which is very bard to
cross/
II.13. Proper Wandering
359. <3> T ask the sage o f great wisdom, who has crossed, gone to
the far shore, is quenched, with steadfast self: having gone forth from
the house, having thrust away sensual pleasures, how would that
bhikkhu wander properly in the world?*
360. For whom omens are rooted out , said the Blessed One, [and]
meteors, dreams and signs, that bhikkhu, with the blemish of omens
completely abandoned, would wander properly in the world.
361. A bhikkhu should dispel his passion for sensual pleasures, Iboth]
human and divine. Having gone beyond existence, having understood
the doctrine, he would wander properly in the world.
362. Having put slanders behind him, a bhikkhu should abandon anger
and meanness. With compliance and opposition completely abandoned,
he would wander properly in the world.

Reading

yadanhiyam.

II. The Small Chapter

45

363 Having abandoned the pleasant and die unpleasant, not grasping,
not dependent upon anything, completely released from the fetters, he
would wander properly in the world.
364. He does not come across any essence in acquisitions. Having
dispelled his passion and desire for attachments, independent, not to be
led by others, he would wander properly in the world.
365. <&(> Unopp >$ed in word, thought, and deed, properly knowing
the doctrine, dcsinng the state o f quenching, he would wander properly
in the world
366. If any bhikkhu were not haughty, (think* igj He salutes roe ,
(and) even when abused were not to reflect upon it, (andl having
received food from another were not to be elated, he would wander
property in the world.
367. That bhikkhu (who) having abandoned covetousness and existence,
abstaining Horn cutting and binding (others), has crossed oveir doubt
(and) is without the barb, he would wander properly in the world.
368. And knowing what is suitable for himself, a bhikkhu should not
harm anyone in t lis world, knowing the doctrine as it really is. He
would wander pronerly in the world.
369. In whom there are no latent tendencies, (whose) bad roots are
rooted out, (being] without aspirations, not longing, he would wander
properly in the world. <6s>
370. With Ssavas destroyed, with conceit abandoned, gone beyond
every path o f passion, (sclf-)controlled, quenched, with steadfast self, he
would wander properly in the world.
371. The believer, learned, seeing the W3y (to salvation), not following
any faction among the factious, wise, having dispelled covetousness,
hatred (and! repugnance, he would wander properly in the world.
372. Purified and victorious, with deceit removed, having mastery over
mental phenomena, gone to the far shore, without lust, skilled in the
knowledge o f the cessation o f the constituent elements, he would
wander properly in the world.

The Group o f D iscourses

37.V

he has) gone beyond the figments in respect of things past and

future, (then) having gone beyond, with knowledge o f purity,


completely released from all sense-bases, he would wander properly in
the worij.
374. Knowing the state (of peace), understanding the doctrine, seeing
the abandonment of the Ssavas clearly because o f the destruction o f all
acquisitions, be would wander properly in the world.'
375. 'Assuredly indeed. Blessed One. this is so. Whatever bhikkhu
lives thus. (self-Jcontrolled. <66> and having gone beyond ill fetters,
he would wander properly in the world.
U.14. Dhammika
Thus have I heard. Once the Blessed One was staying at Savauhi, in the
Jelavana in AnSthapindika's park. Then the lay-follower Dhammika
approached the Blessed One with five hundred [other] lay-followers, and
having greeted the Blessed One sat on one side. Seated there the layfollower Dhnmmca addressed the Blessed One with (these) verses.
376. T ask you, Gotama o f abundant wisdom: How acting does one
become a good disciple, either one who goes from the house to the
houseless state, or lay-followers with houses?
377. You indeed know the transition^) and the future o f the world
including the devas. There is no one who sees the subtle goal as well as
you do; you indeed they call the excellent Buddha.
378. Understanding all knowledge, you have revealed the doctrine,
having sympathy for beings. With deceit removed, you have all-round
vision. Stainless you shine in the whole world.
379. <v?> The king of elephants, called Er3vana, came into your
presence, hearing (the word) Conqueror". He too. having consulted
you, was glad when he had heard (you), and went away, (saying]
Good"

1 Reading momoyirv jagmo.

II. The Small Chapter

47

380.. King Vessavana Kuvera too came to see you, asking about the
doctrine. T o him too, wise one, you spoke when asked. He too having
heard was glad.
381. Whatever argumentative sectarians there are. whether jvikas or
Jains, not one o f them {surpasses you in wisdom, just as a man
standing still does not pass one going quickly.
382. Whatever argumentative brahmans there are, and whatever old
brahmans, they ail become beholden to you for the meaning; and also
whoever else think they arc [good] arguers.
383. For this doctrine, which is well-proclaimed by you. Blessed One,
is subtle and pleasant. Tell us when asked, best o f Buddhas, that very
thing we arc all wanting to hear.
384. A ll these bhikkhus are seated together to hear [you], and similarly
the lay-followers. Let them hear the doctrine conceived by the aretes*
one, as the devaS hear the good utterance ofVsava.
385. H ear m e, bhikkhus, I sh all declare to you the doctrine [about]
shaking o ff [evil], and remember it, a ll o f you. <68> Let the one who
sees the goal and is thoughtful cultivate the mode o f behaviour which is
appropriate to those who have gone forth.
386. A bhikkhu should indeed not wander at the wrong lim e, but
should wander fo r alm s into a village at the right time. For attachments
attach to the one wandering at the wrong time. For that reason Buddhas
do not wander at the wrong time.
387. Forms and sounds and tastes and smells and contacts which drive
beings mad, dispelling his desire for these things, he should enter for
his morning meal at the right time.
388. And have received alms-food at (he right time, having returned
alone, a bhikkhu should sit down in solitude. Thinking o f internal
things, he should not let his mind go outside, having his body wellconstrained.

48

The Group o f Discourses

389. If he should convesse with a disciple, or with anyone else, or with


a bhikkhu, he should utter the outstanding doctrine, not slander or
blame o f another.
390. For some fight against an argument; we do not praise those of
little wisdom. Attachments from here and there attach to them, for they
serid their mind[$] far away there.
391. Having heard the doctrine taught by the Well-farer, the disciple of
excellent wisdom, having reflected, should resort to alms-food, a
habitation, and a lodging, and water for removing dirt from his outer
robe.
392. Therefore, to alms-food, lodging, or water for removing dirt from
his outer robe, <6p> to these things a bhikkhu [should] not cling, as a
drop o f water does not cling to a lotus.
3 9 3 . Now on the other band I sh all te ll you the way o f life o f a
householder, [and] how acting he becomes a good d iscip le . For the
entire bhikkhu practice cannot .be carried out by one who has
possessions.
394. Laying aside violence in respect o f all beings, both those which
are still and those* which mov

in the world, he should not kill a living

creature, nor cause to kill, nor allow others to kilL


395. Then the disciple should avoid [takiog] knowing(ly) anything
which is not given anywhere;. He should not cause to take, nor allow
[others] to take. He should avoid [taking] everything not given.
396. The understanding man should avoid the unchaste life, like a
burning pit of coals. But if h is incapable of [living] a chaste life, he
should not transgress against another's wife.
397. When gone to the audience hall or assembly, he should not speak
falsely to a single person, nor cause to speak, nor allow [others] to
speak. He should avoid every untruth.
398. Whatever householder approves o f this doctrine should not partake
o f intoxicating drink, nor cause to drink, nor allow [others] to drink,
knowing that it has intoxication as its end.

II. The Small C h a pter

49

399. Por because o f intoxication fools commit evil deeds, and make
other intoxicated people also commit {them]. <7o> One should avoid
this basis o f dement, intoxication, folly, beloved o f fools.
400. He should not kill a living creature; and he should not.take what
is not given; he should not speak falsely; and he should not drink
intoxicating drink; he should abstain from (he unchaste life, from
sexual intercourse; he should not eat food at the wrong time, at night;
401. he should not wear a garland, and he should not use perfume, he
should sleep on a couch or on the ground on a mat. For this they say is
the eight-fold fast day [observance] declared by the Buddha, who has
gone to the end o f misery.
402. And then with clear mind having kept the fast day with its eight
parts, in its complete form, on the 14th, the 15th, and the 8th (day] o f
the fortnight, and a special day o f the fortnight,
403. and then having kept the fast day, the understanding man with
clear mind, rejoicing, should in the morning share out food and drink
to the Order o f bhikkhus, a s h fitting.
404. He should dutifully support his mother ano lather; he should
engage in rightful trade. A vigilant householder-living this way o f life
goes to [rebirth among] the devas who are called Sayampabha.
<7i> Summary verse o f the chapter: The Jewel, Tainted-fare, Modesty,
Supreme Good Fortune. Suciloma, the Righteous Life. Brahmanical
Lore, and the Boat Discourse, What Moral Conduct, Arousal, and
Rbula, and Kappa, the Wanderer, and then Dhammika. These fourteen
discourses are called the Small Chapter.

Ili. The Great Chapter


IH. i . Going-forth
405. <72> I shall praise going-forth, as the one with vision went forth,
as he, examining, found pleasure in going-forth.
406. Seeing that this dwelling in a house is a constriction, the sphere o f
pollution, and that goiog-foith is an open-air life, he went forth.
407. Having gone forth, he avoided evil deed[s) with tbc body; having
abandoned bad conduct in word, he purified his mode o f living.
408. The Buddha went to RSjagaha, he betook himself to Giribbaja o f
the Magadhans for alms, being endowed with the excellent marks.
409. Standing in his palace Bimbisra saw him; seeing him endowed
with the marks he said this:

410 * Look at this one, sin; he is handsome, large, pure, and endowed
with [good] dereeanoui and he looks ahead a yoke's length only.
4M . With down-tumec eyes, possessing mindfulness, this one is not as
though from a lowly fc nily. Let the royal messengers run out [to find]
wltcre ihe bhikkhu will go.*
4 x 2 . Those royal n essengers, sent out, followed .behind him
(wondering],*Wbere vt ill the bhikkhu go? Where1 will [bis] dwelling
be?'
4 13 . Going on an ui interrupted begging round, with sense-doors
guarded, well-restraint d, be quickly filled his bowl, (beiog) attentive
and mindful.
414. <73> That sage, having wandered on his alms-round, having gone
out o f the city, betook himself to Pandava, [thinking) 'Here12 (my)
dwelling will be.
4 15 . Having seen him go to his dwelling, the messengers then sat
down, but one messenger came back and informed the king.

1 Reading kouha viso


2 Reading tuba viso.

III. The Great Chapter

51

4 16. That bhikkhu, great king, is seated on the Eastern side of


Pandava, like a tiger or bull, like a lion in a mountain cave.'
417. Hearing the messenger's report, the khattiy3 [king] went hurrying
in the state vehicle out to Mt Pandava.
42$. That khattiya [king] going [by vehicle] as far as the ground was
suitable for vehicles, (lies descended from the vehicle and went up to
him on foot Reaching him, he sat down.
429. Having sat down, the king then exchanged :he customary friendly
greetings; having exchanged greetings, be said this:
420. 'You are young and tender, in your first youth, a stripling,
eadowed with [good] complexion and stature, like a khattiya o f good
birth,
421. making beautiful (be van of the army, at the head o f a group of
elephants. I shall give you objects o f enjoyment; enjoy them. But tell
me your birth, when asked.*
422. Straight on [in that direction] there is a people, king, (living) on
the flank o f Himavat, endowed with wealth and energy, [belonging to]
one who is indigenous among the Kosalans.
423. <74 > They arc dicca by clan, Skiya by 1 irth. From that family
1 went forth, king, not desiring sensuous pleasures.
424. Having seen the peril in sensual pleasures; having seen going-fonh
as safety, 1 shall go in order to strive. Jn that my mind delights.'
III.2.

Striving

425. While 1 was meditating for the attainment ot resi-from-cxertion,


with my self intent bpon striving, near the river Ncranjar, having made
a great effort,
426. NaraucI approached me, uttering compassionate wordfsj: You arc
thin, of bad complexion; death is near you.
427. [There are] one thousand parts of death; [only] one part o f you is
life. Live, sir, life is better. If you live, you will perform merits.

52

The Group o f Discourses

428. <75> Much meri! will be heaped up by you practising the holy
life and sacrificio the aggihutta (sacrifice). What do you want with
striving?
429. The road to striving is hard to travel, hard to perform, hard to
achieve. Saying these verses Mra stood near the Buddha,
430. The Blessed One said this to that Mra, who had spoken thus:
Kinsman o f the negligent, evil one, you have come here for your own
putpose.

4 3 1 1 do not have even the slightest need o f merit, but Mra ought to
speak to those who have need of merits.
432. There is faith, and energy, and wisdom is found in me. Why do
you ask me about life even though my self is thus intent [upon
Striving)?
433. This wind would dry up even the streams o f the rivers ; and why
should my blood not be dried up when my self is intent [uj>oo
striving)?
434. When my blood is being dried up, (then) the bile and phlegm are
dried up. When the flesh wastes away, the mind becomes clearer, and
ail the more my mindfulness and wisdom and concentration stand
[Him).
43$. While 1 dwell thus, having reached the highest sensation, my
mind has no regard for sensual pleasures. See a being's pure state.
436. <76> Sensual pleasures are your first army; discontent is called
your second; your third is hunger and thirst; the fourth is called
craving.
437. Sloth and torpor are your fifth; the sixth is called fear; your
seventh is doubt; hypocrisy and obstinacy are your eighth.
438. Gain, renown, honour, and whatever fame is falsely received, and
whoever both extols himself and disparages others.

Reading sen.

UI. T h e Great Chapter

53

439. that is your army. Namuct, [that is] the striking force o f Kanha.
One who is not a hero cannot conquer it, but having conquered it one
obtains happiness.
440. Should I wear munja grass? Woe upon life here. Death in battle is
better for me than that I should be conquered and live.
441. Plunged into this [battle) some ascetics and brahmans arc not seen,
and they do not know the road by which those with good vows go.
442. Seeing the army arrayed all around, and Mra with his elephant, I
shall go forth to battle. May he not move me from my place.
443. That army o f yours which the world together with the devas
cannot overcome, < 77> that

o f yours I shall break1 with

wisdom, as if [breaking] an unfired pot with a stone.


444. Having brought my thoughts} under control, and [making] my
mindfulness well-established, I shall wander from kingdom to
kingdom, training many disciples.
445. They, vigilant, and with selves intent, perform er o f my teaching,
will go despite you, where having gone they w ill not grieve.*
446. 'For seven years 1 have followed the Blessed One step by step. 1
have not obtained an opportunity against the fully-awakened one who
possesses mindfulness.
447. A bird circled a stone which looked like fat, [thinking] Perhaps
we shall find something soft here; perhaps there may be (something)
sweet.
448. Not obtaining [anything] sweet, the bird went away from there.
Like a crow attacking a rock and becoming despondent, we attacking
Gotama and becoming despondent, will go away.*
449. <78> The vln fell from the armpit of that one overcome by grief.
Then that discouraged yakkha disappeared on that very spot.

1 Reading bhecchmi.

54

TheGroupofDh~~tes
III.3.

The Well-spoken Word

Thus have ! heard. Once the Blessed One was staying at SvatthJ. in the
Jetavana ... the Blessed One said: 'Speech provided with four
components bhikkhus, is well-spoken, not ill-spoken, both faultless
and not to be blamed by those who understand. What arc the four? A
bhikkhu here, bhikkhus, speaks only [what is) well-spoken, not illspoken; he speaks only [what is) righteous, not unrighteous; he speaks
only [what is] pleasant, not unpleasant, he speaks only [what is) true,
not untrue. Speech provided with these four components is wellspoken, not ill-spoken, ^oth faultless and not to be blamed by those
who understand. This [is what) the Blessed One said, and when the
Well-farer had said this, the Teacher went on to say:
450. T h e good say that the well-spoken [utterance) is best. One should
speak what is righteous, not unrighteous; that is the second. One
should speak what is pleasant, not unpleasant; that is the third. One
should speak what is jrue, not false; that is (he fourth.
<79> Then the venerabie VaAgTsa, rising from hts seat and placing his
robe over one shoulder, saluted the Blessed One with cupped hands and
said this: Tt occurs to me, Well-farer.* 'Say what occurs, to you,
VaAgfsa', said the Blessed One. Then the venerable VaAgTsa praised the
Blessed One to his face with suitable verses.
4 5 1 . 'That word only should one speak by which one would not
torment oneself nor harm others. That word indeed is well-spoken.
452. One should speak only the pleasant word, the word which i$
welcomed. What one speaks without bringing evils to others is
pleasant.
453. Truth indeed is the undying word; (his is the eternal law. Tn truth,
the good say. the goal and the doctrine arc grounded.
434. The sure word which the Buddha speaks for the attainment of
quenching, for the putting o f an end to misery, is indeed the best of
words.

III.

P ie Great Ctpter
55

Jll.4. Sundarikabhradvja
rhus have I heard. Once the Blessed One was slaying among ihe
Kosalans on ihe bank of ihe liver Sundarik, At (hat time the brahman
Sundarikabharadvaja made offerings to the fire and performed the
aggihutta sacrifice.

Then

having

done

(his,

the

brahman

Sundarikabhradvdja, rising from his scat, looked all around in the four
directions, [to see) who might cat the remains o f the offering. The
brahman Sundarikabhradvja saw <8o> the Blessed One sitting not
very far away at the foot of a tree, with [his cloak over) his head. When
he saw him he took the remains o f the offering in his left hand and his
water-pot in his ri^.it hand, and went up to the Blessed One. Then at
the sound o f die brahman SundarikabhradvSja's footsteps the Blessed
One uncovered his head. Then the brahman Sundarikabhradvja
[thinking], The venerable one is shaven, the venerable one is a
shaveling*, wanted to turn back, but the thought occurred to him:
Some brahmans here are also shaven; what if I were to approach him
and ask about his descent?' Then the brahman Sbndarikabhradvfija
went up to the Blessed One and said: O f what descent is the venerable
o n e ? Then the Blessed One addressed the brahman SundarikabhSradv&ja with [these] verses.
455. *1 am certainly not a brahman, nor a prince, nor a vessa, nor am I
anyone [else]. Knowing [and renouncing) the clan o f the common
people, ! wander in the world, possessing nothing, [being] a thinker.
456. Wearing a robe, houseless. I wander with shaven hair, with self
completely quenched, not clinging here 10 [other] men. You have asked
me an unfitting question about my clan, brahman.*
457. <8t> Truly venerable sir. brahmans [meeting] with brahmans ask,
"Is the venerable one a brahman 7 " If you call yourself a brahman, but
call me a non-brahman, then l ask you about the SvittT, with three
lines and twenty-four syllables.
458. Aiming at what have seers, men, khattiyas, and brahmans, many
of them, olTercd sacrifice to deities here in the world?' If anyone who
has gone to the end, (and) has knowledge, should receive an oblation at

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the lime o f sacrifice from any [sacrifice!-], then his [sacrifice], I say,
would be successful.'
459. Assuredly my sacrifice would be successful', said ihe brahman,
'since we have seen one like you who has knowledge. For if I had noi
seen (hose like you, another person wduld eat my sacrificial cake.
460. 'Therefore, brahman, [as you are] seeking some goal; approach
[and] ask. Perhaps you may find one iere who is at peace, without
anger, without affliction, without desire, with good understanding.*
4 6c. T delight in sacrifice, Gptama, sir. I desire to sacrifice. I do not
understand; lei your honour instruct me. <S2> Wherein an offering is
successful, tell me that. Therefore, brahman, give ear. I shall teach you
the doctrine.
462. Do not ask about descent, but ask about conduct. Truly from
wood fire is produced. A sage, possessed o f firmness, although of
lowly biiih, becomes a thoroughbred, having modesty as his restraint
463. One lamed by truth, furnished with [self-]taming. gone to thrend
o f knowledge, having lived (lie holy life * upon him at the right time
one should bestow an offering. [To him' a brahman who is looking for
merit should sacrifice.
4 6 4 . Those who have abandoned sensual pleasures and wander
homeless, with well-restrained selves, straight as a shuttle upon
them at the right time one should bestow an offering. (To them) a
brahman who is looking for merit should sacrifice.
4 6 5 . Those who, with passions gone, with sense-faculties well*
concentrated, (are) completely released as the moon (is released) from
the grasp o f R 3hu upon them at (he right time ...
466. They wander in the world unattached, always mindful, having
abandoned cherished things upon them at the right time ...
467. The TathSgata who having abandoned sensual pleasures wanders
victorious, who knows the end o f binh and death. <83> [is] quenched,
cool as a pool o f water, he deserves the sacrificial cake.

Ml The U real Chapter

57

468. Equal to [his] equals, far from those (who are) not equal, the
Tathgata is one with endless wisdom. Undcfilcd here or :n the next
world, the Talhagata deserves the sacrificial cake.
469. In whom no delusion dwells, nor conceit, whose lust has gone,
who is without selfishness, without desire, who has thrust a vay anger,
whose self is completely quenched, that brahman has aba doned the
stain o f grief. The Tathgata deserves the sacrificial cake.
470. The Tathagata. who has abandoned the resting-plac :[s] o f the
mind, o f whom there are no possessions at all. not grasping either here
or in the next world, he deserves the sacrificial cake.
471. The Tathagata, who (is) concentrated (and) has crossi d over the
flood, and has understood the doctrine, by means o f supreme vision,
with savas destroyed, bearing his last body, be deserves the sacrificial
cake.
472. O f whom the savas o f existence and (of whom) harsh speech are
destroyed, finished, do longer exist, he has knowledge [and] is released
in every respect. lheT'aUiSgata deserves the sacrificial cake.
473. The TatMgatu, (who has) gone beyond attachment, o f whom there
are no attachments, who among those attached to conceit is r ot attached
to conceit, <84> knowing [and renouncing) misery togefi er with its
field (of activity] and its basis, he deserves the sacrificial cak
474. Not dependent on desire, seeing separation, gone beyond the view
which can be known by others, the Tathgata, of whom there are no
bases (for rebirth) at all, he deserves the sacrificial cake.
475. The Taihgaia, for whom mental phenomena from tOf to bottom
are destroyed, finished, no longer exist, since he has understood them,
[being] at peace, completely released in the destruction o f grasping, he
deserves the sacrificial cake.
476. The Tathagata. who, seeing the end and destruction o f fetters and
birth, has thrust away (he path o f passion cntirc(ly], i: purified,
faultless, stainless, clear, he deserves the sacrificial cake.

5$

The Group o f Disco trues

4 7 7 . He who lie not sec the self by means o f the self, (is)
concentrated, upright, with steadfast self, lie indeed [is] without lust,
without [mental) b rrenness. without doubt. The Tathiigata deserves the
sacrificial cake.
478. The TainSga; s. o f whom there are nc occasions o f delusion, but
who secs by know idge in respect o f all ph momcna. and bears his last
body, and has am cd at full-awakening, u (surpassed bliss to such
an extent is the pur ;y o f the yakkha he A serves the sacrificial cake.
47*9. <8>> And let my offering be a true oflering. since 1 have obtained
one like you. who tas knowledge. For Brahm is (my) witness. Let the
Blessed One take my [sacrificial cake], let the Blessed One enjoy my
sacrificial cake.
480. 'It is not right for me to eat what has !<en sung over with verses.
This, brahman, is i.ot the doctrine o f those who see [rightly]. Buddhas
reject what has been sung over with verses. A s long as the doctnne
exists, brahman, this is [their] way of life.
481. But serve wit t other food [and] drink a fully-accomplished great
seer, whose savas arc destroyed, whose re norse is calmed: for this is
the field for one w! 0 is looking for merit
4S2. 'W ell is it, B essed One, that l should thus know [the one) who
would enjoy the gift o f one like me. [and] whom I should seek at the
time of sacrifice, [n >w that 1 have] received, our advice.
483. Whose impel losiiy has departed, whose mind is not turbid, [who
is] completely relc ised from sensual pleasures, whose sloth is thrust
away,
484. the remover o f boundaries and limit , the knower o f birth and
death, the sage possessed o f sagehood, such a one, come to the
sacrifice,
435.

destroying si pcrciliousncss, (to him do homage with cupped

hands, (him) honour with food and drink. In this way gifts are
successful.

III. The Great Chapter


486.

59

<86> The Buddha, the venerable one, deserves the sacrificial cake.

[He is) the unsurpassed field o f merit, the recipient o f the sacrifice o f all
the world. (A gift] given to the venerable one has great fruit.
Then the brahman Sundarikabhradvja said to the Blessed One:
'Wonderful, venerable Gotama, wonderful, venerable Gotama. Just as,
venerable Gotama, one might set upright what has been overturned, or
uncover that which has been covered, or point out the way to one who
had gone astray, or bring an oil-lamp into the darkness, so (hat those
with eyes might sec shapes, in the same way the doctrine has been
declared by the venerable Gotama in manifold ways. 1 go to the
venerable Gotama as a refuge, and to the Doctrine, and to the Order o f
bhikkhus. May I obtain admission (to the Order) in the presence o f the
venerable Gotama, may I obtain ordination.* Th e brahman
Sundarikabhradvija obtained... became one of the arahats.

ni.5. Mgha
Thus have I heard. Once ihe Blessed One was staying at Rjagaha, on
Mt Gijjhakta. Then the young brahman Mgha came to the Blessed
One and exchanged the customary friendly greetings with him, and then
sat on one side. Seated there the young brahman Mgha <$7> said to
the Blessed One: T am, venerable Gotama, generous, a lordly giver,
munificent, open-handed. 1 seek wealth rightly, and from the wealth
which 1 seek and obtain rightly and acquire rightly I give to one, two,
three, four, five, six. seven, eight, nine, ten, twenty, thirty, forty, fifty,
one hundred, or even more. So giving, so bestowing, do I produce
much merit?' 'Assuredly, young brahman, so giving and so bestowing
you produce much merit. If anyone, young brahman, is generous, a
lordly giver, munificent, open-handed, and seeks wealth rightly and
from the wealth which he seeks and obtains rightly and acquires rightly
he gives to one

or to a hundred or to even more, then he produces

much merit.' Then the young brahman Mgha addressed the Blessed
One with a verse.

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The Group o f D iscourses

487. *1 ask, sir. the munificent Gotama , said ihe young brahman
Mgha. who wears a yellow robe, [and] wanders houseless: If any
open-handed householder, a lordly giver, seeking for merit, looking for
merit, sacrifices, <88> giving food qpd drink to others here, wherein
would the offering be purified for the one sacrificing?'
488. 'I f any open-handed householder, a lordly giver, Mgha', said the
Blessed One, 'seeking for merit, looking for merit, sacrifices, giving
food and drink to others here, such a one would achieve his aim because
o f the recipients o f the gift.*
489. 'I f any open-handed householder, a lordly giver', said the young
brahman Mgha, 'seeking foe merit, looking for merit, sacrifices, giving
food and drink to others here tell me. Blessed One. about the
recipients o f the gift.*
490. 'Those who indeed wander unattached in the world, haying
nothing, fully accomplished, with restrained selves upon them at the
right time one should bestow an offering. (To them) 9 brahman who is
looking for merit should sacrifice.
491. These wbo have cut all bonds and fetters, arc tamed, completely
released, without affliction, without desire upon them at the right
time one should bestow an offering. (To them) a brahman who is
looking for merit should sacrifice.
4 92. Those who are fully released from all fetters, are tamed,
completely released, without affliction, without desire upon them at
the right time
493. [Those who] have left behind passion, and hatred, and delusion,
whose savas are destroyed, having lived the holy life upon them at
the right tim e...
494. Those in whom no deception dwells, nor conceit, <89> whose
lust has gone, who are without selfishness, without desire upon
them at the right time ...

HI. The Great Chapter

61

495. Those who truly arc not a prey to cravings, having crossed over
the Hood, [and] who wander without selfishness upon them at the
right tim e...
496. But those in whom there is no craving for anything in the world,
for various existences in this world or the next upon them at the
right tin**-...
497. Those who. having abandoned sensual pleasures, wander
houseless, with, well-restrained selves, straight as a shuttle upon
them at the right tim e...
49$. Those who. with passions gone, with sense-faculties well
concentrated, [are] completely released as the moon (is released] from
the grasp o f R 3hu upon them at the right time ...
499. Those [who are] calmed, with passions gone, without anger, for
whom there are no [future] transitions, having completely abandoned
[them] here upon them at the right tim e. . . .
500. Those [who] having abandoned birth and death com pletely),
(have) gone beyond all doubt upon them at the right time ...
501. Those who wander about in the world, having [only] themselves
as a refuge, having nothing, completely freed in every respect upon
them at the right tim e...
502. Those who indeed know this here as it really is: T h is is the last
[birth]*, there is no more renewed existence upon them at the right
lime ...
503. <90> He who has knowledge, delights in meditation, possesses
mindfulness, has arrived at full-awakening, (is) a refuge for many
upon him at the right time .. ..
504. T ru ly my question was not in vain. The Blessed One has told me
about the recipients of the gift. You indeed know this here as it really
is. for thus is (his doctrine known to you.
505. If any open-handed householder, a lordly-givcr*. said the young
brahman MSgha. seeking for merit, looking for ntcrit. sacrifices, giving

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food and drink io others here tell me, Blessed One, about (he
successful performance of the sacrifice/
506. 'Sacrifice, and1 (while) sacrificing, Mlgha , said the Blessed One,
'make your mind clear in every respect. For one sacrificing, the sacrifice
is the basis. Taking one's stand there, one abaodons ones fauli(s).
507. He. with passions gone, should dispel completely his fault[s],
developing a friendly m.nd (which is) unbounded. Day and night he is
constantly vigilant. He suffuses boundlessness (o f mind] in all
directions/
508. 'Who is purified, (who)

released, [and who] is bound? With

what self docs one go to the Brahma-world? Being asked, sage, tell me
who does not know. For the Blessed One is my witoess that Brahm
has been seen today, <91> for it is true that you arc equal to Brahm
for us. How is one reborn in the Brahma-world, brilliant one?*
509. 'Whoever sacrifices the triple successful performance of-the
sacrifice, MSgha , said the Blessed One, 'such a one would achieve his
aim because ot the recipients of the gilt/i bus having sacrificed properly
an open-handed one is reborn in the Brahma-world. Thus I say/
When this had been said, the young brahman MSgha said to the Blessed
One: 'Wonderful, venerable Gotama ... have taken refuge from this day
forth as tong as life lasts/
Iil.6.

Sabhiya

Thus have I heard. Once the Blessed One was staying at Rjagaha. in
the Vejuvana in KalandanivSpa. At that time certain questions were put
to the wanderer Sabhiya by a deity who had formerly been a kinsman of
his: *If any ascetic or brahman can. when asked, answer these questions
for you. Sabhiya. then you should live the holy life in his presence/
Then the wanderer Sabhiya, having learned those questions from the
deity, approached those ascetics and brahmans who had orders (of
bhikkhus). had groups, were teachers o f groups, were well-known.
Reading ynjamno ca.

HI. The Great Chapter

*3

famous, founders o f sects. <gi> well-thought o f by the general public,


such as POrana Kassapa. Makkliali Gosla, Ajita Kesakambalt. Pakudha
Kaccyana, Sanjaya Belatthipucta, and Nigantha Ntapuita. and asked
them the questions. Being asked the questions by the wanderer
Sabhiya, they did not succeed in answering them, and not succeeding
showed anger, hatred, and ill-will, and moreover asked the wanderer
Sabhiya himself questions in return. Then this thought occurred to the
wanderer Sabhiya: 'Those ascetics and brahmans who have orders [of
bhikkhus). have groups, are teachers o f groups, are well-known,
famous, founders o f sects, well-thought o f by the general public, such
as POrana Kassapa... and Nigantha Nataputta, being asked questions by
me have not succeeded in answering them, and not succeeding show
anger, hatred, and ill-will, and moreover ask me questions on this
matter in return. What if I were to turn to the lower life and enjoy
sensual pleasures?' Then this thought occurred to the wanderer
Sabhiya : 'This ascetic Gotama has an order [of bhikkhus). has a group,
is the teacher o f a group, well-known, famous,* the founder o f a sect,
well-thought o f by the general public. What if 1 were to approach the
ascetic Gotama and ask him these questions?' Then this thought
occurred to the wanderer Sabhiya: 'These venerable ascetics and
brahmans who arc aged, old, elderly, advanced in years, in their old
age, elders o f long standing. long gone forth, who have orders (of
bhikkhus], have groups, are teachers o f groups, are well-known,
famous, founders o f sects, well-thought o f by the general public, such
as PQrana Kassapa <93> ... and Nigantha Nlaputta. were asked these
questions by me and did not succeed in answering them, and not
succeeding showed anger, hatred, and ill-will, and moreover ask me
questions on this matter in return. Will the ascetic Gotama, when asked
these questions, answer them for me? For the ascetic Gotama is both
young in years and only recently gone forth. Then this thought
occurred to the wanderer Sabhiya: An ascetic is not to be despised nor
to be treated with contempt because he is young. Even if an ascetic is
young he has great power and influence, What if 1 were to approach the

The Group o f Discourses

64

ascelic Goiama and ask him these questions?* Then the wanderer
Sabhiya set out on a wandering tour to Rjagaha, and in due course as
he wandered came to Rjagaha, the Vcluvana, Kalandakanivapa and
came up to the Blessed One. He exchanged the customary friendly
greetings with him, and sat down on one side. Seated there, the
wanderer Sabhiya addressed the Blessed One with a verse.
510.

Anxious [and] doubtful I have come*, said Sabhiya, desiring to

ask questions. Put an end to (hem for me. Being asked, answer my
questions in due order, in accordance with the doctrine.
5 *1, <94> You have come from afar, Sabhiya , said the Blessed One,
desiring to ask questions: J shall put an end to them for you. Being
asked, I shall answer your questions in due order, in accordance with
the doctrine.
51a. A sk me a question, Sabhiya, whatever you wish for in your heart,
[.shall put an end to every question for you.'
Then this thought occurred to ihe wandereV Sabhiya: Tt is
astonishing, it is marvellous that the opportunity which I did not
receive among the other ascetics and brahmans even to the smallest
degree, has been afforded to me by the ascetic Gotama.* (Then) with
elated mind, delighted, glad, full o f joy and rapture, he asked the
Blessed One a question.
513. When one has obtained what, do they call him "bhikkhu ?', said
Sabhiya. 'On account o f what do they call one meek", and why do
they call one tamed"? W hy is one called awakened" ? Being asked by
me, Blessed One, answer.*
514 . <95> He who has gone to quenching by the path made by
himself. Sabhiya', said the Blessed One, has crossed over doubt,
having abandoned both non-existcnce and existence, has lived the life,
whose renewed existence is destroyed, he is a bhikkhu".
515. Being disinterested in everything, possessing mindfulness, the
ascetic (who] does not harm anyone in the whole world. Jwho| has

IH. The Great Chapter

65

crossed over (is] not turbid o f whom there is no haughtiness, he is


meek.
516. Whose sense-faculties are developed, inside and outside, in the
whole world, having penetrated this wotld and the next, (who) being
developed awaits his time (of death], he is tamed'*.
517. Having considered ail figments, journeying-on, passing away and
arising, both, whose pollution has gone away, who is without blemish,
purified, arrived at the destruction o f birth, him they call awakened**/
Then the wanderer Sabhiya, welcoming and approving the Blessed
One's word($], with elated mind, delighted, glad, full c joy and
rapture, asked the Blessed One another question.
518. 'When one has obtained what, do they call him brahman ? , said
Sabhiya, On account of what do they call one ascetic**? And why is
one washed-clean ? <96> Why is one called nga ? Being asked by
nie. Blessed One. answer.*
519. Having removed all evils, Sabhiya*. said the Blessed One, 'being
stainless, good and concentrated,1 with steadfast self, having gone
beyond journeying-on, fully accomplished, not lied, such a one is
called "brahman .
520. Calmed, having abandoned merit and evil, without pollution,
knowing this world and the next, gone beyond birth and death, such a
one is rightly called ascetic.
521. Having washed off all evils, inside and outside in all the world, he
comes to no figment among devas and men who arc subject to
figments. Him they call washed-clcan**.
522. He docs not commit any sin at all in the world, having left behind
all fetters12 [and] bonds. He is not attached to anything, being
completely released. Such a one is rightly called ngu '

1 Reading sddhu samhiln.


2 Reading 'Samyoga.

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The Group o f Discourses

Then the wanderer Sabhiya ... asked the Blessed One another
question.
$23. Whom do the Buddhas call field-knower"?*, said Sabhiya, On
account o f what do they call one good ? And why is one wise ?
<97> Why is one called "sage*' by name? Being asked by me. Blessed
One, answer/
524. Having considered all fields, Sabhiya , said the Blessed One, the
divine one, and the human one, (and) the Brahma-field, completely
released from the bond, the root of all fields, such a one is rightly
called "field-knower*.
525. Having considered all.treasuries, the divine, and the human one.
[and] the Brahma-treasury, completely released from the bond, the root
of all treasuries, such a one is rightly called good .
526. Having considered both sense-fields, inside and outside, haviog
wisdom v>d purity, gone beyond black and white, such a one Is rightly
called ,wiscr.
527. Knowing the doctrine o f good and bad (people], inside and outside
in all the workl, to be honoured by devas and men, having gone beyond
attachment [and] the net, he is a sage*
The wanderer Sabhiya... asked the Blessed One another question.
5 2 S . <9$> 'When one has obtained what, do they call him
"knowledgeable ? , said Sabhiya, On account o f what do they call one
well-informed ? Why is one energetic ? Why does one become
thoroughbred by name ? Being asked by me. Blessed One. answer/
529. 'Having considered all- knowledges, Sabhiya*. said the Blessed
One. 'those belonging to ascetics and those o f brahmans, with his
passion gone in respect o f all sensations, having gone beyond all
knowledge, he is knowledgeable .
530. Having gained information about diversification and name-andform, inside and outside, the root of disease, completely released from
the bond. 1he root o f all disease, such a one is rightly called well
informed

III. The Great Chapter

67

531. Abstaining from all evils here, having gone beyond the misery of
hell, he is the abode o f energy. Being energetic [and] striving, such a
one is rightly called hero***2
532. O f whom the bonds may have been cut, inside and outside, the
root of attachment, completely released from the bond, the root o f all
attachment, such a one is rightly called thoroughbred.
Then the wanderer Sabhiya ... asked the Blessed One another
question.
533. When one has obtained what, do they call him versed in sacred
knowledge ?*, said abhiya. <99> On account o f what do they call
one noble"? And why is one o f good conduct"? Why does onq,
become wanderer by nam e? Being asked by me. Blessed One,
answer.
534/llaving heard (and) understood every doctrine in the world,
Sabbiya*, said the Blessed One, *(and) whatever is blamable and
blameless, one who overcomes, [is] without doubt, completely released,
without affliction in every respect, him they call versed in sacred
knowledge .
535. Cutting o ff savas and attachments, knowing, he docs not come to
He again in a womb. Having thrust away the triple perception, the mud,
he does not come to figments. Him they call noble".
536. Whoever here has gained the [highest] gain in respect of conduct,
(is) always good, has learned the doctrine, is not attached to anything,
(but is] completely released, in whom there are no repugnances, he is
o f good conduct .
537. Having avoided whatever action has a miserable result, above and
below, and also across [and] in the middle, he has put an end to
delusion, conceit, and also lust and anger, [and] namc-and-form.

* Reading
2

Reading

viriyarso.
viro.

68

The Group o f Discourses

wandering with knowledge. Him [hey call wanderer', a gain o f (he


(highest] gain.*
Then the wanderer Sabhiya. welcoming and approving the Blessed
Ones wordfs], with elated mind, delighted, glad, <ioo> full of joy and
rapture, rising from his scat and placing his outer robe over one
shoulder, saluted the Blessed One with cupped hands and praised the
Blessed One to his face with appropriate vases.
538. One o f great wisdom, you have gone [over] the darkness1 o f the
flood, having dispelled the three and sixty heresies, which arc
dependent upon the utterances o f ascetics, and dependent upon
perceptions and the conventions o f perceptions.
539. You have gone to the end, gone to the far shore o f misery. You are
an arahat, a fully-awakened one. I think you have destroyed your savas.
Brilliant, thoughtful, with abundant wisdom, you bave brought me
across, end-maker o f misery.
540? When you learned o f m y anxiety, you brought me across my
doubt. Homage to you,- sage, gainer o f the [highest] gain on the paths
o f sage-hood, without [mental] barrenness. Kinsman o f the sun, you are
meek.
541. <101 > The anxiety I formerly had, that you have answered, one
with vision. Assuredly you are a fully-awakened sage. There are no
hindrances in you.
542. And all your troubles are blown away, brought to an end. You are
cool, tamed, possessing firmness, having truth as your strength.

543 > While you, the nSga o f nSgas, the great hero, are speaking, all
devas rejoice, both NSrada and Pabbata [devas].
544.

Homage to you, thoroughbred of men. Homage to you, best of

men. In the world including the devas there is no rival to you.

Rending oghatatn' ag.

HI. The Great Chapter

69

545. You are the Buddha, you are the teacher, you are the sage who
overcame Mra. Having cut o ff the latent tendencies, having crossed
over, you bring these people across.
546. Acquisitions (which lead to rebirth] have been by-passed by you.
Your Ssavas have been torn asunder. Without grasping, you have
eliminated fear and dread, (like] a lion.
547. A s a beautiful lotus flower does not cling to water, so you do not
cling to merit and evil, both. Stretch foith your feet, hero. Sabhiya pays
homage to the teachers (feet].'
Then the wanderer Sabhiya fell with his head at the feet o f the
Blessed One and said: 'Wonderful, venerable (Gotama]... the Doctrine
and the Order o f bhikkhus. May I obtain, venerable one. admission (to
the Order] in the presence o f the Blessed One, may I obtain <I02>
ordination.' *If anyone, Sabhiya, who was previously a member of
another sect, desires admission into this doctrine and discipline, and
desires ordination into it, he waits four months, (aiidj at the end o f four
months bhikkhus whose minds are satisfied admit him and ordain him
as a bhikkhu. Nevertheless in this matter 1 recognise individual
differences.* *lf, venerable one, those who were previously members o f
other sects when desiring admission into this doctrine and discipline
and desiring ordination into it wait four months, (and) at the end o f
four months bhikkhus whose minds are satisfied admit them and ordain
them as bhikkhus. (then) 1 will wait four years, (and) at the end o f four
years let bhikkhus whose minds arc satisfied admit me and ordain me
as a bhikkhu.* The wanderer Sabhiya obtained admission in the
presence o f the Blessed One, (and) he obtained ordination ... the
venerable Sabhiya became one of the arahais
III.7.

Scia

Thus have I heard. Once the Blessed One was on a lour among the
people o f Anguiiarpa with a large Order o f bhikkhus, 10 ihc number of
1,250. <103^ He came to the town called pana belonging to the
people o f Angoiiarapa. The matted-hair ascetic Keniya heard: 'Indeed.

70

The Group o f D iscourses

venerable sir, the ascetic Gotama, of the Sakyan clan, having gone forth
from the Sakyan family, on lour among the people of Anguttarpa with
a large Order o f bhikkhus, to the number o f 1,250, has arrived at
pana. About this venerable Gotama, a delightful report has arisen, as
fo llo w s: "That Blessed One is an arahat, a fully-awakened one,
endowed with knowledge and [right] conduct, a Wcll-farer, knowing the
worlds, unsurpassed, controller of those men who have to be tamed,
teacher o f devas and men, Buddha, Blessed One. Understanding and
himself realising this world including the devas, Mra, and Brahma,
beings including ascetics and brahmans, devas and men, he makes-it
known. He teaches the doctrine which is delightful at the beginning,
delightful in the middle, delightful at the end, he proclaims with the
spirit and the letter the holy living which is wholly-fulfilled and
purified. Good indeed is the sight o f arahats o f such a kind."' Then (be
matted-hair ascetic Keniya went up to the Blessed One and having
exchanged the customary friendly greetings with him sat down orume
side.-The Blessed One instructed, roused, excited and gladdened the
matted-hair ascetic Keniya. seated there, with a talk about the doctrine.
The matted-hair ascetic Keniya, instructed, roused, excited and
gladdened J>y the Blessed One with a talk about the doctrine, said to the
Blessed one: May the venerable Gotama accept my invitation to a
meal tomorrow, together with the Order o f bhikkhus.* When this was
said, the Blessed One said to the mnited-hatr ascetic Keniya: Large
indeed. Keniya. <i04> is (he Order of bhikkhus, to the number of
1,250, and you are favourably disposed towards the brahmans.* The
matted-hair ascetic Keniya spoke to the Blessed One a second lime:
Although, venerable Gotama, the Order o f bhikkhus is large, to the
number of 1.250. and 1 am favourably disposed to the brahmans, may
the Blessed One accept my invitation to a meal tomorrow with the
Order of bhikkhus.' A second time the Blessed One replied to the
matted-hair ascetic Keniya: Large indeed is the Order of bhikkhus, to
the number o f 1.250. and you are favourably disposed towards the
brahmans. The maned-hair ascetic Keniya spoke to the Blessed One a

III. T h e Great

C h a p ter

third time: Although, yeoerable Goiam a, the Order o f bhikkhus is


large, to the number of 1-250.** and I am favourably disposed (0 the
brahmans, may the. B lessed;O n e,accept iny invitation to a meal
tomorrow with the Order o f bhikkhus. The Blessed One assented by
remaining silent. Then,the matted-hair ascetic Keniya. realising that the
Blessed One had assented rose .from his seal and went to his own
hermitage, where he addressed, his friends and acquaintances, his
kinsmen and relations: l e t m y venerable friends and acquaintances,
my kinsmen and relations hear me. The ascetic Goiama has been
invited by. me to a meal tomorrow with the Order o f bhikkhus, so
would you perform the m enial duties for m e? The friends and
acquaintances, the kinsmenand-reIations o f the matted-hair ascetic
Kcijiya agreed to do this and some dug out the ovens, others split
wood, others washed the dishes, others put out the large water-pot.
[and] others made ready the seats, while in the eveniog the matted-hair
ascetic Keniya prepared a pavilion. A t that.um; thebrahman Se!a was
staying in pana. <ro5> He was thoroughly versed in the three vedas.
together with the etymologies the rituals, the phonology and word
analysis, and fifthly the .o ral tradition. He was a philologist, a
grammarian, experienced in the materialistic philosophy and the marks
o f a great man. He was instructing three hundred young brahmans in the
(vedic) mantras. A t that time the matted-hair ascetic Keniya was
favourably disposed towards the brahman Sela. Then the brahman Scia
surrounded by the three hundred young brahmans wandering to and fro
on foot and walking up and down, went to the hermitage o f the mattedhair ascetic Keniya. The. brahman Sela saw some o f the matted-hair
ascetics who lived in Keniya's hermitage digging out ovens ... fand)
others making ready the seats, while the matted-hair ascetic Keniya was
preparing a pavilion in the evening. When he saw Keniya he said: *ls
there to be a marriage of the venerable Keniya's son or daughter, or is a
great sacrifice prepared, or is Seniya Bimbtsra. king o f Magadha.
invited for tomorrow with his arm y? No, Scia, there is to be no
marriage of my son or daughter, nor is Seniya Bimbisra, king of

72

The Group o f Discourses

Magadha, invited for tomorrow with his army. 1 have, however,


prepared a great sacrifice. The ascetic Gotama, of the Sakyan clan,
having gone forth from the Sakyan family, on tour among the people of
AhguttariSpa with a large Order o f bhikkhus, to the number o f 1,250,
has arrived atpana. <io6> About this venerable Gotama

Buddha,

Blessed One. He has been invited by me for tomorrow with the Order
of bhikkhus/ Did you say Buddha , Keniya?* T did say Buddha ,
$ela/ Did you say Buddha , Keniya? T did say "Buddha , Sela/
Then this thought occurred to the brahman Sela: Even this word
Buddha is hard to obtain in the world. Thirty-two marks o f a great
man have, however, come down to us in our mantras. For a great man
endowed with these marks two courses are open, and no other: If he
inhabits a house, he will become a king, a wheel-turning monarch,
righteous, a king of righteousness, a conqueror of the whole world, who
has obtained stability in his country, a possessor o f the seven jewels.
These seven jewels of his are as follows: the wheel-jewel, the elephantjew el. the horse-jewel, the gem-jewel, the wom an-jewel, the
householder-jewel, and seventhly the adviser-jewel. He will have more
than a thousand sons, valiant, o f heroic form, crushing enemy armies.
He will dwell conquering this sea-girt land without violence, without a
sword, (but) by righteousness. But if he goes forth from the house to
the houseless state, he will become an arahat, a fully-awakened one. o f
wide-spread fame in the world. But where, venerable Keniya, is this
venerable Gotama staying now, the arahat. the fully-awakened one?*
When this was said, (he maued-hair ascetic Keniya took the brahman
Sela by the right arm and said: <to7> Where that blue line o f forest
is. venerable Scia.* Then the brahman Sela went up to the Blessed One
with his three hundred young brahmans. Then the brahman Sela
addressed those young brahmans: 'Come noiselessflyl. sirs, placing
one foot down after another, for the Blessed Ones are as hard to
approach as lions living alone. So if I should converse with the ascetic
Gotama. do not, venerable sirs, interrupt my conversation from time to
time, but wait until the end of my conversation.* Then the brahman

III. The Great Chapter

73

Se la went up to the Blessed One and having exchanged the customary


friendly greetings with him sat on one side. Seated there, the brahman
Scia looked for the thirty-two marks of a great man on the Blessed
Ones body. The brahman Seta saw all the thirty-two marks o f a great
man on the Blessed Ones body except for two. About these two marks
of a great man he was doubtful, perplexed, he was not sure, he was not
convinced, viz. the male organ being ensheaihed and the great length of
the tongue. Then this thought occurred to the Blessed One: T h is
brahman Sela can see all the thirty-two marks of a great man on my
body except for two. About these two marks of a great an he is
doubtful, perplexed, he is not sure, he is unconvinced, viz. the male
organ being ensheaihed and the great length o f the tongue. Then the
Blessed One gave such a demonstration of supernormal power that the
brahman Sela saw the Blessed Ones ensheaihed <io8> male organ.
Then the Blessed One putting out his longue licked both his earapertures backwards and forwards, and licked bbth his nostrils
backwards and forwards, (and) covered the whole of his forehead with
his tongue. Then this thought occurred to the brahman Sela: T h e
ascetic Gotama is indeed endowed with the thirty-two marks o f a great
man. in full. noi in pan. but 1 do not know whether he is a Buddha or
not. But I have heard it said by brahmans who are old. aged, teachers
and teachers o f teachers: "Those who are arahats, fully-awakened ones,
reveal themselves when their own praise is being spoken**. What if I
were to praise the ascetic Gotama to his face with appropriate verses.
Then the brahman Scia praised the Blessed One to his face with
appropriate verses.
348. 'You have a perfect body, you arc shining, of an excellent nature,
beautiful to look at. You are goldcn-coloured, Blessed One. You have
very white teeth, you arc energetic.
349. For whatever the distinguishing marks are of a man of excellent
nature, all those marks of a great man arc in your body.
330. You have dear eyes, a fau face, you arc large, upright, splendid. In
the middle o f the Order of ascetics you shine like the sun.

74

The Croup o f Discourses

55 1. A bhikkhu with skin like gold is good to look at, but what use is
the ascetic's state to you when you have such an excellent appearance?
532. You ought to be a king, a wheel-turning monarch, a bull among
heroes, a conqueror possessing the whole world, the lord o f
Jambusanda.
553. <I09> Khattiyas and minor kings and kings ore your allies. You
are the king of kings (and] lord of men. Rule, Gotama.*
554. '1 am a king, S cia', said the Blessed One, an unsurpassed
doctrine-king. By my doctrine I set the wheel turning, the wheel which
is not to be rolled back.
555. You profess to be fully-awakened, said the brahman Sela, an
unsurpassed doctrine-king, Gotama. You say, By my doctrine 1 set the
wheel rolling".
556. But who is the venerable ones captain, who is the disciple who is
the successor to the teacher? Who keeps this doctrine-wheel rollingihat
has been set rolling by you ?'
557. 'Sela', said the Blessed One, Srifrutta, taking after the Tathgata,
keeps the unsurpassed doctrine-wheel rolling that has been set rolling
by me.
558. What is to be known is known (by me); what is to be developed
is developed (by me); what is to be eliminated is eliminated by me;
therefore 1 am a Buddha, brahman.
559. Dispel your doubt in me. Have faith, brahman. It is difficult to
obtain a sight o f the fully-awakened ones repeatedly.
560. <11 o> I am a fully-awakened one an unsurpassed barb-remover,
(one o f those] whose appearance in the world is difficult for you to
obtain repeatedly.
561. Having become Brahma, unequalled crusher o f M ira s armies,
having subdued all enemies. I rejoice, having no fear from any quarter.
562. Hear, venerable sirs, what the one with vision says. The barbremover. the great hero, roars like a lion in a wood.

UI. The Great Chapter

75

563. Having seen him, become Brahma, unequalled crusher o f Mra's


armies, who would not have faith, even one who is base-born?
564. Let him who wishes follow me; or let him who docs not wish go
i shall go forth here in the presence o f the one o f excellent wisdom.
565. If this teaching of the fully-awakened one is pleasing to the
venerable one, we too shall go forth in the presence o f the one of
excellent wisdom.'
566. These three hundred brahmans, with cupped hands, ask: May wc
practise the holy life in your presence. Blessed O ne?'
567. T h e holy life is wcli-proclaimed, Sela\ said the Blessed One, 'U
is visible, not concerned with time, wherefore going-forth is not in vain
for a vigilant man who trains himself.'
The brahman Sela obtained admission (to the Order), with his
company, in the presence o f the Blessed One, (and) he obtained
ordination. Then the matted-hair ascetic Keniya at the end o f that night,
having prepared outstanding food o f various sorts in his own hermitage.
<i 1 !> had [someone] tell (he Blessed One that il was time: 'It is time,
venerable Gotama. The food is ready. Then the Blessed One, dressing
in the morning, and taking his bowl and robe, went to the hermitage of
the matted-hair ascetic Keniya, and sat down on the seat (that had been)
prepared, with the Order o f bhikkhus. Then the matted-hair ascetic
Keniya with his own hand satisfied and served the Order o f bhikkhus,
led by the Buddha, with outstanding food o f various sons. Then, when
the Blessed One had eaten and washed his hands and bowl the mauedhair ascetic Keniya took a low scat and sat down on one side. The
Blessed One gave thanks to the matted-hair ascetic Keniya, seated there,
with these verses.
568. 'The aggihutta is the foremost among sacrifices; the SvittT is the
foremost of mctrc(s); a king is the foremost o f men; (he ocean is the
foremost o f rivers.

76

The Group o f Discourses

569. Th e moon is the foremost o f lunar mansions; (he sun is the


foremost o f shining things; the Order is indeed the foremost for those
who sacrifice looking for merit.'
Then the Blessed One, having given thanks to the matted-hair
ascetic Keniya with these verses, rose from his seat and went forth.
Then the venerable Sela, with his company, dwelling alone, secluded,
vigilant, ardent, resolute, after a short time < ii2 > him self learned,
realised (and) attained in [this] world o f phenomena that unsurpassed
goal o f the holy life, for the sake o f which men o f good family rightly
go forth from the house to the houseless state. He understood. Birth is
destroyed, the holy life has-been lived, that which has to be done has
been done, there is nothing more for this state.' Then the venerable Sela
with his company became one o f the arahats. Then the venerable Sela
went up to the Blessed One, and placing his robe over one shoulder and
saluting the Blessed One with cupped hands addressed him with
(these] verses.
570. 'This is the eighth day since we came to you as a refuge, one with
vision; for seven days we have been tamed in your teaching. Blessed
One.
57 t. You arc the Buddha, you are the teacher, you are the sage who
overcame Mra. Having cut o ff the latent tendencies, having crossed
over, you bring these people across.
572. Acquisitions [which lead to rebirth) have been by-passed by you.
Your savas have been tom asunder. Without grasping, you have
eliminated fear and dread, (like) a lion.
573. These three hundred bhikkhus stand with cupped hands. Stretch
out your feet. hero. Let the n5gas pay homage to tbe teacher's [feet].'

111.8 . The Barb


374. The life of mortals here is without attribute (and) unknown. (It is'
difficult and brief, and it is combined with misery.

III. The Great Chapter

77

575- <i*3> For (here is no means whereby those bom do not die. Even
[for one] arriving at old age there is death, for o f such a nature are living
creatures.
576. Just as for ripe fruit there is constantly* fear o f falling, so for
mortals who arc bom there is constantly fear o f death.
577. Just as vessels made of clay by a potter all have breaking as their
end. so is the life o f mortals.
578. Young and old. those who arc foolish and those who are wise, all
go into the power o f death, all have death as their end.
579. When they are overco:

by death, going from here to the next

world.*2 the father does not protect the son, nor the relatives the [other]
relatives.
580. Sec. while the relatives are actually looking .on, [and] wailing
much, each one of the mortals is led away like a cow to be slaughtered.
581. Thus the world is smitten by death and ol<| age. Therefore wise
men do not grieve, knowing the way o f the world.
582. Whose path you do not know, whether come or gone, not seeing
both ends you lament [him] uselessly.
583. If lamenting [and] harming himself a deluded person should pluck
out any advantage (from his action) a wise man would do that too.
584. For not by weeping and grief docs one obtain peace o f mind. His
misery arises all the more, his body is harmed.
585. < 1 14> He becomes thin and discoloured, harming himself by
himself. The departed ones do not fare well thereby. Lamentation is
useless.
586. Not abandoning grief a person goes all the more to misery.
Bewailing the dead man he goes under the influence o f grief.

* Reading niccam.

2 Reading paratoti' ito.

The Group o f Discourses

587. Look at others too going on their way, men going id accordance
with their actions, living creatures quivering indeed here: having come
into the power o f death.
588. For in whatever way they think, it happens Other than thai. The
difference is o f such a kind. See the way o f the world.
3S9. Even i f a man were to live one hundred years Of u rn e , he is
[eventually] separated from his group of relatives. He gives upiife here.
590. Therefore having heard the arahat, having dispelled lamentation,
having seen a departed one dead, (one should think]
(brought back again] by me.
591. Just as one might extinguish with water a shelter which is on fire,
even so a firm, wise, learned, skilled man would quickly blow away
grief when it has arisen, as the wind blows away (a piece ofj cotton.
592. Lamentation desire, and ones own unhappiness'/one seeking
happiness for himself should draw out his own barb.
593. With hath drawn out. not dependent, having gained peace or mind,
gone beyond all grief, without grief, he becomes quenched
III.9.

V&cuha

< 1 1 5> Thus have I heard. Once the Blessed One was staying at
Icchnamkala in the Icchanamkala forest. At that time many
distinguished and wealthy brahmans were dwelling at Icchnamkala,
such as the brahman CankT, the brahman Trukkha, the brahman
PokkharasSti. the brahman Jnu&soni, the brahman Todeyya and other
distinguished and wealthy brahmans. Then as the young brahmans
VSseuha and BliSradvSja were wandering to and fro on foot and walking
up and down, this conversation arose: How. sir. does ooe become a
brahman V The young brahman Bhradvja replied : 'When one is well
born on both the mother's and the father's side, and is o f pure descent
for seven generations, uncriticiscd und irreproachable with reference to
birth, to such an extent one becomes a brahman. The young brahman
Vscttha spoke thus: When one possesses virtuous conduct and is
endowed with [good] vows, to such an extent one becomes a'brahman.

HI. The Great Chapter

79

The young brahman Bhradvja was not able < 1 16> to convince the
young brahman Vseuha, nor could the young brahman Vseuha
convince the young brahman Bhradvja. Then the young brahman
Vsettha addressed the young brahman Bhradvja: This ascetic
Gotama, Bhradvja, of the Sakyan clan, having gone forth from (he
Sakyan family, is staying at Icchnamkala in (he Icchnamkala forest.
About this venerable Gotama a delightful report has arisen as follows:
"... Buddha, Blessed One." Let us go, venerable Bhradvja, to (he
ascetic Gotama, and let us ask the ascetic Gotama about this matter. As
the ascetic Gotama answers us, so we shall understand it. The young
brahman Bhradvja agreed to the young brahman VSseuha's
suggestion. Then the young brahmans Vseuha and Bhradvja went up
to the Blessed One, and exchanged the customary friendly greetings
with him, and then sat down on one side. Seated there the young
brahman VSsetlha addressed the Blessed One with these verses.
594. 'We are both adept in die three vedas, ckhowcdged (as such by
others) and self-professed. 1 am the young brahman pupil o f
Pokkharasati, and this one is the pupil of Tlrukkha.
595. Whatever is proclaimed by those who are adept in the three vedas.
therein we are fully accomplished. We are philologists, grammarians,
like our teachers in (vedic) recitation.
596. < II7> There is a dispute between us, Gotama, with reference to
birth. Bhradvja says that one becomes a brahman by birth, but I say it
is because o f action. Know thus, one with vision.
597. We are both unable to convince one another. We have come to ask
(lie venerable one. (who is] famed as being fully-awakened.
59S. Just as people going forward with cupped hands, worshipping, pay
homage to the moon when it is beginning to wax. so they pay homage
to Gotama in the world.
599.

Wc ask Gotama. (who has) arisen as an eye in the world: Does

one become a brahman by birth or by action? Tell us. who do not


know. $0 that wc may know (alK>u(| a brahman.*

So

The Group o f Discourses

600. I shall explain to you, Vasctiha , said the Blessed One, 'in due
order, in accordance with the truth, the division o f species of living
creatures; manifold indeed are their species.
60 1. Consider grass and trees. Although they do not profess [any
difference], their distinguishing mark arises from their species;
manifoldindeed are their species.
602. < n 8 > Then [consider] beetles, moths, [and so on] down to ants
and termites; their distinguishing mark ...
603. Consider quadrupeds too, both small [and] large; their...
604. Consider snakes too, going on their bellies, with long backs;
their ...
605. Then consider fish too, living in the water, having water as their
range [of activity]; their...
606. Then consider birds too, going on wings, sky-travellers; their...
607. Although, in .these species, the distinguishing mark(s].ansiog
from their species are numerous, among men the distinguishing mark[s]
arising from their species are not similarly numerous.
608. Not b y hair, nor head, nor ears, nor eyes, nor mouth, nor nose, nor
lips, nor eyebrows.
609. nor neck, nor shoulders, nor belly, nor bock, nor buttock[s], nor
chest, nor female organs, nor testicles,
610. nor hands, nor feet, nor fingers, nor nails, nor calves, nor thighs,
nor colour, nor voice, is there a distinguishing mark arising from their
species, as in other species.
6 1 1. < i(9 > T h is [difference] is not found individually among men in
respect o f their own bodies, but among men difference is spoken of as a
matter o f designation.
6 12 . Whoever among men makes his living by keeping cows, thus
know, Vseijha. he is a fanner, not a brahman.

III. The Great Chapter

8l

6 13. Whoever among men lives by means o f various crafts,1 thus


know, Vsettha, he is a craftsman, not a brahman.
6 14. Whoever among men makes his living by trade, thus know,
VSscuha, he is a merchant, not a brahman.
615. Whoever among men lives by means of serving others, thus know,
Vseltha, he is a servant, not a brahman.
C i 6. Whoever among men makes his living by [taking] what is not
given, thus know, Vsettha, he is a thief, not a brahman.
C17. Whoever among men makes his living by archery, thus know,
VSsettba, he is a fighting roan, not a brahman.
618 . Whoever among men lives by means o f the priesthood, thus
know, Vsettha, he is a sacrilicer, not a brahman.
6 19. Whoever among men enjoys village and kingdom, thus know.
Vsettha, he is a king, not a brahman.
620. Nor do I call [him} a brahman [who is] bom in a [particular]
womb, and has his origin in a [particular] mother. If2 he has
possessions, he becomes one who addresses others disrespectfully. If he
has nothing and is without grasping, him I call a brahman.
621. Whoever indeed, having cut every fetter, does not tremble, gone
beyond attachment, unfettered, him 1 call a brahman.
622. <!2o> Having cut the strap and the thong, the fastening together
with its appurtenances, rid o f his obstacles, awakened, him I call a
brahman.
623. Whoever, without hatred, endures abuse, ill-treatment and
imprisonment, [who has) the strength of endurance and [this] strength
as his army, him I cal) a brahman.
624. Without anger, possessing vows and virtuous conduct, free from
haughtiness, tamed, having his last body, him I call a brahman.*3

1 Reading puthusippena.
3 Reading sa ce.

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625. Whoever does not cling to sensual pleasures, as water does not
cling to a lotus leaf, or a mustard seed to the tip o f an awl, him I call a
brahman.
626. Whoever in this very w orld,understands the end o f his own
misery, with burden laid aside, unfettered, him 1 call a brahman.
627. Having deep wisdom, possessing intelligence, the knower o f the
right road and the wrong road, whoever has attained (he supreme goal,
him I call a brahman.
628. Not in contact with householders and houseless ones alike, not
frequenting houses, having little desire, him I call a brahman.
629. Whoever, having laid aside violence in respect o f all beings,
moving or still, does not kill or cause to kill, him I call a brahman.
630. Not hostile among those who are hostile, at rest among those who
have embraced violence, without grasping among those who are with
grasping, him 1 call a brahman.
631. Whose passions and hatred, and conceit and hypocrisy bave been
made to fall off, like a mustard seed [falling) from tho point o f an awl,
him 1 call a brahman.
6 32. < J2 1 > [Whoever] may utter speech which is not harsh,
informative, true, by which he would offend no one, him I call a
brahman.
633. Whoever here1 does not take what is not given in the world [be it)
long or short, small or large, beautiful or ugly, htm I call a brahman.
634. In whom no longings are found, for this world or the next,
without aspirations, unfettered, him call a brahman.
635. In whom no attachments are found, [who is] without doubt
because o f knowledge, arrived at the firm foundation o f the death-free,
him 1 call a brahman.
636. Whoever has passed beyond merit and evil here, both attachments,
without grief, without pollution, purified, him 1 call a brahman.
Reading dha.

ill. The C re a i Chapter

83

637. Stainless like the moon purified, clear, not turbid, bereft of joy
and existence, him I call a brahman.
638. Whoever has gone beyond this obstacle, the difficult road,
joumeying-on, delusion, (and has) crossed over, gone to the far shore,
meditating without lust, without doubt, quenched without grasping,
him 1 call a brahman.
639. Whoever, having left behind sensual pleasures in this world,
should wander about homeless, bereft o f sensual pleasures and
existence, him I call a brahman.
640. Whoever, having left behind craving in this world, should wander
about homeless, bereft o f craving and existence, him 1 call a brahman.
641. (Whoever), having abandoned human connection, bas gone beyond
connection with the devas, released from all connections, him I call a
brahman.
642. Having abandoned pleasure and noA-pleastirc, become cool,
without acquisitions (which lead to rebirth), a hero who has overcome
the whole world, him 1 call a brahman.
643. <I22> Whoever knows the passing away o f beings and their
uprising (again) in every respect, unattached, a well-farer. an awakened
one, him I call a brahman.
644. Whose transition the devas. gandhabbas and men do not know,
with Ssavas destroyed, an arahat, him 1 call a brahman.
645. For whom there is nothing before, or after, or in the middle,
having nothing, without grasping, him I call a brahman.
646. A bull (among men], an excellent hero, a great seer, a conqueror,
without lust, washed clean, awakened, him 1 cal) a brahman.
647. Whoever knows that he has lived before, and secs heaven and hell,
and has arrived at the destruction o f birth, him 1 call a brahman.
648. For what has been designated name and clan in the world is indeed
a (mere) name. What has been designated here and there has arisen by
common assent.

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649. The (false) view o f the ignorant has been latent for a long time.
Only the ignorant say that one becomes a brahman by birth.
650. Not by birth does one become a brahman; not by birth does one
become a non-brahman. B y action one becomes a brahman; by action
one becomes a non-biahman.
6 5 1. B y action one becomes a fanner; by action one becomes a
craftsman; by action one becomes a merchant; by action one becomes a
servant.
632. By action one becomes a thief too; by action one becomes a
.fighting-man too; by action one becomes a sacrifices by action one
becomes a king too.
653. <!23> Thus the wise, seeing conditional origination, knowing the
fruitr f action, see this action as it really is.

654. By action the world goes on ; by action people go on. Beings have
action a$ their bond, as the linch-pin is the bond o f a chariot as irgoes
along.
653. By austerity, by the holy life, by self-restraint, and self-taming, by
this one becomes a brahman. This is the supreme state o f being a
brahman.
636. {Whoever is) endowed with the three knowledges, at peace, with
renewed existence destroyed, thui know. Vsettha, he is Brahm (and)
Sakka to those who know.*
When this had been said, the young brahmans Vsettha and
Bhradvja stud this to the Blessed One: Wonderful, venerable Gotaraa
... we go to the venerable Gotama as a refuge, and to the Doctrine, and
to the Order of bhikkhus. May the Venerable Gotama accept us as layfollowers who have taken refuge from this day forth as long as life
lasts.
lll.io .

Kokliya

Thus have I heard. Once the Blessed One was staying at SvatthT. in the
Jetavana in AnSthapindik.Vs park. Then the bhikkhu Kokliya came up

III. V ie Greot Chapter

85

to (he Blessed One, <I24> and having saluted him $at down on one
side. Seated there the bhikkhu Kokliya said this to the Blessed One:
SSriputta and Moggallna have evil desires, venerable sir; they are
under the influence of evil desires. When this had been said, the
Blessed One said this to the bhikkhu Kokliya: Do not [speak] thus,
KokSHya; do not [speak] thus, Kokliya. Put your mind at rest in
respect of SSriputta and Moggallna, Kokliya. Sripuua and
Moggaltna are amiable people.* A second time the bhikkhu Kokliya
spoke to the Blessed One: Although the Blessed One, venerable sir,
inspires faith and confidence in me, nevertheless Sriputta and
Moggallna have evil desires; they are under the influence o f evil
desires.* A second time the Blessed One replied to the bhikkhu
K o k liy a : Do not [speak] thus. Kokliya; do not [speak] thus.
Kokliya. Put your mind at rest in respect o f Sriputta and Moggallna.
Kokliya. Sriputta and Moggallna are amiable people. A third time
the bhikkhu Kokliya spoke to the Blessed One: Although the Blessed
One, venerable sir, inspires faith and confidence in me. nevertheless
SSriputta and Moggallna have evil desires; they are under the influence
o f evil desires.* A third time the Blessed One spoke to the bhikkhu
K o k liya : 'Do not [speak] thus, Kokliya; do not [speak] thus,
Kokiiya. Put your mind at rest in respect of Sriputta and Moggallna,
Kokliya. SSriputta and Moggallna arc amiable people. Then the
bhikkhu Kokliya rose from his seal, saluted the Blessed One, walked
respectfully around him, and departed. A short time after he had
departed, the bhikkhu Kokliya's whole body broke out in boils the
size of mustard seeds. These became the size of kidney-beans, and then
of chick-peas, and then of jujube stones, <i2s> and then o f jujube
fruits, and then of myrobalans, and then of unripe vilva fruits, and then
of [ripe] vilva fruits. After becoming as large as [ripe] vilva fruits they
burst, and discharged pus and blood. Then the bhikkhu Kokliya died
of that disease, and was reborn in the Paduma hell for hardening his
heart against Sripulta nod Moggallna.

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Then as night was passing away, BrahmS Sahampati, of


outstanding radiance, illuminating the whole Jctavana, came up to the
Blessed One and stood on one side after saluting him. Standing there
Brahma Sahampati said this to the Blessed One: 'The bhikkhu
Kokliya, venerable sir, is dead, and after death he has been reborn in
the Paduma hell for hardening his heart against Sriputta and
Moggallna/ Thus spoke BrahmS Sahampati, and when be had spoken
he saluted the Blessed One, walked respectfully around him and
disappeared on that very spot.
Then at the end o f the night the Blessed One addressed the
bhikkhus: 'During the night, bhikkhus, as night was passing away,
BrahmS Sahampati... Thus spoke BrahmS Sahampati, and when he had
spoken he saluted me, walked respectfully around me, and disappeared
on that very spot/ When this had been said, a certain bhikkhu <w 6>
said*this to the Blessed One: 'How long, venerable sir, is the extent of
life in the Paduma hell?* The-exlem o f life in-the Paduma hell,
bhikkhu, is indeed long, and it is not easy to reckon it as being so
many years, or so many hundreds o f years, or so many thousands of
years, or so many hundreds o f thousands o f years.* But can a
comparison be made, venerable sir?* It can, bhikkhu*, said the Blessed
One. Suppose, bhikkhu. there were a Kosalan cartload o f twenty
measures o f sesame seed, and from that a man might take a ringle seed
at the end of every century. That Kosalan cartload o f twenty measures of
sesame seed, bhikkhu, would more quickly be exhausted and used up in
that way than a single Abbuda hell. Just as are twenty Abbuda hells,
bhikkhu, so is one Nirabbuda hell. just as are twenty Nirabbuda hells,
bhikkhu, so is one Ababa h ell, just as are twenty Ababa hells,
bhikkhu, so is one Ahaha hell; just as are twenty Ahaha hells,
bhikkhu, so is one Aiata hell ; just as are twenty Alata hells, bhikkhu.
so is one Kumuda hell; just as are twenty Kumuda hells, bhikkhu. so
is one Sogandhika hell ; just as are twenty Sogandhika hells, bhikkhu.
so is one Uppabka hell; just as are twenty Uppalaka hells, bhikkhu, so
is one Pundarika hell; just as are twenty Pundarfka hells, bhikkhu. so

III. The Great Chapter

S7

is .one Paduma hell. The bhikkhu Kokliya has been reborn in the
Paduma hell, bhikkhu, for hardening his heart against Sariputta and
MoggallSna.* So spoke the Blessed One. and when the Well-farer had
said this, the Teacher spoke again :
657. <!27> 'Surely in the mouth o f a man, when born, an axe is bom.
with which a fool cuts himself, saying a badly-spoken [utterance].
658. He who praises him who is to be blamed, or blames him who is
to be praised, accumulates evil by his mouth. Because o f that evil he
does not find happiness.
659. That losing throw is o f small measure which [consists of] the loss
o f wealth at dice, even all one s property together with oneself. This
indeed is a greater evil, which sets ones mind against well-farers.
660. Since he maligns the noble ones, having directed evil speech and
mind [against them] he goes to hell for one hundred thousand and
thirty-six Nirabbudas and five Abbudas.
661. Speaking o f what never happened one goes to hell, or if someone
having done something says I did not do it , [he goes to hell too].
Both o f them, passing away, become equal, men o f base deeds in the
next world.
662. Whoever offends against an unoffending man, a purified man
without blemish, the evil rebounds upon that self-same fool, like fine
dust thrown against the wind.
663. Whoever is attached to the quality o f greed, he reviles others with
his voice, <12.8> [being] ungenerous, mean, niggardly, avaricious,
attached to slander.
664. Foul-mouthed, abandoned, ignoble, an abortionist, evil, doer of
wicked deeds, lowest o f men, wicked, base-bom, do not speak much
here. You are doomed to hell.
665. You scatter pollution to (your) disadvantage. A doer o f wrong,
you arc maligning (lie good (people]. Having practised many evil
practices, you will indeed go to the pit [of hell] for a long time.

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666. For

do

one's action disappears [completely]; truly it comes back.

Its owner assuredly obtains it. The doer of wrong, the fool, sees misery
for himself in the next world.
667. He goes to the place o f impaling upon iron spikes, to the iron
stake with its sharp blade. <129> Then there is food like a ball of
heated iron, thus appropriate.
668. [The hell-keepers] when they speak do not speak pleasantly. [The
hell-dwellers] do not hasten towards them; they are not arriving at a
refuge. They lie on scattered coals ; they enter a blazing mass o f fire.
669. And tying them up with a net [the hell-keep*rs] strike them there
with hammers made of iron. [The hell-dwellers] come to blind darkness
indeed, for it. is spread out like mist.
670. Then moreover they enter pot[s] made of copper, a blazing mass of
fire. In those they are indeed cooked for a long time, jumping up and
down in the masses of fire.
671 Then the doer o f wrong is cooked there in a mixture o f pusand
blood. <130> Whatever region he inhabits there he festers as be is
touched.
672. The doer o f wrong Is cooked there in water which is the abode of
worms. There is not even a shore to go to (for refuge], for the cooking
pots all around are all the same.
673. Moreover they enter that sharp Asipatta wood, (and) their limbs
are cut to pieces. Seizing their tongue(s) with a hook, pulling them
backwards and forwards^ (the hell-keepers) strike (ihemj.
674. Then moreover they approach Vetaranf, difficult to cross, with
sharp blades (and] with razors (in it). Fools fall thcre-in. evil-doers,
having done evil deeds.
675. < !3 i> There blacK and spotted dogs, am) flocks o f ravens, (and)
greedy jackals indeed devour them, as they are wailing, (and] vultures
and crows strike them.

1 Reading tatta-ayo-$n}asannibha>n.

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89

676. Difficult indeed Is this way o f life here (in hell], which wrong
doing people see. Therefore in the remainder o f his life here (on eanhj a
man should do his duty and not be careless.
677. These loads o f sesame seeds which are compared (in number) to
the Paduma hell have been counted by the wise. They come to five
myriad crores indeed, and twelve hundred crores besides.
678.

*A s many as1 (these] miserable hells have been said (to be] here, for

so long must people dwell there too. Therefore, in the midst o f those
who are pure, amiable, and have good qualities, one should constantly
guard speech and mind.*
IU.11. Nlaka
Introductory Verses
679. The seer Asita saw in their daytime resting place the joyful group
of the Thirty gods, (who were] glad, having honoured Inda, and (he
saw] the devas in their clean clothes, holding up their garments,
prnUing exceedingly.
680. <t32> Having seen the devas [who were] delighted in mind (and]
glad, he, having paid his respects, said this there: 'Why is the group o f
devas exceedingly happy? Why do they hold up their garments and
wave them about?
68t. Even when there was a battle with the asuras, (and) (here was
victory for the suras (and) the asuras were defeated, even then there was
not such excitement. Having seen what marvel arc the gods delighted?
682. They shout, and sing, and play (instruments]; they slap their
arms, and dance. I ask you inhabitants o f Mcru's crest. Dispel my
doubt quickly, sirs.'
683. 'That Bodhisatta, excellent jewel, incomparable, has been bom in
the world of men for (their) benefit and happiness, in the village o f the
Sakyans. in the Lumbini country. Therefore w c are exultant,
exceedingly happy.
Reading

yvattukkh.

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90

684. He is the best o f all beings, the pre-eminent individual, bull


among men, supreme among all people. < 133> Roaring like a lion,
possessing strength, overlord o f animals, he will cause the wheel to
turn in the grove named after the seers.';
685. Having heard (hat utterance, he descended quickly [from heaven];
then he went to Suddhodana's dwelling. Having sat down there he said
this to the Sakyans: 'Where is the young prince? I too wish to see
him/
686. Then to the one called Asita the Sakyans showed the child, the
young prince, [who was) like burning gold burnished by a very skilful
[smith] in the very mouth o f the furnace, resplendent with glory, with
perfect colour.
687. Having seen the young prince blazing like fire, purified like the
lord o f stars going in the sky, like the gleaming sun released from
clouds in autumn, [becoming] jo yful he was filled with abundant
rapture.
688. And the gods held in the sky an umbrella with many nbs [and] a
thousand circles. Yak-tail fans with golden handles fluttered up and
down. The holders of the umbrella and the fans were invisible.
689. <134> The seer called Kanhasiri, with matted locks, having seen
(him) like a golden ornament on a pale red blanket, and the white
umbrella being carried above his head, with gladdened mind, cheerful,
took hold o f him.
690. Then having, taken hold o f the bull among the Sakyans,
longingUy], being one who had completely mastered marks and [vedic]
mantras, with believing mind, he raised his voice; 'This one.
unsurpassed, is supreme among two-legged [men]/
6 9 1. Then remembering his own (impending) departure, (being)
unhappy, he shed tears. Seeing the seer wailing, the Sakyans said
Surely1 there will not he any obstacle to the young prince V

' R e a d in g

noire.

III. The Great Chapter

9 l

692. Seeing the Sakyans unhappy, the seer said: *! do not recall
anything harmful (destined) for the prince. Nor w ill there be any
obstacle for him. This one is not inferior. Do not be concerned (about
him).
693. This young prince will reach the highest point o f awakening.
Seeing what is supremely] purified, having sympathy for the benefit of
the great majority, he will turn the wheel o f the doctrine. His holy
living will be widely famed.
694. <i35> But not much o f my life here remains, and there will be
death for me before then. I shall not hear ..e doctrine o f the peerless
one, therefore 1 am afflicted, overwhelmed by disaster, miserable/
695. Having produced abundant rapture for the Sakyans, the liver o f the
holy life went out from the harem. He him self taking pity on his
nephew, urged him towards the doctrine o f the peerless one.
696. When you hear from another the word(s) Buddha** or Arrived at
awakening he wanders along the path o f the doctrine**, going there,
asking about his doctrine, practise the holy life in the presence o f that
Blessed One.*
697. Instructed by him whose mind was set on benefit, venerable,
seeing what is suprcme(ly) purified in the future, that NSIaka with a
heap o f merit accumulated remained waiting for the Conqueror, with
guarded sense-faculties.
698. Hearing the word(s) at the (time o f the) turning o f the wheel by the
excellent Conqueror, going, seeing the bull among seers, believing
<I36> he asked the excellent sage about the best o f sage-hoods, when
the prognostication of the one called Asita had come to pass.

699. This utierance of Asita is known 10 be true. I ask you this,


Gotama. who have gone to the far shore o f all phenomena.
700. I have come to housetessness, longing for the alms-round. Tell
me. sage, when asked, the supreme state, sage-hood.*

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70 t. 1 shall explain sage-hood to yob , said the Blessed One (which


is] hard to perform, hard to endure. Come now, I shall tell you about it.
Stand fast; be firm.
702. One should practise equanimity, {for) there is praise and abuse in a
village. One should ward o ff fault(s) o f the mind. One should wander
calmed, not haughty.
703. 3 7 > Various sorts o f things emerge, like the flames o f a fire in
a forest Women seduce a sage; may they not seduce you.
704. Abstaining from sexual intercourse, having abandoned different
kinds o f sensual pleasures, (he is] not opposed (and) not attached to
living creatures, both moving and still.
705. A s I [am], so (are) these: as [are] these, so (am) I Comparing
himself [with others], he should not kill orcause to kill.
706. Having abandoned desire and tust, to which the ordinary
individual is attached, one with vision should set out (on the path). Jfe
should cross over this hell.
707. He should have an empty stomach, taking food in moderation,
with little desire, without covetousness. He indeed, having no hunger
arising from desire, being without desire, becomes quenched.
708. When he has been on his alms-round, he should betake himself to
a grove. Standing at the foot of a tree, [or] come io a seat, he is a sage.
709. Intent on meditation, firm, he snould be delighted in the grove.
I Ie should meditate at the foot o f a tree, delighting himself.
710. Then at the end o f the night, he should betake himself to a village.
He should not rejoice at an invitation or a present from the village.
7 1 1. Having come 10 a village, a sage should not pursue his search for
food inconsiderately among the families. Cutting o ff all conversation,
he should not utter a word with an ulterior motive.
712. Since I received [something], that is well; 1 did not receive
[anyihingj, [that too) is good." Being the same on account of both
(occurrences), he goes back to the very (same) tree.

\
III. The G reat Chapter

93

7 1 3 . <I38> Wandering about with bowl in hand, not dumb (but)


thought to be dumb, he should not despise a small gift, (and] he should
not disparage1 the giver.
714. For high and low are the paths proclaimed by the ascetic. They do
not go to the far shore twice; this is not experienced once.
7 1 5 . In whom there is no craving, in the bhikkhu who has cut across
the stream, (and] has given up what is to be done and what is not to be
done, no fever is found.
7 16 . I shall explain sage-hood to you*, said the Blessed One, (The
sage] should be [sharp] as a razor's edge. Having pressed his tongue
against his palate, he should be restrained in respect o f his belly.

- *

7 1 7 . He should neither have an inactive mind, nor think too much. He


should be without taints, not dependent, having holy living as his aim.
71$. He should train himself in (the practice of] solitude and in the
ascetic's service. The state o f being alone is called sage-hood. Solitary,
you will certainly be delighted,2.

,,

719 . and you will shine forth3 in the ten directions. Having heard the
fame o f the wise, of the meditators, o f those who have given up sensual
pleasures, then my disciple should develop modesty and faith all the.
more.
720. < 139> Know this by the streams [which flow] in clefts and
crevices. (Rivers in] small channels move noisily; the great oceans
move4 in silence.
72 1. What is not full makes a noise. What is. full is indeed silent. A
fool is like a half-filled pot; a wise man is like a full poo).

1 Reading tivojniy.
2 Reading eko ve abhirtunissasi.
3 Reading bhdhist.
4 Reading yanii.

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722. When on ascetic speaks much [which is) possessed o f and endowed
with meaning, he. knowingfly), teaches the doctrine; he, knowing[IyJ,
speaks much.
723. But he who. know ingly], is self-restrained, [and] knowingly],
docs not speak much, that sage deserves sage-hood; that sage has
gained sage-hood.
III.12.

Consideration of the Pairs

Thus have 1 heard. Once the Blessed One was staying at S&vauhT, at
Pubbrroa, in the palace o f Migdra s mother. At that time, on the
Uposaiha day, on the fifteenth day, the day of. the full moon, the
Blessed One was seated in the evening surrounded by the Order of
bhikkhus. <lc|0> Then the Blessed One looking around at the Order of
bhikkhus who were quite silent addressed them: If. bhikkhus, there are
any who ask, What point is there, bhikkhus, in your listening to these
doctrine^ which are good, noble, delivering, .leading to* full
awakening?, they should be answered thus, So as to know.properly
the pairs o f doctrines*. And what pair do you speak o f? ' This is
misery; this is the origin o f misery"; that is one consideration. This
is the stopping o f misery; this is the path leading to the stopping of
m isery"; that is the second consideration. For a bhikkhu who dwells
rightly considering the pairs in this way, bhikkhus, [and is] vigilant,
intent, resolute, one of two results is to be expected: knowledge in this
world o f phenomena, or. if there is a remnant o f clinging remaining, the
state o f a non-returner/ This (is what] the' Blessed One said, and when
the Well-farer had said this, the Teacher went on to say :
724.

"Those who do not know misery and the arising of misery, and

where misery without exception is wholly stopped, and do not know


the way leading to the quiescence of misery,
723. they. lacking release o f mind and [lackingj release through
wisdom, are incapable of making an end. They indeed experience birth
and old age.

III. The.Great Chapter

95

726. Bui those who know misery and (he arising of misery, and where
misery without exception is wholly stopped, <>4I> and know the way
leading to the quiescence o f misery,
727. they, being endowed with release o f mind and (endowed withj
release through wisdom, are capable o f making an end. They'do not
experience birth and old age.
If, bhikkhus, there are any who ask, May there be tight
consideration o f the pairs in another way? , they should be answered
thus: There may be. And bow may this be?" Whatever misery
arises, all this is because o f acquisitions (which leads to rebirth]"; that
is one consideration. Because of the complete ending and stopping of
the acquisitions there is no arising o f misery^; that is the second"
consideration. For a bhikkhu who dwells rightly ... * ... the Teacher
went on to say:
728. Whatever miseries having many forms there are in the world, they
come into existence with acquisitions [which leafrto rebirth) as their
cause. Truly whatever fool, unknowing, makes acquisiiion(s). he comes
to misery again and again. Therefore one who knows should not make
acquisition^), considering the birth and arising o f misery.
If. bhikkhus, there are any who ask, 'M ay there be right
consideration o f the pairs in another way? , they should be answered
thus: There may be. And how may this be? Whatever misery
arises, all this is because o f ignorance ; that is one consideration.
Because o f the complete ending and stopping o f ignorance, there is no
arising o f misery ; that is (he second considerati). For a bhikkhu who
dwells rightly ... * ... the Teacher went on to say:
729. <I42> Those who travel the joumeying-on of (repeated) births
and deaths again and again, to existence in this form or existence in that
form, (his is transition through ignorance alone.
730. For this ignorance is a great delusion whereby this joumeying-on
goes on for a long lime. But whatever beings possess knowledge, they
do not come to renewed existence.

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. . lf.bhUckhus, ihcre are any ... And how may this beV Whatever
misery arises, ail this is because o f the constituent elements ; that is
one consideration. Because o f the complete ending and stopping o f the
constituent elements there is no arising o f misery ; that is the second
consideration. For a bhikkhu who dw ells rightly ... ' ... the Teacher
went on to say:
73 1. Whatever misery arises, all [that] is because of the constituent
elements. By the stopping o f the constituent elements, there is no
arising o f misery.
732. Knowing this peril, that Misery is because o f the constituent
elements , by the quiescence o f all constituent elements, by the
stopping o f perception, thus there is destruction o f misery. Knowing
this as it really is,
73 3. w ise men who see rightly, (and) have knowledge, haying
overcome the fetter o f MSra by means o f their proper knowledge db not
come to renewed existence.

< 143> If, bhikkhus, there'are any ... And how may this b e ? "
Whatever misery arises, all this is because o f consciousness ^that is
one consideration. "Because o f the complete ending and stopping o f
consciousness, there is no arising o f m isery"; that is the second
consideration. For a bhikkhu who dw ells rightly ... * ... the Teacher
went on to say:
734. Whatever misery arises, all (that) is because of consciousness. By
the slopping o f consciousness, there is no arising of misery.

735. Knowing this perii, that Misery is because of consciousness", by


the quiescence of consciousness a bhikkhu is without craving,
quenched.
If. bhikkhus, there are any ... And how may this be? Whatever
misery arises, all this is because of contact"; that is one consideration.
Because o f the complete ending and stopping of contact, there is no
arising o f misery"; that is the second consideration. For a bhikkhu who
dwells rightly ... ... the Teacher went on to say:

III.

The Crear Chapter

97

736. For those who are overcome by contact, following the stream of
existence, entered upon the wrong road, the destruction o f the fetters is
far off.
737. But those who, understanding [and renouncing] contact, delight in
quiescence because o f their knowledge, they indeed because o f the full
comprehension o f contact are without craving, quenched.
If, bhikkhus, there are any ... And how may this be ?" Whatever
misery arises, all this is because o f sensation"; that is one
consideration. Because o f the- complete ending and stopping o f
sensations, there is no arising o f m isery"; that is the second
consideration. For a bhikkhu who dwells rightly ... * ... the Teacher
went on to say:
738. <!44> 'Happiness r misery, [or] neither happiness nor misery
together, whatever is sensed, both inside and outside,
739. knowing this'to be misery, false by nature, destined to break up,
realising it again and again, seeing its passing away, thus one.is freed
from passion for it. Because o f the destruction o f sensations a bhikkhu
is without craving, quenched.
If, bhikkhus, there are any ... And how may this be?" Whatever
misery arises, all this is because o f craving ; that is one consideration.
Because o f the complete ending and stopping o f craving, there is no
arising of misery"; (hat is the second consideration. For a bhikkhu who
dwells rightly

... the Teacher went on to say:

740. A man accompanied by craving, joumeying-on for a long time to


existence in this forni or existence in that form, docs not pass beyond
joumeying-on.
7 4 1. Knowing this peril, that The arising o f misery is because of
craving", a bhikkhu should wander with craving gone, not grasping,
mindful.
If, bhikkhus. there arc any ... And how may this be?" Whatever
misery arises, alt this is because o f grasping"; that is one consideration.
"Because o f the complete ending and slopping of grasping, there is no

98

T h e C rou p o f Discourses

arising o f misery.*; ih atis the second consideration. For a bhikkhu who


dwells
742.

the Teacher went on to say:


- Existence is because o f grasping. An (existent) being goes to

misery. .(There is) death for one who is bom. That is the arising of
misery.743. Therefore because o f the destruction o f grasping, wise men
understanding the destruction o f birth by means o f their proper
knowledge, do not come to renewed existence.
< I4 5 > If. bhikkhus. there are any ... And how may this be?
Whatever misery arises, all this is because o f exertion ; that is one
consideration. Because o f the complete ending and stopping of
exertioo. there is no arising o f misery ; that is the second
consideration. For a bhikkhu who dwells rightly ... * ... the Teacher
went on to say:
744. Whatever misery arises, all (that) is because o f excrtiorvBy the
stopping o f exertion, there is no arisipg of misery.
745. Knowing this peril, that Misery is because o f exertion , giving
up all exertion, for a bliikkhu who is released in non-exertion,
746. whose craving for existence has been cut off, with calmed mind,
the joumeying-on in [repeated] births has been crossed over. There is no
renewed existence for him.
If, bhikkhus. there arc any ... And how may this be? Whatever
misery arises, all this is because o f sustenance ; that is one
consideration. Because o f the complete ending and stopping of
sustenance, there is no arising o f misery ; that is the second
consideration. For a bhikkhu who dwells rightly ... ' ... the Teacher
went on to say:
747. Whatever misery arises, all (that! is because of sustenance. By the
slopping o f sustenance, (here is no arising of misery.
74S. Knowing this peril, that Misery is because o f sustenance ,
understanding [and renouncing) all sustenance, independent o f all
sustenance.

HI. The Great Chapter

99

749. < m 6> knowing health properly because of the destruction o f the
asavas, the practising (bhikkhu), having reflected, standing (finn) in the
doctrine, having knowledge, is not counted liti any category).
If. bhikkhus, there are any .-..-And how may this be?" "Whatever
misery arises, all this is because o f (mental) commotions ; that is one
consideration. "Because o f the complete ending and stopping of
commotions, there is no arising o f misery. ; that is the second
consideration. For a bhikkhu who dwells rightly ... ... the Teacher
went on to say:

. .

750. Whatever misery arises, all (that) is because oi commotions. By


the stopping'of commotions, there is no arising o f misery.
7 5 1. Knowing this peril, that "Misery (is] because o f commotions,
therefore giving up emotion(s). putting a stop to the constituent
elements, a bhikkhu should wander without emotion, not grasping,
mindful:

If, bhikkhus, there are any

"And how may this be? There is

wavering on the part o f one who is dependent ; that is one


consideration. An independent one does not waver ; that is the second
consideration. F o ra bhikkhu who dwells rightly ... * ... the Teacher
went on to s a y :.
752. 'The one who is not dependent docs not waver, but the dependent
one grasping at existence in this form or existence in (hat form, does
not pass beyond joumeying-on.
753. Knowing this peril, that There is great fear in dependences", a
bhikkhu should wander, not dependent nor grasping, mindful.
If. bhikkhus, there are any ... And how may this be? Formless
things are calmer, bhikkhus, than forms ; that is one consideration.
<I47> Stopping is calmer than formless things"; that is the second
consideration. For a bhikkhu who dwells rightly ... * ... the Teacher
went on to say:

loo
754.

Th Group o f Discourses

Whatever beings are possessed o f form, and whatever [beings] live

io the formless realm, nor knowing stopping, w ill come to renewed


existence.

.rvy'r.

..;;-

*755 But those people who.understand (and renounce] forms, and do


not stand firm1 in formless things, (and) are completely released in
stopping, they leave death behind.
If, bhikkhus, there are any

And how may this be? "Whatever,

bhikkhus, is regarded as being tn>e by the world including the devas


and Mara, and by beings including the ascetics and brahmans, devas
and men, that is well seen by the noble ones by their proper knowledge
as it really is, i.c. false

that is one consideration. Whatever,

. bhikkhus, is regarded as being false by the world including the devas


... devas andmen, that is well seen by the noble ones with their proper
joiowlcdgc as it really is, kth true ; that is the second consideration.
For a bhikkhu who dwells rightly... ... the Teacher went on to say:
*
^756. See the world together with the devas, which thinks that there is
self in non-self (and which.is) entrenched in name-and-form. It thinks,
1This is true.
*757. In whatever way (the world-dwellers] think it, it turns out other
than that. For it is false to it(self). Whatever is transitory indeed has a
. false nature.
4
75 8 . < m 8> (But) quenching docs not have a false nature. That the
hoble ones know truly. Because of the full comprehension o f the truth
they indeed arc without craving, quenched.
If. bhikkhus, there ir q any who ask. "M ay there be right
'consideration o f the pairs irraoother way? they should be answered
nhus: There may be. And how may this be? Whatever, bhikkhus,
?is regarded as being happiness by the world including the devas ...
devas and men, that is well seen by the noble ones with their proper
knowledge as ii really is. i.e. misery ; that is one consideration.

Reading asanihii.

III. The G ieat Chapter

IQ!

"Whatever, bhikkhus, is regarded as misery by the world including the


devas ... devas and men, that is well seen by the noble ones with their
proper knowledge as it really is, i.e. happiness"; that is the second
consideration. For a bhikkhu who dwells rightly considering the pairs
in this way, bhikkhus, land is] vigilant, intent, resolute, one.of two
results is to be expected: knowledge in this world of phenomena, or, if
there is a remnant o f clinging remaining, the state o f a non-retumcr.
This [is what] the Blessed One said, and when die WclI-farer had said
this, the Teacher went on to say :
75 9 . 'Forms, sounds, tastes, smells, contacts, and alt mental
phenomena are desired, pleasant and lovely as long as it is said, 'They
exist".760. These are indeed thought o f as happiness by the world including
the devas, but the fact that they stop is regarded as misery by them.
7 6 t. The stopping o f individual personality is seen by the noble ones
as happiness. This (view) o f those who see (properly) is contrary to
(that held) by the whole world.
762. <i49> What others speak o f as happiness, this the noble ones
speak o f as misery. What the others speak o f as misery, this the noble
ones know as happiness. Sec a doctrine (which is] hard to understand.
Herein ignorant people are confused.
763. There is darkness for those who are enveloped (in ignorance) ;
(there is) blackness for those who do not see. But for the good, who
see, it is uncovered like a light. (Although it is) in their presence, those
(who are) not proficient in the doctrine do not understand (it), (like)
animals.
764. This doctrine is not easily intelligible to those who are overcome
by passion for existence, following the stream of existence, come to
Mfras domain.
765. Who except the noble ones deserves to understand the slate (of
quenching)? Knowing this stale properly they are quenched, without
fisnvas.*

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.Thus spoke the Blessed One. With elated minds those bhikkhus
welcomed the Blessed One's word[s): While this exposition was being
uttered, the minds o f sixty bhikkhus were released from the asavas
without clinging.

!i

'.

:y
< I5 0 > Summary verse to f the discourse): Truth, Acquisition,
Ignorance, Constituent .elements, fifthly. Consciousness, Contact,
Things to be sensed. Craving, Grasping, Exertion, Sustenance,
Commotions, Wavering, Form, with Triith and Misery; sixteen [in
all).

'

Summary verse [of the Chapter): Going-forth, Striving, the W ellspoken Word, Sundari also, the MSgha discourse, Sabhtya, Sela, the
Barb, and Vscttha also, KokSli. Nlaka..Consideration o f the Fairs:
diese twelve discourses are called the Great Chapter.

IV. The Chapter of Eights


IV.i. Sensual-pleasures
766. < 15 1 > If it prospers for a mortal desiring sensual pleasure,
assuredly he becomes enraptured in mind, having obtained what he
wishes.
767. If those sensual pt:asures decrease for that person who is desiring
[them] eagcr(ly), he is hurt as though pierced by a barb.
768. Who(ever) avoids sensual pleasures as if (avoiding) the head o f a
snake with his foot, he (being) mindful passes beyond this attachment
to the world.
769. What(ever) man is greedy for field(s), property, or gold, cows and
horses, servants and men, women, relatives, many sensual pleasures,
770. him the weak (= women] overcome indeed; dangers crush him.
Thch misery enters into him, like water into a broken oat.
771. Therefore a mindful person should always avoid sensual pleasures.
Having abandoned them he would cross over the Hood, like1 one who
had gone to the far shore after baling out his boat.
1V.2. The Cave
772. The man (who) remains attached to the cave (of (he body), (who
is) covered with many (defilements), (and) plunged into confusion.
<I52> being o f such a kind he is indeed far from detachment. For
sensual pleasures are indeed not easy to abandon in the world.
773. Having desire as their fetter, liound to the pleasures of existence,
(people) are hard to release, (and) indeed cannot be released by others.
Desiring (what comes) after or (what went) before, longing for these
(present) sensual pleasures or previous ones.

1 Reading

siivi11

104

The Croup o f Discourses

774. greedy for sensual pleasures, intent [on them), deluded, niggardly,
they have entered upon the wrong [road). Led into misery they lament.
'What shall we become, when we have passed away from here?*
775. Therefore a person should train himself in this very [dispensation).
Whatsoever one might know to be wrong in the world, one should not
practise wrong for the sake o f that, for the wise say this life is shoit.
7 7 6 .1

see in the world this race [of mortals] floundering, obsessed with

craving for existences. Base men wail in the jaws o f death, with craving
for various existences unallayed.
777. See them floundering in respect o f their cherished possessions,
like fish [floundering] in a dried-up stream which has little water.
Seeing this too. one should live without selfishness, not forming
attachment to existences.
778. Having dispelled longing for both ends, having understood [and
renounced] contact, not greedy, not doing that for which he would
reproach himself, a wise man does oot cling to what is seen and heard.
779. < 153> Having understood [and renounced] perception, a sage
should cross over the flood, not clinging to possessions. With barb
pulled out, living vigilantly], he does not long for this world or the
next.
IV.3. Evil
780. Some evil-minded ones do indeed dispute; and those whose
minds are set on truth do indeed dispute also. But the sage does not get
involved in any dispute which has arisen. Therefore the sage has no
barrenness of mind in any respect.
781. How could anyone overcome his very own view, (when he is) led
on by desire, entrenched in his own inclination, fulfilling those (wrong
views) himself? For as he knows, so would he speak.
782. If any person, unasked, tells others of his own virtuous conduct
and vows, if anyone of his own accord speaks of himself, the experts
say that he has an ignoble nature.

IV. The Chapter o f Tights

105

7S3. But a bhikkhu, calmed, with self completely quenched, not


boasting about his virtuous conduct, (saying). 'Thus am l (virtuous) , if
he has no haughtiness in respect o f anything in the world, the experts
say that he has a noble nature.
784. <154> When one who has formed, constructed, (and) preferred
(false) doctrines [which are) unclean, sees an advantage for himself (in
them), then he is relying upon a peace which is dependent upon [what
is) unstable.
785. Clingings to (wrong) views are not easily overcome. (One) has
been grasped from among (many) doctrine . after consideration.
Therefore a man lays down or takes up a doctrine from among these ,
dingiogs (to view).
786. A purified man docs not indeed form a view anywhere in the
world in respect o f different existences. Because o f what would a
purified man go, having abandoned illusion and conceit? He is not
involved.
787. An involved person is indeed involved in dispute(s) in respect of
doctrines, (but) how, about what, could one dispute with one who is
not involved? He has taken up or laid down nothing. He has shaken off
all views in this very world.
IV.4. The Purified
788. T see what is purified, highest, discasclcss. Purity comes to a man
by means of what he has seen.' Understanding this, knowing,*(ll is] the
highest , [and thinking) I am a seer of the purified', he believes that
knowledge [leads to purity).
789. <!55> If purity comes to a man through what he has seen, or if he
abandons misery by means of knowledge, {then) he who has
acquisitions (which lead to rebirth! is purified by something else (than
the noble path). For his view betrays him as he speaks thus.
790. The brahman docs not say that purity comes from something else,
for is] in what is seen (and) heard, in virtuous conduct and vows, or in

The'Group o f Discourses

io 6

wbat is thought. Not dinging to merit or evil, he abandons what has


been taken up and does not fashion [anything more] here.1
791.

Abandoning the former [thing], they are dependent upon

something else. Those under the influence o f lust do not cross over
attachment They seize [and] let go like a monkey seizing and releasing
abranch.
79z. A person undertaking vows himself, being attached to perceptions,
goes high and low. But the one who knows, the one o f great wisdom,
Hoes not go high and low, having understood the doctrine by means of
the knowledges (of the way].
793. He is not associated with any mental phenomena, or (with
whatever is] seen or heard or thought. How could anyone here in the
world have doubts about him. when .he has such insight and conducts
himself opcn(ly)?
794. They do not form [views], they do not prefer{ they do ndf say.
'This is the highest purity/ <156 Releasing the knot o f grasping
which has been lied, (hey do not form a desire for anything in the
world.
795. The brahman has gone beyond boundaries. Knowing or seeing
anything, he has not grasped it. H,e is not empassioned by passion; he
is not attached to the passionless. Nothing else is grasped by him here.
lV.5..The Highest
796. When, abiding in his [own] views, [thinking], It is the highest, a
person esteems it as the best in the world, he says all others are inferior
to this. Therefore he has not passed beyond disputes.
797. Whatever advantage he sees for himself in what is seen and heard,
in virtuous conduct and vows, or in what is thought, grasping at that
very thing there, he sees all the rest as inferior.
798. That very |view| the experts coll a tie. dependent upon which he
sees the rest as inferior. Therefore a bhikkhu should not depend upon
(anyihingl seen, heard or thought, or virtuous conduct and vows

IV.

The ChapterofEights

i 07

795. <i 57> Nor should he form a view in the world because o f
knowledge or virtuous conduct and vows. He should not represent
himself as equal, nor should he think of himself as inferior, nor as
superior.
800. Abandoning what has been taken up, and not taking it up (again],
he should not depend even upon knowledge. He indeed does not follow
any faction among those who hold different views.1 He does not fail
back on any view at all.
801*. If anyone has made no resolve in respect o f both ends here, for 'he
sake of different existences here or in the next world, he has no
clingings (to views] grasped from among the doctrines, after
consideration.
802. By him not even a minute notion has been formed here in respect
of what is seen, heard, or thought. How could anyone here in the world
have doubts about that brahman, who does not adopt h view?
803. They do not form [viewsj, they do not prefer. Nor do they adhere
tu doctrines.

brahman is notato be inferred by virtuous

conduct or vows. Gone to the far shore, such a one does not fall back
[on anything].
IV.6. Old Age
804. Truly (his life is short; one dies less than one hundred years old.
Even if anyone lives beyond (one hundred years), then lie dies because
o f old age.
805. People grieve for their cherished things, for no possessions are
permanent. Seeing that this separation truly exists, one should not live
the household life.
806. Whatever a man thinks o f as mine*, that too disappears with his
death. Knowing thus indeed, a wise man, one of my followers, would
not incline towards posscssivcncss.

Reading sa ve viyuttesu.

JOS

The Group o f Discourses

807. Just as a mao awakened, does not sec whatever he met with'in a
dream. <I59> even $0 one does not see beloved people when they are
dead and gone.

808. Those people are seen and heard of, whose name is '$0 and s .
When he has departed, only a persons name will remain to be
pronounced. . '

'

809. Those who ate greedy for cherished things do not abandon grief,
lamentation, and avarice. Therefore the sages, seeing security, have
wandered forth, abandoning possession^).
8 to. O f a bhikkhu who lives in a withdrawn manner, resorting to a
secluded residence,1 o f him they say it is agreeable that he should not
show himself in any dwelling.
8 11. Not being dependent upon anything a sage holds nothing as being
pleasant or unpleasant. Lamentation and avarice d not cling to him, as
water does not cling to a [lotus-]leaf.
812.

*Just as drop o f water docs not ding to a lotusl-leaf], as water

does not cling to a lotus, so*a sage does not cling to what is seen or
heard or thought.
813. <l6o> Therefore a purified one does not think that purity is by
means o f what is seen, heard, or thought, nor does he wish for purity
by anything else; He is neither empassioned nor dispassioned.
\

IV.7. Tissa Metteyya

814. T ell me^sir, .the harm [that befalls] one devoted to sexual
intercourse , said the venerable Tissa Metteyya. Having heard your
teaching, we shall train ourselves in detachment.
815. By one devoted to sexual intercowse, Metteyya. said the Blessed
One. 'the teaching is actually forgotten, and he enters upon a false way
of life. This is an ignoble thing in him.

. 1 Reading vivillnm tuonarti.

IV .

The Chapter o f Eights

109

8 J 6. If someone, having formerly wandered alone, has recourse to


sexual intercourse and goes o ff the track like a carriage which has left
the track, in the world they call that individual inferior''.
8 17. Whatever fame and reputation he formerly had, (hat assuredly
diminishes. Having seen this too, he should train himself in order to
abandon sexual intercourse.
8(8. Overcome by the figments [of his imagination) he broods like a
poor man. Hearing the outcry o f others, one o f such a kind becomes
dejected
819. Then he makes weapons [against himself], urged on by others*
words. Tliis indeed 1$ his great entanglement. He plunges into,,
falsehood.
820. Known as wise**, he entered upon the solitary life. Then,
becoming attached to sexual intercourse, he is troubled like a fool.
821. < t6 i> Knowing this peril both earlier and Iyer, a sage should
make his solitary life firm here.- He should not have recourse to sexual
intercourse.
822. He should train himself only in detachment. This is supreme for
noble ones. He should not think o f himself as best because o f that. He
truly is in the vicinity o f quenching.
823. The people enmeshed in sensual pleasures envy the sage who
wanders emancipated, having no regard for sensual pleasures, the flood*
crosser.*
IV.8 Pastini
824.

Here alone is purity', they say. They deny that purity is in other

doctrines. Saying that the good is there, in what they depend upon,
many people are entrenched in their several (ruths
82s. Desirous of debate, plunging into the assembly, they reciprocally
regard one another as fools. Dependent upon other Itcaclicrs). they cause
a dispute, desirous of praise, saying (they arc] expert*.

IO

The C rou p o f Discourses

826. Engaged in discussion in (he middle o f the assembly wishing tor


praise he becomes apprehensive, but [his argument] having been
refuted, he becomes dejected. He is angry because o f the censure (he
receives) ; he seeks weak points [in others).
827. < t 2 > If the examiners o f the questions say that the one's
argument is inferior [and] refuted, the one whose argument is inferior
laments [and] grieves. He wails, 'I le has overcome me.*
828. These disputes have arisen among (other) ascetics. Among them
there is the elation [of victory] and the depression (of defeat). Seeing
this too, one should abstain from dispute, for there is no other aim but
praise and profit.

829. O r if, on the other hand, he is praised there, having made a [good)
speech about the dispute in the middle o f the assembly, he laughs on
that account and is elated, having attained the goal as was his intention.
&j o . That elation w ill be the cause o f distress for him, 'but
1[nevertheless] he speaks proudly and conceitedly. Seeing this too one
should not dispute, for the experts. say that purity is not [gained]
thereby.
831. Going thundering along, like.a hero nourished by royal food,
wishing for an adversary, go where that (adversary] is, hero. Already
indeed there is nothing (left) to fight against [here].
832. If any have taken up a view and dispute, pnd say, 'Only this is
true', <I03> say. to them, There will be no opponent for you here
when a dispute has arisen.'
833. But among those who wander about without association, not
pitting one view against other views, what (opponent) would you
obtain. Pasflra? Nothing is grasped asjihe best1 by them here.
834. And now you have come speculating, thinking over views in your
mind. You have come into contact with a purified man. You will not
be able to proceed with him.

1 h e a d in g ptiram'.

IV. The Chapter o f Eights

1 1l

IV.9. Mgandiya
835. 'Seeing (the daughters o f Mara], Tanh, Arati, and Rag there was
not even desire for sexual intercourse. What indeed is this, full o f urine
and excrement? I would not wish to touch her even with my foot.'
836. < i 64> 'If you do not wish such a jew el, a woman sought by
many kings o f men, what sort o f view, life lived according to virtuous
conduct and vows, and rebirth into existence do you profess?*
837. 'Mgandiya*, said the Blessed One, 'nothing has been grasped by
(me] from among the doctrines, after consideration, (saying], MI profess
this**. But looking among the doctrines, not grasping, while searching I
saw inner peace/
838. 'Those very decisions which have beco formed*, said Mgandiya.
'you speak o f without grasping, sage. This thing (called) inner peace,
how is it proclaimed by the wise?'
839. 'One says that purity is not by view, by Teaming! by knowledge,
or even by virtuous conduct and vows, Mgandiya', said the Blessed
One. Not by absence o f view, o f learning, I knowledge, o f virtuous
conduct, or vows, not by that either. And discarding these, without
grasping, calmed, not dependent, one would not long for existence/
840. 'If one says that purity is not by view , by learning, by
knowledge*, said Mgandiya. 'or even by virtuous conduct and vows.
< i6 s> nor by absence o f view, o f learning, o f knowledge, o f virtuous
conduct, or vows, not by that either, I think (his) doctrine is foolish
indeed. Some do believe that purity is by means o f view/
841. Dependent upon views, enquiring, Mgandiya*, said the Blessed
Onc/you have become infatuated in respect o f what has been grasped,
and hence you have not even the slightest notion (of what I am talking
about]. Therefore you regard (it) as foolish.
842- Whoever thinks himself equal, superior, or inferior, he would
dispute on dial account. |Bui| one unshaken in the three modes (of selfconceit] for him them is no equal" (or) superior .

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843. Why would that brahman say, uIt is trac"? Or with whom would
he dispute (saying). -'It is false"? In whom there is no (idea of being)
equal or unequal either, with whom would he join in dispute?
844. Leaving his home, wandering horpeless, not making acquaintances
in a village, free from sensual pleasures, showing no preferences, a sage
would not engage in disputatious speech with the people.
845. A nSga would not grasp and dispute about those (views), free from
which he should conduct himself in the world. <i66> Just as a lotus
with a thorny stalk which grows in the water is unsullied by water and
mud, so a sage professing peace, not (being) greedy, is unsullied by
sensual pleasure and the world.
846. One who has knowledge does not become proud because of view
or thought, for he is not like that. He cannot be influenced by action or
learning ; he is not led into clingings (to views).
8<}7. There are no ties for one who is devoid o f perceptions. There are
no illusions for one who is released through wisdom. But thosewho
have grasped perception and'view wandfrin the world, causing offence.
IV .jo. Before the Dissolution

848. Having what vision and what virtuous conduct is one called
"calm ed ? Tell me this. Goiama, .when you are asked about the
supreme man.*
849. With craving departed (even) before the dissolution o f the body*,
said the Blessed One, *not dependent upon the past, not to be reckoned
in the present, for him there is nothingprefened [in the future].
850. <I7> Without anger, without trembling, not boasting, without
remorse, speaking in moderation, not arrogant, he indeed is a sage
restrained in speech.
85 t. Having no attachment to the future, he does not grieve over the
past. He sees detachment in respect o f sense-contacts, and is not led
into (wrong) views.

IV. T h e Chapter o f Eights

113

852. (He is) withdrawn, not deceitful, not covetous, not avaricious, not
impudent, not causing disgust, and not given to slander.
853. Without desire for pleasant things, and not given to arrogance, and
gently, possessing ready wit, he is not empassioned or dispassioned.
$54. It is not because o f love o f gain that he trains himself, nor is he
angry at the lack of gain. He is not opposed to craving, nor is he greedy
for flavours],
855. (being) indifferent, always mindful. He does not think (of himself)
as equal in the world. He is nor superior, nor inferior. He has no
haughtiness.
856. He for whom there is no stage o f dependence, knowing the
doctrine, is not dependent. For whom there exists no craving for
existence or non-existence,
857. him, indifferent to sensual pleasures. I call calmed. In him there
are no ties; he has crossed beyond attachment
858. For him there are no sons or cattle, fieldfs], [or] property. <i68>
For him there is nothing taken up or laid down.
859. That on account of which the common people, and ascetics and
brahmans, might accuse him, is not preferred by him. Therefore lie is
not agitated in (the midst of] their accusations.
860. With greed gone, without avarice, a sage docs not speak o f himself
(as being] among the superiors, or equals, or inferiors. He does not
submit to figments, being without figments.
861. For whom there is nothing (called) his own in the world, and who
docs not grieve because o f what docs not exist, and docs not go (astray)
among mental phenomena, he truly is called "calmed .IV
.
IV. 11. Quarrels and Disputes
862. 'Whence arise quarrels, disputes, lamentations and grief, together
with avarice also, pride and arrogance, together with slander too?
Whence do these arise? Tell me this, pray '

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863. 'From (what is) dear arise quarrels, disputes, lamentations and
grief, together with avarice also, pride and arrogance, together with
slander too. Quancls [turd] disputes are joined with avarice, and there
are slanders too. when disputes have arisen/
864. <i6p> 'Where do [things which are] dear have their origin in the
world, and whatever longings exist in the world? And where do hope
and fulfilment (of hope), which a man has for the future, have their
origin?*
865. {Things which are] dear in the world have desire as their origin,
and whatever longings exist in the world. And hope and fulfilment [of
hope), which a roan has for the future, [also] have their origin io this.'
866. 'Where does desire have its origin in the world, and whence do
decisions arise, [and) anger, and lie-telling, and doubt, and also
whatever mental states are spoken o f by the ascetic?*
867. 'Desire arises from dependence upon what they call pleasant
(and) unpleasant in the world. Seeing non-existehce and existence in
forms, a person makes his decision in the world.
868. Anger and lie-telling and doubt, and those mental states too [come
into existence] when this very pair [pleasant and unpleasant] exist. A
doubtful man should train himself in the path o f knowledge. The
ascetic spoke about mental states fro/n knowledge/
869. Where do thp pleasant and the unpleasant have their origin? When
what is non-existent do they not come into being? That thing which is
non-existence" and "existence too, tell me where it has its origin/
870. 'The pleasant (and) the unpleasant have their origin irr contact.
When contact does not exist, they do not exist. 0 7 c That thing
which is non-existence" and existence too, 1 lei) you that this [also]
has its origin in this.
871. Where docs contact have its origin in the world, and whence do

possessions loo arise? When what docs not exist docs possessiveness
not exist? When what has disappeared do contacts not make contact?'

IV. The Chapter o f E ig h ts

1 5

872. Contacts are dependent upon name and form. Possessions have
their origin in longing. When longing does not exist, possessiveness
does not exist. When fono has disappeared, contacts do not make
contact.*
873. For one attained to what state does form disappear? How does
happiness or misery disappear also? Tell m e, how it disappears. My
intention is that we should know this.*
874. He has no [ordinary) perception o f perceptions, he has no
deranged perception o f perceptions,- he is not without.perception, be has
no perception o f what has disappeared. For one who has attained to
such a state form disappears, for that which is named diversification
has its origin in perception.*
$75. 'Y ou have expounded to us what w e asked you. We ask you
another thing. Tell us this, pray. < 1 7 0 Do some wise men here say
that the supreme purity o f the yakkha is to this extent [qnly], or do they
say that it is something other than this?*
876. Some wise men here do say that the supreme purity of the yakkha
is to this extent [only], but some o f them, who say that (hey are
experts, preach that there is a time for [quenching) with no grasping
remaining.
877. And knowing these to be "dependent , the investigating sage,
knowing their dependencies, knowing [the true doctrine), is released
[and! does not enter into dispute. The wise man does not go to various
[renewed] existences.
IV.12. The Small Discourse on Dispositions
878. 'Each abiding by his own view, contending, experts say various
things : Whoever knows thus, knows the doctrine. (Whoever) rejects
this, is imperfect "
879. Thus contending they dispute, and they say: (My) opponent is a
fool, no expert. Which o f these is the true statement? For indeed all
these say they are experts.*

it 6

The Croup o f Discourses

880. <I72> If, not accepting an opponent's doctrine, one becomes a


fool, an animal of inferior intelligence, then all indeed are fools with
very inferior intelligence, [for] all these [people] are indeed abiding by
their [own] view.
881. But i f [people], cleansed by their own views, have purified
intelligence, are clever, [and] thoughtful, (thenj not one o f them has
inferior intelligence, for their view also is likewise adopted.
8 82.1

do not say this is true**, which [is what) fools say mutually 10

each other. They make out their own way to be true, therefore they
regard their opponent as a fool.*
883. ( What some say is tfue, real, others say is empty, false. Thus
contending, they dispute. Why do ascetics not say one (and the same]
thing ?*
884. There is only one truth; there is no second, about which an
intelligent man might dispute with an(other] intelligent man. Asoctics
themselves proclaim various truths, therefore they do not say one (and
the same) thing.
885. <I 73 > 'Why do they proclaim various truths, [these] arguers who
say they are experts? Are those truths many [and various, or do they
(merely) follow [their own) speculation?
886. 'There are not indeed many various truths, (which are] eternal in
the world, except by reason o f [mistaken] perception. Devising a
speculation in respect o f their views, they say there ore two things, truth
and falsehood.
887. (What is] seen, heard, virtuous conduct and vows, (and what is)
thought, dependent upon these (someone] shows contempt [to others].
Standing [firm] in his decision, pleased with himself, he sys: "My
opponent is a fool, no expert"
888. On account of what he considers his opponent to be a fool, on that
account he calls himself an expert. Calling himself an expert, he
despises the other, [and yeti he speaks m that very same way.

IV. The Chapter o f Eights

117

889. Perfect according to his [own) excessive views, intoxicated with


conceit, he thinks himself superior. O f his own accord, he himself is
gratified in his mind, for that view o f his is likewise adopted.
890. If according to the word o f his opponent he is inferior, (the utterer]
himself is o f inferior intelligence with him. But i f he himself has
knowledge and is wise, [then] no one among ascetics is a fool.
891. <(74> If any people preach a doctrine other than this, they have
falleo short o f purity and are imperfect. Thus indeed severally the
sectarians speak, for drey are inflamed with passion fo r their own view.
892. Here alone is purity,** they say. They deny that purity is in other
doctrines. Thus too the sectarians, each severally entrenched in their
own path, speak firmly about it
893. And speaking firmly about his own path, what opponent would he
regard as a fool in this respect? He himself would invite trouble, if he
called his opponent a fool (and) one o f impure nature.
894. Standing [firm] in his decision, measuring (others against)
himself, he enters into further dispute in the world. (But) the person
who has left all decisions behind does not cause trouble in the world
IV.X3. The Large Discourse on Dispositions
895. T f some of these, abiding by their [own] views, dispute, [saying)
Only this is true'*, do all o f them indeed incur [only] blame, or do they
gain praise also therein?
896. <J 75> (Yes, but) this (praise) is a little thing indeed, not enough
for tranquillity. I say there are two results o f dispute. Seeing this too
one should not dispute, recognising that security is a state where there
is no dispute.
897. Whatever opinions are commonplace, with none o f these indeed
docs a man who knows get involved. Why should a man who is
without involvement become involved, when he shows no preference
for what is seen (and) heard?

n8

The Group o f Discourses

898. Those wno consider virtuous cbnduct to be the highest thing say
that purity is by means o f self-restraint Having undertaken a vow they
are dedicated to i t [saying] In thid alone w e should train ourselves,
then there would be purity

Saying they are experts, they are led into

[renewed] existence.
899. If he falls away from his virtuous conduct and vows, he trembles
because he has failed in his task. He longs for and desires purity in this
world, as one who has lost his caravan [and Is) far from home [desires
his caravan or bon].
900. On the other hand, having given up all virtuous conduct and
vows, and that action both blamable and blameless, <I7&> not desiring
purity [or] impurity, he would dwell detached, fostering peace.
901. Dependent upon asceticism, or abstemiousness, or what is seen or
heard or thought, they speak o f purity by means o f continuing further
(in the samsfira], with their craving for one existence after another not
gone.
902. One who desires has longings, and [there is) tremblingn respect
o f preconceptions. [But] one for whom there is no passing away and
being reborn here [again], why would he tremble, and what would he
long for?
903. The doctrine which some people call the highest, others call the
lowest. Which o f these is the true statement? For all these [people]
indeed call themselves expens.'
904. They say that their own doctrine indeed is superior, but they say
another's doctrine is inferior. Thus contending they dispute. They each
say their own opinion is true.
905. if a doctrine is inferior because of the reviling o f an opponent, then
among doctrines none would be outstanding. For many people,
speaking firmly about their own [doctrine], speak of anothers doctrine
as inferior.

Reading smhlhi.

IV. The Chapter o f Eights

119

906. <177> But the honouring o f their own doctrine is exactly the
same as their praise o f their own paths. Every argument would be ime,
for. purity is indeed exclusive to them.
907. The brahman has nothing which can be derived from another,
nothing grasped from among the doctrines, after consideration.
Therefore he has passed beyond disputes, for he sees no other doctrine
as best
908. (Saying] I know, I see, this is exactly so," some believe that
purity is by means o f view. [Even] if one has seen (it), what use is it
for himself? Having transgressed (the noble path) they say that purity is
by means o f another (path).
909. man who sees will see (only] name-and-form; having seen, he
will know only these things. Granted that he sees much or little, the
experts say that purity is certainly not by that means.
910. A dogmatist is indeed not easy to discipline,1 since he prefers a
preconceived view. Saying that the good is (fiere, in what he depends
upon, he speaks o f purity, [saying] he saw reality there.
9 11. The brahman, considering, does not submit to figments. He does
not follow views, [and] he has no association with knowledge, <I78>
and knowing commonplace opinions he is indifferent to them, (saying]
Let others take them up .
912. Having released knots, a sage here in (he world does not follow
any faction when disputes arise. Calmed among those who are not
calm, indifferent, he does not take up [opinions, saying). Ix i others
lake them 19
9 13 . Giving up old Ssavas. not forming new ones, be docs not go
according to his wishes, he is not a dogmatist. He is completely
released from views, (and) wise. He does not cling to the world, and
does not reproach himself.

R eading

subbiniiyo.

The Croup o f Discourses

120

914. He is one without association io respect o f all mental phenomena,


whatever is seen or heard, or thought. That sage with burden laid down,
completely (reed, is without figments, not abstaining (and) not
desiring* said the Blessed One.
IV.

14. Speedy

9 15 . <179> T ask that kinsman o f the sun, the great seer, about
detachment and the state o f peace. How does a bhikkhu, when he has
seen, become quenched, not grasping anything in the world?*
916. Being a thinker, he would put a stop to the whole root o f what is
called diversification (i.e. the thought] I am", said the Blessed One.
Whatever internal cravings there are. he would train himself to dispel
them, always being mindful.
917. Whatever doctrine he may understand, in him self or in another, he
would not be stubborn about it, for this is not called quenching by the
good.
918. He would not on that aceount think (that he is) better, or inferior,
or equa). Affected by various forms, he would not stay forming mental
images about himself.
919. Only within himself would he be at peace. A bhikkhu would not
seek peace from another. For one who is at peace within himself there is
nothing taken up. how much less anything laid down.
920. <i8o> Just as in the middle of the ocean no wave arises, [but the
ocean* remains) standing still, so he would stand still, unmoved. A
bhikkhu would not show haughtiness about anything/
921. He whose eyes are open has, as an eyewitness, expounded the
doctrine, which dispels dangers. Tell (us) the path, venerable one. the
binding principles, and moreover concentration.

R e a d in g

phuuho.

IV . The C h ap ter o f E ig hts

121

922. 'He would not be covetous with his eyes,


to common talk. He woutd not be greedy for flavours). He would not
cherish anythiag in the world.
923. When a bhikkhu is affected by [unpleasant] contact, he would not
make lamentation for anything. He would neither long for existence nor
tremble amidstlenrors.
924. Moreover, having received [something] he would not make a hoard
of food and drink, and eatables and clothes. Nor would he be afraid
when he does not receive them.
925. A bhikkho would be a meditator, not foot-loose. He would abstain
from remorse. He would not be negligent, but would dwell in lodgings
where there is little noise.
926. < i 8 i > He would not pay much attention to sleep. Being energetic
he would apply himself to wakefulness. He would abandon sloth,
deception, laughter, sport, [and] sexual intercourse, together with their
appurtenances.
927. He woutd not practise Atharva charms, or (interpretation of]
dreams, or signs, or even astrology. My follower would not devote
himself to [the interpretation o f animal) cries, or (the art of]
impregnation, or healing.
928. A bhikkhu would not tremble at blame; he would not be puffed
up when praised. He would thrust aside greed together with avance,
anger and slander.
929. A bhikkhu would not engage in buying or selling; he would not
incur blame in any respect. He would not linger in a village; he would
not talk boastfully to people from love o f gain.
930. A bhikkhu would not be a boaster, and he would not utter a word
with an ulterior motive. He would not practise impudence. He would
not speak quarrelsome speech.
9 3 1. He would not pass his time in falsehood

lie would not

consciously) do treacherous things. < i 82> Nor would he despise

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The Group o f Discourses

another because o f his way o f life, wisdom, or vows and virtuous


conduct.
932. [Although] provoked, having beard many a word from ascetics or
ordinary individuals.*1 he would not answer them with a harsh word, for
the good do not retaliate.
933. And knowing this doctrine, searching, a bhikkhu would train
himself [in it], always being mindful. Knowing quenching as peace",
he would not be negligent in Gotama's teaching.
934. For that overcomer, who is not overcome, saw the doctrine as an
eye-witness, not by hearsay. Therefore, vigilant2 [and] doing hon ge,
one should follow the example o f that Blessed One, said the Blessed
One.
IV.15. Embraced Violence
935. Fear comes from the [one Who has] embraced violence. Look at
people quarrelling. ) shall describe my agitation, how it was
experienced by me.
936. < i 83> Seeing people floundering, like fish [floundering] in little
water, seeing them opposed to one another, fear came upon me.
937. The world was without substance all around; all the quarters were
tossed about. Wanting a dwelling-place for myself, I did not see
(anywherel unoccupied.
938. But seeing (people) opposed (to one another) at the end, 1 was
dissatisfied. Then I saw a barb here, hard to see, nestling in the heart.
939. Affected by this barb, one ruos in all directions. Having pulled
that barb out. one does not run. nor sink.2

* Reading

samannam*d puthujjnnnomvA
uisaneand sed.
nasfilali

2 Omitting
1 Reading

IV. The C hapter o f Eights

123

940. At that point the precepts are recited: Whatever fetters there are in
the world, one should not be intent upon them. Having wholly pierced
sensual pleasures one should train oneself for one's own quenching.
941. One should be truthful, not impudent, without deception, rid of
slander, without anger. A sage should cross over the evil of greed, and
avarice.
942. He should overcome lethargy, sloth and torpor. He should not live
negligently. A man whose mind is set on quenching should not remain
anoganL
943. < i 84> He should not pass his time in falsehood. He should not
bestow affection upon (outward] form, and he should know [and give
up] pride. He should live abstaining from rashness.
944. He should not take delight in the old; he should not show a
liking for the new. When [something] is diminishing he should not
grieve; he should not be attached to [an object of) fascination.
945. I call greed the great flood". 1 call desire "the current". The
objects o f sense are the movement (of the tide). Sensual pleasure is the
mud which is hard to cross over.
946. Not deviating from truth, a sage, a brahman, stands on high
ground. Having given up everything, be indeed is called "calmed".

947 * He truly knows, he has knowledge. Knowing the doctrine he is


not dependent. Behaving properly in the world, be does not envy
anyone here.
948. He who has passed beyond sensual pleasures here, the attachment
which is hard to cross over in the world, does not grieve, (and) docs not
worry. He has cut across the stream, he is without bond.
949. Make what (existed] previously wither away. May there be nothing
for you afterwards. If you do not grasp anything in between, you will
wander calmed.

Reading pokampatutm.

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The Group o f Discourses

950. O f whom (here is no cherishing at all in respect o f name-and-form.


and (who) does not grieve because o f what does not exist, he truly does
not suffer any loss in the world.
951. O f whom there is no thought o f this is mine** or (this belongs]
to others, he not feeling (a sense of) possessi veness does not grieve
(thinking) I do not have this .
952. < i 85> N o : harsh, not greedy, without lust, impartial in every
respect; this is what 1. when asked, cal! advantage for unshakable men.
9 53 . For a man who is without lust, who knows, there is no
a c c u m u la tio n 1 (01 merit and demerit). He, abstaining from
(accumulative) activity, seetfsecurity everywhere.
934. The sage does not speak o f himself (as being] among equals,
inferiors, or superiors. He, calmed, with avarice gone, neither takes up
nor lays down', said the Blessed One.
IV.

16. Bripqlia

955. T have not hitherto seen*, said the Venerable Siri putta, *nor heard
from anyone o f a teacher o f such lovely speech, come here from Tusita
with a group.
956. As the one with vision is seen by the world including the devas,
having dispelled all the darkness (of ignorance], he alone has attained to
joy.
957. <i86> I have come with a question, on behalf of the many who
are fettered here, to that Buddha (who i$>not dependent, venerable, not
deceitful, come with his group.
958. For a bhikkhu (who is] disgusted, ^sorting to a lonely scat, the
foot of a tree or a cemetery, or in caves in (be mountains,
959. (or) on various sorts o f beds, how many are the fearful things
there, on account of which a bhikkhu .should not tremble in his
noiseless lodgings?

Reading kAci nismnkhiii.

IV. The Chapter o f Eights


960.

125

How many dangers are (here in ihe world for one going to the

transition-free

quarter, which a bhikkhu should overcome in his

secluded lodging?
9 6 t. What ways o f speech should be his? What spheres o f activity
should be his here? What virtuous conduct and vows should there be
for a bhikkhu with intent self?
962. Undertaking what training, [being] attentive, zealous, mindful,
would he blow away his own dross, as a smith (blows away the dross)
of stiver?
963. *1 shall tell you, as one who knows, SSriputta , said the Blessed
One, 'what is pleasant for one who is disgusted (with the world, etc.],
if resorting to a lonely lodging, being desirous o f awakeoing in
accordance with the doctrine.
964. A wise bhikkhu would not be afraid o f the five fears, being
mindful, and living in accordance with the restrictions; o f gadflies and
mosquitoes, snakes, human attacks, quadrupeds,
965. <i8?> [or] even of those following another's doctrine, he should
not be afraid, even after seeing their many terrors. Moreover he should
overcome other dangers, seeking the good.
966. Affected by contact with disease, [and] by hunger, he should
endure cold [and] excessive heat. Affected by them in many ways, not
having any home, striving he should make a firm effort.
967. He should not steal, he should not tell lies, he should suffuse with
loving-kindness (creatures) both moving and still. Whatever turbidness
o f mind he might know, he should thrust away, (thinking) It is on
Kanha's side.
968- He should not fall under the influence o f anger or arrogance.
Having dug out their root too he should stand (firm). Then being
predominant*3 he should endure the pleasant and unpleasant.

1 Reading ogoiatn.
3 Reading addhblwvanto.

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The Group o f Discourses

969. Preferring wisdom enraptured by what is good, he should


suppress those dangers. He should endure discontent in his secluded
bed; he should endure the four things [which cause] lamentation:
970. What shall I eat, or where shall 1 eat?. Truly 1 slept miserably
[yesterday]; where shall I sleep tonight? One under training,
wandering homeless, should dispel these lamentable thoughts.
9 71. <i88> Having received food and clothes at the right time, he
should know the [right] measure here for satisfaction. Guarded in
respect o f those things, living in a restrained way in a village, he
should not speak a harsh word, even if provoked.
972. With downcast eyes, and not footloose, intent on meouation, he
should be very wakeful. Practising indifference, with self concentrated,
be should cut o ff inclination to doubt [and] misconduct.
973* [If] reproved with words, ue should rejoice, possessing
mindfulness. He should break up barrenness of mind towards fellow
livers o f the holy life. He should utter a good word which is not
untimely: He should not give a thought to that which is liable to be the
subject o f gossip.
974. Moreover there are five kiods of pollution in the world, for the
dispelling o f which he should train himself, possessing mindfulness.
He should overcome passion for forms, sounds, and tastes, smells and
contacts.
975. A bhikkhu who possesses mindfulness, and has a well-released
mind, should dispel his desires for these things. <t89> Examining the
doctrine properly at the right time, being attentive, he should strike
down the darkness [of ignorance]', said the Blessed One.
Summary verse: Sensual Pleasures, the Cave, Evil, the Purified, the
Highest, Old A ge, and Metteyya. and Pasra, Mgandi. Before the
Dissolution, the Quarrel, and the two Dispositions, and moreover
Speedy, the excellent Discourse on Embraced Violence, with the Elder's
Question (arc| sixteen. All these discourses belong to the Chapter of
Eights.

1 Reading so tesu.

V. The Chapter on Going to the Far Shore


V . i . Introductory verses

976. <19<>> A brahman who had completely mastered the fvedic]


mantras, desiring the complete absence o f possessions, went from the
delightful city o f the Kosalans to die Southern country.
977. He dwelt on the bank of the river GodhvrT, in the territory o f
Assaka, in the neighbourhood of Alaka, [living] on gleanings and fruit
978. And close to that [bank] there was a large village. With the income
which arose fron that [village] he performed a great sacrifice.
979. Having performed the great sacrifice, he entered the hermitage
again. When he had re-entered, another brahman came along.
9S0. foot-sore, thirsty, with dirty teeth, and dust on his head. And
going up to (BSvari), he asked for five hundred [pieces o f money].
9$l. Then seeing htm Bvari invited him to-sit.down, and asked after
his comfort [and] welfare. He spoke these word($] :
982. Whatever I had to be given away, all that has been disposed of by
me. Forgive me, brahman, I do not have five hundred [pieces].
983. <S9I> 'If your honour does not hand (iti over 10 me when I ask,
on the seventh day (from now] may your head split into seven.
984. Putting on a show, (hat deceitful [man] expounded this fearful
(threat). Hearing his wordfs], Bftvari was distressed.
985. Taking no food, he became dried up. He was resigned to the barb
o f grief. And then, when he was in such a mental state, his mind did
not delight in meditation.
986. Seeing him terrified and distressed, a deity who desired his welfare
going up to Bvari spoke these words:
987. He knows nothing about hcad(s). He is a deceitful {man), desiring
money. He has no knowledge about hc;>d(s) or head splitting.
988. Your honour surely knows: tell me when asked about licadis] and
head-splitting. Let us hear that word of yours.

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989. Even I do not know fr. 1 have no knowledge o f this matter.


Head(s) and head-splitting, this indeed is the insight o f the
Conquerors/
990. 'Then who. pray, on the circle o f this earth, docs know about
head[sj and head-splitting? Tell me this, deity.

9 9 t. <I92> 'There has gone forth from the city o f Kapilavauhu the
leader o f the world, a descendant o f King Okkka, a member of the
Sakyan clan, a light-bringer.
992. He indeed, brahman, is a fully-awakened one, who has gone to the
far shore o f all phenomena. He has acquired all the supernormal
knowledges and the powers. He is one with vision in respect of all
phenomena. He has attained the destruction o f all phenomena. He is
released in the destruction of the acquisitions (which lead to rebirth].
993. That Buddha, the Blessed One in the world, being one with
vision, teaches the doctrine. You go and ask him. He will explain it to
you.
994. Hearing the word fully-awakened , BSvari was glad. His grief was
diminished, and he was filled with abundant rapture.
995. That Bvari. with elated mind, glad, excited, asked that deity: Tn
what village or town, or in what country, is the protector o f the world,
where we may go and do homage to the fully-awakened one, the best of
two-footed (men)?*
996. T he Conqueror is in Savatthl. a city o f the Kosalans. He has
much wisdom, and excellent (and] great intelligence. That member of
the Sakyan clan is without burden, without Ssavas. (That) bull among
men has knowledge o f head-splitting/
997. Then he addressed his pupils, brahmans who had completely
mastered the (vedici mantras: Come, young brahmans. I shall tell you.
Hear my word|s|.
998. < 193> He whose appearance is hard to obtain frequently in the
world has now arisen in the world. He is famed as **Fully awakened**.
C o quickly to Svailhi and see the best o f two-footed (men)/

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129

999. How, pray, may w c know (He is] the Buddha , when we sec
him, brahman? Tel! us, who do noi know how wc may know him.'
1000. T h e marks o f a great man have indeed come down to us in the
(vedic] mantras, and thirty-two are completely] described in order.
1001. For the one on whose limbs art these thirty-two marks o f a great
man, only two ways (of life] arc [open], for a third does not exist.
1002. If he inhabits a house, having conquered this earth he will rule
without violence, without a sword, (but) by righteousness.
1003. But if he goes forth from the house to the houseless state, he will
become one with deceit removed, fully-awakened, an ir omparable
arahat.
1004. Ask [him], in your mind only, about my birth and clan, my
mark($], the [vedic] mantras (I know], and my other pupils, and about
head[s] and head-splitting.
1005. If he is a Buddha, seeing without obstructions, he will answer
with his voice the questions asked in your mind.
1006. Hearing B iv a ri's word(s). sixteen brahman pupils, Ajita,
Tissameueyya. Punnaka, and MettagO,
1007. <I 94 > Dhotaka, and UpasTva, and Nanda and Hcmaka. both
Todeyya and Kappa, and wise Jatukanni,
100S. Bhadrivudha. and Udaya, and the brahman Posila too. and
intelligent Mogharaja, and the great seer Piftgiya,
1009. all with their individual groups, famed throughout the world,
meditators, delighting in meditation, wise, impregnated with their
former (good) impressions,
1010. having saluted D ivari and having circumambulated him
respectfully, wearing matted hair and deer-skins, they all set out
towards the North.
tot 1. firstly to Patitthna o f Alaka, then to Mhissati. and to Ujjcni.
Gonaddha, Vedisi, |dtc place) called Vanasa,
1012.

and to KosambT too. to Skcta, and Sivaiihi. liest ol cities, to

Sctavya. Kapilavaithu. and the city o f Kusinari.

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1013. and to Pv, the city o f the Bhogas, to V csill, the city o f the
Magadhans, and to the Psnaka sbrine, delightful and lovely.
1014. <195> Like a thirsty man [going] to cool water, like a merchant
[going] to great profit, like one burned by heat [going] to shade.
quick(Iy) they climbed the mountain.
1015. And the Blessed One was at that time in front o f the Order of
bhikkhus. [and] was teaching the doctrine to the bhikkhus. He was
roaring like a lion in a grove.
1016. Ajita saw the fully-awakened one, like the sun with straight rays,
like the moon come to fullness on the fifteenth day.
1017. Then having seen-h&limbs and the full [set of] mark[s], standing
on one side, joyful, he asked the questions in his mind:
1018. Speak with reference to his birth; tell me his clan together with
his mark[s]. Tell me o f his perfection in respect o f [vcdic] mantras;
how many does the brahman teach?*
1019. His age is one hundred aftd twenty years; and by clan he is a
Bvari. There are three marks on bis body. He has completely mastered
the three vedas.
020. In the mark(s) and in the oral tradition, together with the
etymologies and the ritual, he instructs five hundred; in his own
doctrine he has reached perfection.
1021. <I9&> 'Give a detailed account o f Bvari s marks, best o f men.
cutter of craving, [so that] there may be no doubt in us.'
1022. 'He can cover his face with his tongue; there is hair between his
eyebrows; his male organ is enshcathed. Know thus, young brahman.*
1023. Not hearing any question (asked), but hearing the questions
answered, all the people, excited and with cupped hands, thought:
1024. What deva indeed, cither Brahma or Inda Sujampati. asked those
questions in his mind? To whom did (the Buddha) address this reply?
1025. Bvari asked about head(s) and head-splitting. Explain that.
Blessed One. Dispel our doubt, seer.*

V. The Chapter on Going to the Far Shore

t3*

1026. Know that ignorance is the head. Knowledge is the head-splitter,


joined with faith, mindfulness, and concentration, land) with resolution
and energy.'
1027. Then with great excitement the young brahman, having taken
heart, putting his deer-skin over one shoulder, fell with his head at (the
Buddha's) feet.
102S. 'Sir, the brahman Bvari, with his pupils; with gladdened mind,
and cheerful, salutes the venerable one's feet, one with vision.'
1029. <* 97 > May the brahman Bvari be happy with his pupils, and
you too be happy. Live for a long time, young brahman.
1030. A ll the doubt o f Bvari and o f you, o f (you) all now that you
have an opportunity, ask whatever you desire in your mind.
1031. Given an opportunity by the fully-awakened one, having sat
down with cupped hands, Ajita there asked the Tathgata the first
question.
v.2 . Ajlta's Questions
1032. In what is the world shrouded? , asked the venerable Ajita,
Why does it not shine? What do you say is its (sticky) lime? What is
its great fear?
1033. The world is shrouded in ignorance, Ajita , said the Blessed
One. Because o f avarice and negligence it does not shine. 1call longing
its [sticky] lime. Misery Is its great fear.
1034. <198> Streams flow everywhere*, said the venerable Ajita.
What is the restraint for streams? Tell me the constraint for streams.
By what are streams dammed?
1035 'Whatever streams there arc in the world, Ajita , said the Blessed
One. their restraint is mindfulness. I will tell you the constraint for
streams. They are dammed by wisdom.'
1036.

Wisdom ami mindfulness', said

i Ik :

venerable Ajita, 'and namc-

nnd-form. sir; tell me this when asked, wherein is this stopped?'

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1037. I shall answer this question which you have asked, Ajita,s
wherein namc-and-form is completely) stopped. By the stopping of
consciousness, therein this is stopped.
1038. Those who have considered the doctrine, and the many under
training here; [being] zealous, tell me when asked, sir. their way o f
life.
1039. 'A bhikkhu would not be greedy for sensual pleasures. He would
be undisturbed in mind. Skilled in all mental states, he would wander
about, mindfui(ly) '
V.3. Ttssa Mettcyyas Questions
1040. < 199> Who is contented here in the world? , asked the
venerable Tissa Metteyya. For whom are there no commotions? What
thinker, knowing both ends, does not cling to the middle?-Whom do
you call a great man? Who has gone beyond the seamstress here?*
1041. The bhikkhu who lives the holy life amidst sensual pleasures.
Metteyya'. said the Blessed One. '\yith craving gone, always mindful,
quenched after consideration, for him there are no commotions.
1042. That thinker, knowing both ends, does not cling to the middle.
Him I call a great man. He has gone beyond the seamstress here.'
V.4. Punnakas Questions
1043. *1 have come with the desire (to ask] a question, said the
venerable Punnaka. to the one who is without desire, who sees the
root. <200> Subject to what did many seers, men, khattiyas [and]
brahmans offer sacrifices to deities here in the world? I ask you.
Blessed One. Tell me this/
1044. These many seers, (and) men. Punnaka, said the Blessed One.
'khattiyas (and) brahmans who offered sacrifices to deities here in the
world, offered sacrifices. Punnaka. hoping for existence here, (being)
subject to old age.
1045. 'these many seers. |and| men , said the venerable Punnaka.
khauiyas (and] brahmans who offered sacrifices to deities here in the

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133

world, did they. Blessed One. [being] vigilant in the way o f sacrifice,
cross over birth and old age. sir ? I ask you. Blessed One. Tell me
this/
1046. They hoped, praised, longed for and sacrificed. Punnaka , said
the Blessed One. They longed for sensual pleasures, dependent upon
gain. I say that they, given over to sacrifice and affected by passion for
existence, did not cross over birth and old age/
1047. <201> If those given over to sacrifice*, said the venerable
Punnaka, 'did not cross over birth and old age because o f their
sacrifices, sir, then who pray in the world o f devas and men has crossed
over birth and old age, sir? I ask you, Blessed One. Tell me this/
1048. 'He for whom, having considered what is far and near in the
world, Punnaka , said the Blessed One, 'there are no commotions
anywhere in the world, he. I say, calmed, without fumes [of passion),
-without affliction, without desire, has crossed over birth and old age/
V.5. Mcttags Questions
1049. J ask you. Blessed One. T ell me this', said (he venerable
MeuagQ. '1 think you have knowledge and a developed self. Whence
have these miseries arisen, which arc o f many forms in the world?*
1050. <202> 'If* you have asked me about the coming into existence o f
misery. MettagO*. said the Blessed One. *1 shall tell it to you, as one
who knows. Miseries, which arc o f many forms in the world, come into
existence with acquisitions (which lead to rebirth} as their cause.
1051. Truly, whatever fool, unknowing, makes acquisition(s), he comes
to misery again and again. Therefore indeed one who knows should not
make acquisition(s). considering the birth and coming into existence of
misery/
1052. 'You have expounded to us what wc asked. I ask you another
tiling. Tell us this. pray. How do the wise cross over the flood, birth

Reading re.

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and old age, and grief and affliction? Explain this to me well, sage, for
thus is this doctrine known to you.*
1053. 'I shall expound to you the doctrine, Mcttag*. said the Blessed
One, 'which is not based on hearsay in foe world o f phenomena. Which
knowing, one wandering m indfully] would cross over attachment in
the world.
1054. And I delight in that supreme doctrine, great sccr, which
knowing one wandering mindful[ly) would cross over attachment in the
world.*
1055. '"'hatever you know, Mcttagu, said the Blessed One, 'above,
below, across, and also, in, the middle, <203> having thrust away
enjoyment and attachment to these things, [and] consciousness, you
would not remain in [this] existence.
1056. Dwelling thus, mindful, vigilant, wandering as a bhtkkhu,
having left behind cherished things, knowing, you would abandon birtb
and old age. and grief and affliction, fond) misery in this very place.
1057. *1 rejoice in this utterance of the great seer, Cotama; well
expounded is that which is without acquisitions [which lead to rebirth).
Assuredly the Blessed One has giveq up misery, for thus is this
doctrine known to you.
1058. And they too certainly would give up misery, whom you, sage,
would admonish without stopping. Therefore having come here 10 you,
nSga. 1 bow down. Perhaps the Blessed One would admonish me
without stopping.
1059. Whatever brahman one would recognise as having knowledge,
possessing nothing, not attached to sensual pleasures and existence,
assuredly that one has crossed over this flood and. crossed over to the
far shore, is without (mental) barrenness fand) without doubt.
1060. And whatever man here is knowing and has knowledge.1 giving
up this attachment to various kinds o f existence. <2o^> he, I say. with

1 Reading idwl ca so yo vetlug miro tlha.

V. The Chapter on Going to the Far Shore

135

craving gone, without affliction, and without desire, has crossed over
birth and old age.'
V.6. Dhotaka's Questions
t o 6 i. 'I ask you, Blessed One. Tell me this*, said the venerable
Dhoiaka. 1 long for your utterance, great seer. Having heard your
proclamation, should I train myself for my own quenching?'
1062. Therefore exert yourself, Dhotaka*, said me Blessed One. 'Being
zealous, mindful, in this very place, having heard the proclamation
from here, you should train yourself for your own quenching.'
1063. I see in the world o f devas and men a brahman going about,
possessing nothing. Therefore I bow down to you, Sakyan with all*
round vision; release me from my doubts.'
1064. 1 am not able1 to release aoyone in the world who has doubts,
Dhoiaka. But knowing the best doctrine, thus you would cross over
this flood.'
1065. Having compassion, brahman, teach the doctrine ot detachment,
which I may learn, <205> so that unchangeable as space, I may wander
in this very place, calmed, not dependent.*
1066. 'I shall expound peace to you, Dhotaka*, said the Blessed One,
'which is not based on hearsay in the world o f phenomena, which
knowing, one wandering mindfulfly] would cross over attachment in
the world.
1067. 'And ! delight in that supreme peace, great seer, which knowing,
one wandering mindful(ly) would cross over attachment in the world.'
1068. 'Whatever you know, Dhoiaka*. said the Blessed One, 'above,
below, across, and also in the middle, knowing this to be attachment in
the world, do not make craving for various kinds o f existence.

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V.7. UpasTvas Questions

1069.

Alone [and] without a support, Sakyan , said the venerable

Uposlva, *1 am not able to cross over the great flood. One with all
round vision, tell me an object (of meditation), supported by which 1
.may cross over this flood.*
10 7 a . Having regard for [the state of) nothingness, possessing
mindfulness, Upasiva*, said the Blessed One, supported by [the belief)
it does not exist**, cross over the flood. <2oS> Abandoning sensual
pleasures, abstaining from [wrong) conversations, look for the
destruction o f craving day and night. '
1071. He whose passion for all sensual pleasures has gone*, said the
venerable Upasiva, supported by (the state of] nothingness, having left
the other [states) behind, being released in the highest release from
perception, would he stay there not subject [to samsra)?
1072. H e whose-passion for all sensual pleasures has gone, Upasiva*,
said the Blessed One, .'supported by [the state of) nothingness, having
left the other [states] behind, being released in;the highest release from
perception, would stay there not subject [to sanis&ra).'
1073. 'One with all-round vision, if he should remain there not subject
[to samsora), for a vast number o f years, [and] being released in that
very place were to become cold, \youId consciousness disappear1 for
him in such astate?'
1074. 'Just as a flame tossed about by the force of the wind, Upasiva*.
said the Blessed One, goes out and no longer counts [as a flame),
<207> so a sage released from his mental body goes out and no longer
counts [as a sage].'
1075. He [who] has gone out. docs he not exist, or (does he remain]
unimpaired fpr ever? Explain this to me well. sage, for thus is this
doctrine known to you.'

* Reading uiveihi.

V. The Chapter on G oing to the F a r S h ow

137

1076. 'There is no measuring o f one who has gone out, Upasiva , said
the Blessed One. 'That no longer exists for him by which they might
speak o f him. When all phenomena have been removed, then all ways
o f speaking are also removed.*
V.8. Nandas Questions
1077. 'People say "There are sages in the world *, said the venerable
Nanda. 'How do they [say] this? Do they say that one possessed o f
knowledge is a sage, or truly one possessed o f a [particular] way o f
life?
1078. 'The experts do not say that one is a sage to this world because
o f view, or learning, or knowledge, Nanda. <2o8> I call them sages
who wander without association, without affliction, without desire.
1079. Whatever ascetics and brahmans', said the venerable Nanda. 'say
that purity is by means o f what is seen and heard, say that purity is by
means o f virtuous conduct and vows, say that purity is by means o f
various [ways], have they. Blessed One, living restrained1 therein
crossed over birth and old age, sir? 1 ask you. Blessed One. Tell, me
this.*
1080. 'Whatever ascetics and brahmans, Nanda , said the Blessed One,
say that purity is by means of what is seen and heard, say that purity is
by means o f virtuous conduct and vows, say that purity is by means of
various [ways], although living restrained2 therein, 1 say that they have
not crossed over birth and old age.
1081. Whatever ascetics and brahmans', said the venerable Nanda, say
that purity is by means of what is seen and heard, say that purity is by
means of virtuous conduct and vows, say that purity is by means of
various (ways), if, sage, you say they arc not flood*cros$crs. o o 9 >
then who. pray, in the world of devns and men has crossed over birth
and old age, sir? 1 ask you. Blessed One. Tell me this.

1 Reading yat
7 Reading >ai.

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138

1082. I do not say, Manda', said ihe Blessed One, that ail ascetics and
brahmans arc shrouded in birth and old age. Whosoever have given up
here what is seen, heard or thought and have given up all virtuous
conduct and vows, [and] have given up all various (ways), knowing
(and giving up] craving, [and] arc without 2$avas, them indeed I call
flood-crossing men /
1083. I rejoice, Gotama, in this utterance o f the great seer; well
expounded is that which is without acquisitions [which lead to rebirth].
Whosoever have given up here what is seen, heard, or thought, and have
given up all virtuous conduct and vows, [and] have given up all various
[ways], knowing [and giving up] craving, [and] are without savas, I
too call them flood-crossersV
V.9. Hemakas Questions
1084. 'If any persons explained to me previously*, said the venerable
Heraaka, < 2 1 0 'before [hearing) Gotama's teaching, (saying) Titus it
w as; thus it w ill be , all that was hearsay, all that increased my
speculation.
1085. 1

did not delight therein. But you, sage, teach me the doctrine

which destroys craving, which knowing one wandering mindful[ly]


would cross over attachment in the world/
1086. Here, Hemaka. in respect'of pleasant forms which have been
seen, heard, thought, and perceived, the removing o f desire and passion
is the unshakable state o f quenching.
1087. Those who know this and are mindful, (and are] completely
quenched in the world o f phenomena and are always calmed have
crossed over attachment in the world.*
V.10. Todeyya s Questions
1088.

In whom no sensual pleasures dwell*, said the venerable

Todcyya. and Tor whom no craving exists, and who has crossed over
doubts, of what kind is his release?*

V. The Chapter on G oing to the Far Shore

139

0S9. <211> 'In whom no sensual pleasures dwell. Todeyya , said the
Blessed One, and for whom no craving exists, and who has crossed
over doubts, for him there is no other release.'
1090. Is he without aspirations, or is he (still) hoping? Does he
possess wisdom, or is he (still) acquiring wisdom? Explain this to me.
Sakyan with all-round vision, so that 1 may recognise a sage.'
1091. 'He is without aspirations, he is not hoping. He possesses
wisdom, he is not (still) acquiring wisdom. In this way, Todeyya.
recognise a sage, possessing nothing, not attached to sensual pleasures
and existence.'
V. j 1. Kappa's Questions
1092. Tell (me) of an island, sir', said the venerable Kappa, for those
who are overcome by old age and death, (like those) standing in the
middle of a lake when a very fearful flood has arisen, and proclaim
(that) island to me, $0 that this [misery] m ay not occur again.
1093. < aia> 'I will tell you. Kappa', said the Blessed One, *of an
island for those who are overcome by old age and death, (like those]
standing in the middle o f a lake when a very fearful flood has arisen.
1094. This island, without possessions, without grasping, matchless. 1
call it quenching", the complete destruction o f old age and death.
1095. Those who know this and arc mindful, (and are] quenched in the
world of phenomena, do not go into MSras power; they are not
subservient loMfira.*
V. 12. Jaiukanni's Questions
1096.

Hearing of a hero who has no desire for sensual pleasures', said

the venerable Jatukannl. I have come to ask the one who has gone
beyond the flood |nnd) is without sensual pleasures. Tell me o f the state
of peace, omniscient one. Tell me this. Blessed One. as it really is.
J097. The Blessed One indeed dwells having overcome sensual
pleasures, as the brilliant sun (overcomes) the earth by its brilliance.
One of great wisdom, preach the doctrine to me who am o f little

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wisdom so that I may know the abandonment o f birth and old'age


hoe.
1098. <2I3> Dispel greed for sensual pleasures, Jatukanni, said the
Blessed One, having seen going-forth as safety. May there be nothing
taken up or laid down by you.
1099. Make what [existed] previously wither away. May there be
nothing for you afterwards. If you do not grasp anything in between,
you will wander calmed.
i too. For one whose greed for name-and-form has completely gone,
brahman, there exist no Ssavas, by reasoo o f which he would go into
the power o f death.*
V.13. Bhadr3vudha*$ Questions
1 to t . I ask the home-leaver, the cutter o f craving, the one without
desire*, said the venerable Bhadrtvudha, the joy-leaver, the flood*
c rosse r. the one who is released, Jte figment-leaver, the very wise one.
When they have heard the nSga, [the people] will go away from here.
1102. Various people have come from [various] countries, longing for
your utterance, hero. Explain [it] to (hem well, for thus is this doctrine
known to you.*
1 103. Dispel all craving for grasping. Bhadrvudha*. said the Blessed
One, above, below, across, and also in the middle. < 2i4 > For
whatever they grasp to the world, by that very thing Mra follows a
creature.
1104. Therefore knowing [this], seeing in this way this people attached
to the realm o f death, a mindful bhikkhu would not grasp anything in
all the world, which is attached 19 grasping.
V.14. Udayas Questions
1105.

I have come with the desire (to ask) a question*, said the

venerable Udaya. to the meditator seated passionless, who has done his
duty, without Ssavas, who has gone to the far shore o f all phenomena.
Tell me o f the release by knowledge, the breaking o f ignorance.*

V. The Chapter on Going to the F a r Shore

141

1106. 'The abandonment o f both desires for sensual pleasures and


unhappiness. Udaya . said the Blessed One. 'and the thrusting aw ay of
sloth, the restraint of remorse.
1107. purified by indifference and mindfulness, preceded by the
examination o f mental states. I tell (you), is the release by knowledge,
the breaking o f ignorance.
110 8 . < 2 15 > 'What fetter does the w o rld -h a ve? What is its
investigation? By the abandonment o f what Is it called quenching?*
1109. 'The world has eM*oyment as its fetter. Speculation is its
investigation. By the abandonment o f craving it is called quenching.*
ttto .

'How is consciousness stopped fo r one who w an d ers1

mindful(ly)? Having come to ask the Blessed One. let us hear that
word o f yours.
m i . If a person does not enjoy sensation, internally or externally, in
this way consciousness is stopped for him wanderingmindful(ly).*
V.15. Pom Io s Questions
i 112. T have come with the desire (to ask) a question,'* said the
venerable Posala, 'to the one (who has) gone to die far shore o f all
phenomena, who without desire and with doubt cut off. tells the past.
1 M 3.1 ask. Sakyan. about the knowledge o f one whose perception of
forms has disappeared, who has abandoned all corporeality, who sees
that nothing exists either internally or externally. How is such a person
to be led [further]?*
1114. <2t6> The TathSgata, knowing nil stages o f consciousness.
Posla', said the Blessed One.knows that [person] standing (in this
world), (or) released, (or) destined for that [release].
1115. Knowing the origin of the state of nothingness,* (he thinks)
Enjoyment is a fetter. Knowing this* thus, then he has insight12

1 Reading Akincanosambhavam.

2Reading etam.

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ihcreim This is the true knowledge o f that brahman who has lived the
(perfect) life.
V .i6. MoghanSias Questions
1 1 16. 'Twice I have asked the $akyan\ said the venerable Mogharja,
but the one with vision has not answered me. 1 have heard that the
deva-sccr does indeed1 answer the third time.
1 1 17. [There is) (his world, (he (text world, (he Brahma-world together
with the devas. I do not know the view o f you. the famous Goiama.
(about these].
1 1 18. <2i7> I have corno with a desire [to ask] a question to the one
who has such excellent vision. What view o f the world is one to have
for the king o f death not to see him?'
1 1 19. View the world as empty, MogharSja. always (being) mindful.
Destroying the view o f one's self, one may thus cross over death* The
*

king o f death does not see one who has such a view o f the world/
V.17. Pihgiya's Questions
1 120. T am old, weak, with my complexion gone, said the venerable
Pingiya. 'My eyes are not clear; my hearing is not good. May I not
perish meanwhile, [still] ignorant. Teach me the doctrine, so that I may
know the abandonment of birth and old age here.*
1121. 'Seeing (people] being smitten in the midst o f forms, Ptogiya\
said the Blessed One, '[for] negligent people do suffer in the midst of
forms, therefore you, Piftgiya, [being] vigilant, abandon form for the
sake o f non-renewed existence.
J122.

Four directions, four intermediate directions, above, [and]

below, these fare] the ten directions. <2t8> There is nothing in the
world which has not been seen (or) heard or thought or perceived by
you. Teach me the doctrine, so that I may know the abandonment of
binh and old age here.

Reading

va.

V. The Chapter on Going to the F a r Shore

143

1123. 'Seeing men afflicted by craving, Pingiya , said ihe Blessed One,
'tormented, overcome by old age-, therefore, you, Pingiya, (being)
vigilant, abandon craving for the sake o f non-renewed existence.'
V.18.
This the Blessed One said while staying among the Magadhans at the
Pisan aka shrine. Asked and questioned in turn by the sixteen attendant
brahmans, he answered their questions. If, knowing the meaning o f each
question, (and) knowing the doctrine, anyone were to enter upon the
doctrine and what conforms with the doctrine, he would go to the far
shore o f old age and death. These doctrine go to the far shore, therefore*
the name o f this exposition about the doctrine is "Going to the far
shore .
U 24. Ajita, Tissamctteyya, Punnaka, and Mcttagts, Dhotaka and
Upaslva, and Nando, and Hemaka.
1 1 2 5 . < 2 i9 > both Todcyyd and Kappa, and wise JatukannT,
BhadrSvudha, and Udaya, and the brahman-Posala too, and intelligent
Mogharja, and the great seer Pingiya.
1 126. these approached (he Buddha, the one o f perfect conduct, the seer.
They came to the best of Buddhas, asking subtle questions.
M 27. Being asked (heir questions, the Buddha answered (hem in
accordance with the truth. By answering their questions the sage
delighted the brahmans.
1128. They, delighted by the Buddha, the one with vision, the kinsman
of the sun, practised the holy life in the presence o f the one of excellent
wisdom.
1 129. If anyone were so 10 enter upon [the doctrine! as was taught by
(he Buddha (in answer] to each question, he would go to Ihe far shore
from the near shore.
1130 .11c would go from the near shore to the far shore, if he developed
the supreme way. This road is for going to the far shore, therefore (it is
called) Going to the far shore .

144

The Group o f Discourses

I z 3 1 . I shall recite the going to the far shore, said the venerable
Pin&iya, A s he saw it, so the stainless one o f great intelligence taught
i t For what reason would the naga,1 without sensual pleasures (and)
without desire, speak falsely?
1132. <220> Well then. I shall expound the beautiful utterance of the
one who has left stain and delusion behind, who has given up pride and
hyprocrisy.
1 133. The Buddha, thruster away o f darkness, the one o f all-round
vision, gone to the end of the world, gone beyone all existences,
without savas, vith all misery eliminated, named in accordance with
truth, is served by me, brahman.
1134. A s a bird leaving a small wood might inhabit a forest with much
fruit, so I too leaving those of little vision have arrived12 (at one of great
vision], like a goose (arriving) at a great lake.
113 5 . If any persons explained to me previously, before [hearing)
Gotama's teaching, (saying) "Thus it was; thus it will be", all drat was
hearsay, all that increased my speculation.
1136. The darkness-thruster seated, alone, brilliant,* that light-maker
Gotama o f great understanding, of great intelligence,
1 1 3 7 . < 2 2 1> who taught me the doctrine which is visible, not
concerned with time, the destruction o f craving, without distress, the
likeness o f which docs not exist anywhere.
t ! 38. Can you stay away from him even for a moment, Pingiya. from
Gotama o f great understanding, from Gotama o f great intelligence,
1 139.

who taught you the doctrine which is visible, not concerned with

time, the destruction o f craving, without distress, the likeness of which


does not exist anywhere?*

1 Reading
2 Reading
* Reading

ndgo.
ajjhapattam.
juiim.

V. The Chapter on Going to the F a r Shore

145

1140. I cannot slay away from him even for a moment, brahman, from
Gotama o f great understanding, from Gotama o f great intelligence.
1141. who (aught me the doctrine which is visible, not concerned with
time, the destruction o f craving, without distress, the likeness o f which
does not exist anywhere.
114 2 .1

see him with my mind as if with my eye, being vigilant day

and night, brahman. I pass the night revering him. For that very reason
1 think there is no staying away from him.
1 143. M y faith and rapture, (and) mind, and mindfulness do not go
away from the 'aching o f Gotama. In whatever direction the one of
great wisdom goes, in that very direction I bow down.
1 144. <222> I am old and o f feeble strength. For that very reason my
body does not go away to theic. 1 go constantly on a mental journey,
for my mind, brahman, is joined to him.
1145. Lying floundering in the mud, I swam irom island to island.
Then 1 saw the fully-awakened one. the flood crosser, without savas.*
1 146. 'A s Vakkali has declared his failh, and Bhadrvudha and AlaviGotama. in just the same way you too declare your faith. You, Pifigiya,
will go to the far shore o f the realm of death.
1 147. Hearing the sage's word(s), 1 believe all the more. The fullyawakened one, with deceit removed, without (mental] barrenness,
possessing ready wit.
) 14$. knowing the super-devas, knows everything, high and low. (He
is] the teacher who puts an end to the questions o f those who are in
doubt, (and] admit it.
1149. <223> Assuredly 1 shall go to the immovable, the unshakable,
the likeness o f which docs not exist anywhere. 1 have no doubt about
this. Thus consider me to be one whose mind is so disposed.

1. Uragavagga
<i> 1-221. For the Uragavagga see Jayawickrama (UCR, VI. 4 , p. 249).
1-17. For the Uragasulta sec Jayawickrama (UCR. VII. 1 , pp. 28-35). Cf.
Udana-v 32.55 foli, aod GDhp 81 foli.
lite metre of this sulla is Aupacchandasaka, except for 7 where we have a
mixed VaitliyafAupacchandasaka stanca (see the note od 7). The metre of
pdda d in each verse is defective, and we must either read
as Warder
(1967. 160) suggested or. more likely, read
with
developing
<

<r>tacam,

tv-.

iva
it-

For the refrain, cf. Suyag L2.2.1 :

tayasomvajahiserayam,
itisamkhyamuffinamajjaf
**A sage thinks he should leave off sins just as (a snake) leaves off its
slough**.
1. Pj IT !2.*o: vuatanti, vitthalam
. Pj n
visatikicchako vejjo
sappenadatthosabbamkyomphoritvthitamVisgiamsappavsammlllakkhandhaiaea-pattapupphdfnamonnalareh' nnbhesajjehi samyojetv
katehi osadhehi khippame v a vineyya. evamd a m ... . As Brough states
(1962. p. 197), the fact that the author knew that snake-venom spreads
through the body does not imply a knowledge of the circulation of the
blood. Cf. Socrates* jailer and his knowledge of the action o f hctnluck.
Since the usua) development of the past participles of verbs in *r* in Pili is
a ta . e.g. k a ta , -ith a ia , -m aro, 1 see no reason to follow Broughs suggestion
(1962, p. 197) of reading v isa ta in the Pill Dhammapada here. The
in G.
v isa d a is also unusual, and must have been borrowed from a dialect where
the usual development was - a io (see Norman,.1974A. pp. 174-75). PDhp
docs read v isata (cf. the reading of the B* of the P3 Ji).
It is interesting to note that where Chakrayarty (and Nakatani) read
o r a p r a m (UdSna-v 17.21, etc.), Bernhard read? a p ra m . 1 assume that the
reference is not to s a m s d r a and to the far shore of s a m s d r a , but to this
world and the next, and the verse was first formulated in a situation where
the author was considering this world and (^'afterlife. rather than the
endless stream of sa m sd ra . The Buddhists, however, had to make it fit into
their system. For the explanations of o r o p d r q . given in the etics (see Pj II
13.1 foil.) and by modern interpretami* see Drough (1962, p. 202).
In pda a Dhp 222 and Sp 760.19* read y o ve, which would give an even p3 da.

-d-

2. Pj

11 1 6 .13 -5 7 : b h sa p u p p h o m

p u p p h a m viya

; vigayhd

vasa rom h a n

t i .s a r e v r fh a m p ad um a-

l i, a g a y lu t, p a v isiiv d l i a lih o .

147

The cty seems 10 be

148

The Croup o f Discourses

saroruha
saroruha

bhisapnppha.
bahuvrtht

taking
as an adjective agreeing with the noun
while I take
as a noun, with
as a
adjective. Sec Norman (1974A, p. 175). i follow Brough in believing that
is < Skt
in the sense of seizing, laying hold o r , which is
attested for Skt. but it is noteworthy that the BHS version of this verse
(Udina-v 17.21c and 32.56 foil.) supports the cty with the reading
as does PDhp.

vigayha

bhtsapuppha

vigrhya

vigdhya.

Pj II
udacchtdit ucchindaii bhafijaii vinseti,atitaJtlUdnni pi
hi chandas vatiomnovacanamakkharacintak cchanti. For chandain
the sense of metre** see the notes on 162-63455. and cf. 568. Cf. the note on

gihbandhain 69.
3. Pj 11 17.20-21 : soritansi galant pavaitam
.yva bhavuggajjhouhritv
limanli vuttamhoii
Brough (1962, p. 200) has very plausibly suggested that the original
reading in pida b should be va
, not
thus giving a
comparison to balance the comparisons in 1-2 4 -5 .1 translate in accordance
with Brough's suggestion. The error (if it is one) is older than the cty.
which gives no hint of
It is. however, worthy of note that Udina-v
32.74b reads
PDhp reads
'The fact,that these versions read w- shows that the change va
must have taken pisce at a very early time when, or in a dialect where. was
still pronounced. This gives an example o f palatalisation by a following
palatal sound in another word, which 1 found difficult to exemplify in my
treatment of the palatalisation of vowels in MIA (Norman. 1976A. pp. 33940 and note 64). For other examples of palatalisation see the notes on 119
208 2S1325 366 390 400 463-66 665 6$8 779 784 785 796 824 830 832 895
904 9S011031104.4

sosayitv

visosoyitvd,

va.
sarii&msighrajavrn asosayajiiah.

viiodha/Utd.
sos-^visos$

4. Morris (1887. p. 136) suggested that udabbodMshould be understood as


udabbahi, from the root vrh-*10 extirpate , although PED (s.v. udobbhodhi
(sic)) prefers a derivation from ud+ vadh-. The G. version reads udavahi.
and Brough (1962. p. 199) agrefs with Senart that this confirms Morris*
conjecture. Brough points out that * v in the G form indicates
in the
original version, and
in the Pli version may either indicate
or be an analogical formation In 583
occurs; this is taken by
PED as the optative of
This must be related to
The
form with, -a- shows that the-root must be
not
* as PED
states. The doubled
may show ihe development o f a long vowel and a
single consonant to a short vowel aiul a double consonant (abbreviated as
VOVCC). or it may come from the stronger grade of Ihe root (cf. Pili
and Ski
from the homonymous root
to grow strong ),
but there is some evidence that
was sometimes restored** in the weak

-bb-

ud-brh-.

-bb-

brahant

brhal

-r

-bud-abroh-,

udabbahe

ud--brh-,

brh-

udabbadht.
ud-brh

I. Uragavagga

149

bruheti < bhayati (cf. Pkt bahei) < Skt


bnrihoyaii. abbahe
abblha593 779 ; abbuyha939.
for other examples o f the VC7 VCC alternation see -inn-hln- 44 ; -desi/
'dessi92:nlyatUniyyati 5S0; *timisa/timiss669 ; diyoii ccafdiyoit ca

giade forms of these roots, e.g.


Cf.
334 592 ;

785. and WD, p. 99 (ad Dhp 148).


5. Pj II 19.39: sranti niccabbvamasiabhvamv. Pj II 19.30 : puppkam
iva udumbares ti,yath udumbara-rukkhesu puppham vicinanto esa
brahmanonjjhagam,evom__The simile o f the fig-flowers to illustrate
rarity is common in Indian literature. It occurs elsewhere in Pili at Vv 50.17
{dullabhyam dassanya puppkam udumbaram yath; yatk nma
udumbare bhavampupphamdullobhadassanamkadcid eva bhaveyya,
exam.. .. Vv-a 2 134$). Ap 479.S (odumbarakapuppham va... dullabham
toka-nyakam; udumbarakapupphamv ti udumbararukkhe puppham
dullabham dullobhuppaitikam iva.ca/fdamhi sasakamyath ti candamandalesasalekhsosanipomdullabhamiva, Ap-a 488.26). ft i$ also found
in BHS : tadyath m
ahrja audumbarapuspamkadcit karhicit lohe
utpadyate, durlabhadarian hi vatsa tathgat. arhantam somyak
sambuddhh tadyaih audumbarapuspam(Divy 19.14), udumbarasya
yathpuspamdulhbhamkadcidutpadyati loke mnava(Mvu I 233.19).
oudumbaramivo kusumamna hi sulabhadorian sontbuddhh(Mvu I
270.3), puspam Iva udum
baram vane buddh (Mvu III 62.3). yo
ntidhxogomad bhavesu srambuddhv puspatn udumbarasya yadvat
(Udnav 18.21). audum
baram puspam tvtidurlabham(Suv. 247),
samyak-sambuddhloke utpadyuntetadyathudumbarapuspam(CPS 8.6X
A comparable phrase is also used by the Jains: udum
bara-puppham iva
dullahe(Nyi I.1.27 = Sott I.960; l.i .3t Suit I.966; Bhag 9.33 s Suit
I.600: Riy 61 = Suit II.87). The compound um
bara-uppltais quoted (DNM
I.119) in the sense of abhtbhyudayah unreal fortune" (see Norman. 1966.
p. 76). A imitar comparison is also made in brahmanica! Skt. cf.

auduinbarwti puspni fvetavarnnmett vyasamintsyapdamjtepaiycn


nanrthrduyasthitam(htlingk. 1870-73.7490). The point of all these
comparisons is the apparent failure of the glomerate fig (Ficus racemosa.
Linn., glomcrata. Roxb.). and indeed all figs, to produce flowers, a
phenomenon recognised by its descriptions as
not flowering" and
"bearing fruit without flowering" (MW, s.vv.). The
phenomenon is also referred to in the modern languages, e.g. Bengali
you arc become a fig flower , used of friends who
have not been seen for a long time (quoted by Milta. 1881-86. p. 169 note
48) and Marathi
(s
MahrSsjraabdakoia.
Poona 9 .U. s.v.
Professor R.A. Wi\bey of Kings College London
informs me that R.M Rilke also refers 10 ihs phenomenon in his Duino
Elegies (6.2). The use of the simile clearly arises from the fact that, as

apufpaphala(da)

qpttspa

dtunwphut haiyadut
utnhnrcemphiila tidhhiiio),
umbttra.

turni

>5

The Group o f Discourses

Emeneau ( 1949, P- 3 4 5 ) stales, (he Indians seem not to have understood that
the inflorescence of the genus Ficus is in the form of crowded compact
clusters of flowers placed inside a fleshy stalk, i.e, the flowers are inside the
fig. They consequently believed that fig trees, unlike other trees, fruited
without flowering. See Norman (1991b).
6. Pj II 20.23-27: yd es stm
paitivipatfi-vuddhtkni-sassaiuccheda-punna*
ppavasenaitbanekappakrbhovbhavaivitccaii, catuhipi maggehi ...
tarn itibhavbhavatan ca vitivotto ti evam attho niabbo. For the
rhythmical lengthening in bhavdbhavocf. 496 776 7S6 $01 877 901 1060
I0 6 S. and see artitiha93.} 10531066 and EV I, p. 220 (adTh 661).
In p5da b we should read iti m.c.
<2> 7. Pj II 21.1-4. tayo km
avydpdavihintsvitakk tayo ntijanapadmaravtakkA tyo parfiuddayalpatisomyuttalbhasakkdrasilokanavo/banipatisamyuttavitakkdti eie nova vtokkd.
Pj TI 2 1.7-g: vdhpitdbhusamdhilpitdsantdpt,daddhti aitho. For the
root dhp-cf. 472 475 and see 6V I. p. 196 (ad Th 448). Pj II 409.2* (ad 472)
glosses: vidhphdti, daddh.
Pj II213-13: suvikappitA... evamarahairom
aggenaasesdchinnd,chinnam
hi kappitanli vuccaii.yaihha"koppiiakcsamoss(Ja YI,268.27*)" titvam
aitho datthabbo. PED (s.v. vikappita) is reluctant to accept kappiiain the
sense of cut, but it is hard to see why. Skc has the root ktp- to trim, c u r
(see MW [s.v.]) and also the equivalent of the phrase quoted by the cty,
Skt (lex.) also has
scissors, shears (see
MW, s.v.).* and Pkt has the equivalent
as well as
(<
sheared (Utt 19.62). Cf. also among the meanings given ai Pj I 116.3 :

(Ja VI 268.27*)
P5 da a is VaitilTya; p3da$ bed are Aupacchandasaka. Although mixed
Vaitillya/Aupacchandasaka stanzas are common, it is possible that Brough
(1962, p .20 5) is correct in his suggestion that we should read
here. It must be noted that, if this is a mistake, it is a very
old one, for the BHS version (Ud5na*v 32.77) also has a VaitSlTya p&Ja.
For other examples of nominative plural forms tn
see
14
369.pocca>ilre 15,
376,
774.
776 901,
791
803.
827.
875 8 76 .
1038.
1079-82. There can be no
doubt that
is derived from Vedic
(Geiger. 1994. 79.4). and <
is an Eastern form, sometimes called a Magadhism. The same ending
may be seen in Aiokan
although other explanations have been
given of this form (see Bloch. 1950. p. 59 and Alsdorf, i960, pp. 256-60).
The expected non-Eastern form -ro (not quoted by Geiger), is to be found
in
670, and a development from this can probably be seen in

klpta-keia-nakha-StnaSru.

atomkaiokappitakesamassii

kalpanf
kttpponT,
kappio kalpita)
devom-ddisuchedanam.

vidhttpit&<st>

se samhotse
updsskdse cutse avUatanhse
silse
,paticchitdse panha-vimamsakse panditse
samkhtadhammse samona-brhmanAse
se
sas
-e
as
viypatse.
somuppitavso

1. Uragavagga

15*

-aho

- ho

th BH$ vocative plural ending *d/io (BMSG, 8.88), Ap.


and Mg 3
(fische), 1900, 367). although the particle
has been seen here by some
(Pischcl, 1900, 372). and in the Sinh. Pkt
(see Geiger. 1938.
95.2). It would seem belter to separate the ending
from the AMg
nominative plural masculine ending -do. following Pischel (1900. 367).
since the latter, found also in the form
in BHS (BHSG, 8.82) is
borrowed from the nominative plural feminine, where.it is formed on the
analogy o f
from -f stems. Pj il 23.13-17 explains the ending
as
follows :

ho
-ahol-ahu
-se

-yo

-iyo
-se
samuhatsc.samhaticc evaattho.paccattabahuvacanassa hi
'sa-kdrdgamamicchanti saddatakkhana-kovid', atihakathdeariyd pana
*seti nipto' ti vannayanti; yamruceali.tamgahetbbam.PDhp 414 reads
scinCihat ssa, presumably taking the received se as the pronoun assoor
the particle (o)a <Skt sm
a. P ( s . v . paccatta)states rhat paccattameans
the accusative case. This is an error for the nominative. It is also nominative
at Pj II 303.1t where PF.D again says it is accusative. See the note 00 270.
For other Eastern forms see rii 29. sinna 44, accusative plural masculine in
dor 45, v/v 100, bh ikkhave 280, v e h o 333, nominative singular in - e 233 427
43* 453, *e mistaken as -0659, locative/instrumcmal plural in -ehr 659.
b h n a h u 664, viser.i- 793 833 914 1078, nominative plural masculine in -dni
872. and see Uiders (Bcob., 1) and WD, p. 69 (ad Dhp 32).
For other features o f the A fokan inscriptions se e the notes on 1 8 - 1 9 20 -21
45 S^O

968.

yondccasdrttiyoniidiivi;napaccosdrtHnoohiyyi.

8. Pj II 2 1.14 :
For a
discussion of the meaning of p5 da a see Brough (1962. pp. 201*4) and
Norman (t974A.p. 174). ! suggest reading the simplex and the causative
forms of the verb, both combined with the prefix
The suffix
is
found in both verbs in Bernhard's edition:
If
the suggestion is correct that wc should read
m.c., then there is
no need to follow Warder (1967. 224) in seeing the amphibrach * * * in
this pSda. Here aod in 9 - 1 3 1 read
which gives
the correct metrical length, and I translate accordingly. My suggestion for
reading
is supported by Bernhard's reading
(Ud5 a*v
32.55). Nakaiani's reading n*
(32.46/55). and PDhp 411*12 which
reads
For the third singular ending -1 for a
causative verb, cf.
=
(Ja IV 3 5 .3 glossed
35.11*) and
see BHSG 38.32 and the note on 37S.
For papanca see EV 1. p. 203 (ad Th 519)* PJ H 2 t.it- u : sabham imam
vedtmd-sunft-vilakka ppabhavam lanhdiiihimna-somkhuim uvidham
pi papaiicatn aceagoma.

ali-.
atindiyasoramna cryalyam.
ndccasdrt
yondccasortnap*occasr,

-a-

etyasari
yo ndecasart na preccasri.
avedt avedesi

ntyosaram
jnpesi.

9. For the use of the locative iokc after notvtt. cf. muddham muddhapitte wj
iitinam 987 and see PGI> (s.v. nrina). PTC (s.v. dono). MW (s.v. jii-). and

152

The Crou p o f Discourses

\VD. p. 63 (ad Dhp6). Cf, na jnti kismici, Ja VI 549.7* ; dfiamnte inam


anvaye nam paricchede (paricce at D III 277.6; B* pariye) inam
sam/nuiiy hnam, D UI 226.33.j4; dukkhe ritinain samudaye iUUjani nirodhe
nam magge nnain, D Hl 227.1-2.

-die samtihainse

14. For the nominative plural ending


in
see the note on 7.
For the development of #/>- <
see Geiger (1994, 28), LUdcrs (Beob.,
tio ) , and Alsdorf (1975. pp. 110-16).

-uddh-

a<k>kusalm e ; cf. 369 am) PDhp 414 akkufal.


yassa daraih ti eithha pana pathomuppann paihnin
uppnn kites pariihatthena darath noma, aparporuppann kiles
jtau daraihajdnnia.
For the nominative plural ending -sein poccayscsee the note on 7.
16. Pj II 2444 : vom
ite vanoti t-v vanom,yeat bhojatl ti attho, tanhy'
etamadhivacanam. s hi visaynampaithannio sevanato co vanan ti
vuccati.
Pj 11 254: hetti yevaheiukapp. This explanation is presumably meant to
In pSda b we should read
15. Pj II 24.1s :

preclude the usual meaning like, rcsemblins for k a o o a . See the notes on
35^75 and p. 18.10.
<j> 1*7. Pj II 25.7: Fghabhdvaio anFghb.kifesadukkhasam
khtassa Fghassa
abhvena onfgho akosi. Pj II 590.8 (ad 1048):anigho ti rgdiFghavirahio. NkM II 65.11 ; anigho ti rgonghodosonigho mhongho...
yass' eienTghpahFn...so vuccati anigho. See EVI. p. 236 (ad Th 745)
and EV II. p. 172 (ad ThT 491). Here the metre requires anighoisee CPO, S.v.
anigho and BHSO. s.w . nigha and nigha. The short is probably
confirmed by AMg aniha. which occurs at Syag 1.2.1.13. where it is
glossed: tapahsam
yayeparTsahasohne vnighitabolovTryah; at Syag
I.2.2.30 where it is glossed: snihyata iti snihahnosnihah asnihoh.yadi
vii.pansahopasargair nihanyate iti nihah na niho 'nihah. upasargair
apardjitahi at Svyag (.8.18 where it is glossedtnihanyante prninah
samsre yay s nth my na vidyat s yasysv aniha
mypropahearahitah; at Syag U.6.42 where it is glossed: amyo*thav
nihanyata iti niho na niho'nthah. parsohar apfdito yadi v sniha
bandhane asniha iti sneharpab'andhanarahitah; at ySr 14.3.135 where
the cty gives,three explanations: ( l) from fhon* (porfsahehim nihao:
karmobhir nihanyate iti nihah). (2) from dsnih- {snehobhvd rgi), and
(3) from Vni-dh- {app&
nam snmjamabhavesu nihei) [see Schubring
(p. 8 7 ; at Dasav. 10.1.17 where it is said to be from Ski *onibhah
without fraud. Andersen (1907.P. 144) draws attention to Skt (lex.) nigha
stn. and if this word genuinely exists then it would obviously provide an
excellent etymology for anigha sinless. Alternatively, wc could see a

I.

Urogavagga

153

derivative from Vni-han-, i.e. ni-gha (although MW gives no suitable


meaning), parallel in form to pati-gha, so that onigha would have much the
same meaning as appatigha. Thirdly, we might follow PHD in seeing a
connection with Skt /rgh-, i.e. rgh& "violence, passion, *anrgha without
violence, without passion. Morris (1891-93, p. 41) suggests a derivation <
nighno dependent. This suggestion does not seem very attractive,
Pj II 25.15-18 :
(=* Vbh 377.19-21)

tatiha"katamepaicasalta:rgasallo dosasallo mohasalfa


mnasallodinhisallo
li vuttnampaconnamsaUdnam
vigafatt visllo.

Brough (1962, p. 200) draws attention to the fact tua, ... iclative clause in
p5 das ab has no finite verb. The BHS equivalent (Ud5 na*v 32.76) agrees in
reading p r a h S y a . Alsdorf dealt with a similar problem in AMg
(vippajahya in a relative clause in SQyag I4.1.1) by assuming the change
ya/i, and by restoring vippajahdi. Such a change could only be acceptable
here if it could be shown that the PSH recension is based upon a Pkt which*
formed its third singular present indicative in -at.
18-34. For the Dhaniyasutta see iayawickrama (UCR, VIII. 2, pp. 88-92). He
calls it a pastoral ballad.
The first twelve verses form a dialogue between the Buddha and die farmer
D haniya. T h e verses fall into pairs, w ith D baniya first expound ing the

benefits of the farmers life, and the Buddha (hers replying in a punning way
to point out that his own existence is preferafefc. The fact that zz does not
form a reply to 20 probably indicates that twouverses have been lost, one of
them the original reply to 20. The present 21 seems 10 include both
speakers* statements, which probably means rhat half of the original verse
by Dhaniya and half of the verse by the Buddha have been combined to
make one verse.
For the refrain atha ce panhaya.U, pavassa devo see F.V I. p. 135 (ad Th 5154). The ending ns/' (probably a development from paithayase) is m.c. Pj II
28.28 : devi l megham lapaii. The word tain is used in a punning way.
When Dhaniya refers to min he is talking about physical rain. When the
Buddha uses the word he is speaking metaphorically: rgOdkilesavassam
(Pj 31.30).
Except for 1 8- 1 9. ,l,c metre of this sulla is VaitlTya or mixed
Vaitfltya/Aupacchandasaka. A few pSdas require slight emendation to make
them scan correctly: (a) by shortening syllables: 28a 30h: (b) by lengthen
ing syllables'24a 31b 32c; (c) by excluding syllables: 28b 29c j i d ; (d)
ly reading for
before vowel*', zoc 31b 31c: (c) by disregarding a
nasal for scansion purposes: 22b 23b 28c 9c 32b. Other pfidas show j
syncopated opening: 24b 26b and 27b shod) syncopation as they stand;
22b 23h and 24a show syncopation after emendation.

-m

The Group o f scounes

154

idDhaniyogopo,

ifr-29. The words


eic.i are hypcr-metric and are therefore
presumably additions to the text. I assume that they are reciter's remarks
(see EVI. p. 242 (ad Th 824)). The cty makes no such comment here about
the phrase, but on
(33) it states (Pj It 44.19):
which would
therefore cover this context too.

iti Mro pdpimd


saAgTtikrnametomvaconam.sabbagttthSsu ca tdisni.

Reciter's remarks also occur during or after 3 3 - 3 4 $ 3 84 85 153-63168 169


355360459487488-895055065095105 5135M518519513524 528-29
5 3 3 5 3 4 5 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 7 5 * 7 600 701716 814 815 837 838 839 840 841 849 914
916 934 954 955 9^3 975 1032 1033 1034 1035 1036 1040 1041 1043 1044
1045 1046 1047 1048 104910501053 1055 1061 1062 1066 106$ 1069 1070
1071-72 107410761077 1079-82 1084 1088 1089 r 12 1093 1096 1098 t tot
1x03 1105 1006 m 2 11141116 1120 1021 1123 3 >* On a few of these the
cty slates that the soAgisikdroTvc responsible. See the notes on 33-341536 3 3 5 5 45918-19. Io both of these verses pda a is Tristubh, pdas bd Aupacchandasaka, and pSda c VaiiiKya. In 19a therd is resolution of the fifth syllable.
For the puns on
and
Litters (Beob., 85). For puns which disregard the aspirate see EV I. p^2 i 8
(ad Th 639). The metre is better if we
which then gives the
required word khilo. Doubtleec the form* developed-under the influence o f
in 18% but it would be preferable to read
m.c. The pun. which
ignores the difference between -i* and -r-. was presumably first made in an
Eastern dialect where *r* became -/ . The word
as applied to the
Buddha, is discussed at Mil 86 foil.
The presence of the word eka-rotli-vitso ("staying for one night") in 19b
makes no sense unless 18b similarly includes something which can. be
taken as referring ro a period of time. I would suggest that an earlier form of
the verse had the word somdsa-v&so in place of samdna-vso. Both words
would have the same meaning ("dwelling together**), but samdsa- could
also be understood as having the meaning "six months", to which the
Buddha's "living for one night? would make an appropriate response; It is
possible that samso* was replaced by samdna- because of the presence of
the word somniy in 24b. The words perhaps evoked a memory of the
compound sanjdnasamvdsa at Dhp 302. The usual Pali word for "six" is cha.
but we find sa- in shom "six days" (ja VI 80.7* chodivasamatta. 8o.it )
ami in sai-Oyotona "six spheres of sense". Cf. A.<okan Asatrundsika "up to
six months old", saduvfsati "26". and sapamnA "56". and C 5 ndhSrTso
(Burrow, 1937. 89). For other ASokan features see the note on 7
Pj II 28.10 : nnuitre itrosomfpe. Mahiy si. MahdmahindmikAya nadiyd.

pakkodana/akkodhano

duddhakhTrofvigaltikhilo.zct

fnifvigaia-khlto.
khTro

-khlro

okkodhana.

si.

I.

Pj II 29.5-11 : ch annel

k u ti l ,

Uragovogga

55

k y a d u k k h d g a m a p a tig h ta m , h ito a g g i l,

y a s h t g o p ia k p a rik k h e p a d h m a d d r u -a g g iv a se n a la y o a g g i k a ro n ti, te
c a ta s s a g e h e s a b b e kat, la s m s a b b a d is s u p o rik k h e p a g g im s a n d h y a

This is probably a reference 10 the householder's three fires.


There is a pun upon the meanings of k u tl. Pj n 31.4-10: k u tt ti, a a a b h v o ,

b it o a g g i ti.

a tta b h d v o h i tarn tom a u h a v a s a m p a tic c a kd y o ti p i g u h ti p i d e h o ti p i


son d eh o ti p i nd

t i p i ra th o t i p i d h a jo t i p i vam m lko ti p i k u tl ti p i kutik

t i p i v u c c a ti, id h a p a n a k a tth d d ln i p a t ic c a g eh a n m ik k u ti v iy a a tfh id d ln i p a t ic c a sam kham g a tto n a k u t l ti vutto. See also EV I. p. 1 17 (ad Th I).
The word 'Tire*' is also being used in a punning way. for it can also be used
of the fires of r g a . d o s a and m o h a . Cf. ta y o a g g i : r g a g g i d o s a g g i
m o h a g g i, D UI 217,19; o p a r e p i ta y o a g g i : h u n e y y a g g i g a h a p a t a g g i
d a k k h in e ) a g g i, 217.10* ji . Pj U 32,7-11: n ib b u to t i, upasonro-, g i n l ti, a g g i,
y erta h i ek d d a sa i-id h en a a g g in sa b b a m ida m d in a m , y a th h a : " d iita m
r d g a g g i n d t i vitthd ro, s o a g g i B h a g a v a to B o d h im S le y ev a ariy a m a g g a sa tila se k e iiQ n ib b u to , tasm d n ib b u to ti g in l t i ah a . See Jayawickrama (UCR

Vm.2.p.9i).
20-21. Although no-one seems to have commented upon the fact, it is clear
that 21 is not the expected response to 20, and we mus^assumc that the true
opposite to 20 has been lost. The lost verse presumably*gave some punning
reference by the Buddha to insects and caute, in lush pastures, ft would
seem that 21. as it stands, contains portion? cf-both Dbamya's statement
and the Buddha's reply, since pSda c seems to contradict pda a. It seems
likely that pda a is part of Dhaniyas statement: be does not worry about
the Helds being flooded if the rains come, because he has prepared a bh isi
("float"). Pda b was probably uttered by Dhaniya too. referring 10 the
actual crossing of the river, with vineyya as an absolutive (ogham taritv
atikkom m a, Pj U 35.13-14). doubtless going with a finite verb, now lost, in
pada c. The first line of the Buddha's reply U lost, k probably said
something about hearing the dhamma, and the remainder of the verse tells
how a person who had the dhanwia as his M ist, would cross to the far shore,
and would overcome the flood (of the s a m id r a ): ogham kdm oghddic a tu b b id h a m o gha m . The second pda of the Buddha's reply was
presumably the same as Dhamya's. which would help to explain why the
two verses became telescoped together. In the Buddha's version, however.
vineyya would be an optative. For the formar identity of the optative and
the absolutive see the notes on 58 590. Since such a person oould cross b)
means of the dhamma. he has no need of a M iti. The mctaphoiical use of tlc
word M is i is well known to the cty:

VieGroupofDiscounts

5*

maggo pajjo patho paittho arijasam rotomyonam


nv uiiorasefu co kullo ca tirisi somkamo
addhanam pabhavo c* eva taliha taiiha paksilo
(Pj n 34-ifr-:*).
Pili maiosa shows metathesis of consonants from Skt masoka (see CDIAL
14742). For other examples of this phenomenon sec bhsihilbhahisi 719.
mnasamt-m sanam 810. java/vaja 745. For other examples in P3Hsee
savri (Th-a vasari) Th 316 ; rose (v.l. sore) Th 738 ; basala (< sakara, see
PED S.v.);pavut/paiuv (see PED s.w . and von Hinber (1972. p. 199));
iiphan (< *uponah%see PED s.v.); the frequent changes of pariy > >
payir?.'*n koriy>kayiri Lders (Bcob.. $105) quotes niyassakammam
for nissayakamma. and parikati for pakirari, in his discussion of va savori
< sa vayari < sa vrajari; see Qrough (1962. p. 2tS). See also Geiger (1994.
$ 47)* Prom the Afokan inscriptions we can quote povosari at KSIsi in RE
TX(M) where the other versions have prasavori, and kamacha < *1kapacha
for kachopa in PE V(8). See Norman <1967. p. 2S). For other Afokan features
see the note on 7. For Pkt we can quote Vtimrosf < Vrdnasf (Pischel, 1900.
354). Note also urdlafuddra (Pischel. 254), karlafkadra. Utt 18.54
pdriydvasefctyparivsoyet:porivsaye{RfG))i Insler suggests capajp <
. pacala (1967. p. 258).

In 20c w e should read snheyyum m.c. for saneyyum .

Gopi
gopo.
gopa
yotriananogdvopltri,
sogopori vuccari yoparexamvetanenabhatohut\H.sogopdlokoiayam
pana oliano yeva,ienagopori vuito.
GopT
citiom
paribhvhom
samvdsiyd
samvsit.
<4> 22-23. It is probable that
is here merely the feminine o f
not
(he wife's name. About
Pj II 28.iS~;o states:
;
The parallelism between
arid
is clear. The fact that 23b has a past participle
suggests
that 22b should also have a past participle, and if this is so. then
must stand for
It is presumably a trace left over from an earlier
version of the sulla in a dialect where not only did /- and -/- coincide, but
also intervocalic -1- became -y-. The cty explains:

ciraklom saddhim
vasamn komrabhvato pabhuti ekaio vaddhitd. iena paropurisc no
jnri ti dosseii. The presence of the word vaddhitd suggests that the
tradition which the cty was following was taking som
vdsitd as a past
participle. The word paribhdv'ita occurs in Sanskrit in the meaning
enclosed, contained**, and the translation "my mind is enclosed within me"
would make a suitable parallel to my wife has dwelt with me",
in 23c
seems to have the sense of
"moreover". Cf. 690.
LUdcrs quotes samvsty (Beob.. 89) as an example of Eastern ya
replacing ka in Pli (for other Eastern features see the note on 7 ). There are
other examples of this: Sabhiya for Sabhika pp. 91 foil.; Kokliya for
Koktllika pp. 123 foil., suyutsaka
Mgondiya/Mkondtko 835-47. but

pana

puna

I.

Urogo vagga

157

since the parallel verse (23) has paribhviia, i.e. a past participle, it is more
likely that samvsiya stands for samvdsita. For the klt/y alternation see the
notes on 223 420 669 953 and EV I. pp. 136 and 209 (ad Th 57 547 )EV li;
p. 70 (ad Th! 43), and WD, p. 103 (ad Dhp 162). For evidence of a prc-Pli
dialect where -k- and -r- developed > *y* see Norman (1980, p. 177) and
Mayrhofer (EWA [s.v. maireya]).
In p3da b of 22 and 23 wc can improve the metre by reading dtgharana(m),
as Andersen suggests (1935 p. 129), compounded with the following past
participles. The padas then show a syncopated opening.
24-25. The fact that the whole of the Buddha's reply in 25 is concerned with
Dhaniya's statement in 24a, and there is no parallel in 25b to Dhaniya's
comment about his sons in 2460 (wht *as we might have expected some
comment upon the lines of 23bc). suggests that once again a verse has
disappeared, and two verses, dealing with sons and wages, have been
telescoped together. The Buddhas reply in 25a is dearly the counterpart of
Dhaniya's statement in 24a, and we should therefore have expected two
more pdas in 24 devoted to a statement about being a bhata^ka) and
earning bhtii, to serve as the basis for the Buddha's reply. The inclusioo of
the word nibbinhena in 25b suggests (hat this word, or some other part of
the verb nibbisati^wa in 24b and a pun wis intended upon the two
meanings of the verb. The cty states: yasm nibbinhena carimi sbbaloke
ahatn hi Dpmkarato yva bodhi riva sabboilXutaiinassa bhataka
ahosm, sabbonhutapatto pana nibbittha-nibbiso rija-bhato viva ten eva
nibbinhena sobbailobhvena lokuttarasanridhi-sukhena ca jtvmi (Pj II
3S.37-30). I have, however, suggested elsewhere (EV I. p. 141 (ad Th 78]) with
reference to the word nibbittha that it has the two meanings "earnings'* and
expiation**, and the word-play upon these two meanings would make
excellent sense in this context.
The cty explains: samniyfi ti sannUri avippavniihd (Pj II 38.14-15).
which seems to be taking sanulniy as a past participle, but I prefer to
follow PED in taking it as the equivalent of Skt samny ("equally, jointly,
together**: see MW. $.v.). i.e. as an advert. The meanings given in PED are
not so appropriate.
In 24a we should read ottovetanbhato for atiaveianahhato ni.e.. as
suggested by Andersen (1901. p. 128) am) accepted in Pj II p. 630. The pda
then shows a syncopated opening. In 24 p3da b shows a syncopated
opening.
26-27. These two verses have caused difficulties for iranshiors. m i i c c one is
merely the direct opposite of the other. The fact that Pj II 39.1(1-17 gives an
explanation for idha in the exegesis of 26: idha mayham gmmindule. as
well as in 27: idha amhkam ssane (Pj II 39-*: for (his meaning of idha

15

T he Crou p o f Discourses

see the note*on 775), suggests that we should read the word in both verses.
This would give a sharp contrast between here** in 26c meaning in my
herd" and here" in 27e meaning in my 5Osano. This would be very
appropriate in the context of the dialogue between Dhaniya and the
Buddha, where the Buddha's replies to Dhaniya are frequently based upon
word-plays, using Dhaniyas words in a Buddhist sense or context. The
reading of co for 'dho would then be an example of the scribal confusion
between the aksaras co and dha. For other examples of the ca/dha
alternation see E V 11. p. 57 (ad ThT 7) and WD. p. 126 (ad Dhp 267). If we read
co, then we should assume that -f in gavampatt is m.c. If we read dho for co.
then we have the sandhi of / +1* > --.
In 26 p3da b shows a syncopated opening. In 27 pda b shows a syncopated
opening (despite Pj II p. 69t, s.v. godharan.yo. no change b needed).
Dhaniya lists five categories of cattle, and the cty explains: vas ti.
adamiiitavuddhavaco. dhenup li dheniun pivanr tanirtavacchok khiradtiyikd vO gdvo, godharaniyo ti gabbhiniyo, paveniyo li vayappaitQ ba!i
vaddehi saddhtm meihunapatthanagdvo. The cty b undecided about the
meaning of dhenupa, but in 38 it is stated that even the dhenup cannot
break the ropes'*, which implies that they are the strongest, except fof-the
bull.
The cty explains the Buddha's use of ihe*same five categories in hb reply
as metaphorical: adamitanhena vuddhatthena co vasdsomkJt
pariyutthn v. tarunavacchake sandhya vasnam 1 mlotthena
khtradyiniyo sondhdyo paggharanatthena v dhenapsumkht
anusayO v. paiisandhigabbhadhranoiihena godharini-samkhi
pudddpunnd<O>na}bhisamkhra-cetan v. samyogapunhan ' -attheno
pavenisomkht pouhanatanh v, adhipacc'-atthena pubboAgam*
atthena sctih'-atthena ca gavampaii-usabhasamkhtam abhisomkhdraviiVfnom \' n* otthi (Pj II 39.20-2$). See also Collins (>982. p, 305).
The solution to the problem b , however, probably simpler than that. In the
Kassaka-suua o f the Sarpyutta-nikiya (S I l14.26-116.1y). Mqra appears in
the guise o f a ploughman and asks the Buddha if he has seen h b oxen. The
Buddha asks him what oxen have to do with him. and Mira replies that the
organs o f sense and their objects belong 10 him. The Buddha states that
where there are no senses and no objects o f sense there b no way for Mira.
This exchange makes it clear that there was a metaphorical usage o f the
word cattle in the meaning senses . The Pli grammarians recognised
this, and Aggavamsa states: gdvo v cakkhntlin' indriyfini (Sadd 241,20-21)
and : gvo cakkhddTn indriyni corami etiha li gocaro (241.18). The word
is quoted from later Sanskrit in this meaning (see MW, s.v. go. where the
meaning an organ o f sense is quoted from the Bhgavata Purina), and in a
medieval Jain text there is reference to the five botidda (a Skt balivarda) as

I. Urogavagga

*59

the senses. See Hiralal Jain (1933, p. 14. verse 44), and the Trench translation
by C. Caillat (1976. p. 73). The five categories of cattle mentioned by
Dhaniya are therefore used very appropriately by the Buddha as tbe
equivalents of the five senses.
<5> 28. The contrast between the cowherd making strong fetters to bind his
cattle, and the Buddha breaking the bonds which bind him to rebirth is so
clear as to require no comment. Pj 11 4O.s-7: nikht ti kotetvd bhmim
povtsti khuddak. mahant khanitvG thapit.
For the form of sakkhinti. cf. dakkhintl p. 15.21, gacchisi 665, and dakkkiti
909. For such future forms in
whether by the samprasdrana of yet to , or
with palatalisation by
see Norman (1958, p. 45 and I976A, p. 331 ). Cf. the
suggestion of reading bhahisi in 719. See also Uiders (Beob., 149 note 2).
In p3da a we should read nikhat for nikhat ro.c. (cf. Prakrit khayo <
*khata). In pda b wc should read su-santh for su-santhn m.c^ as
suggested by Andersen (1901, p. 128); cf. Skt samsthO, which means shape,
form, quality, property, nature** (see MW. s.v.). In p5da c we should read
sakkhi(n)ti m.c.
.
29. For the rtl alternation in dlayitvd see Uiders (Beob.. 39). EV I, p. 258
(ad Th 967), WD. p. 86 (ad Dhp 91), and cf. sandlayitvp 62 74 ; palyat
120 : paligupthita 131; anGtamba 173 : antalikkka 222 688: lkhai 244:
ludda 247 ; vipallsa 299 \pad6lita 546 $72; Mieti 58 5; paligha 622;
palipaiha 638 ; kulala 67$; paleti S3t 10741144 The replacement of r by/
is an Eastern feature. For other Eastern features see the note on 7 . For the Ur
alternation see rttppatom 331 ; kirtt 356; ruppa{n)ti 767 12 2 1; rajassira
9So.
Cf. apfitikflm bandhanam, M 1430.8.
Pj II 40.34: r a - k r o p a d a s a n d h i k a r o . For sandhi -r- sec Geiger (1994.
$73.3), EV 11. p- 54 (ad Thl 3.) and WD. p. 144 (ad Dhp 338). For examples see
v u t t i - r - e s d 81 4 $ Q , p u n a r e i i 152 : t h a m b h o ^ r - i v a 214 ; p u n o - r - g n m i
3391d h i - r - a t r i u t 440; o r a g g e - r - i v a 625 ; s t o p q - r - v a 631 ; a t i - r - i v a 679
680 683; s a r a d a - r - i v Q 687 ; h a / r t s o - r - i v a 1134: Cf. also s i U t i - r - i v a Ja V
445.15; n a d i- r - iv a Ja V 445.16.
In pSda a -a in chetva is m.c. In p$da c we should read pun\a\' for puna m.c.
and upessa{m) m.c.
30. FausboH does not number this verse in his translation, although he
does in his edition. Consequently all his verse numbers in the translation
differ hereafter by one.
Pj li 42.3-4 states that this verse is due to those-who held the Council: ter. *
fihu sttngliikrA. This implies that the tradition of the bhnakas
("reciters) did not believe it wax an original part of the sutta It forms.

l6o

The Croup o f Discourses

however, a logicai conclusion 10 the refrain which isrepeated at the end of


each verse, inviting the rain to come. The following pair of verses tells how
Dhaniya and his wife came to the Buddha as a refuge, which implies that the
rain, i.e. the metaphorical rain of which the Buddha spoke, had come. We
can deduce that the sanghikdras (houglti that it was necessary to insert a
verse explaining why this change had come about, and so they stated that
the rain, i.e. the physical rain, had fallen. For other references to the holders
of the sotigfii. see the notes on 33-4153-63251-52 p. 59.9 355 401 429 449
p. 78.6 p. 79,1 pp. 79,17-80,15 459 pp. 86.tS-91.10 pp. I39.t6-149.19p> 218..
In p2da b we should read tnahdmegho for mahtimegho m.c. (as suggested at
Pj 11 p. 746).
31-32. These two verses, telling of the conversion of Dhaniya and his wife,
and their hope that they could practise brahmacariya in the Buddha's
presence, were presumably the end of the original sutta.
31. Pj II 42.19 : ota iti vimhay'-otthe nipio.
Jn p2da b we should read mAyarn tor mayom m.c. and Bhogavamam for
Bhagavantam. In p3da c we should read tam for tan1 ro.c. In pSda d we
should exclude no.
32. Pj 11 43.17-20 gives an explanation o f the word Sudata : bhagavB hi
ontadvayam onupogamma su tthu gotattS seb ha n en a c a ariyamagga-

gamanena samanngatatt sundarah ca nibbSnasamkhtam thttam gotoU Sugato ri vuccati. See EV I. p. 16t (ad Th 185). and EV II, p. 90 (ad Thf
! 35 >-

Pj II 43.17-: Sugate ti. Sugatassa sontike.... samipotthe <? ettha bhummavacanom, tasmA Sugotasso sontike ti ouho. For the locative o f the person
with whom one dwells or stays (brohmaeartyam Sugate carmase) sec
Spcijcr (1886. 137). and cf. Bhagavoii brohmocariyont russati. M I 147.16
(Ps II 155.25: bhagavoto sontike). The cty gives (wo explanations for the
ending -Amase: carmase ti carma. yam hi tam sakkateaa "carmasV* it
vuccati. tom idha carmase iti, afthakothcariy pana "se iti nipto" ti
Ottonanti, cten evo c* ettho yeanottham sondhyo carema se iti pi
pQtham vikoppent; yam ruccot, tam gaketobbam (Pj II 43.ji-j6).Ths
seems to provide clear evidence that the author of the cty (or the source he
was following) was acquainted with Sanskrit. See Norman (1978, pp. 41-42).
The first person plural ending -Amate seems to represent a blend of the
Vcdic active ending -Amasi with the middle form -Amahe. See Geiger (1994.
$ 122). Cf. smose59>
There is a v.l. prag for progA. Cf. poroga 997. and see the note on 167.

I. Uragavaggo

161

In pSda b we should reed brohmacariya(m) m.c. and ignore (he svarabhakti


vowel in -cariyam. This would give a syncopated opening - - - - - - instead o f ----------. In pads c we should read jdt{ m.c.
<6> 33-34- For the reciter's remarks see the noie on 18-29.
These two verses, which have an independent existence u^wucte were
probably added because they too have a punning exchange of words, based
upon the two meanings of upadhi. The upadhis ard objects which one
amasses: they are also the love and affection which one has for such things,
which form an attachment and lead one back to rebirth. The word is,
therefore, very often translated as substrate (of renewed existence) and
also as affection . So a man widrsons or cattle rejoices because he has
sons or cattle, which he loves. He also grieves because he has sons or ca* re.
which attach him to the world and cause him to be reborn. Fj II 44.11-14:
ponchi ti ponchi pi dhTthi pi, sahayogc karanatthc yd karonavacanarrr.
ponchi saha riandati, puttchi karanabhtchi riandati ti vuttam boti. Pj 11
44.14-29 : upadhT ti, condro upadhiyo: kmdpadhi khandhpadhi
kilcspadhi abhisankhdrpadhi ti, kdmd hi yarn panca kmagune paticca
uppajjati sukham somanassom, ayam kmnam assdcT ti evam vuttassa
sukhassa adhitthnabhdvato 'upadhyati cttha sukhan' ti imind vacanaithena upadhT ti vuccanti. Cf. Pj II 436.6-7 (ad546): itpadhi ti khandhakilesakdmagundbhisamkhrabhedd condro, tor a tisi of ten upadhis see
Nidd IT73.73 foil, (ad 1050). Cf. M I 1624 foli: Por the pun see BHSD (s.v.
upadhi) and CPD (s.v. upadhi). For nirupadhi see Norman (i97iB, pp. 33436) and the note on 642.
Jayawickrama (UCR Vili, 2, p. 88) thinks that these two verses are
subsequent interpolations, partly because they occur elsewhere, and partly
because the sutta seems complete after 32.
la pda b gomiko goes against the metre, but the vv.il. gotniyo and gopiko
arc no better. S 1 6.9 reads gomi&o but has the v.l. gopiko. When the verse
recurs ax $ 1 107.33 and 1084 there is a v.l. gomd. which is belter metrically,
and forms a belter parallel with puttim: go-mfputt--md. Mvu Ml 417.16
304417.3. however, read gomiko, with a v.l. gopiko. and it is clear that this
must have been (he reading at a very early date..
In pdda d in nirpadhi is m.c.
33. Fj II 44.it->o: pdpimd ti Idmakapuggalo pdpasamdedro vd
saAgtiikdrdnam dam vacanam, sobbagthsu ca Tdi.ulni. For (he
saAgftikdros see the note on 30.
For Mro pdpimd sec the note on 430
35-75. The Khaggavisinasutia also occurs at Ap 8-13 (= IJ.9-49) and Mvu I
357 foil. Jayawickrama considers this suda (UCR V||. 2. pp. 19-28). Its

tfo

The Group o f Discourses

antiquity is shown by its presence in Mvu, and also by ihe fact that it is
commented upon in Nidd II. Mvu 1 359.16-17 states: AH the stanzas of the
Kh. are to be supplied here in full, namely the stanzas pronounced by each
one of the Pratyekabuddhas". Jones (Mvu-Tisl.. I p. 305. note 1) says:
Khaggavisanasutta in the Sn contains only 41 stanzas. But it is implied
here that there were 500, i.e. the number of the Pratyekabuddhas". The metre
is Tristubh.
I usually quote from Nidd II Ne, since the format of e is not entirely
satisfactory for giving references, and B* is not likely to be widely
available to readers.
Nidd (I N* 248.6: yathd khaggassa jtma visnam ekam hoti adutiyam, evam
eva so paccekabuddho tnkkappo tassadiso lappaiibhAgo. Pj II 65.10-11,
written $c .1 600 years later, gives a similar explanation: khaggovisnakappo ti,ettho khaggavtsdpam nOma khaggamigasingam. Ap-a 153.4-5
states : khaggavisdnakappo //. ettha khaggavtsdnam nma khaggamigasit)gam. Sv-pt 1 331.2$ states: khagga-miga-singasenno. Pj II 65.11 : kappasaddassa attham vitthraio Mangalosmtavannonya (s Pj I 115.19 foil.)
pakdsayissSma, idha panyam^ saithnkappena vaio tra blto sdvokena
saddhim mantayamdna (= M I 150.27)f* evamdisu viya potibhdgo
veditabbo, khaggovisdnakappo if khoggavisdnasodiso l vuttam ho For
the ^meaning like, resembling, for kappa see the note on 16. For the
meaning almost" in kcvala-kappa (almost) entire" see the note on p. 18.10.
In view of the unanimity of the cries it is strange that some translators have
been reluctant to accept the translation solitary as a rhinoceros horn
Fausbpll does not mention the possibility of translating in this way. Hare
translates rhinoceros" but adds in a note: "khaggavisdna, here rendered
rhinoceros*, is more properly *horn o f rhinoceros', its singleness (eko)
being contrasted no doubt with the two horns of other animals". Jones
translates: like a rhinoceros" although he notes (1949. p- 250 note 1) that
literally it means like the horn of the Indian Rhinoceros". Jayawickrama.
although quoting both Nidd II and Pj II. nevertheless insists that the
comparison is not with the horn but with the animal (1949. p. 120). Edgerton
makes the same point (BHSD. 's.v. khadga-visna). Kloppenborg deals with
the matter at length (1974. pp. 59^60) and translates like the horn of a
rhinoceros". She adds, howevef. "Although all commentaries take this
comparison with reference to the horn o f a rhinoceros, (hey combine this
with the paccekabuddha's way of life. In view of (he fact that the rhino's
way of life can equally be called solitary, it seems that in the comparison
both aspects are emphasized, the one horn as well as the solitary life". I find
this line of argument hard to follow. Jayawickrama bases his argument
partly on the fact that khaggo by itself in the sense of rhinoceros" is found
in only a few comparatively late passages in Pli. It is. however, found in

I. Uragavagga

163

the canon at Ja VI 497.12* 538j* 578.24* in (his sense, and it is also attested
in Skt with this meaning (see MW. s.v.). The phrase also occurs at Mil 105.3
(ekacarino khaggavisnakapp), whe/e both Rhys Davids and Miss Homer
translate "horn of a rhinoceros', and at Vism 234., where both Pe Maung
Tin and NSnamoli do the same.
Jayawickrama points out that other references to solitude in Pli usually
include animals, e.g. gajam iva Ja li 220.13*. ngo va 53 (cf. M III 154^3*
Dhp 329-30 Ja 111 488.23* V 190.*), but I do not see that this necessarily
precludes a comparison with an inanimate object. He also objects (p. 119
foil) to a comparison with a part of an animal When, however, the Pli can
be so translated, when the earliest interpretation takes it that way, and when
the Indian rhinoceros is unique among animals in India in having only one
hom, it seems certain to me that the reference is to the single horn, and I
think that there is no problem with th phrase if we translate: Let higt
wander all by himself {eko aduliyo) having a resemblance to the rhinoceros
horn, which is also eko aduiiyo . The phrase also exists in Jain literature
{khaggivisdnam va eg a j e, Kalpastra (Jinacama 118 )), where its
grammatical form makes it certain that the reference is to the horn.
The word khadga is a non-Aryan word. See Kuiper, (PMWS. pp. 136 foil)
and Mayrhofer (EWA I p. 299). Therefore k h a d g a * - rhinoceros** when first
borrowed into IA. Therefore khadgavisdna
bom of rhinoceros**. It was
then mistakenly taken as having a sword as a bom, when confusion arose
with the word khadga sword . BHSD is wrong-about khadga.
35. As LOders (Bcob., 217) points out. die parallel verse in Mvu (I 359.10*)
has ihe plural sahayn where Pli has sa h y a m . Liidcrs accordingly
includes this as an example of Pli -a m as a masculine accusative plural
ending. For other possible examples see p iyam 94 (Liidcrs, Bcob.. 205),
panham 510-11 (v.l in Ce; see liidcrs. Bcob.. 210), sabbasamyogaOp) 522
{v.\.).sai)gam 636 (Liidcrs, Bcob.. 203). (0171658 (Liidcrs, Bcob., 218).ya/n
nirayam 6 6 o (Liidcrs. Bcob., 219), nirayam 661 (Uldcrs, Bcob., 216),
kmomy6 6 , aniam 1040 1042 (Uklcrs, Bcob. 202). tumam 1071-72. For
other examples in Pli see Norman (1971C. pp. 214-15), EV I, p. 142 (ad Th
83). EV II, p. 96 (ad ThT 183), and WD. p. 77* (ad Dhp 64-65). It is possible
that yafi/la-m-akappayimsu 458 is also an example of this phenomenon. Sec
the note 00458. It is possible lhat //tffim X04 and d itih im in 787 arc
examples of accusative plurals in -ini (see the note on 104).
In pda b there is resolution of the first sylla6fe.
36. Pj !( 71.22 reads bhavati s tu d io and glosses it with a singular, but the
metre is better if we read bhavanti sneh, although we should then ignore
the lengthening of -i by the following s n - For the alternation jri</stn> see
Lbdcrs (Bcob., 186). Cf. snehoja 272 and sneha 943.

164

The Croup o f Discourses

37. Pj II 73.6 : suhadayabhvena suhojjd.


Pj U 74.1 i : tividho santhavo tanhddinhimittasanthovavosena. Here ihe
mittasanlhava is'meanl (Pj D 74.15).
38. Pj U 76.1-3: va-kdro avadhdranottho; eva-kdro v ya/n, sondhvasen'
etiha e-karo nattho. In pda c va is glossed as viya.
For rii io kalira scc Ldcrs (Bcob., 50).
There is a v.l. co for va in pSda a. For the e h alternation cf. calva 62 310 782
9 5 5 114 2 ,cd/vd 122, -cdranol-vrano 162-63, celvelO 6 91718 78 0,
cittim/vittim 6So, citiadvitta- 810. cdpi/vdpi 66t 815 871 893 900 902.
camom/avantam 945. -c/Avi 953. paricraka-lparivraka- p. 218.1$. See
alioEVn. p. 59(adThT 12). Norman (1972, p. 334 {cQiiuidvamrr.a\y. and WD,
p. 74 (ad Dhp 50). The coofusion of ca and va dates from the (ime of the
Afokan inscriptions (see Norman. 1973, p. 70). A confusion between -ccand -w- also occurs, e.g. ucciya for *uwiya ( ubbiya). See CPD. s.v. ucciya.
In pSda a Be omits yo, but this is merely a normalisation of a nine-syllable
line. There is resolution of the sixth syllable.
In p&da c -~ in vamsd- is ate. (see Pi II p. 757). Ap8.i3 (= 11:12) reads
vomsa-jtt- ; Pj II 76.6 has vamsa-k-.
<7> 39. For yen icchakam see BHSD (s.v.). Pj II 8 3.17:seritan ti
sacehandavuititam apryojtabhvorn.
40. Pj li 854-3 : ida m
a m a n ta n d

m e su n a , idam m e d ehX t i d d in d n a y en a ta th ta th

h o t i , ta s m d h a m

t a ih a

n ib b ijjily .

Ndd II N* 26 l.io:

a tta tth a m a n ta n d p a ra tth a m a n ta n u b h a y a tth a m a n ra n d itth a d h o m m ik *a tth a m a n ia n d sam p a r y ikotth a m a n tn n p a r a m a u h a m a n ta n .

ln pda c there is resolution of the first syllable.


4!. Ap 8.34 (a II: 15) reads In pada b: p n tte s u p em a m vipidaA c a h o ti. This
scans better, but misplaces c a . In the form in which we have the p5 da we
should read cd m.c.
In pSda c there is resolution of the first syllable.
42. Pj II 88.9>ii : cdluddiso ti caiusu disdsu yathdsukhavihdrf, "ekam disam
pharitvd viharati" ti ddind vd nayena brahmavihrabhvopharit
catasto disd ossa santi ti pi ctuddiso.
For itarftarena see EV |, p. 147 (adTh ill).
Pj II 88.t6 foil.:

t u lio

p a r is a y a n ti k d y a c itt d n i p a r ih d p e n ti

vd

le s o m

sa m p a ttim id n i vd p n r ic c a s a y o m i ti p a r is s a y d , b d h r n a m sih a v y a g g h ' d in a m

ctoni

a b b h a n ta r n a n

c a k m a c e h a n d d d n a n t

k d y a c U t p a d d a v n a m

Nidd II Nc 265,1 : d v e p a r is s a y d , p k a to p a r is s o y d ca
p a t i c c h a n n o p a r is s a y d c a . Nidd I 12.15-26 (ad 770) gives the same
definition. Pj II 513.1s foil, (ad 770): s f h d d a y o c a p d k a ta p a r is s a y d
a d h iv o en n o m .

I. Uragavnggn

165

In his discussion of
770 Enomoio (1979, p. 33) suggests that p a r is s a y a is the equivalent of Pkl
p a r i s s o v o and connected with Skt s r a v a ti, and it would therefore be
connected with o sa v a (Skt sr a v a ) Minnowing, influx'*. It must, however; be
noted that if this is so, then the meaning of p a r i s s a y a has diverged
somewhat from s a v a , since from (he contexts In which it occurs it appears
to have a meaning closer (0 difficulty, danger**. If BH$D is correct in
believing that BHS p a r iir a y a is the correct antecedent of p a r is s a y a (and .
not a later back-formation), then*the use of p a r is s a y a in 770 is probably the
result of a deliberate intention to play upon words. See BHSD (s.vv.
p a r iir a y a and p a r isr a v a ). We should need to assume a development of the
meaning of p a r iir a y a from surroundings" > circumstances > adverse
circumstances".
It seems likely that p a r is o v a in the A&kan inscriptions (RE X(CXD)) also
means "danger. If this is connected with BHS p a r iir a y a , then -v- will be an
Eastern glide consonant. It should be noted that the occurrence of the form
p a r is r a v a at ShShMzgarh! indicates that the scribe.there did not recognise
the word p a r i s o v a which he received in .his exemplar as being the
equivalent of Ski p a r i i r a y a , or he would have written Western *y* for
Eastern -i*-. For other Afokan features see the note on 7.
k y a d itc ca rii d a y o c a a p k a ta p a r is s a y d m a d d a n ti.

In pSda c single -*-h- in a c h a m b h l is m.c.


43. For aiho cf. 724-27 780.
Pj II 90.13-14: d u s s a n g a h d ... a s a n to s b h ib h iit . PTS translates: hard to
consort with".
In pida c Ap 9.* (* II: 17) reads

appoSukko,

where the metre requires

a p p o ssu k o .

44. $* and Mss B" read d h fr o fo r v ir o in pida c. For other examples of the
v fd h alternation see v tro td h fra 165 349 531 646: v a m katn idha m ka n t 27071 ; a v ib h / a d h ib h 6S4 { y .\ .) iv im u u a l'd h iiu u u a 1071-72 1114. See also
the note on su d d U in a y a tsu b b in a y o 910. Cf a d h ic u n n a ia v ic u n n a (PED s.v.).
See also EVI. p. 271 (ad Th 10S3), V II. p. 57 (ad ThT 7). and WD, p. 10 (ad
Dhp 193 X
Kovilira is the mountain ebony (Bauhinia variegata).
Nidd H Ne 270.6: s a iic h in n a p a ito y a lh d k o v l r o d .y a t h d k o v it r a s s a
p o ft n i

c h in n n i

s n n c h in n fm i p a t it n i p a r ip o t it tln i. tv o tn

tr a

ta s s a

ri.
Pj 11 9. : s o m s h tttp o ts o (v.l. s a t n e h in n a - .
which is read by Ap9.u ( t II:>8); cf. s a m c h in n a in 64) t i, p a tita p a tta . To
this gloss it prefixes a story of a ircc which was n ila g h a n a p a tto s a fic h o n n o .
s a n c h a n n a p a tta . and in u iiiip tip p lu isu iich a itn a at Ihe beginning of summer.
Il seems clear that wc should read sa m s itiQ as the lectio difficilior, and

p a ccekabu dd ba ssa

g ib iv y a n ja n n n i

sa n c h in n a p o tto y ath k o v lro .

c h in n n i

s a ic h in n n i

p a tit n f

166

The Croup o f Discourses

assume that sanchinna- has entered the text from ihc gloss. For glosses
entering the text see the notes on 2x4,244.527. p. in * .
By form samsTna seems to be from Skt STna < fy-. MW quotes samSTna
(Car.) = samJiia congealed, frozen, cold, cool , which is not particularly
appropriate in the context, although MW does quote samSydna (Ki on
Pn VI. 1.24) "contracted, shrunk or rolled up together, collapsed which
might apply to leaves. Probably PHD is correct in seeing a derivation from
samifrna. Although this is not quoted by MW, it does occur in BUS (see
the note on 64). PED gives the same derivation for sTna in stnnpana (Mi)
117,1$; Ja IT 163.17 (E* sUappatto with vv.ll. sinhapatto and sinnopatio,
with gloss sukhumappatio)). The expected form from Strap does, however,
exist in Pli; see PED s.v. vistano (Ja I 174.1s). If this derivation is correct,
then wc may assume an alternation -inn-f-fn- through an Eastern dialca
where -n- replaces -n -, and the vowel length is kept. For other Eastern forms
see the note on 7. For thcVCC/VC alternation see the note on 4.
In pSda a vy- in -vyanjandni does not make position.
45-46. These two verses seem to go together, since 4 5 locks the refrain. They
occur together at M 111 !54.i7*-*4* (and Ja 111 488.*6*-j3% Vin 1 350,4*-ti*.
Dhp 328-29). but with eko cart m&tang* arane va ngo (which..has a
fcdundanl fifth and does not scan) as the refrain instead of 46dl It is
possible that 48-49 also form a pair.'although they do hiVc the refrain (Ap
9.32 [a 11:20]).
In pSda b we should read saddhi[m]caramjm.c. For sdhu-vihdri cf. evamvihri in 375. Pj H 93.2s reads -vtkrm ti in the lemma, and Nidd II N* 271.16
includes -vihOrim in the explanation, which makes it clear that -1 in -vihri
is m.c.
<8> 45. Nidd IIN* 271.9: nipakam pandiram pafinavantom buddhimontam
hnim vibhvim medhvim. Pj H 93.27 : nipakan ti pakatinipunam panditom
kasinaparikammdikusatam. See also EV I/p. 143 (ad Th 85X
In sobbdni parissay&ni we have the -dniinding as a masculine accusative
plural. For other'examples of this see atthdhi 58. bandhavni 60, kmni 60
771 'pndni 117, gmni nigamni 1x8, kappni517, vedn't 529. savni
laydni 535, vivdddni 796 907. santhaviuZ44. vinicchayni 894, ganthni
912, parissayni 965. Perhaps mi/rdni u&$$ 18 7 is to be taken as a
masculine form. Cf. Dhp-a IV 29.5 (ad Dhp 328): porissaynt ti ... sabbe va
parissaye abhibhavitv and see WD, p. 83 (ad Dhp 82). For such endings in
the Atokan inscriptions see Hult2sch (1925, pp. Ixii and Ixxvi) and for BHS
see BHSG, $8.98. See EV It, p. 59 (ad ThI 13). For masculine nominative
plural forms in -ani see yni pakappitni 838, pariggahni 872. They seem
in origin to be Eastern forms, for which see the note on 7.
For parissaya see the note on 42.

I. Uragavagga

67

There is resolution of the first two syllables of a b h tb h u y y a in p5da c.


46. Pj I I 9 4 0 - y a th p a l ir j v ijita m ro tth a m a n a tth a - v a h a n t i n o tv
r a j ja m

p a h y a . a th a v

r j

va

r a tth a n

ti

y a th

vijitarattha m p a h y a e k o c a r i y a th c a M a h ja n a k o .

S u to s o m o

r j

Dbp-a IV 29.1t (ad

Dhp 329): r a tfh o m h it v r a j ja t o r j is i v iy a isa m v u lia tn h o t i: y a t h


v ijir a b h m ip p a d eso r j " id a m r a jja m n m a m a h a n ta m p a m d a n h n a m ,

1151.9$ (ad Vjn 1


350.10*) gives Mahjanaka and Arindama as examples, so there is no idea of
conquest there. Ps IV 206.10 (ad M III 154.23*) agrees with $p, as does Ja UI
4S9.24' (ad4S8.2i*). We may assume then that v ijita m and r a tth a m are in
apposition, with v i jit a m simply meaning kingdom , with no idea of
conquest. So th" two meanings are "just as a hostile king (who has just
conquered a territory) gives it up (because it will do him no good), or like
Sutasoma.
kirn m e ra jjen a k r ite n n t i v ijita r a tth a m p a h y a . S p

47. Pj 11 95.S: a d d h p a sa m s m a e k a m s e n ' e v a thom zm t i vuttam h o ti. See


the note on 968.
Pj H 95.15 k u h a n o d im ic ch jT v a m v a jjc tv d h a m m en a sa m e n a a p p a n n a ta
b h o ja n a m

b h u n ja n t o

a n a v a jja b h o jt.
a b h v a io

ta tth a

ca

p a t ig h n u n a y a m

a n u p p d en to

Pj 11 164.16-19 (ad 88) explains : a n u m a tta ssa p i v a jja s s a

a n a v a jja t t

k o tth s a b h v e n a

ca

p a d a tt

s a tta tim s a

CPD (s.v. a n a v a jja )


suggests that the Skt equivalent a n o v a d y o z i s by haplology for on*
a v a v a d y a . For other possible examples o f haptography see the notes on 67
547 9>5 IM*- See also E V I. pp. 215.230 and 291 (ad Th 602 739 1220) and
EV Ik p. 168 (ad TW 476).

b o d h a p a k k h ty a d h a m m a - s a m k h a t n i a n o v o p a t n i.

Pda a is Jagad; pSdas bed are Tri$tubh.


48. Pj II 95.21 foil, tells the story of a king in whose presence a servant girl
was grinding g o s is a c a n d o n a . On one arm she bad one bracelet and on the
other two. The single bracelet was silent, the pair clashed together
( s a m g h a tt a n t i) . When there were many on one arm. t e s a m g h a tta n t
m ah sodd am ja n a y im su (95.31). There is a similar story at Ja III 377-78. and
in the Jain literature (see Erz. p. 48).
Ap 9.99 (s 11:22) reads s a m g h a t t a m n n r Nidd li N* 275.7* reads
s o m g h a tta y o n t n i, and in the explanation includes the forms s a m g h a tte n ti
and s a m g h a tte n t . presumably reading an - e class verb, although F.e of
Nidd II punctuates as s a in g h a tta -y a n t and is followed by PED which lakes
so m g h o tta as bracelet . PED docs tl>e same for so m g h o tta n a (which should
be -) knocking together". The -a m n a form must be from g h a tto ti, which
is not quoted in PED. although it could be < - g h a tiy o ii, i.c. passive. PED
lists -iy u ti from Vv-a 139.16 and says it is passive, although the Vv*a index
suggests an active meaning and queries whether we should expect -e ti or

i6S

The Group of Discourses

yot (which is perhaps a mistake for -ayati). 1 suggest that -iyati is an


example of palatalisation < -ayati. For palatalisation see the note on 3. See
Norman (1985A, pp. 30-31 ).
49. Since this verse begins with evam, it is perhaps to be taken with 48. For
the variation -iyof-Tya in duttyena cf. 95 97 436 430 740 884 loox. See
Uklers (Beob., 187).
In pSda a we should read durfyena, with Nkld II N* 276,1% and sah m.c. For
sah cf. 738 890. The word also occurs with A in inscriptions! Pkt. Sec
Mehendale (1948. 164(b))
50-51. It is sometimes said that $una has no meaning in kmo-guna. It
actually means kinds of ... ". The same meaning is found in Skt (see MW.
$.v. guna). Although it is strictly speaking incorrect. I translate strands
o f... ", to give a word-play upon the other meaning "rope".
50. Pj II 99.3S-2*: vinlparpen ti vinlpenn rilpena, nekavidhena
sabhdvenO ti vuttan hod. Nidd II N* 278.). nnflvannehi rpehi. See EV I,
p.238 (ad'Hi 787).
Pda a is Jagatl; pidas bed are Tristubh.
51. Pj H too.rj: erf ti iti, dgantuknam akusobbhdgTnam vyasanahetfaam
etanf adhivacanam. This would sccnuo class as a folk etymology. For such
folk etymologies see the notes on 426 p. 124,7 707 7938x6 833 p. 2184t.
Mayrhofer (EWA 1 (s.v. iUH)} suggests a derivation from i~ to send, press
upon (present indicative inoli). For anUika sec the note on 1x37.
No one seems to have questioned the suggestion that Skt upodrova (> Pili
tipaddava) is based upon the verb dru- to run although (here seems to be
no trace of the basic meaning in its usages in either Skt or Pli. Doubt most,
however, arise about this derivation-in view of the existence of the AMg
compound t>hayo-ddmaf-dduya (Ult 18.9; 22.14). since druta exists in Skt
only in (he sense of running and allied meanings. All difficulties
disappear if we recognise here the root dm- to hurt, injure (Ski Dhtup
xxvii.33). Pli da porftdpe (Dhtup 521 ; DhStum 734). See also pariddavo
1052.1 suggest that we are (0 see the same root dru- in mitta-ddu 244, rather
than druh- as PD proposes. Doubtless druh- to hurt, seek to harm is the
same root with an extension h. For du- to harm see Ova. index s.v.
addavano, Uys p. 155 note 322; Panh. Introduction p. 53; and Schubring.
yrp. n o .
<9> 52. It is probable that k h u d a m shows dissimilation of aspirates <
* k h u d h a . Cf. a p ih d lu 852 ; p i h e i i 947 ; p u t t h o 9 13 ; ugghatta 980. and see
WD. p. 87 (ad Dhp 94). In s i r i m - there is perhaps assimilation of - a - > - - . For
the assimilation of vowels cf. u s u y y d (< a s y d ) 245 : u s y a k a 318 ;
n i n h u b h a i i f n u t i h u b h a i i : i k s t t > u c c h u ; i s u > u s u ; * o n i j - > o n o j See also

1. Uragavqgga

169

Geiger (1994. 16-17); Berger <1955* p. 52); Pischel (1900, 117)*. and
Schwanschild ( 196465 PP- 25- 30 In pda c we should read etn[i]' m.c.
55. Pj II 103.14-16: yaih c esa susanthitakkhandhaiya sanjtokkhandho.
kudssu nmham pi evam osesastlokkhandhamahonratdya sanjOtakkliandho bhaveyyom. For sanjlakkkandha cf. Ja UI U4.8*; Utl 11.19 jyakhamdha: and Erz 38.2 khandha-vasabhha. See PED (s.v. khandha), To
whom has grown bulk = a large back.
1 assume (hai abiuratila is the past participle of abhirom-, on the analogy
of kanfa, bhanla, etc.
For uldra see Berger ( 1955. P- 73 noie 144).
Nidd II N4 2? .15 : yaih so hanhindgo padumU paccekabuddho pi sattahi
bojjhangapupphehi padumT, sati- + sambojjhaAgapupphena. Pj II 103.17:
yath c' esa padumasadisagattatdya vd Padumakule uppannatya vd*
padumT, kudssu nmham pi evam padumasadisabojjhangamahantatdya
v ariyajdlipadume uppannatdya vd padumT bhaveyyam. MW, however,
gives padmin spotted (as an elephant)", and I follow this translation here.
See Vv 5.2, and Homer (1974, p. 8 note 4) quoting Edgerton: The name
really refers to the white spots, called 'lotus*, sometimes found on the
heads, etc., of elephants**.
The single kh- in -kJiandho is m.c.
54. Pj 1] 105.18-30: atthna tan ti, atihnam tarn, akranam tan ft* vultam
hoti anunsikassa topo koto "ariyasaccOna dassanan" ti disu viya. The
loss'of -i?f is m.c. to avoid the long third syllable (sec Pj (I p. 639). With
ro/igonitd-rarosja cf. saiiganike rota at Th 84.
Pj II 105.37 and Ap-a 182.21 stale that Adicca-bandhu is the name o f a
pacccka-buddha, and tell a story about him (see DPPN. s.v.). The epithet,
however, is used so commonly of the Buddha that I find it difficult to
believe that it does not apply to him here.
Pj II 1 0 5.21-16 : smayikam x-imuttin ti,okiyasampattim. sd hi
appitappitosamaye eva pocconikehi vimuccanoto smayik vimutti ti
vuceati tom smayikam vimuttim ouhiinon tam no tarn kronom vijjoti
saganikratassa yena kraijena phassaye**. fED (s.v. samayo) translates
samaya-vimutta as finally emancipated", which is incorrect as Hare (1934.
p. 131 noie 1) states. See CPD, s.v. a-samaya-vimutui, defined as "definitely
released". Ai $ I 120-21 there is the stoty-of Godhika, who six times
attained sthmyikani (so read for E* sauuhihika/n) eeto-vimuttim and fell away
again.

170

The Croup o f Discourses

55. Pj II 106.13: dillhiviskdnf ti dvilsatihi dinhigaidni tni hi magga*


sommditihiyd viruddhaitheno vijjhanattheno vitomonhena ca viskni l
ditthiviskAni, dnhiy evo vd viskni ditthhiskni.
Pj II 1 0 6 .17: patto niydman ti avinipdiadhamniatya sambodhipar&yanatya ca niyaiabhvam adhigto sammoitaniyamasamkhdtam vd
pathamamaggan ti.
Pj II 106.23-24: ananHaneyyo l. aiinehi "idam snccom. id am saccan li
anetabbo. Hare (1945. p. 9 note t) suggests that anaiiilaneyycrmeans that no
brahmanica! rite of upanayana is necessary.
In p2da a -I- in dinhl- is m.c. In p2da c single

in hdno is m.c.

56. On kasdva Pj II 10S.10 foil, quotes Vjbh 368.21 foil.: touha katame layo
kasdvd ? rgakasdvo dosakasvo mohakasdvo. ime tayo kasdvd. tatiha
katame apare pi tayo kasvq ? kyakasdvo vaclkasdvo manokasvo. ime
tayo kasdvd.
Pj II 108.4: parngunavinsanalakkhano makkho "hiding, covering up
another's good qualities".
Pj II 108.18: nirsayo - nittariho. See the note on 369:
In pSda b we should read nimmakkhd m.c.
57. Pj II 109,20-21 ; pasutan ti pasatatn, dinhivasena tauRa tatiha taggon ti
ditho. The equation of pasuta and posata suggests that they are indeed to
be taken together as being from prasrta. CL BHSE>. s.v. dhyna-prosrta
"gone forward, advanced in mediation. Cf. jhdna-pasuta in 709, and cf.
774 940 and Dhp 166 and 181.
<io> 5$. Skc artha is both masculine and neuter, but examples of the neuter
forms seem to be confined to the oldfcr language, and in later Ski it is only
masculine (see MW, s.v.). In P it is said to be both masculine and neuter
(PED, S.v.), but it is usually masculine, and it is possible that atthdni is an
example of the accusative plural of a masculine -a stem in -dm. See the note
0045*
Nidd II N* 295.7: kakham vineyya pativineyya pajaheyya vtnodeyya ...
gomeyya. Pj II 1 1 1.12: vineyya koAkhom vicikicchasp vinetvat v/ndse/vd.
Formally vineyya can be either, an optative or an afeolutive. Here either
interpretation is possible. See the note on 20-21.
In p5da c oiiildya - notvd (Pj II p. 649).
59. Nidd II N* 296.2 : nnotaAkoriivd anapekkho hulv pajahitva vinodefv
vyaniikariivd anobhdvam gametv. Pj II 112.3-7: analankaritvd "alati it
akatvd "etam tappakon ti vd sdrabhi(ian 1 vd evam agahetvd. forihc
sense of "content oneself with" (not in PED) for atamkaroii see CPD s.v.

I. Uragovagga

171

Thcic is resolution of the first syllable in pida b. The Tristubh metre of


pda c is incorrect, as Smith (Pj II p. 765, s.v. vibhsanatthna) points out.
(t can be corrected by reading vibhsan[ithOnd]. Nidd 11 Nc 295.17* reads
vibhsa-tthnd, and this is (he reading o f Be. This gives a long thi.rd
syllable and a redundant eighth syllabic. I translate vibhsand.
60. Pj II 1 12.29-113.1 : bandtiavni li, ndiibandhu-gattabandhu-mitta'
bandhu-sippabandhu-vasena catubbtdhabandhave. PED gives kma as
both masculine and neuter. The cty does not gloss here, but in 771 kdmdni
is lacked up by re, and the cty includes kme in the explanation. For -dnt as
an masculine accusative plural ending in bondhavdni and kdmdni sec the
note on 45.
Pj n 113.1-2 : yathodhikni rr, saka-saka-odhi-vasena ihiini yeva.
Pdas ab are Jagad; cd are Tristubh.
61. Nidd U JF 299.1: 8a! ti vd balisam H vd Ornisam ti v tagganam li vS
bandhanam l vd palibodho ri vd pancann' etom kmagundnam
adhivacanam. Pj 11114.11-12: gaio eso li, assdam dassetv kaddhana
vaseria baliso, eso ti yadidam peftea k&magundi For gate there are the vv.lt.
gando and ganfho in Sn.-Ap 1 1.13 (= 11:35) reads kando and quotes the
vv.lL gando and gah0. but Be and Ne read gaio. Ap-a i 37.7 reads kaotfo in
the lemma, with gaio as a v.l.
For the labialisation of -a- > *u- after -m. in muilm see 321 385 539 SSr. and
cf.jdnemu 76 599 999, phussitagge 233, upavutlh 403, sammuccd 648, muta
7W,paUbuddha 772. muti 846, sommati 897 904 911, namasse/nu 995, and
see Norman (1976B and 1983C, p. 279) and WD, p. 89 (ad Dhp 105). See also
the note on 443.
The metre is Trtyubh. Pdas abc have a long third syllable. P5da b has only
ten syllables, but the metre can be corrected if we read dukkham for dukkham
amd assume that the short sixth and seventh syllables have contracted to a
single long syllabic. Cf. 62 6674 463-66490-503 662 Soo S03 840 846 870
8S3 906 90S 915 1047 1064 106S 1076 Ii03._5.ee Schubring (1910. p. 54).
Alsdorf (1962. p. i 33). and WD. p. 65 (ad Dhp t$2o).
In pda c -F- in muiimd is m.c.
62. Nidd n N6 299.16: yaili moccho jdlam bhmdtv pabh'mditv ddloyitvd
* carati. This confirms the reading as bhitv otbhetvd. and shows that va is
for iva. Ap 11.16 (- II :3b). however, reads pahUvd, with the w it. i-n bhitvd
and ca hitvd. For the calva alternation see the note on 38 For the plv
alternation see snpdna/suvfino 30 1 : pipatam 398 : hupeyya. polfipa,
piipanni (see PED Is.vv.)): vrisdlp&risd (Ja VI 5 3 5 .n * ): and
k/iojjoponaka. For the last see Norman (965. p. 115). although Charpcmicr
rejects it (1933 p. 62). If Skt kalakiita is the original form of the word, then

172

The C ro u p o f Discourses

tlaputa U a back-formation from Pkt tiiio[v)uda < *tlakta (with k- > tby dissimilation). Cf. pdpurana as a back-formation from pdvurana.
For the r/l alternation in samddlayitvti see the note on 29. Ap 11.15 (3 11:36)
reads samdlayit\'na.
Pada a has only ten syllables, and doubtless the readings pa- and somdlayitvna are attempts to correct the metre. Cf. 74. Without na there is
the substitution of a long syllable for the short sixth and seventh syllables.
See the note on 6t. With -no we have the break
63. Pj II 116.5-3 : na ca pddalolo li, ekasso dutiyo dvinnam tatiyo li evam
gqnamakkham povisimkdmotdya kanddyanidnapado viya abhavanto,
dfghacdriko-anovai/hocdrikavirato v. Pj II 1 ! 6.11-13 onavassuto ft.
imdya patipdtiyd lesu testi drammanesu kil m
a-anvssavavirahito. Ps V
27.25 : anavassuto ti, rdga-avassavena anavossuto.
For the form of mdnasdno see Burrow (1955, p. 153).
There is resolution of the first syllable in pSda c.
64. Nidd II Ne 307.5: sadchannapatto yathd pdricchattako ti.yathd so
pdricchaffa&o kovildro bahalapattapaUso sanaacchyo, evam ev so
paccekabuddho paripunnapattacivarodharo si, sanchannapatti yathd
pdricchattako. Pj II 1 t6.ts foil, does not comment 'n sanehannapatfo, but
it relates a story about a king who plucks flowers frm a tree which is pattasahehanna and pupphdlamkatavitapa. All his followers do likewise, so
that the tree becomes nippattapuppho. The king notes that this has
happened (cf. the story in Erz. pp. 54-55). but als&secs that another tree
which is opupphitarukkha and sadchannapaisa, has not been ravaged. He
deduces that it is because it is apupphita. tosmd, ytiva idom pi ayam mkkho
viya na viluppoti (Ap-a 1 9 2 . 4 reads vilumpati), tJva ayam ondo
sadchannapatto yathd pdricchattako evam kdsdyena sadchonnena hutvd
pabbajitabbam (Ap-a 192.5 reads sadchonno hntvdrpabbajeyyam\ Ap 9.12
(= ll:i 8) and 11.24 1= 11:33] readsanchinna-).
It is clear, therefore, that both dies are reading satichonno* and they are
taking sadchannepatta as though it were the same as patta-sadchanno,
which is questionable. It is also clear that they are taking the simile in pSda
b with kdsdyovattho in pSda c. rather than wiiK hdrayitvd in p&la a,
although we should have expected the latter since ;l is then parallel to the
structure of 44.*Since Mvu I 358.6* reads sa/nJtrnopatro yatha pdfipoiro.il
is clear that the BHS tradition differed from the Pali tradition about this.
Since the cties are explaining sanchonnn-, it is clear that we should read
this with the w .ll. as the lectio difficilior. It seems-possible both to read
sadehanna- and to find a meaning which agrees with BHS saipiirna i f we
assume that chonna is to be derived from Ski sanna fallen, decayed,
withered. etc.** from sod-, with the change of / > ch-. cf. chakanaJchakana <

I. Urogavagga

173

fakati. chapaka < ivapaka (Alsdorf. 1974. p. 13 noie 2). chava < sava ;
chpa < i&vo. chepp < itpa ; chcka < Seka. See also Geiger (1994. $40.1 )
and Fischet (1900, 211). For the suggestion that chadda also shows this
change, see the note on 372.
The reading sanchinna- may be a genuine remembrance on the part of the
commcntarial tradition that sanchanna- did not mean covered*, but it is
more likely to have been influenced by 44. Here too ch could be < i-. Ap
9.13 (s II: 18) and 11,14 (s 11:38) read sanchinna- in Ec. but Bc reads
saiichonna- in the second context. The text in Ap-a reads sanchinna- in
both contexts, but records the w.ll. sanisfna- for the fusi, and sohehannafor the second.
The compound also occurs in the introductory story of Phaladyakavim5na
* Vv VI.3 (a Vv a 288.3 t) where a gardener produces mangoes by forced
measures : atnbarukkhamlesu pamsum opanetvd tdisam pamsum akiri,
ldisaii ca udakam Bsinci, yalh na cirass' eva ombarukkhd sahehinnna-*
patt ahesum. Since this is the stage before the mangoes fruited, it seems
unlikely that this can mean with leaves fallen off", although one of the
w.ll. {samsTsena pond ; samsinno-) would support this. PHD suggests that
it is (he sense of sanchanna-, although as already mentioned this would be
a strange compound.
In p5da a vy- in -tyonjanni docs not make position. In pirkhatto single
C- is m.c.
65. Pj II 1 18.10-11 : onannaposi ti pasctobbakasaddhmhnkdivirahito,
kyosandhdranomancna santuttho ti vuttom hoti.
Pj II 118.18-30: sapaddnacOrl ti avpkkommacBri anupubbaerf, gharapap&tim acchaddctv oddhakulan ca doliddakutaii ca nirantaram
pindya pavisamttm It attlto. See also Jones (MvuTisl.. I p. 250 note 2). EV
I. p. 2(2 (ad Th 579). and BHSD (s.v. svadna). The object of this method
of begging would seem 10 bc to ensure that every family had a chance to
gain merit, or perhaps to stop monks from going straight 10 houses where
they knew they could gel good food. Cf- sapadflhon caromno in 413.
Pj II 118.to : kale Lute appoiibaddhacitto tt khaiiiyakuldisii yaithtt
katthaci kilesavatcna ulaggacitto, condnpamp^ni-----ivako htitvA ti attho.
66. Pj II 1 19.3-4: ui*ikkil<st ti upagamma ittam vibdhente akitsalatlhommc.
Nidd II B* 294.13* reads c h c lr a m.c.. which goes well with sin-. Pj II 119.9
reads n tc/tti-, winch would nuke the final syllabic of c h e t v o long, even if
there were no This would give a pda with a tong syllable replacing
short sixth and seventh syllables Sec the note o n d i. A p 11.13 (*= ll:< 0 )
reads **/ in place of si nr ha-. For the alternation sin-/tn- sec l.iidcfs
(Itcob.. 186). and cf. 209

*74

The Croup o f Discourses

P3da a is Jagati; p5das bed are Tristubh.


In pida b
in upakkUese is m.c.
67. Pj II 1 19.17-120.1: pubbe va pathamajjhm'ipacdrabhmiyant yeva
dukkham tatiyajjhnpacdrabhmiyan ca sukhan ti cJhippdyo, pur.a
dito eruttati ca-kram parato netv sontanassa-domanassan ca vpinhi
katvdna. The metre requires somana-, which E* reads, but Ap I 2 j (311:41)
reads somanassam domanassam, omitting co. CPD (s.v. acchodaka) calls
this haplotogy (set the note on 47), quoting Sadd 632.25.
In p5da a -kh- in dukhn/S is m.c. In pSda b we should read cd me.
6S'. Pda a is Jagati; podas bed are Tri$tubh.
There is resolution of the first syllabic in p5da c.
< u > 69. It would be possible to take sammasild as an agent noun in -tar,
constructed with a direct bbjfect in the accusative, which can be paralleled
elsewhere, e.g. kotham katt Itoti, M III 1 1 1.15 * A IV 233.35 ; bhayqm
aponudit, D 111 148.3; rakkhvarajia-guttim samvidhi, D 111 148.1;
vdcam bhdsttd, D III 175.7; sakaparisom ubbejeld, A II 109,11 ; aile asse
ubbejet, A IV 189.1. It is, however, perhaps more likely that sammasit is
an example of an absolutive in -rd. The ending ,-rd is probably m.c see
Nonpan (198 5A, p. 32)and cf. parivqjjayitd in 537, and paccuggat (Ja V|
5/.20*. probably in.c. quoieJ by vuu HhtObci (Oberblick 498]). For aii
absolutive in -rd after the verbs abhijdndti and sarati, see von Hinber
1972. pp. 136-37. For the absolutive upapajjir at D I 143.13 see von
Hinber 1994. p. 161.
For a/wdhammaerin see EV 1. p . 187 (ad Th 372 (373 in the index is
incorrect)). Pj 11123.15-17: tattha dhammnam niccam anudhommacdrl**ti
vanabbe gdthdbandhasukhattham vibhattivyattayena "dhammes" ti
vuttam siy. For other examples of features introduced gthbondhasukholiham see the notes on 73 156 181-82 398. Cf. 537.
With aridcamdno cf. na rincati in 1 5 6 -5 7 . Ap 12.9 (a II.43) reads

paiisaltna-jhnam.

There is resolution of the first syllable in p3da a.


70. Pj U 124.10-11: anetamQgo ti aldtdrqukho, atha vd anelo ca omgo ca,
pandito vyatto ti vuttam hott. See CPD II. p. 667, s.v. eiamQga, LOdcrs
(B<ob.. 47). Mehendale (1955-56A. pp. 58-66). and BHSD, s.w. edomta,
edokxtmka. Cf. also Skt lex. eda-miika.
Pj II i 24.13-14: samkhdiadhammo ti dhammiipaparikkhdya panhniita
dhummo.
PSdas abd are Tri$lubh; pda c is Jagati.

I. (Jragavogga

175

In pda a wc should read patthayam for patthayam ro.e. In pda b *r* In


satlmd is me.
<I2> 71. There is a v.l. almpamdno, which is (he reading of Ap 12.19 (=
H:45 >There is resolution of the first syllable in pda c.
72. Pj II 127.1S-.19: pasayha obhibhuyyd ti ubhayam Cri-saddena saha
yojetabbom: pasayhacri abhibhuyyacdrf t i Hendriksen (1944. p. 157) has
discussed (he formation of this type of compound with an absoluve as the
first member, and has shown that they should be interpreted as having
developed from combinations of absolutive and verb-form. e.g. viceyyadnam < vieeyya ddnam dadti. For other examples see nipocca-vddf 217.
somkheyya-kdro 351 . abhibhuyya-cdrt467. paticca-samuppdda- 653, and
perhaps atlsaromditthi 889. See also adhiccpattika. etc., anmantaera
"going for alms without asking permission", Vjn I 254.9 A III 259.1. aveccapasdda, niggayha-vdin.nipacc-kdra. nibbindiya-krin, nixamma-krin,
nisanima-kiriy, sokkacca-krin, sakkacca-dni. viceyya-pekkhitar (D III
(67.9). vineyyo-pekkhitar, vivicea-sayana (Dhp 271, sec GDhp 65). The
construction is also found in Pkt. e.g. asamikkhiya-krin (PSM s.v.), and
3 HS, e.g. prattiya-samntpda, samlksya-krin (QHSD s.gv). It is also found
in Classical Skt. e.g. vigrhya-gamano, -ydna -vda, sambhsd,- -dsana
(MW s.vv.). For a discussion of syntactical compounds, see Norman (1991 A,
pp. 3 -9 ) and WO. p. 67 (ad Dhp 24).
In pda a -c- in -dfha- is probably m.c. Cf. dthd in 548. and see Laders
(Bcob.. 204).
In pda c I take sevetha to be the third person single middle optative (see
Geiger. 1594. Su?)73. The usual order of the four brahma viltras is metta, karun. mudit
and upekhd. Pj II 128.10-ia notes: gdthboudhasukhoitham pana
uppatiptix meiiant vatv upekhd vuttd muditd ca pacch. For other
examples of features introduced gdihdbandhosukhatiham see the note on

ln pda c we should read foken[a\ m.c.


74. Ap 12.10 (s II:4S) reads sanddlayitvdno Without na there is the
substitution of a long syllable for the short sixth and seventh syllables.
With na we have the break . Cf. 62. Sec the:note on 61
For the r/f alternation in samilOUtyiivd see the note on 29.
For the ten sani xojanni see A V 17.6.
75. Pj II 130 .17 : kiirannm atiho ctesan ti kdranatthd. i.e. kutonatthd is
being taken as a nominative plural form in agreement with the subject o f

176

The Croup of" Discourses

bhajanti and sevanti having a motive as their aim . It could, however, also
be taken as a dative of purpose with the truncated ending - for -dya. See
the notes on 119 and 916.
PjH 130.JJ-13J.j: aitani thit etesam pann. attnam y^\'a ofokenti na
addon it ottatthapann ; dnhatthapai ti ayam pi J!rira pornopdfho.
sampQti dinhc ra a:the etesam pann na dyaiim pekkhantt ti vitttam noti.
The v.l. would presumably mean "wise as to Ute advantage they have seen
pp. I2.jj-i6.it. Jayawtckrama discusses the KasibhSradvSja-sutta (UCR VII!.
2, pp. 92-95)* He points out that 76-80 are Sloka and 81-82 are Tristubh.
vyhich suggests that originally the two sets of verses were separate. He
classes it with the Dhaniya-sulta (28-34) as a pastoral ballad. A large part of
the sutta also occurs at $ I 1720-17344.
p. 12^4. For the use of Maggdhd in the plural in Sia and Pli in the sense of
the inhabitants of Magadho* see MW (s.v. magadho) and EV 1, p. 165 (ad
Th2oS). Pj I! 134.15-19 explains (hat the words evam me sutaq1, etc., were
uttered by nanda pnihamamahdsaAgHikle. See the note on p. 18.7-125.
p. 13.1. In the phrase etad avoca, -d is'doubtless a fossilised remnant of the
historically correct form. Cf. pp. 15.17 21.17.14 480.8 50.1908 54.17 60.3 7&S 790
8d.j 86.6 87.192393.6.10101 I03oj.i610400 t084.j240A.12.t9 t25.1f140.16
14'i.iu 142.1* 143.3 143.1714306 I.&.I3/44.J* 1450 I45.*0|46^ 146.19 147*
147.15148.16. See also tad anuttaram pp. 16.I l i2o . tad imgha 83 862 S75
1052.tadamind 137. yad dkamkhasi pp. 32.94S.18.yod aggato 2 17. y ad
ajjhagd 225. yad atlhi 231. yad anhamdno 240. etad hu 274 . rad
amaddisttm 286. tad upgamum 302. (od altlitkarvdna 317.3-// atthiyam
35I.etad abravi430. etad ohosi pp. 92J93494.11 I08j.yad akkhdlam 595.
yad idem Ti l 831. tad ariy 758 76ibd. yad icchasi 766. yad attagarohi
778. tod akubbomno 778. yad ottni784 797. yad uttarimkuntte 796. tad
T797. etad oriytinam822. yad dvilattam 967. Although yad antagd (458)
appears to be a masculine nominative singular in -d, it is rather to be
punctuated a^ ya-d-antag where ya is shortened .< yo m.c.. and -d- is a
sandhi consonant. The form, with Final -d is sometimes used for the
feminine accusative. e.g. etad eva ... dhammim kotham karott. O It 91.6 =
94.16.
It is doubtless used as an archaism by Buddhaghosa. e.g. yad eva.
Vhm 192.13: tad etam. Vism 243*18. For sandhi </- see the note on p. 16.7.
p. 13,17. Thcciy does not gloss pdcono here, but Pj II 147.11-11 tad 77)
slates : pajelt lend n pdjanam, tout idha pdeottan ti vnecati, patodass
etam adhivaconam. For the e/J alternation see ydcayogu p. 87.2. viceyya 324.
dracayrucoy 673. ja va 945. Cf. Luders (8eob.. 140). Norman ( 1970.
p. 34 norc 21). and WO. p. 72 (ad Dhp44^45).

I. Uragavagga

17?

76. For patijnti in the sense of profess to be, claim 10 be with a


nominative (not in PED), cf. sambuddho patijnsi 555 (= Thag 825). 1
should have listed this in EV I index with an asterisk. Cf. 135 555. Cf. For
the meaning lay claim to with an accusative (not in PED), cf. so pi
sobbannutairt paccannsi, Pj II 423 . io. jj. ij .
Geiger (1994, 128) lists the ending -emu only from vasemu and viharemu
besides jnemu. Jayawickrama explains it as mu (here ntc.) < -mo < -mas,
but there are difficulties in this, in that one would not expect the optative
to have the primary ending. Geiger does not quote it for the indicative,
where one would expect the primary ending. It is therefore possible that we
have hete an example of labialisation of -e* > -u- after -m- (see Norman,
1976B, p. 45). The same explanation would well suit the only example
Geiger quo^s (1994, 124) of -mu in the imperative, viz. rfd/emu, since this
not only has the -m- of the suffix, but it also followed by the word maccuno
(Thag 1146). For other examples of labialisation see the note on 61 . 1 do not
know if it is significant that these forms in -mu seem to occur only after -e(cither optative or causative). Cf. jdnemu 599 999, namassemu 995 .
77. Pj 11147.11: pjeti tend ti pjanam, tom idha pdconon ri vuccati. For the
d j alternation in pacana (s pdjona < Ski prdjano) scc the ootc on p. 13.17.
Pj I! 147.1-4: yoltan ti rajju-bandhanam, tan trvidham: tsdya saha
yugasso bondhanam, yugena saha bolivoddtim bandhanom, sdrathind
salta bolivaddnam bandkanan ti.
<I4> 78. Pj II 148.14-16: niddnan ti chedapam tunanam uppdtanam,
karanovaconotthe c* etam upnyagavaconam veditabbam, ayom hi eirha
ottho : saccena karomi niddnan ti. athavd niddnan ti chedakam lavakam
uppAtakan ti attha, evam sante, yathd tvom d&sam v kammakaram vd
nidddnam kdresi niddehi linni** li tinnam chedakam lovokcm uppto
kam karosi, evam oham saccam horomi ti upayogavacanen ' eva vaitum
yajjati. CD1AL 7543 quotes a Bengali form derived from *nidna with the
sense of weeding hook", and that dearly is the sense required here.
79. Pj II I49.1t->! : viriyatn me dlturadharayhan ti etllto vriyon ti "kykn
c cetasiko v viriyarambho" ri ditiA nayeno- vuttopadhnom dhttrayam
dliorayhom, dhuram rahaiT ti attha. Dhp-a III 272.9 (ad Dhp 20$) explains:
arahatia-ppanasamkhAiya dhuravahonasTIStya dhorayha-silatn. As
Brough has pointed out (1962, p. 236), (he etymology given in PED (<
mdhor-vayha < Skt 'dhaurvahya. abstract from dfturvaho) is unlikely. It
seems dear that the better reading is the v.l. dhoreyya (< Skt (lex.)
dhaureya) found in Pj It. with -ttyha replacing -eyya under the influence of
such future passive participles as vay!ta and say ha, helped by the
traditional connection with vah . Cf. AMg dhoreya-sila (Uu 14.35).
For yagokkhemo see EV I. p. 128 (ad Th 32).

178.

The Group o f Discourses

In pSda a we can either ignore the svarabhakti vowel in viriyam. or assume


resolution of the firn syllable.
So. Pj U 15 1.7: amatati vuccaii nibbdnam. Pj II 252.3 : maranbhvena
panltatthena vd omatr.m. I translate amala death-free**, by which I mean
that which is free from death, i.e. the state.where there is no death. Cf-p. 14.1
204 635 960. In 453 amata has a different meaning.
In amata-pphal the doubling of -pph- is m.c.
p. 14.10. Pj II 151.23: voddhetv ti chupitvS kiritv li vutiom boti. For
chitpati in the sense of to drop, to throw (not in PED). cf. kese va cchamam
chupi Sumedb (ThT 514) and seeCDIAL 5055. PED (s.v. vaddhoti) gives the
meanings to get ready, arrange, serve in** (with ref. to food), but it seems
clear that the meaning must be to heap up.
p. 1413. For amara see the note on 80.
81-82. These verses are identical with 480-81. The metre is Trisrubh.
81. Pj U 151 .31-33 : glh&bhigTian ti gtbhi abbigliarli. gthSyo bbsitv

laddhon li vittiam hoii. The verses rccur-at S I i 68,h *-29s = i73?*-i4*. but
Spk makes* no comment It is clear that Pj II is taking the verse to mean It is
not right for me to obtain food as a reward Tot the teaching I have given
That.ihis interpretation*.!; old: is shown by the fact that at Mil 228-29
Milinda asks NSgasena to explain bow it \ta$ that, although the Buddha bad
said this, his disciples had eaten food given as a result of a dnakath
which the Buddha had preached. This then leads to a discussion about the
propriety o f bhikkhus making allusions, as opposed 10 standing silently
wailing for alms. CPD (s.v. abbiglia) suggests that the correct way to take
this verse is to assume that abbiglia really means spoken over with
mantras". It would seem that this is the correct interpretation, for if we
consider the parallel version of this sutta in S, we find that what is.offered
to the Buddha is not called pydso. but havya-sesa, over which, of course.
(Vedic) mantras would have been recited.
For the sandhi -r~ in vutii-r-s see the note on 29. There is a v.L yuubd*
esd. For sandhi -d- see the note on p. lb.?. For the dir alternation see
vidit-fv.l virit- 250. pandiiam/panuritant 483, satthu-d-anvayohauhu-rnvayo 556, varabbuivadanna p. 87.3, nidassati/nirossoli 78 s 9 5 4 .
dusitofrusito y32 971. -dassefv.i. rase 1134. Cf. also the numerals in
dasabrosa, and forms in -disabrisa (< -drSa) (Geiger. $43.1 ; Pischct.
245): Cf. srkkho in 918. Brough (1962. pp. 255-56) quotes G 3ndh3rf
ramabi (= damahi, see WD. p. 135 (ad Dhp 305)) and proverayadi (=
praverayali), and refers to Skt raksah (s daksah and BHS attovorgra (cf.
Pkt anavadagga). The same alternation may perhaps be seen in GSndhlri
ruyida (cf. Skt rucira). See Brough (1962. p. 266). Bolide (1973, p. 602)

]. Uragavagga

179

quotes dumya/rumya Ja II 383.14' ar>d dumminfrummin Ja IV 322.1 VI


194.9** and suggests that ibe w.H. iherl ti and te rindi at TW 265 perhaps
hide te riti ( diti < rti)- From Pili we may also quote purimdoda (=
puramdora) D II 260.i*; urlhavam (cf. BHS uddha) Ja VI 488.3*'
porakkonta (= padakkanta) Ja VI 560.13' ; ussdana (vj. ussrana) A Hl
9t.11.14 92.7; uss&dtti(= ussreti)D 111 128.31; russitv for dussina at Pj II
121 ,\y%pasdrenti (w.ll. -denti,-dhenti) Ja VI 214^0*215.9*; ogha-trinam
(v.l. tOdinam) Ud 93.35* ; vadonAuN. 1. varannu It-a D 57.38. Pischcl quotes
Pkt urdla (Skt udra), ordUyafoudrika, karaiifkadaU. gaggara!
gadgada. We may also quote nisrana (< nisdana) Ult 18.42. It seems
clear (hat there is need to revise Broughs statement (1962, p. 229) that the
appearance of -r- for *d- is extremely rare in MIA.
In p3da d -f in sati, which is the locative singular of (he present participle
of the verb as Mto be", is m.c
S s .P jll 153.9-10 says : kevalinan ti sobbagunaparipunnam sabbayogavisamyuttam va. Pj II 415.18 (ad 490) states: kevalino ti parinitthitakiccd. Pj
11427.27 (ad 519) states: parinitthitakiecatya kcvali. Pj n 463.15 (ad 595)
states : kevalino ti nitthamgata. Nkk) I 286.8 (ad 878) states : akevalf so
asamatto aparpunno bino nihTno omako lOmok jatukko parato- Spk 11
276.32 (aid S III 59.34) States: kevalino ti sakalino ktasabbakiccd. Mp III
i2jo (ad A H949): kevali ti sakalagunasamanngato * Ps 111396.16 (adM fl
144.14). Mp V 3.33 (ad A V 16.14): kevatT ti kxvatehi sokalehi gttnehi
sdmanndgato. There is also a usage with the genitive case which seems to
differ from this, e.g. Mp III 31.7: brohmacariyassa kevali ti sakobbrahmaeariyo. This presumably means "possessing the whole of ..." The same
phrase occurs at Th 679 and is given an alternative explanation at Th-a III
5.30 foil.: atha v kevolf ndma kitesehi asammissatdya magga-nnam
phab-ndnam ca tarn imasmm atthT ri, kevali. yasmd pana tad-ubltayom pi
nujggObrahmacaryassa vasena Moti na aiiatha. tasm brahmacoriyosso
kevali. This seems 10 be taking -cariyossa as a genitive (or possibly an old
ablative: *ossa < ossa < -asmOi) of cause. It is interesting that the first
part of the explanation seems 10 be explaining kevalin as "possessor of
koowedge", which is very close to the lain concept of kevalin as "one who
possesses kevala knowledge, i.c. omniscient". In view of the amount of
technical vocabulary which the Buddhists and- Jains have in common,
possibly borrowed from a third, earlier, source. I see no reason to doubt that
this was the original meaning of kevalin in Buddhism, and it was later
forgotten or changed, just as it occurs with a changed meaning in the later
BhSgavata-purana: "devoted to the doctrine of the absolute unity of
spirit", i.e. a meditative ascetic (sec MW. s.v.). For. the possible connection
between the Buddhist and Jain usages of the word kevalin. see Hajimc
Nakamura (1983. p. 318).

i8o

The Group o f Discourses

Nidd 1 218.7 (ad 850) 375J (ad925)a 501.29 (ad 972) and Nidd !1 Ne 166.11
(ad 2106) explain: hottha-kukkuccam pi kukkuccam,pdda-kukkuccam pi
kukkuccam, hattha-pdda-kukkuccam pi kukkuccam, kappiye akappiyasahnit, akappiye kappiya-sannitS, ovajje vajja-sahiUtd, vajje avajjasannit, evardpam kukkuccam kukkuccyan kukkuccdyitattam, cetaso
vippatisdro manivilekho ; idam vuccoti kukkuccam. api ca dvihi kdranehi
uppajjatt kukkuccam cetaso vippatisdro manovUckho katattd ca
akattattd ca. The word, then, means both the evil deed and the remorse or
worry which the deed causes. Pj II 153.12-1) (ad 82) slates hatthapddakukkucca-m-dim katvd vpasantasabbakukkuccattd kuhkucca
irpasantam. Pj II 549.12 (ad 850) states: okukkuco ti hatthakpkkuccddi
virahito. Pj 0 564.19-20 (ad 925) and 574.S (ad 972) state: hotthakukhtccddim kukkucciyam. It seems clearythercfore, that Pj U prefers the idea
of evil deeds* in all contexts. In BHS only the idea of remorse is found,
according to Edgerton (BHSD (s.v. kaukrtyo)).

In pda a we should read cd m.c. In pSda b single -c- in &ttca- is m . Pj II


153.13 reads -cc- in the lemma.
<25>p. 15,1-1j . These lloes occur at S 1 168.30-169.12, with hayya-sesa
instead of pdydsa, and the name .Sundarikabhindvdja instead of
KasibhdradvSja.
p. 15.1. The cty does not Comment on dmm. The explanation given by PED
(s.v. daddti) is incorrect. The correct derivation is < Ski dadmi, a weak grade
equivalent of daddmi, quoted from MBh, etc.,! by MW (s.v. Jd-). A
comparable weak grade form can be seen in kummi (Ja VI 499.16*) < Skt
kurmi (see MW. s.v. kr-).
p. 15.2. There is a vj. khvhan for Xho hart, which is also the lemma in Pj II
153.21. Fbr the sandhi of o + o(CC>- > -0-, -vo(CC>- or -vd(CC)- see Norman
(1988, p. 9i)andclk/ud/uzm pp. 21.16 31.2s 324 484.13 ikhvassa 819; svdjja
998. and the suggestion of reading y' attdnam or yvattdnam for yo attdnam
in 810.
p. 154. For anatra in (he sense of except see 206 291765 886.
p. 5.7. For optidpehi see CPD, VoL U p .741, s.v. opil&peti.
p. 15,17. For historical d in etad avoca see the note on p. 13.10.
Pj II 155.6-8: abhikkontam bho Gotma abhikkantam bho Gotamd it
abbhanumodane hi ayam idha nbhikkanta-saddo, vtthrato pana
Morigafa-sutta-vonnondyam (= Pj 1 114.13 foil.; see MR! 124-25)atthavannand avibhavissati\ yasm ca abbhanumodanatthe, tasm sdhu
sdhu bho Gotama ti vuitam hoti ti vediiabbam.

1. Uragavagga

>8!

bhaye kodhe pasamsyam turite koiholocchare


hse soke pasde ca kart menditam budho ff
imin ca lakkhancna idha pasdavosena pasamsvasena cyam
dvikkhauum vutto ti veditabbo. For this definition of Smredita (found also
al$V228,ia*t Sp 170.15*, MplI 105.16*) see CPD. s.v. Smentita.
p. 15^9. Pj II 155.33 : mjfrass U dis-mfhassa.
p. 15^1. For the future dokkiiinff see the note on 28.
p. 15J3. For esa + ahant with a first person verb cf. esham pp. 24.22 86.u so
ham 190-91 and so aJtam 192. For other cases cf. tom mam425; tassa me
435 ; and cf. Nidd 1 182.27 no tassa hoff ti me mayham boti (ad 837). For the
plural usage cf. te mayam 180 $97 ete mayam p. 54^3 ; tesan ho 596. For esa
with a first person verb cf. esa pastdSmi 356. For so with-a second person
proooun and/or verb cf. so vihhisi, Ja 1 298,36* For the olural cf. tifom vo
600 and perhaps yesam vo 560. See also EV n, p. 63 (ad TM 24) and WD, p. 95
(ad Dhp 134).
<l6>p. 16.1. Pj II 157.7 foil, inserts: updsakam ntaijt bhavam,Cotamo
dhdreju ajjay-agge pnupetam saraAam gatam {- p. 25.2-3). R II 157.5-7:
ajja-t-agge ti, ajjatom dim karv, ajja-d-aggt vd dd-kro. padasandhilaro, ajja dim katv ti vuttam hoff. Sv 236.6.?ives- the same explanation,
ami suites, ajjuutn li ujju-bhOvwn. Since, however* in the v.1. -d- ts d c u l y
a saodhi consonant, it is very likely that
is-.also a sandhi consonant (cf.
tasm't'iha 460). This view is perhaps supported by the fact that the BHS
equivalents are adygre and adygrena (BHSD, s.w.), but adyd-agre also
occurs. This might support the suggcsu'on in CPD (s.v. ajjatagge) that
ajja-t-agge is for ajjato agge. but Edgerton suggests that *adya-d-agre
might have been secondarily reinterpreted as odyd-. The phrase also
occurs at pp. 25.3 55.J 123.15. For sandhi d- see Geiger (1994.1734 ). For
other examples see samma-d-eva p. 16.7, dipa-d-uitama 83 (so PED S.V. dvi
B.L4, but it'is better 10 derive it from dipada + uttama), ya-d-antag 458.
sanhu-d-onva}0 556. samma-d-eva p. 112.1. sam/na-d-annya 733743 749
765. See also ajja-d-agge at Pj II 157.6 (ad p. 16.1). See riso EV 1, pp. 19t and
278 (ad Th 406 1127) and add Udana-v 1 1.to to the examples given there.
For -d- as a fossilised remnant of an historical^ correct form see the note
onp. 13.10.
p. 16.3. For alattha see Geiger (1994. 159-111). See also p. 110.21. Cf.
alatiham 479.
p. 16.7. For sandhi d* in somma d eva sec the not? on p. 16.1.
p. 16J. For the historical -din tad onuttorom see ihe note on p. 13.10

i$2

The Croup o f Discourses

p. l6.ii. II 158.21-27: ndparant itthatty ti idni puna itthabhvfiya


evam-sojasa-kiccabhvya kiesakkhaydya v maggabhvan n attht ti
athav itthatty ti, itthabhdvato imasm evampakr idni vattamnd
khandha-santn aparam khandhasantnam n atthi, ime pana paco
kkhandh porinnt litthanli chinnamlako- rukkho viy ti abbhansi.
83-90. The metre of the Cuoda-sutta iS Aupacchandasaka, except foe 88a,
which is Vatillya (see the note on 88).
83. For the reciter's remarks see the note on 18-29.
Pj II 160.22-13: dipaduttaman ti dipoddnam uttamam. PED (s.v. dvi BJ.4)
prefers to divide dipa*d'Uttamom, taking -d- as a sandhi consonant but it is
better to follow the cty (see the note 00 p. 16.7). Pj II 161.14-15: ta-d-imghd
te imgha. The cty is therefore taking ta as m.c. for te them, referring to
tati samand, with -rf- as a sandhi consonant (see the note on p. 16.7). There
seems, however, to be no reason for rejecting the view that tad is a neuter
accusative (for the historical -d see the note on p. 13.10), tell me this".
Pj fl 161,1 : sdrathinam pavaran ti sretT ti srathi, hatthdamnkddinam
clam adhivacanartu lesaX ca Bhagav pvaro anutiarena damothena,
punsadamme dametum samatthabhdvato. Cf. purisadammasdratfii p. 1033.
For putta in the sense of a member of th family of ... and therefore
untranslatable here, since son of a smith means a smith*, see the notes
onl37 and 991 and EV I, pL 144 (adTh<M).
Smith's instruction (Pj II p. 683. s.v. kra).to compare kammra suggests
that be believed that kammra is to be derived < kammayra < kamakdra.
with the contraction of -yo- > -d-. See the note on p. 50.17. 1 see, however,
no reason to doubt the derivation < Skt karmra given in PED.
There is resolution of the peoultimate syllable in the cadence of pda c. We
should read -ssdmi. uttama and sdtaihina m.c. In pda d br- in brht does
not make position.
84. For the reciter's remarks see the note on 18-29.
In pida a (cf. 85a and 86d). the cty explains: maggajino ti maggenaf
sabbakilest vijitdvf ti astho (l62.7-t).The explanation given in 86, however
has no mentioo of "conquering**, but states chat the maggajino is tokdssa
sodevokassa netd. This seems more appropriate as the definition o f the
sauhavdho. as in Nidd 1 440ji(ad 955) where the Buddha is referred to as
netd, and also in 1 446.15, where he is called maggonnu. I accordingly take
maggajino as being derived from Skt mdrga-jna, with a svarabhakti vowel
(which is needed for scansion purposes), and I translate accordingly. For
the development of -jda to jina, see the note on samsuddhajino in 372 and
khcttO'jina in 523. It is possible that odhijina at Ps V 24.S (ad M III 119.10)
is also an example of (he derivation of -jina < -jdo (cf. Jain Ski avadhi

I. Uragavagga

183

jnna). Il is, however, noicwonhy that ihis derivation was unknown to the
BHS redactors, who back-formed the word as mrgayina. See BHSD (s.v.
mrga).
The syntax of magge jtvati in p5da d is strange, and although sense can be
made of it by understanding >0, this would not seem to be possible in 85.
Since the answer verse (88) has magga-jTvim, I would suggest, that the
original reading was magge-jTvt here and magge-jfvitn in 85 (with magge-.
i.e. a tatpurusa compound with tbe first element in the locative case, used
m.c.). These two forms were then confused with, and replaced by, magge
jtvati from 88, where it is correct and makes perfectly good sense, or from
the cty. This suggestion finds support in the'(present) irregular metre of
85c.
Pj II 162.12 : yo co maggadOst ti yo ca dussilo micchdifthi moggapatilomya pafipatityd maggassa dsako ri. attho. PED s translation
"highway robber" seems most inappropriate.
For sakkhiputtho see 12a.
<I7> 85. For the reciter's remarks sec the note od 28-29.
For -jina < -jfla see the note on 84. The reading -jjh&yi in. pSda b does not fit
in well with desako in 84, or -desim in.87. The cty does not comment upon
it There is a v.I. kkhyt in ES and this is the reading of Be, C^and SS In
view of the presence of the word akkhdli in the explanatory verse (87) there
can be no doubt that -kkhdyt and not -jjhyt is the correct reading, and I
translate this. In support of this is the reference to the Tathgata as maggakkhyt at M III 6.8 (quoted at Nidd I 33.6). The editors of Ee probably tead
-jjhyi as the lectio difficihor, but even if we derive magga-jjhyi from
mrga + adhyyin, it would still not have the required meaning "teacher of
the path, since MW (s.v.) quotes adhyyin only with the meaning
student.
The cty recognises the difficulty of the syntax of pSda c and explains:
magge jtvati me ti. yo so magge prati, tarn me-brlti putiho. This seems IO
be pushing Pli syntax to its limits. The fact* that (he metre is irregular,
however, strongly suggests that the pSda r ~ot in its original form. As it
stands it is an even pada. not an odd pSda. and a short syllable is missing
before brQhi. If. however, we read maggejtvim. for magge jTvoti as suggested
in the note on 84. and read mi mx., then the gSda becomes regular. The v.I.
jivata (Pj JI162 note 7), if < jtvontam, would make the syntax correct, but
would not help the metre. We could also read jiva(rri)ti orjivaim)ta{m).
Pj 11 167.5-6; v karomi li le cataro samane rqru pkaie karomi.
In pda b wc should read jjhyi and aluiyd m.c.

184

The Croup o f Discourses

86. Pj II 163.11-1): sadevakassa lokassa neta gamayit tarer pram


samppetd. Since (here is nothing in this vose to indicate why the ascetic
should be called a conqueror'*, it is possible that he is able to lead others
because he is a knower of the road.
Pj II 1 63,13: rditi ri tddisam yaihdvuitappakram tokadhammehi
nibbikran ri aiiho. For rditi cf. 154 an^sec EVI, pp. 131 and 271 (adTh<4l
1077) and EVII. p. 109 (ad ThI >49-50). LOdcrs (Beob.. 10$), de Jong (1974.
p. 69 note 8).
In pda b -d- in annugiddho is m.c.
$7-88. For the length of vowel in dutiyam and tatiyam see LQdcrs (Bcob.,
$ 187). We find tatiyam again in 95. In 49 we should read dutlyena m.c. It
would be possible to take bhikkhunam as a genitive plural with -k- m.c. in
both these verses, but PED takes it as accusative singular here and in 513.
The latter is also quoted by Geiger'(i994. 83). Since bhikkhunam is
certainly accusative angular in 513. it is probably the same here.
87. Pj II : 63.23-26: moggadhommam vibhajati : me cattro satipatthn
... pe ... ayam ariyo atthoAgiko mggo" l vipancilan/inam vitihra
desanya vibhajati.
Pj il 164.2-3' ejsamkhrya tonhya abhvato anejam. See also EV n.
p. 98 (ad ThP20S). A comparable explanation is given at Pj U 4t 14 (ad*477X
469.19(30 638), 508.3 (ad 751). Elsewhere, however, a connection with T/- to
move is indicated: Pj 113664 (ad 37z): anejo ti apagatotanhdealano; Pj
(1563.1617 (ad 920) explains: evani anejo khinOsavo tbhdisu thito ossa
avikampammy, Pj II 598.30 (ad X101) explains: anejan ti lokadhammesu
nikkompam. Nidd 1353.17 (ad 920) gives both explanations: cyd vuccati
tonha. yoss es ej lonh pohtn . . . . so vuccati onejo ... so tbhe pi na
injati. albhe pi na injati ... duk$he pi no ihjati na catari ... . A
comparable explanation is given at Nidd It N* 15643 fedi, (ad n o t ) and
174.18 foil, (ad 1112).
In p3da b we should read vibhajati m.c.
Pj II 163.30 includes kakhcchitfam in the lemma. Our text reads kanikhabefore the geminate <ch-. but we should read -cA- m.c.
8$. Pj II164.h<-12: nibbnadhommassa podott dhanunapade. PSda a is the
only pJda in this sulla which is not wholly in the Aupacchandasaka metre.
If. however, we divide *podesu desire*zthS supply <-su> to desire to agree
with padesu. we should have a regular Aupacchandasaka odd pda. This
would then include a locative absolute construction.
Pj II 164.iS states : saliaiiinsobodhappkkhyadhammasamkhtni anavojjapadni. For anavajjo see the note on 47.
In pda b *f- in satim is m.c.

I. Uragavogga

\Z$

89. Pj II 164.15-165^. chadanam katvni ti palirtipam karitvi vesam


gahetvi Ungarn dhretv li attho\ pakkhandl fi pakkhandako
aniopavisako ti attho ... aham pi bhikkhuT ti bhikkhumajjhe pakkhandati
Pj U 165,7-9: pagabbho li atfhaithnena kiya-pigabbhiyena catuiih&nena
vacipigabbhiyma anekatthnena manopgabbhiyena ca samannigoto.
The cty states that a longer explanation is given in the cty-on the
Mctiasutta (= Pj 1 242.6-243^).
PjII 165,11-16:palpasadisatti polipo, yathi hi polipo onto tondularahito pi bahi thusena vihi viya dissali, evam idh' ekacco onto
sUdigunosiravirahitfo pi bahi subbattacchadanena samanavesena
samano samano viya dissali, so evam palipasadisaiti pal&po ti vuccati.
PJ 11165.iS also quotes the sense of puthujjanakalynaka from the
upnasaitsuttt (M ni 80.4) and pardjitaka from the Kapilasutta (282). See
KV I, p. 293 (ad Th 1237).
Pj IT 165.5-6: eatunnam pi khattiy&dinam kulinam uppannam pasidam
anonurupapatipattiyi dBseti ti kuladQsako. Cf. Sp 6264 (ad Vtn III 185.1):
kulni dsttr ti kuladsako, dPsenio ca na asucikaddam&dihi ddseti, aiha
kho aitano duppatipattiyi tesom pas&dam viniseti. ten ev' assa pada
bhijanc pupphadintna \ti ti vuttam. Fox the four classes of family see Vjo
III 184-85; for kuiadsaka see Vin Hi 185,1. and for a discussion of the
definitions given in $p see Homer (BD I p. 325 notes 2-5). For dcfiler of
the way" FausboU compares Ja U 281 ,t ~io\ there this verse is quoted.
PED (s.v. patirpa) does not quote the meaning imitation, copy,
counterfeit**. Cf. 187.
In psda c we should read myvi m.c.
90. PEO quotes *vijjha for pativijjhi, but this is perhaps a misprint. Pj II
166.6-7: "yidiso ayam pacchi vutto maggadsl, ilare pi gabbe n' elidisi"
ti nnrvi. iti disvi evam ppam karontam pi etom ppobhikkhum disiti. The
cty seems to be taking n' as na knowing that they are not all the same
(as the maggodsi)". If we follow the punctuation as ne tddisd. then ite is
the accusative plural of the pronoun knowing them all to be such (as
they have just been described)**. In pda c Ppunctuate sabbe it* etddisd.
since the cty explanation seems to make it clear that thisis how it is to be
taken: evam imdyo g&th&ya tesam aiymissabpvam dipeliti ... (lja-is).
The reading of Ee sabbe ne fidisi would take AC.as the accusative plural of
the pronoun stem na. and mean knowing theft al) to be like this.
PED (s.v. hipeti) suggests reading hiyatt. but this scans no better than
hipeti. The metre requires hapeti. Although in Vo). I ! followed the cty and
accepted the reading hipeti in pda d. which i&explained as: na hipeti na
hiyati na nassati (Pj II 166.11). I now believe* that Coders* suggestion
(Bcob., p. 113 note 3) of na h operi (docs not go away*) is preferable, since

186

The Group o f Discounts

it avoids the difficulty of having to take the causative hpeti as an


intransitive (it is not so in 37), which seems unlikely, and by separating h'
apetl.il gives the common na hi (see the note on 28): his faith does not
disappear*. For saddh apeti see x 143,
An Aupacchandasaka verse with six pSdas is rare, and since the last two
pSdas do not seem to fit well with the rest, we may well conclude that (hey
were not originally part of the verse. There is a syncopated opening
- - - (for - - - - ) in psda e.
In pSda a we should scan eti m.c. In pSda b we should read riya- m.c. (see
Fj 11 p. 66t ). We should read dutthen' m.c. in p3da e, and snddham (i.e. -m >
w) and osuddHend m.c >n pida f.
<iS> p. 18.7-113. Jayawickrama discusses the ParSbhavasutta (UCR VII, 4,
pp. 249-51) and includes it in th category of suitas of a popular category.
The prose introduction is attributed to Ananda, but therSis no reference to
the parhamomahdsaAgTti. See th note on p. 12.21. The metre is Sloka, but
some o f the verses ( n x 1x3) are. hypermeine because dtf the difficulty of
fitting numerals into the metre.
p. 18.10. For the meaning (alntost) entire** for kevala-kappati cf Ski
a b hed ya -k o lp o almost im penetrable , prabhBia k alph n ea rly becom e

light-; approaching dawn*, mrta-kbipa Malmosl dead, apparently dead". See


MW (s.v. kalpaX For other meanings of kappa see (be notes on 16 3^-75.
9 1 . Pj li I 67.20: parbhavantam pdrihyantam vinassantam. Both
pardbhavantam and parbhavto are forms of the present participle of
parJbhii- " to perish, disappear, be lost, succumb, yield (see MW, s.v.). I
take it to be the opposite of bh- (cf. bhavam, the present participle of this
in 92) Mto thrive, or prosper, turn out well, succeed (MW, s.v.), ^nd so I
translate it unsuccessful. I take parbhavo to be the noun from this.
There is resolution of the first syllable in pda c.
92. Since bhavam (present participle) in p3da a is opposed to parbhavo in
pSda.b, it is probable' that the tatter is also a present participle. Bor such
forms in -o instead of -am see Geiger (1994, 97.2) andEV I. p. 136 (adTh
61). Since, however, we have the accusative plural parbhave in 1 15 , which
can only be a noun, it is. possible'that parbhavo bere is also a noun.
Pj II i68.ti-t>: itaro pi dhammadessi parbhavo tam eva dhammonj desiati
na piheti na pattheii na sundti no potipojjati. Since there is no historical
reason for *, we should rather expect desin < Skt dvesin and desati < Ski
*dvesati. Since there is no metrical reason for the forms,- we must conclude
that they are simply variants of the*VC/VCC alteraation.-See the note on 4.
Metrically, there is no reason why we should not read desin with the v.l.

I. Uragavogga

187

dhammakmo bhavam hoti dasakusalakommapathadhmmam kmeti piheti pattheii sunSti patipajjati.


Pj U

1 6 8 .8 - 1 0 :

94. Pj I] 169.6-8 slates rrwanfo nma cha SQtthro, ye vd pan arine pi


anupasanlena kyovacmanokammena samanndgat, te asanto ossa piy
honti.?} I I 16947-18 explains: asatam dhamm'o n&ma dvdsatthi ditthigatdni
daskusaakommapathd vd. Pj li 169.11-16: sante na kurute piyam ottano
piye itthe kante, mandpe na kurute ti attho, veneyyavasena h' ettha
vaeonabhedo kato ti veditabbo, atha vd sante no kurvte iti sante na sevat
ti attho, yathd **rjnam sevat ti etasmim attht*r)nam pakurute ti
saddavidQ manteli (cf. BhattikSvya Vili, 18 [Pinini 1.3,33)), piyan ti
piyam&no tussam&no moamdno ti attho. This seems to be talcing piyam as
a present participle, as PED (s.v. piydyati) notes. In Sanskrit we find priyam
kurute ugain the affection of, win as a friend This would entail taking
piyam with sante. Le. as an accusative plural. See Laders. (Beob., 205) and
the note on 35. Then kurute would have to be die equivalent of sevati.
95. For

dutiya see the note on 49-

<I9> 96. Id pSda d lam seems to refer to the statement io pdas abc. not to

y0. It is probable, therefore, that we should therefore translate yo here as the


equivalent of Latin si quis. See 98 zoo 104 x06 243 244 246 247 10841135
andEVU,p.122 (adThI2S2).
For anutfhtd cf. utthdtd 187. PED has placed paMUlno with this reference
under the wrong meaning. See the note on 1x3
97. For 'iya/ tya in tatiya see the note on 49.
98. For yo = Latin ri quis see the note on 96.
If pohu able" is from prabho. then we have an example o f bh > h
imervocalically to the root bhii-. C f pahSta in 102, and see the note on 124For the pfb alternation see LGdcrs (Bcob., 144-47 and p. 112 note 1), WD,
p. 99 (ad Dhp 149), and cf. p a b b o ja lb d h b a i a (Ja VI 508.1*) and
padardni/badardni (Ja V I 529 ai*).
There is resolution of the sixth syllable in p3da.a.
too. There is the v.l. vanibbakam for vonibbkam here and in 129. and the
variation nin suppotts the view that we have here an example of the
spontaneous retroflexion of -11-. which also b u n in the related vanij (see
Burrow [1972, p. 545)). BUS has vanipako, vadlpaia and vaniyaka, and AMg
has vonimaga and vanimaya (see BHSD. s.Vfvanipaka). AH the forms in
Pli. BHS and AMg can be derived from Ski vaniyaka mendicant, beggar ,
which is derivable from the verb vanfyoti to beg. ask for alms (Unadisdir. IV. 139) which is in turn to be derivedebbio iron- to wish, desire.
These forms are based upon a version of the word with the Eastern glide -v*
instead of -y~, i.e. *vanivnka. From this the BHS forms are derived by a

i88

The Group o f Discourses

hyper-form with -p- replacing -v- (see the note on 201). The.AMg forms
show the development of
This alternation is seen also in
sammuii/samvrti 648 897, mTmamsakal-vimamsaka (this may be due to
dissimilation of consonants) 827, java/cama 945, and possibly AMg
emeva < *ev' eva < evam eva (see the note on 1146). See WD, p. 109 (ad Dhp
183). Pali vanibboka shows the development -fy- > -Tv- > -/w* > -ibb- (cf.
pubba "pus < Skt pya). There are other examples of hyper-forms in 158
193 201. For other examples of the -y-/-v- alternation see pavecchati
(prayacchatt) 463-66 ; ddya (Skt d&v) 703 ; tathiyaftaihiva 882 ; vitdUa
(Skt yudha) 1008. For uka-uva in mdluv sec the note on 272. See also
Geiger (1994, 46) and WO, p. 70 (ad Dhp 40). For other Eastern features see
the'note on 7.
For other examples of spontaneous retroflexion, cf. gunth-131 ; anutihun586 $2T,papotd665. Burrow has discussed at length (1971, pp. 538-59) the
question of the spontaneous retroflexion of consonants in Sanskrit, Pili
and Prakrit. It is worth white noting that a number of the examples of the
change -n- > -n- occur after a palatal consonant, and it is probable that this
j$ the cause of the change, e.grJlafter ;) hna < jftna\jannuka <}nu\
(after f) sokuna < fakuna ; sanim and soiiikam < iana (cf. fanaih) ; sona (a
kind of tree) < syonaka ; sobfarta < Sobhana ; roJUu/i- < iakn- ; surta,
xpfinn i n i . tuvfiQ a, stip a rtftg < s v n n n : < (a m a n ti ; ch a k n n n -^ zn A

chakana) < fakan ; lasuna (and lasitna) < Infuna ; perhaps Ski Sana
hemp (cf. Pili sana) < Sana ; Skt fona red-< *iona. A different
explanation probably underlies junisd and sunh daughter-in-law < Ski
snuf. Here we must assume a development o f snusd > *sunsJ, with
metathesis of -n*. which then became retroflex in contact with -s-. With a
svarabhakti vowel we get sttis, with the change o f -s- > -h- and
metathesis (cf. snSna > nhn) we,get sunhd. For the retroflex -n- in
unnam- and onto see the note 00306.
Charpentier (1932, pp. 54-55) suggests that -n- arises after -<> , quoting Iona
< lavana (although here -a- s'already in the Skt form), {danta-)pona
tooth-cleaner < pavana, j0/to*(*basket < 0mavana < *mav to bind :
Skt onati < apa-Java-nayoti; Rl&onr/dafoni', onojeti, onata. onam-. It is
possible dial (he forms from ndm- may be due to analogy with panam- <
pranant-, while -n- in dqfonl
be due to the influence of palatal -i*. and
oni may have arisen by analogy with this. Mayrhofer (EWA 111 93) suggests
spontoncous retroflexion for lavppa. but it is possible that we have a form
dependent upon *ravona. as Charpentier suggests. Wright (in Turner (1966.
10978]) rejects this, and says it i*an MIA. version of lavano, although the
etymology of samudda < sama * tona given at Mil 85-86 is perhaps more
likely to have originally been samudra < samo *rotta < "ravana. Piti
lena < loyona may be due to spontaneous retroflexion, as may be Pali oni.

1.

Uragavaggo

189

Intervocalic - becomes retroflex in many dialects of MIA, so it would not


be surprising if we found retroflex forms in Pili, cither as spontaneous
developments in that dialect, or as borrowings from other dialects.
For yo = Latin si quis see the note on 96.
There is resolution of (he sixth syllable in pSda a.
102. Here pahto seems to stand for prabhta. so (hat we have another
example of intervocalic -bh- > -ft. (see the note on 9$). The v.1. battuta
seems to imply either a confusion with bahu or a derivation from bohu.
which has become obscured.
104. Pj 11 172,1-2: sen fttim atimonUat ri ottano tirn pi jdliyd
atimannati. There is a v.l. rum, but sam (< Skt sva) seems to be confirmed by
the gloss aitano. Wc could take sam and niim as accusaWe plural, since
the gloss includes iitayo. For -im as an accusative plural ending cf. 787.
For -am as an accusative plural ending sec the note on 35.
For >0 * Latin si quis see the note on 96.
Despite the text's atimaniieti. the ety reads--err in lemma and gloss.
According to Ec p. 19 note 10 all four Mss read -m . The ending -eti also
occurs in Ja VI 14.10*.
106. Despite the existence of Skt cksa-dhr&i,Qice-rogue, gambler'* (see
MW, s.v. aksa), dftutta here and in sondik-dhutta (M I 2280? 374+)
possibly differs from the diurno in iuhi and siird-*, and means shaker".
For yo = Latin si quis see the note on 96.
< 20 108. With sehi drehl cf. sthi dhammehi in 298.
We should read ddreh[i\ m.c. in pida a.
u o .P j l l t72.2.1-24 : tass iss na stipati l >daharya mahaliakcna
saddhim rati ca santvso ca amanpo, mS b' evo kho pana tarunam
pattheyyd" ri ssya tom rakkhonio na stipati. For -0 as the oblique case of
an -dstem see Geiger (1994, 81.1 ) and WD. p.^27 (ad Dhp 270). For other
examples of -3 as a truncated singular oblique case ending sec kamyatd 121,
vdeo 130 214 232, vyftrosan, -saiin 148, sussuid 186, tanfi 74t, pariiifl
779, asital 839 840. tbhakamy 854 929. icehfi 872. manfya 916. For
comparable instrumental forms in -d of >o stiflDs see the note on 119, and
for dative forms in *d see the note on 916.
Por posa see Bailey (i960, p. 84) and Brough ( 1062. 51). PED is not correct
is saying that poso is a contraction of purisa.-Rather posa and purisa arc
two different developments < 'parsa. Cf. poriso 769.
H I. P2da c has nine syllables even after assuming resolution of Ihc third
syllable.

190

TheCroupofDiscourses

H l. Pj II 17248-30: sondin ti macchamamsamojjodisu lolam gedhajdtomx


vikiranin ti lesam otthdya dhanam pamsukam viya vikiritv nsanasilam.
The fact (hat the cty comments on sondim alone, and not as part of a
compound, suggests (hat we should read itthim sondim as two words, with
itthi m.c, because with the cadence * - ; * the opening should be * - or
See Warder (1967, $242). The statement in PED (s.v. sonda)
that the meaning of itthi'SOQjlf is better "one who 1$ addicted to women,
since it 15 explained to that effect by the cty, seems to be incorrect.
1x3. There are nine syllables in p2da c, but the metre can be corrected by
assuming resolution of the second syllable.
1X4? Pj Q 173.8 and v.l. read so ca for so dho. For the cldk alternation see
the ">te on 26.
1x5. Pj I I 17347-29: sa lokam-fchajate sivan ti so evarpo s'tvam Vietnam
uttamam anupaddavam devalokam bhajati alliyati upagacchatT ti vuttam
hoti. The cty, therefore, explains the wise man's goal as devaloka, not
nibbna.
Here pardbhave can only be an accusative plural noun, which suggests that
pardbttavo in 92 is also a noun.
W e should ignore the svarabhakti vowel in ariyo in pS^n e, or assume
resolution o f the firn syllabic.

<21>p.2!.t-p. 254. Vasalasutta. Jayawickraira deals with this sutta in UCR


v n . 4. p-231.
p. 2i.1s.t4. For the historical -d in etad avoca see the note on p. 13.10.
p. 21.16. For the sandhi of -O + a- > -vd- in Vivham sec the note on p. 134.
1x6. Hare (1945, p. 2lS) notes a pun upon outcast and outcaste.
1x7. The cty reads both pdnam vihimsati and portni himsoti, giving the
latter as ti pi ptho. See Ee p. 21 note 11 and cf. Dhp 270 : yena pnni
himsoti. For -dni as a masculine accusative plural in pnni see the note on
45<22> 118. Pj I I 17849: uparundhaiT ti senya parivretv titthati, Despite
this lemma, both F and E* read parirundhati (not in PED. which prefers to
read upa-\ presumably on the basis of the gloss: i/nin hanana-potiipari)-rundhonena. See also LUders (Beob., $63). We should perhaps read
upnruhdhati, with Pj II 178 49Pi I I 17849-30: gmni nigamdni c ti etlha ca-saddena "nogardhi" ti pi
vattabbam. For this lexical use of co see E V 1, p. 219 (ad Th 647). Fol -dm as
a masculine accusative plural ending in gdmdni and nigamni see the note
on 4 5 -

1. Uragavagga

I9 i

119. Pj II 179.3-5 explains : yamparesam mamdyitamyam parosattdnam


pariggahitam apariccattom sotto vJ samkhro v<3. Por mamdyito cf. 466
777Pj 11 179-5-7 : theyyd adinnam ddiyatf it tehi adinnam ananunndtam
theyyacittena ddiyati yena tenaci payogena yena kenaci avohdreno aitano
gahanam sOdheti. It is possible to take theyyd as an ablative but it may be
an example of the instrumental singular of an -n stem in ~d. Sec Geiger
(1994. 78.1 ). For other examples see pads 768, pddd 835 adddnd abbai
839 840. vevicchd paatddd 1033. For the suggestion that nanena in 839 840
1078 should be replaced by ndnd see the notes on 839 8401078. It seems
likely that this instrumental in -S is a relic of the Vedic instrumental io -d.
The other oblique case forms of - a stems in -a, however, are more likely to
be regarded as truncated forms of -6ya. See vinayd (Pj 13 562.30: vinaydya)
916. lbhd (PED s.v^ although this could be nominative plural (see Warder,
1963. p. 408), which avoids an awkward change of construction). For the
instrumental of *4 steins in -d see the note on 110.
The parallelism between ddiyati here and d je ti in 12 1 confirms the
suggestion that ddiyati is a palatalised form c $5dayati (> ddeti). For such
palatalisation see the note on 3;
In pSda c we may either assume resolution of tbeiseventlhsynable or replace
ddiyati by ddeti.
120. For the rii alternation in payat see the note on 29. The explanation
of cujjamdna is not quite as given in PED s.v. coded. In p3da a have Ski
ha vai.
121. Pj I! 179.17 kineikkha-koinyat li appamattake pi kimincid evo
icchdya, j.e. -kamyatd is the truncated instrumental of an -d stem in *d. See
the note on 110.
In pftda b vajatant is m.c. for vajantam, which is the v.l.

132. Pj II 79 .30-11
ti ottano jivitakdrand tathd parohet ;
dhanahetd ti sakadhanassa vd paradhon^ysa vd kdratid. In.each
occurrence, therefore, hem is probably ablative and we should read Itetii
(for heto < hetoh). Cf. AMg (Utt 1 l.i$\bhikkhO a bhikkha < Ski
bhiksau. See also V 11. p. 177 (ad Thi 508) and WD. p. 84 (ad Dhp 84). For
other examples of hetu for hen! see tassa hew 775. kissa hetu 1 131. The
reading -heto is actually found as a v.l. at Mhv.V. 282, where the text has
-hetu but the metre requires held. For the suggestion that Rdhu-gahand in
465 498 should be read as Rdhd (or Ruho) galtand, see the note on 465. For
the suggestion that raj- might be the equivalent of rajo see the note on
391. Cf. also ladah al Mhv V 182 205 * *tadaho < Skt tadahar. Cf. the
suggestion of mum* = mum* = mime in 780.

19 2

TheCroupofDiscourses

For the civ alternation in calva sec the note on 38.


For sakkhiputtha see the note on 84.
In p5da a there is resolution of the sixth syllabic.
123. Pj II 179.3?: dres li pariggahesu. Pj U 179.17-3*: patidissatl l
paiikktena dissali, aticaranto dissali li'atiho. This seems to imply that
the cty takes pali- in (he sense of wrong-doing** which certainly fits the
context, but 1 cannot parallel l Cf. {u)padissati, dissali in 10S, with v.l.
pati .
Pj U 179.3s-)! : sahas ti balokkrena aniecham. sampiyend ti lehi tesata
ddrefti patthiyamno sayad ca patthayamQno. ubhaya-sinefta-vasenpi li
vuiiom Itoti.
124. Fj II 180.t : pahu santo na bharaii otthasampanno upakaranasampatmo pi htttvd na posen. For pahu see the note on 98.
In pSda a there is resolution of the sixth syllable.
125. Pj Q 180.1: sosiui ri sassum, Le. it is < Sk* hafrO. with -ss- > *s<m.c.
The inclusion of the mother-in-law in thi; context is rather strange, which
probably accounts for the vv.IL B* smam, B1 sassuraip. The first of-these
wquld be unmetrical, but the second would be metrical if we assumed
resolution of the fourth syllable of the .pitia. For -ss- in sassaia see EV If.
p. 150 (ad ThT 407). The inclusion of the father-in-law, however, seems no
more satisfactory than that of the mother-in-law.
Pj II tSo_s : rosei1 kodham assa juneii. Cf. 130.
In pida a there is resolution of the sixth syllable.
127. PED (s.v. kammanta) takes anta here in the pleonastic sense (see PED.
s.v. *0^0.4). For other examples set-oghanta (v.l.) 538^ vananta 708.
gtlmanra 710. supina/Ua (sec PED, s.v.), niddanta (Ja VI 294.)* ; Ee reads
nitldannam). In 398 ummdanonto is not:an example of this usage. Sec the
note on 398.
128. In p3da c there is resolution of the fourth syllable. Pj II p. 642 suggests
reading gatom pafipSjeii, but I do not see what this would mean in the
context. See Warder (1967. 245).
129. For vanibbaka see the note on'100.
In pida a there is resolution of the sixth syllable.
<JJ> 130. Pj II 180.}) : roseli vded ... oppaiiriipena pharusavacanena
roseli, i.c. vaca is the instrumental of an -a stem in -d. See the note on 1 f o.
and note that in 125 we find vdcaya in a parallel phrase.

LUrogavagga

*93

PjD 180^2-23: bhaliakle upatlhile li bhojanakdle jOie\ upatihtan li pi


ptho. bhatiakle gatan li oiiho. We should presumably understand the
vX upoithitarn as agreeing with samanam.
In pSdas ae there is resolution o f the sixth syllable.
131. Pj U 180.29 gives the gloss asajjandnam for asaiam in pSda a. If.we take
asaiam as the genitive plural o f the negative o f the present participle o f the
verb as- ("to be ), it could be a partitive genitive ("whichever o f the bad
speaks), or a genitive in the sense o f a dative ("speaks to the bad ). The cty
is probably taking .it in the second way. but it is possible that it is
understanding the word vacanom with asaiam ("speaks the utterance o f the
bad). This does not seem very likely. Pj H 180.19-30 quotes the v.l. asaniam
and explains it as abhtam. This seems to make better sense: speaks what
is not true, and this is what ( translate.

For the present middle participle ending dna in nijigimsr.o see Whitney
(Gramm.. 1043 0 and Geiger (1994, $ 192). Cf. esdno 592 ; kdmaydna 767 ;
vadna 7S9 888 824 825 876 879 8S5 892893 898903 905 ; paribbasna 796
878 880895. For the r/l alternation, in paiigunihito^see the note on 29. For
gunih- as an example of spontaneous retroflexion see (be note on ioo._ .
232. Pj 11 18l.$-7 .parafi ca-m-avajniT fi (ehi yo param anrajnr nTcam
karot, ma-kdro padasandhikaro. For sandhi '-vr.sce Geigtr (1994, &73.2),
EVI'pp. 127,140,168,219 and 246 (3d Th 297^23 646 863), BV II, p.71 (ad
Th 48), and WO, p. 70 (ad Dhp 34). For other examples see 151 163 249 269
306311411 437 458 534 664 692765 7S7 75HS 826 840 868 909 91t 912 955
9S6 1002 1040 1042 2071-72. Cf. also rajiena-m-auhiko Ja V 258.5", thi-mesc Ja V 2604*. nayanii-m-etam Ja V 445.19". The pda occurs again in 438,
but without -m*.
For samukkams- see Luders (Bcob.. >59) 2nd cf. 438.
233. Pj II 18 1. j 6 -18 : rtsso pdpajigucchnolokkhatt hiri, na iato
uusanato ubbegalakkhonam ottappan ti ahirka anottnp.
The loka metre of p5da a is defective if we ignore the svarabhakti vowel in
kadariyo, but can be corrected if we read ca after rosako. The v.l. kadarjyo
was probably devised to produce the standard paihy cadence. In pda c we
should read ahiriko (with Pj H p. 665) to git e the opening * ----, and
avoid the short second and third syllables.

135. For potijnti with a nominative with the meaning "profess, claim (to
be something), see the note on 76. Io pada d vasaldhama docs not equal
dhammo as PED states (s.v. vasaio). It is from adhama (as PCD states. s.v.
odhama). The v.l. vasaio odhomo is unmctriBd; Pj ]I 182.1 states: kho
avodhranailho. Cf. vrsala (Manu Vili 16).
136. For the sentiment of this verse cf. IM 25.33.

194

The Croup o f Discourses

137-38. For che story of MStaAga see tbo MstaAga-jSiaka ( Ja IV 376-89).


137. For putta in the sense of j member o f the family o f ... see the note
on $3.
For the historical d in tad amin see the note on p. 13.10.
C 4> 138. For the aorist ganchum, cf. ganchi 379 (where EF reads dgacchi)
979; upaganchum 1126lagaXchim Ja IV 331.*. They depend upon a form
with -s- added directly to the stem. Le. gam-s-um (cf. the Sanskrit form
agamsi (Whitney, Roots. s.v. gam-}). This evolved a dental / between the
nasal consonant and -5-, and the resultant -mts- developed to -rich'. For the
future godchist set the note on 665.
139. Pj II 184.23-16: makantehi buddhdihi patipannatt ntohpothom.
brahmalokasamkhtam devalokam ypetum samatthatt devatokaynasamkhtam atthasampaniynam abhiruyha. For yna = magga see PED
sx.yna, andEVILp. 143 (ad ThT389). Hare (194s. P- 22 note) refers to the
'way of the gods" of the VedSnta.
140. Pj U 192.6-7: monta bandhavd eteson ti monta-bandhav vedabpndh
veda-patisaran. Ntdd I n.fS-20 (ad 769) gives, four bandhavasz nti-,
gotta-,-sippa- and menta-. The.same exegesis occurs at Nidd IIN* 297.3
6o), but with mina- tot manta-. Nidd-a 1 55.13 gives manta-, but states:
miiiabandhavd pi bandh ti. katthaci potthake ptho dissati. Nidd-a U
139.19 includes mina-,
Pj II 192.3-6.'tanka ajjhyakakule ti mantajjhynke brhmanakule jt:
ajjhyak kule jt ti pi ptho, manlnam ajjhyak anaupokutthe ca
brhmanokute jt ti attho. The reading is quoted as a v.l. in E*.
141. Note tne v.l.: Ba con*. 10 duggatyff* for duggaccd. For the five gatis
see M 1 73 foil.
p. 24^1. For esham see the note on p. 1543.
<2$> p. 253. For ajja-t-agge see the notepn p. 16.1.
i 43- 52>Metta-stma. See Jayawickrama (OCR VII, 4, pp. 258-62). The metre
is Old iy i See Alsdorf (1968. pp. 257 foil.).
143. Pj 1 236.11 -14 : sanram pddon ti upayogavacanam, tattha lakkhanoto
santam pattabbato padam, nibbnass' etam adhivacnom ; abhisameccd ti
abhisamdgontvd ; sakkoit ti sakko, samattho paftbah- ti vuttom hoti.
Note sti-uju > sOju. Ee quotes siihuju (= su-h-ujti) as a v.l. Cf. su-h-utthita
in 178 and at Vv 613 (-33:191 in & 1886). Geiger (1994. 67) quotes su-huju from Kh 15. quoting Childers edition. For h- as a glide consonant cf.
nahuta 677, and see Nonman (1979A. pp. 323-24) and PEO s.v. pihlu. where

I. Uragavagga

195

a derivation from piyru i$ suggested, and patibolati < patthahaii is


compared.
144. Alsdorf reads kuUsv with Ms B\ for kulesu m.c., assuming the sandhi of
-1# + o- > -va-. For other examples o f sandhi developments involving the
change of *> *vsce kdntesv 424 ; adhivdsetv p. 104.13 ; manussesv 6 u ; tv
pp. 126.12 14t .9 foil. 938. For su- > sv see svkkbta- 567 svtivatt 785. 1
suggest that the earlier reading here was kules\ with final -u elided, and wc
. owe the Ttistoricar sandhi form -esv to the scribal tradition. See Norman
(1988, p. 93X Where the change is made m.c. (as here) I think we should read
kules[u)\
145. Alsdorf excludes khudda[m] and [sam)dcore and changes vd > va m.c.
P3da c is $Ioka with resolution of the first syllable, but if we read va (with
B) the pSda scans as Old ry.
146. Sadd p. 1594 (s.v. pdna) equates pdna-bhta with pna-bh < prna
bhn. Von HinOber (berblick 330) suggests that pdnabhQt* is perhaps for
-bhn'.=-bhno. It seems likely that .we have two developments from -bhrt,
one with the loss of -r, giving Mu (with -r- > -u-), and the other adding the
thematic vowel a, giving -bhuta (there is a v j. -bhut* here). The first could*
remain or become -bh m.c. The other should have remained unchanged, but
doubtless became -bhuta by analogy or m-C^It is possible that the same
type of alternation could account for kla-kataXtad, if it is from kdla-krt
(with a different meaning from Skt kdla-krt)- At Ja IV 498.S'pdna-bhuno
(494.27) is glossed pna-bhtnam. Here Pi II 245.1t glosses: pdnd va
blil. Elsewhere we find -6/itf arising < -ban, e.g. vatra-bh ( S 147.11 * f Ja
V 1534*). It is possible that the two meanings of gotra-bb arose because of
what were originally two quite separate and different forms, coming from
-bhrt and -ban. See von Hinber (1978. pp. 326-32) and Ruegg (1981.
PP- *75- 77)- Cf. Norman (1987A. pp. 37-40).
Pjl24S.i*-30ztauba tosanti ti ras, sotonhdnom sabbaydnam c etain
adhivacanam\ titillanti l thvar, pahinntanhgamandnom arahatom
elom adhivacanom.
Alsdorf reads v' for the second v in pda b. PSda c is loka. but it scans as
Old ryi if we read va in place of the first vd.
<26> 147. For the future participle sambhavesw.cf. taresin 1064 and see EV
I. p- 205 (adTh 527). Smith (1952. pp. 171-72) Caillat (1970. pp. 15-16). and
WD. p. 148 (ad Dhp 355).
P3da a is 3 loka, and it remains toka with Alsdorfs reading ye vd. It
becomes Aryi if *rt is twice changed to va. The same is true of pdda c.
In pda a -d- in odditihd is m.c.

196

The Croup of Discourses

14S. Pj I 247.21 foil.; vyrosan paiighasana li kyavacivikrehi


vyrosanya ca manoviktrena pajighasanAtiya ca. The cty is therefore
explaining vyrosan (not in PED) and -saAn (and other forms which it
quotes) as feminine oouns with the truncated oblique case ending -4 . For
this ending see the note on ixo.
For kotthaci na[m) m.c. see Alsdorf.
149. For niya/nija see Lfldcrs (Beob.. 102). For the jly alternation see
phiya/sphija 321 ; virayafviraja 331 ; oncyoJaneja 953.
130.

For overant ro.c. in (dace of averam in poda d see Alsdorf.

151. For sandhi -m- in idha-m-hn see (he note on 132.


Pj l 250.35 foil, eram catttstt divya-brahma-ariya-iriyd-patha-vihdrcsu
niddosoud aitano pi paresam pi aiihakarait ca dha aryassa dhamma
vinoyc brahmavihram hu ssffhavihdram h ti. It seems, therefore, that
.the cty is taking brahmam v'thdram as a split compound, although it would
be possible 10 translate as they say this vihdra is b r a h m a CPD
(Epilegomena p-> 3 3 *) uses the term tmesis for the separation of a
preposition from a verba) stem and also for the insertion o f a particle or
verb into a compound. I regard the latter as a split compound. For tmesis
see the noteon 672-. For split compounds see EVI. p..131 (ad Tb 42), EV H,
p. 91 (ad ThI (47); and W D, p. 73 (ad DJ>p 49), and cf. amori topi 349,
majjoH ca pCnotrt 39$. na cirnm idhvaseso 694. mimf n atthi khilo 780,
janam passaiha medhakam 933. kim su samyojano 1x08. See the note on
270. Cf. also kim kato. D II 22.1 = 23.5; kim so 'dha bhlt Ja IV 110.5* (kim'
bhrt, I IO.10*); upohaso mono Ja VI 515.35*; catusatthin ca khattum'Ap
110.5a. See also Caillat (1979. p. t6o). We should draw a distinction between
true split compounds and examples of lengthening with -m- m.c. See the
noteon 181*82.
Alsdorf excludes vd and asso in pdda b. and restores >'di*or<d>. In pitia d he
reads vih&ram m.c.' in place o f vihdrom.
132. For sandhi -r- in puna-r-eti see the note 00 29.

P da a is loka but can be made rya be reading ca <so> or replacing


anupagamma by anupaganivno. Pida c is loka but can be made ry by
reading gedham vineyya kdmesu.

In pdda d we should read Jdi and -styy m.c.


<27> 153-80. For an analysis of the Hemavatasutta see Jayawkkrama (UCR
Vili. 1. pp. 36-39). Some portions also occur in S I. Pj II 194.1 : Hemavoto
sultan li vuccaii. Stdgirusuiian it ekaccehi. The sutta is also called
$5t3gira in the uddna (E* p. 38). For the alternarive name see the
Introduction (6).

I. Uragavagga

197

153-63. Pj I] 193^7 28: "iti Stgiro ti dt saAgltikrehi. For such


reciter's remarks see (he note on 18-29. For (he songtikras see (he note on
30

153. For (he reciters remarks see (he note on 18-29.


Pj H200.8: tattha anomehl almakehi sabbkOrapnriprehi gunehi nmam
ass ti anomanmo.
For banda showing voicing after a nasal cf. 164 701 1132; Lumbineyya 683.
For gandha = gantha see 347 and ef. E V 1, p. 235 (ad Th 768 ). and EV n, p. 85
(adThlin).
Sreiih (Pj II p. 6 43) states that pda a is Vait&lTya. The opening
--------would not be regular for this, but we could read a[f]ja. Since.
however, the rest o f the sutta is loka. it we"!d seem preferable to read
a[f]ja and assume resolution of the first and third syllables. As it stands, we
could assume resolution of the fourth syllable, but we would then have a
nine-syllable pda.
151. For the reciters remarks see the note on 18-29.
Pj II 200.J1-20I.I : sabbabhtesu tditio ti, tdilakkhanappattass e va
'ste*.pucch eva v ayam;so tdva satth sabbabtiftesu tdi udhu no ti.
kim vuttam h o t fy a n tvam satihBrasp vadasi, lassa le-fetthuno kaccf tdi-

lakkhanappattassa saio sabbabhtesu man^supanihito udf)u,yva


ealanappaccayam na abhati, tdva supanihito vlya khyoti ; so v te
satth bocci sabbabhtesu samacittena taai uddhit no. I take ladino as
genitive singular, but it could be divided as tdi no both here and in 155.
For tdi see the note on 86.
There is resolution of the sixth syllable in pda a.
155. For the reciter's remarks see the note on 18-29.
For t&dino see the note on 154.
There is resolution of the sixth syllable in pda a.
156-57. For the palatalisation of -a-10
na risicati cf. ariiicamfino in 69.

in adiyati see the note on 3. For

>S6. For the reciters remarks see the note on 18-29.


Pj II 203.9: tattha gthbandhasukhatthV pathamam adinndnavirathft pucchati. For other features which have been introduced gth
bondhasukliaithyo sec the note on 69.
There is resolution of the seventh syllabic in pda a. or we could read
ndeti.

157. For the reciter's remarks see the note on 18^29.


There is resolution of (he seventh syllable in pda a. or wc could read deti.

198

The Croup o f Discourses

15S-59. In pada b in both verses Ee reads na khinavyappatho. and the cty


explains this as: na pharusavdeo (Pj II 204.4-$). I translated it as noi of
rough speech, although PED gives the meaning without the way of (evil)
speech . The cty quotes a v.l. ndkhrna-vyappatho, analysing it as na
akhtno-vyappatho, and explaining: pltarusavacanam hi puresatn hadaye
okhyamnam tiffhati (204.5-7). I wouhJ. however, wish to follow CPD in
taking this as na khlnavyappatho, and in seeing here a form from '*<
skirna = -stTrna, showing the si/sk alternation. For this see Norman (1979,
pp. 32-J-27).
Pj II 204.2-3 explains: vfledya patho vyappatho. Pj II 206.30 (ad 163A)
vuttavyappathenu ca vaclkammam'i n vultam hoti. Pj II 572.19 (ad 961):
kidisfini tassa vacanni asstt. Cf. edisdya vaehpdrisuddhiy samanniigoto
nss ti. kydssa byappathayo (masculine plural, not feminine as PED states),
-.id this is supported by: vded gird byappatho vaetbhedo (Vin IV 2.15-16)
and vded gird vyappatho udtranam ghoso (Dhs 637). For the ctics on these
see Norman (1979. p. 326). The Chinese translation too (Bapat. 1951. p. 144)
has this interpretation: The words, good or evil, that his mouth has
uttered , showing that the commentarmi tradition which accompanied the
version of the Sn which was translated into Chines* also had the idea of
speech. I therefore analyse the word as being derived from Skt vdk-patha,
and compare Pili vacana-paiha (M 1 251.3) and vddajpatha. We should
have expected' *vap-potha, and the restoration of vy* for v- is doubtless a
hyper-form. For hyper-form* see the note on too. The metre shows that we
should read -v- in this context'and also avikinna-vacana-yyappatha at D
111 175.2$. where the Upatthitappacopita metre confirms it. See Norman
(1984B, p. 180). For the meaning of the compound ( would compare Pali
vikinrKt'Vdca and BUS \yavakTrna-\ncana of halting, broken speech.
158. For the reciter's remaiks'sec the note on 18-29.
Pj 11 204.S-M : vibhtf li vinso, vibhlim kdyat karoti v vibhtikam,
vibhtikam evo vebhtikam, vcbhtiyan ti pi vuccati, pesudnass' cium
adhivacanam, tam hi sattdnam annamaddato bhedanena vindsam karoti.
Cf. vibhta in 664.
If s a m p h a is to be derived from i a s p a , we must suppose a development
> * s a p p h a > s a m p h a . The meaning talk grass , i.e. talk nonsense,
could be compared with the word p a l d p a which, although perhaps to be
derived from $kt p r o l d p a , is laken by the commentators as coming from
Skt p a l a v a chaff*.
ia s p a

<2S> 159. For (he reciter's icmarks see the note on 18-29.
Pj 11 204.U : mantd ti pann vuccati. tdya paricchinditvd bhasati. This
scerns to indicate that the cty believed that there was a noun mantd. of
which wc have the truncated instrumental in -d here. For such forms see the

1.

Vragavagga

99

note on n o . This view is supported by Pj U 562,18-19: poponcosam khya


mtilam "asm i" li pavaiiamnan ca sabbam mantya uparundhe (ad 9 1 6
"mlaTt papancasamkhya mania asm ? ti sabbam uparundhe"). and Nidd
1346.9.14 foli.: mant vuecatt pann ... mantdya sabbam uparuddheyya. Pj
11 $88.21 (3d 1040 mania na lippaii ) glosses: panya na lippari, and
Nidd I! N* 44.9: montya na lippati. Pj II402.24, however, (ad 455 akincono
mama carmi loke) explains: mont jniiv, and Vva 262.22 (on Vv 63:6
mant atthal ca b h sa ii') seems to combine both explanations in the
gloss: jnitv pahAya p aricchinditv. Besides being a feminine noun
and an absoluiive marn can also be the nominative of the agent noun
mantr. 1 translate it a$ the last of these. The example quoted from S I 57.20
(repeated at Mil .66.28) by PED is probably not this word at all. Since later in
the context we find m anda (which is conformed by b te in UU 5.15), it is
probable that we should read m andddhiro foolish and not wise"; instead
of mant dhiro. The fact that Spk I i t 3 does not comment suggests lhal
mant was not in the text at that lime. For monro in m anra-bhnin see the
note on 850.
In pSda d there is the v.l. su, probably m.c. for sc (see Pi II p. 700, s.v. tad). It
would seem preferable to read sa.
160. For the reciters remarks see the note on
In pda a there is resolution of the second syllable
161. For the reciters remarks see the note on lS-29.
162-63. For the v.l. -rranc for -crano, showing the civ alternation, see the
note on 38. Pj II 205.35: chandavasena c* enha digham katv ca-kram 6ha,
somsuddhacarano ti attho. For citando in the sense of metre see the note
162. For the reciter's remarks see the note on 18-29.
<29> 163. For the reciters remarks sec the note.oo 18-29.
For sandhi * in vijjya-m-cva see the note 00*132.
163AB. For vyoppatha see the note on 158.
164. For the voicing of

> -/- after a nasal in /tondo see the note on 153.

165-66. Pj II 207.12 foil, states that these Staro verses were uttered by
Hemavata.
165. In pda a Pj II 207.21 reads virata fot dintorni and Smith (Pj II p. 712. s.v
dhfra) Suggests the adoption of this reading I translate virata. For the
voldha alternation, see the note on 44. For enL-iaAgha see Bapat (*951.
p. 118 note 7).

200

The Group o f Discourses

166. Pj II 20S.ia13 : ndgon ti punobbhavan n evo gontram, aiho v Sgun


na kam t li pi ngo, baiava ti pi ngo, tam ngam. The ciies would sccm 10
have been unwilling to accept the fact that the Buddha was being called by
the name of a minor supernormal being, and they therefore invented
fanciful etymologies to explain the word in Buddhist terms. For other
explanations of nga see EV I. p. 177 (ad Th 2S9). See also the notes on 522 ;
845 (Nidd I 20t.3e-s3 explains: edge ti.tigum no karotf ti ngo; no
gacchoit ti ngo\ngacchati ti ngo)i 105S; 1131 (Nidd II N*215.54
explains: ngo ti bhagav gum na karotio' ngo.na gacchaiTsi ngo,na
ngacchotT ti ngo ... evam bhagav na gacchott ti ngo ti nikkmo
nibbano ngo). The compound nganga occurs in 543. but the cty makes
no comment. In 573 the word nga is applied to bhikkhus. by an extension
of its usage. I was inconsistent in Voi. I. sometimes leaving it untranslated,
and sometimes translating it as "great beings* or "great one". I now leave it
untranslated everywhere. With this attempt to explain metaphorically the
name o f a minor divinity applied to the Buddha, cf. the use of yakkha in
47S.
167. Pj II 209.10 slates that this verse was uttered by Hemavata and SStigira.
For the change of -ga > -gu in prag, cf. -nna > -nnu 3 2 1. vedoko >
*yedaga > \edagu 322. antaga > antaga 458. 'bhfnaha > bhiinahti (64.
*chandaga > chandogu 913. See Caillat (1970. p. 11).
In p9da b ijjhammna is m.c.
16S. For the reciter's remarks see the note on 18-29.
Pj II 2 I 0.31-2 1 1.3 : tassdhipde kismn ti bhiivena bhvalakkhane
bhummavacanam. kismim uppanne loko samttppanno holt (l) ayom hi ettho
adhippyo. sattalokasamkhraloke sandhya pucchati: kismim kubbati
santhavan*ti ahan' ti v'mamon' ti v3 lanhudiuhisanthavatn kismim
kubbati, adhikaranatthe bhummaVacanam \ kisso loko ti upayogatihe
smivacanam, kim updya loko ti samkham gacchati ti oyam hi ettha
odhppy", kismim loko ti bhvena bhvalakkhanakranatthesu bhumma*
vacanam.kismim sati kena kdranena loko vihahAati plliyati bddhlyati ti
ayant hi tuba adhippyo. The explanation of kissa updya by kim
updyarvtoii\d seem to indicate the cty was taking updya as an
absolutive^irregularly constructed with a genitive, cf. Spk I 96.17 (ad S I
41.3); updy ti tni yeva cha updya dgamma paticca pavattoti, and
etni yeva chp updya, quoted at Pj H 211.9. We could interpret kissa as
being < kim sa (where ja *svid, see EV II. p. 153 [ad ThT 4 17]). For the
variation between nasal and consonant versus double consonant
(abbreviated as' NC/CC) in kissu/kimsu cf. bhusa-ppamattdlbhusam
pernott 230 : tathdgatassaftathdgatam so 252 ; sabhuggatolsabhagpto
397 ; the v.l. sakkon co for sakkacca 679; toss' eva uponissya 978. See the

201

1. (Jragavagga

kissdbhilepanam

note on
1032, and WD. p. 65 (ad Dhp 19). In gth 10S (Ja
VI 499.2t*) and (he next three gSth&s of the Vessamata-jilaka,
in p3 da
a seems to agree with
in pitia e. I suggested (Norman 1981 p. 165)
that we should read
for
and divide it as
sa, where sa is the
equivalent of the Ski particle
For other examples see Alsdorfs
suggestion (1957. P- 38) of reading
in place of
at gg. 245-46 (Ja VI 517.5*.2*). and note the phrase
g. 745 (Ja VI 587.10*). Alsdorf (1957. p. 59).*
rightly objected io the use of the genitive after the root
and proposed
to read
for
This corrects the grammar, but does not explain how
the reading originated. I suggested that
stands for
For further
examples cf.
Ap iS.ifi ;
AMg
Utt 9.30 ;
Utt 9.56 P9 U
;
Bv 21.3 22.3 23.3 24.3 25.3
(perhaps helped by the occurrence of
Bv t&2
etc.). Cf.
Ja VI 15643* (but Alsdorf [1968,
p. 292) reads
= 592.34*. Von Hinber (Oberblick, 268)
includes such a change under the heading o f a final nasal contracting with
an initial vowel (ross*
(<
eva), which seems unlikely to
be correct Since, however, the answer
eya
in 169 is
similarly constructed with the genitive, we must assume that
was

yyantam
yamsa yassa.
sma.

rajjassa-m-anusdsitum
pajalik tassa yconiiin
tom tassa.

yassa

yam
rajjam smanussitum
yc-,

tassa
tamsa.
pakamp-lpakappmunc-fjnucc-i
payunjai!
pajujjai
nirdkrta>ntrakkiya
f nirankata dhammacakkoppavattcntcdhammacakkampavattente
dhammaeakkappavattane
rondi-ppavesUnandtmpavesi
nandi ppavest)
eva<tamssa sma)
chp/utam updya
updya
interpreted at the instrumental of a noun u p 3d , which was extracted in the
first place from updya(see CPD. s.v. upd).
<30> 169. For the reciter's remarks see (he note on 18-29.
For
sec the note on 168.
Pj 11 211.3 and S I 4M* read
(with v.l.
but Spk 1 96.15 reads
Pj II 2 1 1.3-4 :
bui Pj II 21 reads
in the lemma, and at 2t 1.6.11 in the
exegesis.
The v.l.
in Ms C6 for
shows the n/y variation.

channamupdya

chass ti chasu.
uppannesu.

updnom

chasu
chnssu),
chasu ojjhattikabdhitesu dyatancsu
chossu

updya
niyynampacchilo .m&ya pana upaddhagthya
maggasoccainpacchi, maggasaccenahi ariyasdvokodukkhamporijnanio
samudayatn pajahanto nirodham sacchikaronto maggam bhvento
hkomh niyyti, tasm niyynan ti vticcati. For dukkh pamuccati cf.
dukkhpomokkhasi.yir I.3.34. Cf. MBh Xll.203.1.
171. For km
agunasec the note on 50-51.
173. For oghasec the note on 21. Pj II 214.4: coturogham
. Pj 11 214.5-11 :
avisesenoyasmannavanti.no rnthaiainnltamndpi gambhframattamapi
capanayamvitihatan ca gombhirataro ca vuccaii. IddiSOsamsdraartnovo, ayam hi samantato pariyanlabhvena vitihoto, hetfh
ITO. Pj II 112.9-13 :

202

The Group o f Discourses

patitthitbhvena- upri lambanbhvena ca gambhTro tasmd ko idha


tarati annavam tasmin ca appatitthe anlambe gambhire annave ko na
sdatT ti asekhabhmm pucchai, For the r/l alternation in anlamba sec
the note on 29.
In p3da a there is a v j. su, but s is required m.c. to avoid the opening
- - In tarati -f is m.c.
175. Pj 1121407 foil.: virato kmasanny ti y kci kmasann, sabbato
catutthanaggasampayuttya sdmucchedaviratiy virato; virano ti pi
ptho, tad kmasanny ti bhummavacanam hoti. Sagthavagge (S I
5300) pana kSmasans ti pi ptho. The tilt variant reading is most likely
due to a misinterpretation of -r- written at a time when double consonants
were not written, since with the pathyO cadence there is no guide as to the
length of the second syllable of the opening hem. See the notes on 763 and
782 and see EV li. p. 109 (ad Thl 248).
In pSda c -T- in nandi- is m.c. to avoid the opening * .
I76-77. The metre is Tristubh.
In p3da c we should read passath me.
176. Pj Q 215.22 foil. : dibbe pathe kamomnan ti aithasampattjbhede
dibbe pathe samdpojjonavasena camkamantami tottha, Jtincpi tia tya
velSya Bhagav dibbe pathe kamatt, u fi ca khu pitbbe kamanam updya
kamanasattisobbhveno tattha laddhavasibhvatdya v evam vuccati,
attha v, ye te visuddhidev arahanto, tesam pathe chosottavihre
kamanenpi etam vuttom. Since dibbe pathe means on the way of the
devas", the cty interprets the word dibba as referring to the Buddha as a
devo. For visuddhideva applied to the Buddha see Norman (1981B. p. 154).
See also the note on U48.
177. Pj II 216.6: oriye pathe ti atthangike magge phalasampottiyam v.
Smith points out (P) II p. 683) that in pSda b (he break - - * is preferable.
We could read kmlaye me.
In pSda d we may assume resolutionof the first syllable, or ignore the
svarabhakti vowel in oriye.
<3i> 178. For the sandhi *A- itvstt-h-utthito see the note on 143In psda a -ddr in suddittham is doubtless on the analogy of duddittho.
180. For te mayam see the note on p. 15.13.
P- 31.9-19*. For the Ajavaka-sutta see Jayawickrama (UCR VIII. 1. pp. 3944). This is a yoftAAa-ballad. For yakkha see Jayawickrama (p. 44). These
events occurred 16 years after the bodhi. See EJ. Thomas (1949 P- 1 (95 and
see Jayawickrama (p. 40 note !2>.Thesutta also occurs at $ 1 213-15.

I. Vragavagga

203

p. 31.3s. For khvham see the note on p. 15.3.


<32> p. 323. for khvham see the note on p. 15.3.
p. 32.9. For the historical -d in yad kamkhasi see the note on p. 13.10.
181-82. The metre of these two verse* is Tristubh..
PjII231.5-7: kathamjvino jfvitam kathamjivijMtan ti, gthbandhasukh'attham pana snunsikam vuccati. kathamjfvim jlvatan /t pi pdtho, tassa
'jtvantnam kathamjvin' ti attho. For other exampls of gthbandhasukhattham see the note on 69. This might be regarded as an example of a
split compound (see the note on 151) but -m- is probably m.c. The first
reading, which the cty then paraphrases and clearly prefers, has -m- inserted
ra.c. for jtvi-jivitam. For other examples of -m- n\.c., inserted to lengthen a
syllable see param mhitya 233, sotthim 269, saniyojanamjtikhayantadasst 476. awmsarT 69s, parissaya<ip>vinayam 921, agatam/amatam disam
960,/ttrd/tdfan cetiyam 2013, asutammutam 1122, and of. EVI, p. 131 (adThr
42) and EV II, p. 91 (ad ThT 147). Cf. also nidhimnidhna Ja IV 280.2t ;
omatam vitfiliiin Ap 52.20 109^1 ; amatain bheriin Ap 5,25 4946; nekayatanam
pavutto Ja IV 110.6* {nekariuhyotanovasena panditehi pavana devaokamoggo ko katoro li vuttdm heti, 110.12* [ nckdyatana-pavuilo]). We should
perhaps read jivatam with the y .1., and take it as the genitive plural of a
present participle.
i8t. There is a v.l. sdhn- for sdutorm.
to pSda b -<J* in vahti is m.c. In pidas be we should read rii m.c., and in
pdda d -jivim m.c.
i$2. Sadd 614.5 quotes saddh' tdha as the sandhi form of idha (CFD, s.v.
idha). with the sandhi - * A > -F*. S I 214.21 reads saddh* idha. but (he
metre confirms Tdha.
For pahMjtvim cf. pafinAjivita at Pj I 124.24. We should read -jivim m.c. In
pSda b -- in Avahdti is m.c.
183. In pda a -rin laraiT is m.c. In p5da b there is resolution of the fourth
syllable.
<33>i84.This verse occurs ai S 1214.27**2$*. and is ascribed 10 S rather than
to Sn at Mil 36.15 (UCR VIII, 1, p. 40).
In pada a -f in tarati is m.c. In p3da c there is resolution of the first syllable.
185. In Skt the word mitra is historically neuter, but mitta is usually
masculine in Pli, as Jayawickrama points out (UCR Vili, t . p. 41 ). Here and
in 187 it is neuter, unless we have a masculine accusative plural in -Ani. For
this ending see the note O n 4S. There is a v.l. gonfiati for ganthati, but S I
214.31 reads gonthau.

204

The Croup o f Discourses

1S6. Although the text reads susss, the cty includes sussiisam in the
explanation. The same difference of form is found at S I 214.34*, where the
text reads susss with susssam as a v.l. Spk 1 353.16 reads susssom in die
lemma and explains: ettka susssana-paii-nmeno vutto damo. Nett
14646* also reads an accusative sussusam, although NSnamoli (1962, p. 195)
translates: Through wish to hear gains {Understanding'. In the paraphrase,
however, Pj II 23544-15: explains: susssya sakkacca pannddhigam'fipyam sundi, which suggests that w should read susss and take it as a
truncated instrumental farm, i.e. -d = -ya. For such forms see the note on
no.
Jayawickrama says that p5da a is an even pada. but this is not $o..Cf. 1S7.
187. For miitni as neuter or masculine see the note on 185. The word
urtht is an old form according to Jayawickrama (UCR VIII, 1, p. 41). Cf.
anuitht 96. For patirpa $eeathe note on 89.
Jayawickrama says that p5da a is an even p3da. but this is not so. See the
note on 186.
In pSda a there is resolution of the first syllable.
iSS. Pj fl 237.1-2: gharomesino </> ghdrvsam pafica v kmagune
esanlassa gavesamassa kmabhogino gah^thassa. It is possible to
interpret -m- as a sandhi Consonant (set the note on 132). or to take ghdramcsin as an aluk-samsa, i.e. a tatpuruso edmpound with the case ending of
the first element retained. Cf. randhamesT3i 6 and see the note on 233. PHD
(s.v. randha) quotes virandham*, aparandham-, khaliiam-, gafitom,
vivaram- and (s.v. esin) dukkham.
Cf. vedasyopanisat saryam saryasyopanisad damah, damasyopanisan
moksa etas sarvnussanam (MBh XII, 299.13).
1S9. (t is possible that the ending of khantyd is due to the omission o f a
svarabhakti vowel by a scribe who knew Sanskrit. The same reading occurs
atS 12t5.7*.
In the compound samanobrdhmane 'br- does oot make position.
190-91. For so ham see the note on p. 154319z. For mahapphalo, showing a development from mahat- rather than
mahd-, cf. 227 486 and mahabbhaya 753 103210331092.
192.

For so aham sec the note on p. 15.13.

<34> 193. For the voicing of / > -d- in uda see the note on saiam in 227
andef. uppddd 360 ; papaiam 66$; sfitiyesu 853; vtrutc 927. See also sfida
(w.r. for sta) Ja VI 4834*. See Lders (Beob., 94-98) and WD, p. 9 7 (ad
Dhp 145). Sometimes by a hyper-form" an historical d- becomes -r- in Pili,

I.

Uragavagga

205

e.g. jannu-taggho (< Jnu-daghna) Ja V] 534,3)'. See LOders (Bcob.,


l 4 >-43)* Cf. upaptitika. For hyper*forms see the noie on 100.
For somminjeti "10 contract0 see Broogh <1962, pp. 249-50) and BHSD (s.v.
sammiUjayaii)194-99. These verses recur at Ja 1 146 .s-:6\
194. Von Hinber (berblick, 240) suggests reading atthinhdrhi instead
of anhTnahru- in pfida a. This reading corrects the metre by ignoring the
svarabhakit vowel in nahdm, whereas the reading of Ee appears to be later,
intended to normalise the metre by omitting one syllable. For
nahnUnhru see LOders (Bcob., 185).
There is resolution of the fust syllable in pSda e.
195. Pj II 248.1-5: puro ri adhiiro, tasm yakapelassa puro, vatthino
pro" ri evam yojetabbam, Le. yakapeldssa, eie., are abbreviateti
compounds, since we arc to understand pro, extracted from antapQro and
udarapro, with them. For such abbreviated compounds see Gonda (1968),
von Hinber (1977-78), and \VD, p. 74 (ad Dhp 54). See also the notes on 722
725 and 7 2 7 . Von Hinber bas also pointed out that in Th 640
updnakkhayassa is an abbreviated compound, since it Is an abbreviation
for upddunakkhayaadhimutiassa. The explanation given in E'M.'p. 218 (ad
Th 640) is therefore incorrect.
For yokapeja see PED $.v.
There is resolution of the sixth syllable in pSda a. For pa[p]phsassa m.c.
seePjllp. 724.
196. The Sloka metre of pda b is defective, but can be corrected by adding
ca after sedassa, with the v.l. For (he metre of medassa ca see Pj II p. 750.
We can read mfdassa or midassa. See Warder ( 1967. 35).
97. Pj II 248.13 : navatii sorelli li ubho-okkhi-cchidda-kanna-cchiddnrisa-cchidda-nwkha-vacco/nagga-passva-woggehi.
There is resolution of the fourth syllable in pSda a and o f the first syllable
in pida b. The final -f in osucT is m.c. to avoid the opening
198. For the double ablative ending ending -io in rtsto to give the
cadence - - {pathyd) cf. sonthavto 20 7 ; -bandhandto 367 ;
stlavaldro 899 ; pasdsanio Ja HI 367.13 : dmdro Ja IV 93w .-ro tth to
Ja IV 135.1 351.30. See Caillai (1970. p. 22). EV II. p. t6o (ad Th 406). and
WD.p. 139 (ad Dhp 320).
I take pittant in pitia c with vamat' in p3da b.
Pj II 249a lassa savori sobbad ti imind saddhim sambandho. I follow the
ciy in understanding savori, from 197. with sedajallik. For jallik scc PHD.
BHSD (s.v. rajojala), COIAI, (which accepts a derivation from /o/yo).

2o6

The Croup o f Discourses

199. Ja 1 14&25* reads -ludgena for -luiigassa. For purakkhata see EV I,


p. 129 (adH37).
There is resolution of the first syllable of pda c.
In p3da c -f in mannaie is ntc.
soo. In pda d there is resolution of th first syllable.
201. For the hyper-PKsm supna for suvdna see Luders (Beob., $ 146) and
the note on 100. For the p h alternation see the note on (2. For retroflex -fl
atter historical -i- see the note on 100. In pSda b vaka is < SJct vrka. In
pdnayo, we have the nominative plural of an -in stem in -ayo,
<35> 202. Pj II 251.4 foil.: so kho nam parijnti li imam kyam Uhi
pariMhi porijnti ... ntaparidya parijnti ... itranapondtldya
parijnti ... pahiwya/inya parijdntL Nidd I 426,32-34 (ad 943):
mOna ca parijneyy
mnam lihi parinnhi porijneyya, htaparinnya iTronaporinnya pahnaparinnya. For the Jain idea of give
up in parijnti se EV II p. 95 (adTiff 168), and FED $.v. parinhd. Cf. 254
445 and 943, and mrfvdam pariharet, MBh III 2074.
203. Pj U 252.11-34: evam patipanno bhikkhu anupubbena arohattamaggam potvd sabbam chandargam virjetum samatho hon
204. Pj n 252.31 : marondbhOvena pnnTtatthenn v/f ambia*-. For amata see
the note on 80.
Pj II 253.1-3: ranhsamkhtavndbhdvato nibbdnam cavandbhdvato
accutan li samvannitam padam. This explanation suggests that the text
which Pj II was commenting upon read nibbdnam padam, which is the
reading of Be. If this is the correct reading, we should take nibbdnam in
apposition to padam accurata: quepchtng. the unshakable state See,
however, the note on 1086.
203. Potkunopa see EV II. p. 98 (ad ThT 380). See Warder (1967. $244).
In p5da c there is resolution of the sixth syllable.
206. The -rifl* in unnametave is probably by analogy with panam. Cf.
unnameyya 366 92S ; anunnata 702 ; uniamoti 829 ; unnati 830. Cf. ontia
p. 1 1 1 .8, which is perhaps by analogy with panila. We have onila at Pj II
456,15. For spontaneous'retroflexion see the note on 100.
Pj II253J?-3b: kim annatra odassan thapetvd ariyamaggena ariyasoccadassondbhdvam kim aidan tassa evam unnamdvajdnanakdronam siyd ti.
Brough (1962, p. 254) translates: How can this be, except as the result of
ignorance?". For ondatra in the sense of except see the note on p. 15.J.
207-21. MunigSifrt. It is possible that this is the Muni gaihd which Atoka
mentions in the Calcutta-Bair5t Edict Sec the Introduction ($ IS).

I. Uragovagga

20?

The metres aie Sloka (207), Tristubh (208-11 213 215-17), Jagall (220-21)
and mixed Tri$tubWJagatT (212 214 218 -19).
207. For the double ablative ending -6to in sanihav&to to avoid the
opening
see the note on 198.
208*-9. For these two verses see Morris (1885. pp. 44-4<S).
For amippavecchati < onu-pra-yacchati with palatalisation of -a- > -e- after
-y- (which is then replaced by a glide -v-) see the note on 3.
In pSda b there is contraction o f the sixth and seventh syllables into one
long syllable. See the note on 61.
20$. Pj II 256.9 foil.: yjtam ucchijj ti yo ktsmincid eva vatthusmtmjtam
bhlam nibbatiam kilesam, yath uppannkusaloppahnam hoti, toth
vyamanto tasmim vatthusmim puna anu .attanavasena ucchinditv. yo
angato pi kileso laihrpapaccayasamodhne nibbattitum abbimukhibhtatt vattamnasamipe vauamnalakkhanena jyanto ti vuccati. rod
ca na ropayeyya jdyantam, yath anuppannkusalnuppdo hoti, tath
vyamanta na nibbatteyy li attho. 1 supply a comma after jyaniam, which
1 take to be the object of ropayeyya. E* (p. 35 note 12) says jyantaqisecms
to be ari old error (-nr- may represent -rr- or -r- ' K" '
nn e,,00'stion
about the correct reading.
Pj TI 356.29: ekantanikkilesaiya kam setthatthena v *kam\ muninan ti
munim munisu v ekam, i.e. muninam is being explained as either the
accusative singular of muni Oi as the genitive plural (= muninam) to be
taken with ekam **a wandering one of the sages**.
<36>209.Pj II 257.11-13:pamya bljan ti yam tesata votthnam bijam
abbisonkhraviiiiinom tarn pantJya himsitx vadhitv.
Pj li 257.1^-21 : so evanlpo buddhamuni nibbnasacehikriydya jtiyd
maranassa co ontobhOtassa nibbnassa ditthatt jtikhayantodasst.
For the alternation sin-lsn- see the note on 66. For the phrase upeii sankham
cf.749 9H i 074In pSda c -fin munf is m.c. In pSda c -kh- in -khaya- is m.c. See Pj 11 p. 696.
210. Pj U 258.8-10: ndyfi/iarf it tassa tassa nvesanassa nibbattakam
kusalam akusalom vd na karoii.
There is resolution of the first syllable in pSda b.
In pda c -f in muni and in pSda d -f in ntiyuhaif are m.c.
211 . Pj II 261.9-10: vibhvanattho hi ettha v-saddo.
In pda b -tf- in aniipaiittam is m.c. For -a in tonha-[k)khaye m.c. in pda c
see Pj II p.699.

208

The Group o f Discourses

212. For akhila see 477 540 I59 1147. Nidd II Ne 237.1s: akhilo ti, rgo
khilo doso khito moho khilo kodho khilo upandho ... pe ...
sabbkusalbhisonkhr khild. te khila buddltassa bhogavato pahind
ucchimtaml tlvotihukat anabhvomkat yaiim anuppdadhamm.
fsm buddhi akhilo.
Pdas abd are Tristubh; pSdsc is JagatT.
223. This verse has seven pSdas. Pdas c-e do not seem original, but appear
to have been inserted to explain avedharnunam. They are identical with 71ac. mutatis mutandis.
<37> 2x4. Pj II 265.1: ogahane manussnam nahnatUthe. The word
ogahana also occurs at Pj II 434.3$, in a context with osarono and tiitha,
but PE does not list the word avaghana to which it refers s.v. ogahana.
CPD lists avaghana from Ssdd 569.11 as the meaning of the root pf/-. I
therefore take it here in the' sense of "oppression, when it is referring to a
man. I do not understand why a post in a bathing place should be singled
out for mention in the simile, but if there is any point in this, then I assume
that a pun is intended upon two meanings of ogdhana: A man should
stand firm in the midst of oppression as a post (in a bathing place) stands
firm.
Pj II 26s.6 foil.: yasmup vatihusmifp pare tiithiyd vd dMe vd varmavasena
uparimam v arannavasena heuhimam vd vdcom pariyantam vadami,
tasmim vatthusmim anunayam v patigham v anpajjamno tdibhvena
yo ogahane thambho-r-iva bhavaif ti. MW lists paryantikd (lex.) loss of
all good qualities, depravity, but I think the meaning here is limit, end.
extremity : they speak an extreme thing with the voice. For pariyania cf.
537 p. 106.17 577 and see the note 00 964.
For sandhi -r* in thombhO t-iva see the note on 29.
Pdas ac are JagafT; pSdas bd arc Tristubh.
Pda a does not scan correctly, since it gives the opening------for a
JagatT pda with a redundant fifth syllable. We shoutd perhaps read : y'
ogdhane, and assume the sandhi of -o + o- > -o*. Cf. sabbas occhijja at
Mhv LX 54. and sabbo ta/ri Jano ojindyatu (in a VaitSIfya verse at Ja VI
4,19*) which would scan better if we read ja n .
Pdda b docs not scan correctly. We should perhaps delete vc, assuming
that it is a gloss which has entered the text. If genuine, vded is perhaps a
truncated form. For -d -dye see the note on tto. There is a v.1. vdcam.
215. ln pSa a there is a v.l. uju for tijjn. but the metre assures ujju. It is
possible that we are to see here the development of r > ur, i.e. rju > *urju >
ujjw. cf. irubbeda < *irgvedo < rgveda. With thitatta cf. AMg thiyappa
(Xyr I.6.5).

I. U rogava gga

209

ln pda b we should read jigucchatt m.c. We could read kammihi or


kammahi m.c. See Pj H p. 6St.
216. There is resolution of the first syllable in pda b. In pda c we can
cither omit so or assume a redundant fifth syllable.
217. For the syntactical compound nipacca-vdi with an absolutive as the
first element see the note on 72. For the historical -d in yod oggato see the
note on p. 13.10.
ln pda b there is a redundant fifth syllable, which we could avoid by
reading labhe[tho).
zi$. Padas acd are Tristubh; pda b is Jagatf.
ln pdas aec there is a redundant fifth syllable, although we could avoid it
in pda b by reading npa-.
219. Pj II 275.19-ai: cotunnam ganthnam chinnatt chnnagoruham,
tlitthiy tanhya v kalthaci anissitati asiiam. coiunnom savnam
obhvena andsovan ti vultam boti. For the four gonthas, see D IH 230.1S.
Pdas abd are Tristubh; pda c is Jagatf.
In (Ada b .there is resolution of the eighth syllable, or we could ignore the
svarabhakti vowel in atiiariya.
<3$> 220. For pnine as the masculine accusative plural of an in stem. cf.
>nnine2$2 (= Mil 4 14.2*) ; gam ine 587; -vdsine 682 ; -d ossdvlne, M I
>69.33; mladhrinc Ja VI 543.1?*. See Geiger (1994. $95.22) and EVII, p. 83
(adThl 101 ).
For amomo cf. Ski ninnante (Bh.G. 3.630; 18.53 MBh XII.149.3X
In pdas abc there is resolution of the first syllable.
221.

In pda d there is resolution of the first syllable.

II. Clavagga
<39> 222-4*}. Por *he Clavagga see Jayautckrama (UCR VT, 4, p. 251).
222-3$. For (he Ratanasutta = Khp VI = Mvu I 290 foil, see feyawickrama
(UCR Vn.4, pp. 262-6$). See also Divy 340. The sulla is In Tristubh or
mixed Tristubh/fegaiT metre. In 234 Ihe refrain idam pi ... suvaithi horn is
added after i\vo p5da$. giving a four-pSda verse. In 224 225 226 it i$ added
after three p&hs, giving five-pada wises. In 227 22$ 229 230 232 233 235 it
is added after four p3da$. giving six-pSda verses. In 231 it is added after six
p5das, giving an cight-pSda verse.
222. For tbt r t l alternation in antalikkba < anfani;sa see Luders (Beob 42) and the note on 29.
Pdas abc are Tri$tubh; pda.d is JagatT.
In pSda b va is m.c.
223. Pj I 168.2-5 yfiyam tthi upoddavehi upaddul mnusT pajit. lass
mdnusiy pojSya mittabhfivam hiiojjjhsayatam paccupa/thapeih ti. keci
pana mnusiyam li pathanti. tarn bhummanhsambhav na yujjaiL See
ft&namo-(MIR, p. 182 noie to). Ec p. 39 note 3 quotes mdnusikan with
This must be a mistake for -y-, although NJvu 1 294.13* has manuyyok proj
and 295a* has mfinusikaprajHye. For the kJy alternation sec the note on 2213
Pdas abd are Tristubh ; pida c is Jagatt.
In pSda b there is a redundant fifth syllabic.
224. For hurwn see feyawickrama (UCR VII. 4. p. 263 note 24) and EV I.
p. 121 (adTh 10).
The metre is Tristubh.
225. Note the sandhi o f -am oCC- > -oCC- in pida c. and see the note 00
693. For historical -d in yad ojjhagfi see 'be note on p. 13.10.
PSdas aede are Tristubh ; pSda b is fegati.
In p3dab-Tin -munti* m.c.
226. Pj I 180.31-181.3: tattha bujjhilfi kaccfiitl l fidimi /inverni buddho.
tiriamo pasamsantyo cfi li settho. buddho co io seuho co buddhasettho
tinubuddhapaccckobuddhasafikhtesu vii btiddhesn sellilo li buddhoseuho. We are (herefote being given an alternative: "Buddha and best" or
"best of Buddhas. I follow the latter in my translation. See also de long

210

H. C la v a g g o

2 11

(971.P-300). Cf. 383 1126 and Ap 96.3 with the v.l. buddham selfham for
buddha-settham.
In pida b ham s yam after -ro, via -an Ram.
PSdas bde are Tristubh; piida ac are Jagait.
In pada a -f in parivannayl is m.c.
<jo> 12j . Pj I j$2.io foil.: atth ti tesam gananaparicchedo, le hi canro
ca patipantt catturo ca phale thit ti attho homi. For the eight puggalas
s Pp 73.5-9Pj I 182.12-14: satom pasauh ti sappurisehi buddhapaccekabuddha
svakehi anchi co monusschi pastth. Here satani cannot mean "whom
those at peaee ... *\ ns Nnamoli translates. For a comment on the
alternative explanation, talcing atthasatam as **108 , see Nnamoli (MIR. p.
19$ note 32). As LOdcrs (Beob.. p. 81 note 1) points out. Mvu 1291.16* reads
sod protest, showing a development through a dialect where /- > -d* or
where both -f- and -d- > -y-. For other examples of the -t-l-d- alternation see
the note on 193.
For mahapphatni, showing a development from mahnt- rather than mah-,
see the note on 191.
Padas abde are Tristubh: pSda c is Jagaii.
228. For nikkmino sec EVI. p.224 (ad Th 691). Pj I 184.30-33 (ad Khp VI):
miUmino ti kyc co jM te ca anapekha hutv piii-dhurena viriyena
sabba-kitesehi koto-nikkhamand, tena tesam viriya-sampannom somdh
kkhandham dasseti. Pj II 605.10-11 (ad 1131): nikkmo ti pahfnokmo:
aikkhmo li pi ptho. vriyav ti attho nikkhanto v nktisnbpokkh. For
vigayha plunging in, cf. amatogadha.
The metre is Tristubh.
229. Pj ! 185.31-24: ndakhto ti nagaradvravinivRranottham ummrobbhontarc atiha v6 Jaso v6 hatth pathavhn khanitvti kontasso stiro*
drumoyotlhambhass' clam adhivocanam. Pj II 185.3s: avecce ... panya
ojjhogahetv. Pj II 368.16(ad378) : avecca pativijjhisv. For avecca cf. Sia
aveti lo understand .
Pad cef are Trisjubh; pda abd are Jagati.
In pda d we should ignore the svarabhnkti vowel in atiya-.
230. Pj 1 187.1 foli. : na otthamom bltavam diyami, sattamabhave evo
pana vipossonnm Orabhitv arahnttam ppunanit ti, i.e. they are satto
tkhonuparamas. See Pp 15.31 foli-

212

The Group o f Discourses

Por (he v.l. bhusam pamatul for bhusappamatt, showing (he -ppU-inp(CC/NC) alternation, see the note on 163.
The metre is Triuubh.
In p3da a we should ignore the svarabbakti vowel in ariya-.
In pda d (he metre U improved if we read atthamam in place of atthamam.
231. This verse is quoted at Kv 179.S* foil.
Pj 1 189.12-13 : lattha costro apy mima niraya-tiracchna-pelti-visaya>
asura-ky. Pj 1 189.11-13: ekanipte vuttni mtughta-pitughtd'
arahantaghdta-lohituppda-sarnghabheda-anasauluSr uddesokammnt ti veditabbni.
For ca .. .c a ... , as soon as, see EVII, p. 94 (adThl 165).
For the historical -d in yad atthi in pda d sec the note on p. 13.10.
Pj I 1S8.1 : sah vd ti saddhim yeva. The metre of p5da a is defective. In sah
is presumably m.c. See Luders (Beob., $221 note 1 Ip. 154)), who
compares sah pi. If v is for evo, we might have expected sah* eva. which
would improve (he metre by giving a redundant fifth syllable. The- same
result can be obtained-by reading sah v<a>.
The metre is Tristubh.
In pda b tayas su is presumably m.c. In pda f // in abhilhnni is m.c.
232. In p3da b vc may be a truncated form for veya (see the note on
110), or a genuihe historical instrumental of vdc-.
Pdas bedef are Tristubh; pda a is JagaiT.
In pda c we should read abhabb m.c.
In pda c Khp reads paticchdya. In E? - in *cchodya is m.C233. Pj I 192.12-2$: paramamhitya odesayi ti,paramamhitQy ti enha ca
gihbondha-sukhattham anunsiko, ayam port' au ho: paramahitya
nibbnya adesayt ti. For the insenion of -m- m.c. see the note on 181-82.
Jayawickrama calb this an aluk-samsa (UCR VII. 4, p. 265). See the note
on 188. Pj I 192.2-4 : vane pngumbo vonoppagumbho, svyam vana
ppagtimbhe ,/r vutto, evam pi hi valium labbhati **atthi savitakkavicre
atthi nviutkknvivre matte (* Kv 413.14 foil., but the endings there are in -0
in *) "sukhe dukkhe ji\x" (= M I 517.13-14 i 0 I 56.16)// disu viya. The cty
is therefore taking vonappogumbhe as a masculine nominative singular of
an -a stem in -e. i.e. an Eastern form, a so-called Mgadhsm, and giving
other examples from the canon. For other possible nominative singular
forms in -e see ihc notes on 427 431 453. and WD, p. 152 (ad Dhp 375), For

II. Cjavagga

213

other Eastern features see the note on 7 . The * in phussitagge is m.c. It


may stand for phassitagge, with labialisation of -a- > -u- after -ph-, or it
may bave arisen by analogy with phusati. See dc Jong (1971. p.300). See
the note on 61.
Pdas abdef are Tristubh; pda c is JagatJ.
In p5da b we should read pathamasmi m.c. with the v.l. and F. Von Hinber
(berblick, 309) suggests reading pathamamhi, which would also be
metrical.
234. PIdas ed are Tristubh; pdas ab are JagatT.
235. P| I I95.i$>*6: noveri ri sampati vattamnam, natthisambhavan ri
avijjomnaptubhvam. It would appear that the cty. is explaining natthisambkavam as a compound in agreement with navam. I punctuate n' atthi
sambkavam, and assume that sambkavam is a present participle in
agreement with navam: "there is nothing new coming into existence".
Pdas bedef are Tristubh ; pda a is JagatT,
There is a redundant fifth syllable in pda b. In pda c -c/i- in -chand is
m.c.
<42> 23d. Pdas abd are Tristubh: pda c is JagatT.
In pda b vo is m.c.
237-38.1 assume that tathgata does not refer to dhamma ami sangha, but
the pattern of these two verses has been based upon 236. I therefore
understand and".
Pdas abd are Tristubh: pda c is JagatT.
239-52. magandhasuiia. According to Pj II 293.23 foil, three verses are by
Tissa, nine by Kassapa. and two by the rccensionisls. For a brahman called
magandha see DPPN (s.v.). The metres are Tristubh. JagatT. mixed
Tristubh/Jagatf. and possibly (sec the note on 249) mixed Tristubh/
Jagatl/Sloka.
239-41. These three verses were uttered by the brahman to the Buddha
Kassapa.
239. PEO (s.v. 0osoii) lists atamano with this reference and states ($.v.
akhamna) that it is the reading of all Mss. This docs not seem to be
correct. It is listed as a v.l. in E* and in the lemma al Pj II 284.4- l< would not
be metrical cither here or in 240. PD calls onhamana spurious", but I do
not know why. For onhamno cf. 240 and for the derivation < ainoimlno see
Luders (Beob.. $ 178). For the scansion sec Warder (1967. 278).

214

The Croup o f D iscourses

Pj II 2S4.3-4: soran ti santo ariyd. I ilo not believe that sa tarn can be
nominative plural. I translate it as genitive plural with dhammena.
For dinglaka- m.c. see Pj II p. 699. Pj II2S305 and F read ciiigulaka-. For
mHl<X [p)pha!om m.c. see Pj (I p. 749. The double consonant -pph- is
required in pattapphalam and gavippholam tax. in a JagalT pda. Paths acd
are Tristubh.
240. For orihamno see the note on 239. In pda b payaia means given,
offered**, not pure** with PED. For slnam as a genitive plural see Alsdorf

0974 . P* *3>P jll 284.14: yod anhamno ii tattha tla-kdro padasandhikuro, ayatn pan*
aitlto: yam kiiicid eva ... sukatom'. For -d- as a sandhi consonant see the
note on p. 16.7. 1 prefer to interpret -d in yad as historical. See the note on
p. 13.10PSda a is JagatT; pSdas bed are Tri$tubh.
In p3da d -f in bhunjotl is m.c.
<43> 24X. AD six pidas are Tristubh. Irr pda b tv- does not make position
in rvam.
242. Pj U 286.2statesm;;/ienaiu;;on ti nirasthaknatthajanakagdSithapnriydpMianam. The metre of this verse p Jagad. In pda a -c/i- in -cheduis m.c. In pSda b there are redundant Fifth and sixth syllables, but the metre
can be repaired by excluding [-vado] m.c. For nikatf me. in pda b see Pj II
p. 749243. In pda d esa seems to refer to the statement in pSdas abc. not to >*e. It
is probable, therefore, that we should therefore translate ye here as the
equivalent of Latin si quis. See the note on 91.
Pj li 286.26: natthikodilthf ti ' V atthi dinnanm ti ddi-dasuvattftukamicchd
dilihisamanngai.
Pj II 287.1* durannoy ti duvinrUSpayd sandiifhipardmsa-dnaghiduppotinissaggitd-somonngatd. Pj II 293.7(ad 251) explains: kenaci
netum asakkuneyyattd durannayo dunneyyo. Dhp-a II 173.4 (ad Dhp 92):
durannay na sokkd pafinQpetum.
The metre of.this verse is JagatT. According to Pj II 286.26 foil. difthf is
nominative plural. For the nominative plural in -1 see Geiger (1994, 95.1 )
and cf. jhAyt 1009. For (he accusative plural io -isee the note on 606.
In p3da a we should read idha m.c. Cf. 247. In pSda b -i- in asueika is m.c.
In pda c we should read dittht m.c.

II. Clavogga
244. ln pda d esa seems to refer to the statement in pSdas abe, not to ye in
pda a. It is, therefore, probable that we should translate ye here as the
equivalent of Latin si quis. See the note on 91.
Pj II 287.9: ye liikhas ti ye lkhd riirasd attakilamothdnuyuttd. For the rl!
alternation in lkhasd see LQders (Bcob., 38.1), and the note on 29. The
v.l. lkharasd is unme.trical and is probably a gloss or "etymology which
has replaced rkhas. For glosses entering the text sec the note on 44.
For the suggestion that mittaddu contains the root dru- rather than druh-,
see the note on 51.
The cty quotes a v.l. dddna- for addna-.
The tr-'re of this verse is Jagatl.
<44>24$. For the assimilation of vowels in usuyyd (< asy), see the note
on 52.
Pj IL 288.3-9: mado ti jdtimado gottatnado drogyamado. quoting Vibh
345.4-6. It also quotes from Vibh 357.32 for mdyd, and from Vibh 355.21 for
tnndtimno.
Pdas ab are Trislubh; pdas cd are Jagali. In pdas a and b there is a
redundant fifth syllable,
246. In p5da d esa seems to refer to the statement in pdas abc. not to ye in
pSda a. It is, therefore, probable that we should translate ye here as the
equivalent of Latin si quis. See the note on 9t.
Pj II 289.1 : inaghiascak ti ... imrni gahetvd tasse appaddneno inaghdtd pesumena scok ca.
Pj II 289.5: dhammaiihapatirdpakatt parinlpika ; atha vd idhd ti Sdsane.
ptitirprk ti dussVd. te hi. yasmd nesam iriydpaihasompadddi
sUabbatam paiirupam atthi. tosata patirpikd. patirpikd eva ptirpikd.
Jayawkkrama lakes vohdra as "trade'*, against PED.
The metre of this verse is JagatT.
247. In pida d esa seems to refer to the statement in pdas abc. not to ye in
pSda a. It is. therefore, probable that we should translate ye here as the
equivalent of Latin si quis. See the note on 91.
For paresam dddya the cty suggests also dividing the words as pare
samdiva. We might also think of pore sam dddya. Sec my suggestion of
reading pare som abhijigisati at Th 743. CL EV I. p. 231 (ad Th 743 ). For the
rll alternation in ludda < rudra see LOdcrs (Bcob., 77 and ?? note 1 ) and
the note on 29. Pj II 289.24-96: dussUaluddd ti dussild durdedrattd. tuddd

2 l6

The Croup o f Discourses

ca kuriirakammant lohitapnitdyo. macc/iaghtakamigobandhakaskunikddayo idha adhippet.


The metre of this verse is Jagat. In pda a we should read Tdha ntc. See Ihe
note on 243.
248. Although E* and Pj II 290.10 divide etesii giddhd. we should probably
read eie sugiddJi, since there is no clear indication of who the persons or
things referred to as etesn might be. 1 translate eie sugiddh.
The metre of this verse is Jagatl. In pSda a we should read viru{d]dh- m.c.
249. Pj I! 291 jo :

m a n t t i ved a .

a ss a m e d h d iy a n ti

ca

Pj II 29t. u - u : y a n n a m u tiip a se v a n li ti
u tu p a s e v p m l n u m o g im h e

u tilp a s e v n u li. c a

ta p o n a tth n a sev a n tl v a s te rukkham lasex

h e m a n te ja to p p a v eso ru .

For sandhi *m* in yalla-m -uspasevanc see the note on 132. See CPD (s.v.
u ta 9).

In pSda d amarli bab tap is a split compound, as CPD states. For split
compounds see the note on 151.
In p3da a ihcte is contraction of ihe short sixth and seventh syllables into
pne long syllable. See the note on 61. PSda b can scan as two loka pSdas
(with the cadence
in both pddas) if wc omit the ^varabhalui vowel
in nuggiyam, or it will scan as a Jogati mi a mixed Trisjubli/Jagail verse if
we omit mundiyam paid with F. These words were doubtless added because
of naggiyam. etc., being present In p5da c we should scan na aggi- 10 get a
Jagatl pda.
<4S> 250. Pj II 292^5 : dhitisampadtiya dhfro. i.e. ilhfra is being explained
in the sense of "firm*. I assume that.it is the homonym dhTra wise, and
translate accordingly.
Ec reads vijitindriyo, but Pj II 292.11-13 clearly reads vidit-: vidttindriyo
care ti iidta-parihndya ehaf indriydni vidhvd pkatni katvd careyya. For
the d/j alternation see Luders (Beob., 118), but some o f (he examples he
gives may well be due to dissimilation. Cf. somvijiiamfv.i. samviditam 935.
Pj li 566.1s reads samvijitam with v.l. samviditam. Since all -j- sounds
become -d in Sinhalese, (his change may be a Sinhalesism (see Sadd,
Index, s.v. udif), but it could equally well be a wrong back-formation from a
dialect or dialects where both -j- and </- became -y*. Cf. AMg punsdniya
with Pili puristijnlya (< parata jneya).
There is a v.l. viril- for vidit-- For (he dtr alternaiion see the note on 81.
Cf. na Uppai chana-paena vfre. y5r 1.2 6.5; ojjaviyam maddaviyam. 1.6.5.3
(cf. Utt 2948).

II. Clavagga

J17

Pdas ab are Jagatf; pSdas cd are Tristubh.


In p5da c the metre is improved if we read -dukha for -dukkha-. In pda d
we should read lippatf m.e.
251-52. These verses are ascribed to the saAgtikras by Pj U 292.30. See the
note on 30.
251. For durannaya see the note on 243.
For nirmogandho see PED and BHSD. See also 717.
The metre of this verse is Jagatl.
In pda c pp- in ppakdsayi is m.c.
252. Pj II 293.9: sutvna buddhassa subhsitam padam sukathitam
dhammadesanam sutvd. Forsubhdsita cf. 325. Pj II 333.5 (ad 325): anno
pi buddhagunapaiisarnyunadini subhsitni*
For the genitive Tathdgatassa with the vetb vandi in pSda c. cf. Satlhuno
in 547f and 573d, although in both these verses the word padc occurs in the
previous pSda. Here the cty understands pJtAn 366 and 102S vandoti is
constructed with an accusative. We C0 ,d perhaps see the -mr-/-sr*
ahemation here and understand Tathdgaram sa. For the NC/CC alternation
see the note on 168.
Pdas ab are Jagatl: pdas cd are Tristubh.
In p5da b there is a redundant fifth syllable.
ln pda b we should read dukha- m.c. For nfed- nr.c. sec Pj II718.
253-57. Hirisutta. These verses = Ja III I96. io*-23*. but with, some
differences of readings. See Oldenberg (1912. p. 30 note 2). Pj II 297.1-3 tells
of a great ascetic who asks four questions by mind {manosa): kidis mino
na sevitobbo. kfdiso sevitobbo, kfdiso payogc payunji/abbo. kirn rafdnam
aggan ti. The Buddha gives four answers in 25>25S256 257.
253. Ja bas lovham for sokhdham in pda %?and scyyni fot sayhni in
pda c.
The metre isTrijtubh.
254. For porijnli see the note on 202.
The metre is Sloka. Ja has different pdas ab.
<46> 255. The metre is Tristubh. Pdas ab ano d have the opening - - .
In pda c we should read seti m.c. Ja has abheio parchi in pda d and also
at 193.1* where the veise recurs. The order oewotds in Sn requires parchi
m.c. CPD (s.v. anupossin) calls this tmesis. For tmesis see the rote on 53.

2i8

The Croup o f Discourses

256 57. Tbe metre is $loka.


256. The etymology given for nisamsg in FED is incorrect. It is < Skt
nriamsa, which is a vrddhi formation noun from anrfamsa = a + nr +
lams- from Sams- 10 hurt, injure** (Skt DhStuptha; see MW. s.v.) net
injuring men. not cruel. Cf. 784.
257* This verse = Dhp 20$. For niddara see Brough (1962. p. 183). For piti
see ibid. p. 244 (ad GDhp 224).
p. 46.11-269. The MahSmaAgalasutta is also found at Khp V. See
iayawjckrama (UCR VII. 4. p. 25). It is translated by EJ. Thomas (193$.
PP-- 164-65).
25S-69. The metre is loka.
259. Khp reads pjoneyynam.
260. There is resolution of the first syllable in pSda a.
263. fiere and in 267 Mss B** omit ca at the end of pSda a. presumably not
realising that in dhamma-eariy we have either a svarabhakti vowel which
we can ignore, or resolution of the sixth syllable. See Warder (1967, p. 74
note 2 ), who states that such readings are not likely lo have been based on
any ancient tradition.
264. For [ap)pamdda with the locative see LUders (Beob., 193 note 2), and
c f. 933In pSda a the long -r- in viro* is m.c. 10 give the pethy cadence.
265. In pSda b there is no metrical reason for -f in saniutthT, since the
opening - - - - i s tolerated.
266. Pj I 149.1: khanti mima adhivsanaWianti. See Ninamoli (i960, p. 16s
note 92). For the translation of so and do-vacussatH see Nnamoli (i960,
p. 161 note 9t).
ln pda a the long -I in khaniT is m.c. to avoid the of :ning *

267. For the omission of ca in pSdas a and c in som : Mss. because of the
scribes* failure to ignore the svarabhakti vowels in -cpriyd and -kiriyd. see
the note on 263.
In pSda d there is resolution of (he first syllable, and the loss o f m in
saccfina is m.c.
269. Pj 1 154.14-155.4: sobbollila m-aparjit A l i ... mh-ktiro c ' etiha padasandhikaranamatto li vinAlabbo. For the sandhi -m* in sabbauha-m-

II. C to v a g g a

ii9

... sobboiiha idhalokaparalokesu thnasankomandisu ca sotthim


gacchanti, blasevandihi ye uppajjeyyum savavightoporilh, tsom
obhv sotlhim gacchanti anupaddut khemino appatibhay gacchanti. ti
vuttam hoti, anunOsiko c* ettho gthbandhasukhottham vutto ti
veditabbo. For the insertion of m* m.c. see the note on l 8 l '82. It is,
however, not clear to me what the cty is referring to here, ftinamofi (MRI,
p. 169 note 105) says that the statement refers to the final nasal in sotlhim,
making an adverbial formation which replaces the normal nominative
plural adjective sotthi. There are two objections t this view: (1 ) there is no
evidence that an adjective sotthi exists, since the word is quoted only as a
noun in PED, and the same holds true for Skt svasti'i (2) there is no
difference metrically between sotthim and sotthi. It seems clear that the
alternation must be between sotthim and sotthi (which is quoted as a v.l.
from Ms BK). Both these forms must be adverbial accusatives, one from the
feminine and the other from the neuter (svojri is quoted by MW ($.v.) as
both feminine and neuter). The neuter form also occurs at D I 96.18 : sotthi
kumro poitomo bhovissati (with no v.l.). It may be that the cty was
thinking of this passage,'and thought that ihc'/isvJro in Sn had-to be
explained, although forms with a nasal do occur elsewhere in the canon; e.g.
sottlum agotom L)hp 2 19 (glossed anupaddvena. Dhpa 1)1 293.10);
sotthim kdtum. Pv IV 6:4 (= sotthim nirupaddavam ktum, Pv-a 262.13);
sotthim got. Ja VI 586 .* (no gloss). The statement that -m- is m.c. is,
however, not very helpful, since both
(paihy) and - , - - * are
equally metrical here.
In p3da d there are nine syllables. The metre could be corrected by deleting
tom or by reading uttam\
p. 47.14-273. SOciiomasuita. This sutta is also found at S 1 207.t-208.4-The
name means needle hair'*, with reference to the hairs of the yakkhas which
were like needles, so the reading must be suer-- See Jayawickrama (UCR VII,
'.PP- 39- 44).
<d8> p. 48.3.S. For the historical -d in eiad avoca see the note on p- ! 3.10.
p. 48.3. Pj II 302 .at : Khoro somankappam disvd ho. SiteUomo pana "yo
bhyoti,na so stimano somanapatirpakan pana samanako hoti* ti
evomladdhtko. tann tdisam Bhagavantam mahiiamno n* so samano,
samanako so ti sahas va valva puna vimomsiulmo ha : "yva
jnmi " ti.

p. 48.3,9. bhyas marnano tam bhymi. These are either examples of bhTwith the accusative, or mota and tam could be ablatives in -om. See Luders

220

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(Bcob.. 195). In $76 bhaya occurs with the ablative, and in 964 bhT- occurs
with the genitive. For other examples of the ablative in -urn see the notes on
44S 828 925, and WD. p. 73 (ad Dhp 49).
p. 48.9,13. For the sandhi o f -o + a- > -itf- in khvhan see the note on p. 15.J.
p. 4S.1S. For the historical -d in yad kamkJtasi see the note on p. 13.10.

270-7J. Pj II 303a foil.: kumrak dhamkam iV ossajatui if yath gmadrok tilant kikam fllend pdc bandhitv ossajanti khipanii, evam
kttsolamanam akusaiavitakk kulo samunhya ossojantt li pucchati. Spk 1
304.6 foli, (ad S 1 207.29*): kumrai dhankam iv* ossajanti ti yath
kumrak kkom gahetv ossajonii. khipami. evam ppavitakk kuto
somutthya ciliom ossojonii li pucchati.'ln both verses I follow Pj in
reading dhamkam, which also occurs as a vJ. in E?, instead o f vomkam. It
should be noted that despite E* (p. 48 note 1 1) Smith preferred to read
dhamkam in Pj It. I derive dhamka from Skt dhvdnksa, as befits the ciys
gloss: kkam. It is clear that the reading dhamkam was in the text available
to both dies. For the va/dha alternation see 4he note on 44 and cf. the
alternation dhaAka/vaiika at Vv-a 3344. Jayawtckrama (UCR VHI 1, p. 41)
suggests reading dhamk, but (his must be a mistake. Wayman (1 9 & .
pp. 515-16 ) suggests that dhahkamAf a mistake for Slct dhatrx ('wetnurse"). a reading which was subsequently confirmed by Enomoto*s
examination of canonical verses in the Yogaerabbmi (1989. p. 27). where
the verb is Sraytmte: whence arising do thoughts rely on. the mind, as
young children rely on a nurse**. Wayman suggests that the Pli reading is
somehow connected with the word anka curve of hip**, in which case the
preceding v* is perhaps < va < evo Very young boys*. He very rightly
points out the need to add a component from the Northern Buddhist
tradition to get a more complete picture of early Buddhism. This, however,
is not my aim here. I have set out to translate the text of the Sn as we have
inherited it. making only the minimum amount of change I think necessary
for this purpose. The establishment of an early Buddhist form of the text
is a task for elsewhere. See also Levitt. 1993.
The German translation and Ee of S take mona and vitakkd as a compound,
take the two words separately.
These verses are Tristubh. There is resolution of the first syllable in pitia b
in both verses.
270. Pj II 303.10-13: kutoniddnA ti ktmnidnd kimhetukd, paccaltavacanassa 10 ddeso veditabbo, samdse c* asso lopbhvo ; aiha v
nidn ti jdtd, uppann ti aitho. PED (s.v. paceatta) states that it is the

II. Clavagga

221

accusative case. This is a mistake for the nominative, because the Indian
tradition analysed kim in compounds such as kimnidna as nominative. Sec
the note on 7. These are, of course, bahuvrihi compounds: having what as
a cause?". Sometimes these compounds occur as split compounds, e.g. kirn
su samyojano toko (having what bond is the world?** what bond does
the world have?", S ! 39,18; it* ime kat ... manuss (having what
donc/decd are these men?" = what have these men done?"). ThI 34 (Thi-a
60j 5 : ime Mjagahamanussd kim-katd). Cf. ayant puriso kim kata, 0 II 224
* 234 a 28.26; kim sii 'dlta bhii Ja IV 1 10.5*. For split compounds see the
note on 151.
271. Pj il 30P7 : ito li attabhdvam sandhy ha.
<49>272. Pj 11 304.S: sneha e larthd-sneha. In pada d Ec = S I 207.35*. bnp
162 has mSluv slam iV otatam ; Ud3na-v 11.10 reads slavm mlut
yath \ Ja V 452.i6*-i7* reads rattacittam ativethayanti nam sta (m.c.)
mluvalai knane; CDhp 330 reads matuo va vilada vani. Cf. Ja III 398.6:
sakalarukkham ottharind, and for otlhar- see Emencau (1949, p. 362).
For mluv/m&lut (< *mtuk) see Ldcrs (Bcob.. $91). and for ukaf-uva
with the -v- glide see the note on'lOO. For ihq sn/sir^ alternation see the
note on 36.
The metre is loka. In pada c wc should lead puthi2 m.cHwith S, to avoid the
opening * * - . We could make p5da d scan by ignoring
in mluv.
but this should probably not be done, as it is not a svarabhakti vowet. See
Pj II p. 748. It is probably better to assume resolution of the fourth syllabic.
273. Pj U 305.1 : yatcnidSnan ti bhvanapumsakantddeso. Cf. Thi-a 6.6:
sukhan ti bhAvanopumsokaniddeso.
The meue is Tristubh.
274-83. Dhammacariyasutta. Pj II 305.26 calls this sutra Kapila-suita.
The metre is $Ioka.
274. Pj II 309.12-1 j : dhaitunacariyan ti kAyasucaritAdidliiimmacarixatn.
brohtaacariyan ti iiioggobratimacoriyanr, etad hu vasunomnn ti etam
ubhayatn pi lokiyalokuttaram tucoritom soggainokkhasukhasamppakatiA
vosuitaman li ohu ariyd vasutfoinam nma uttamaratanom,
anugAmikam attdUnom rjdinam asdhranan ti adhippyo.
Saddhaiissa (1985. p. 32 note t ) analyses the compound as rasa + uttamunt.
and translates vasti as "wealth, jewel**. 1 take it to be vasa + uttama. and take
vasa (Ski vaia} 10 be control, power**.
For the historical

m etad Shu sec the note on p. j 3,.

222

The Crou p o f Discourses

In p2da a we should twice ignore ihc svarabhalcaii vowel in -cariyom. There


arc nino syllables in pida d. We could correct the metre by reading
agdrasmnagriyam.
375. Pj n 309.25 : mukharajdtiko ... phamsavacono. For maga beast used
of human beings, cf. Utt 8.7. For pda d cf. veroni vaddhai oppano, yar
*5-5276. For -/- in avara, cf. visata 1.
277. Pj II 310.6-13 : tathA so evarpo vihesdbhiratarrJ vihesam
bhvirattnam bhdvitatte khTnsavabhikkh Sodhanatiherappabhtitike
"na tumhe Vinayam jnthd na Suttam na Abhidhammam buddhapabbajit" ti ddind nayena vihesanio, upayogappattiyam hi idam samivacanam , atha v yathdvutien' eva nayena vihesam bhdvit
altdnam "karonto ri pthdsedo veditobbo, evan nippariyyam eva sdmivacanam sijjhaii. The cty is therefore explaining vihesam as either equa) 10
vihesanto, with bhdvitattdnam as a genitive plural in the.sense of an
accusative plural, or as a noun, with the verb karonto understood. In this
case the genitive plural is correct. 1 take vihesom as a present participle, but
understand bhdvitattdnam as an accusative singular. Cf. Pj U 330.2*iod
322): bhdviratto ti ty eva moggabhyandya bhdvitacitto-.
27p. Pj D 3tOu6: ganavansiko anekavassiko bohuni vassdni. Cf. Skt gana
"number": ganardfra series of nights'*.
P2da c has onty seven syllables. We could read yo <ca> with Mss B and F.
The cadence is ~ - , which is not generally acceptable.
2S0. Pj II 31 1.17-19: kyikavrrikkamdin vefudnddi bhedenQ ca
pdpdcdrena sa/nanndgatatld pdrdcdram. vesiydipdpagocarato pdpagocaram. See BHSD (s.v. gocara). The vocative here is bhikkhavo. not the
usual MSgadhT bhikkhave. For Eastern forms see the note on 7.
<50>28l. Pj II 3 I 1,19-20: abhinibbijjaydlhd ti vivajjeyydiha md
bhajaydtha. There are variant readings for this verb: Bai -nibbijjiydtha:
B m -nibbojjiydiha; Be nibbajjiydtha; Ce -nibbjjaydiha ; A IV 172.6*
abhinibbojjaydtha. There are therefore two variants: -bbajj-f-bbijj- and
aydthaf-iydtha. I take (he verb to be from abhi-nir-varjayati, with two
palatalisations. Probably nir-vr) is a variant of ni-vrj. See Geiger (1994.
p. 206 note 1). For palatalisation see the note on 3.
Abhinibbijjjaydtha could be a subjunctive in -iha. but is more likely to
be an imperative in -alba, with lengthening m.c. See Caillat (1970, p. 26)
and Norman. 1998. p. 104. Cf. dhar&tha 385. bhavlha 692.

II. Cfavaggt

223

Pj II 311 .26: avakassatha * nikkaddhatha. E* has apa and A IV 172.7* reads


apa-. Pldas cd of this verse and pdas ab of 282 are quoted together as one
verse at MU 414.1-2. which bas cpa-. See LOders (Beob., 161 ). Cf.Thi 84.
282. For the quotation of this verse, split between two verses, at Mil
see the note on 2$ i.
For the masculine accusative plural in -ine see die note on 220. For -mnine
see MW (s.v. mntn) and Bolide (1973. p. 602). Cf. 889 and Utt 17.6 :
asamjoe samjayamannamno.
In plda b there is resolution of the second and fourth syllables.
283. Pdas ab are quoted with psdas cd of 282 at Mil 414.4- For nipaka sec
EV I, p. 143 (ad Tb 83). For the second plural middle imperative ending
-ahvo (< Skt -dhvam) see Geiger (1994. *-6X and cf. 9981030.
pp. 50.10-55.3: BrShmanadhammikasutta. The verses are in Sloka metre, but
see the note on 2S9.
pi50.14.Pj n 313.*: brhmonamahsla ti jdtiyd brhmon mahsOratya
mahsi, yesam tira mdahitvO thapiiam yeva ostikoiisamkham dhonam
atihi, r [brahmano] mahst ti vuecanti. This explanation depends upon
a dialect where r arid / coincide, i.e. an Eastern.diajcct.For such .Eastern
forms see the note on 7
p- 50.17. For sbrOnTya < somrOganTya* with g > y and the contraction of
-ya- > -, see LUdcrs (Bcob.. 101 ) and Edgerton (BHSD. s.v. sarOyanTya).
Cf. srniya 419.
p. 50.19.2S. For the historical -d in eiad avoca see the note on p. 13.10.
2S4. For -d- in arra-d*arr/ta see CPD (s.v. atto-d-attha), and the note on
p. 16.7.
<51 > 285 .Pj II 314.29 foil.: no Inraniiam no dhdniyan ti hiraiiOan ca
brOhmannam ontomaso eoiumsako pi nhosi utth vihisOliyavagodhiimOdisa pubbannparannabhtdam dhniyam pi tesam nhosi. Pj II
315.4-s ; te hi nikkhiitajtarparajoi asannidhikrak vo /tun'd kevalam
sajjhOyadhanodhofind ottano manrajjhenasnmkhdten' evo dhanena
dhaihlena ca samanndgataitO ahesurn. yo c&yom metlddivihOro senhattO
anugOmikattO ca brohmanidhT ti vuceati, tan ca brahmom nidhim
apShytim sadd tosso bhOvannuyogena. For brahmom nidhim as a split
compound see the note on 188. Mss B* read brahma.
286. Pj 11 315.13*s: rsdnan ti, esami ri esti, tesam ndnam csamnnam,
pariyesamnnon ti vuitam hoti, This seems to be taking esdnam as a

224

The Croup o f Discourses

genitive plural of a word esa seeking , ami I follow this in my translation.


Cf.Ja V 252.ii * S J 236.18. which read csdnd.
For the double meaning of pakoto see Pc Mating Tin (1923-31. p. 64t
note 1 ).
Pj II 315.1$ : (htave r dtabbam.
For the historical -d in tad omadiiisum see the note on p. 13.10.
2S7. Mere phiia is not in the stock list.
There is resolution of the first syllable in pda b. In pda d br* in brattatane
does not make position.
2SS. Pj U 3 1 6. : dvresu sabbas, bhiresu ca abbhamaresu co
sabbukresu. Both Geiger (1994. i 9 J.3) and Pischel (1900. >451) quote
the adverbial suffix -so (<; $kt -for; see Whitney (Gram., 3 1 106]) only in
its numerical distributive sense: Pli ekaso, Pkt sohassaso, 'negoso. The
suffix is, however, much more common than would be expected from these
few references. See: bhogaso 300 303 ; abhinhaso 559 560 99S ; pnthuso
891 892 ; sabbaso 643 940 950 ; onupubbaso 1000. See also the following
(where no references are given they may be found in PED. where they are
frequently described (wrongly) as ablative forms): aithdnaso (ih III
441*16); akkharas0 anuvyaiijanasd anpdhiso diso llhaso antomaso
anekaso ayortho upQyoso odhiso oraso bahuso bahStaso bilaso yosaso
yoniso lahuso vyanjanoso sutsaso hetuso (Sadd 650.19-23); kranaso (Mp
III 149.12): khajjdaso (Thl 391): chandaso (Vin II 139.8); fhdnaso digitano
dhluso padaso paiicaso seyyaso', pahQtaso (Ja HI 484.16); kahtlpanuso
(Pj 1214^9). See also Sadd 804.1-7; 894.1.
289. PSda b is Jagati as printed (with br- not making position), but it is
Sloka if we exclude [komra] with F, and ignore the svarabhakti vowel in
-cariyom. In p3da c there is either svarabhakti in pariyinham or resolution
of the sixth syllable. E 'p . 51 note 12 states that Pj II316 X reads kornaram,
and compares A 111 224.21.
PSda a has nine syllables. We could correct the metre by reading
[cat']idrTsam (see PTC, and CPO (s.v. aiihacaurJsam)).
290. There is resolution of the sixth syllable in pda a. We should ignore
the svarabhakti vowel in bhoriram in pda b.
291. Pj 11 317.20-1$: yo so iiinsamoyo, yam/ti sa/naye brahmani briilumincnu
upagantobbd. ahiloiro lamini satnay ihapetv tarn samayom ululo
vroiom uiuveromonim pati bhariyom, yvo puna so samayo ngacchnit.
Ulva athan antor yevo.

II. Citi a vagga

225

Pj 11 317.u - $: methunam dhamman ti mcthunya dhamtndya, sampadnavacanoppauiy kir etam upayogavacanom. ndssu gacchami ti n eva
gacchanti. It would seem that assu is < Skt sma, which can be linked with a
present tense to give a past sense. Note the v.l. ndsu. Cf. 295 297 309. See Pj
II p. 665. For the sandhi of *0 + oCC- > dCC- see Norman (1988. p. 90).
For ondatra in the sense of except" see the note on p. 15.$.
292. Pj II31704-29: brahmacariyan ti meihimavirati. Pj U 317,30: ajjavan
ti, ujubhdvo, auhaio asathai amdydvitd ca.
There is a v.l. sorajjam for soraccam.
In p5da a we should ignore lite svarabhakli vowel in -canyon.
<52> 293.Pj II 3] 8.S-12: yo usarti brdhmandnam paramo brahm ahosi
brahmasamo ndma ultamo brahmano ahosi, dalhena parakkamena
somanngatatt dafhaparakkamo \ sa v ti vibhvane vd-saddo, lena uso
evarpo brahmano' ti tam eva vbhSveti. Pj li 318.13: supincnteno ...
siipinerta. For the pleonastic anta in supinonta see the note on 127.
294. There is resolution of the fourth syllable in pSda a. We should ignore
the svarabhakli vowel in *cariya in pda c.
295. For ndssu see the note on 291. There is a v j. ndsu.
296. Pj IT319.6-7 : yds jdyonti osadhd ti ydsu pittddinom bhesojjobhdtd
panca goras jdyanti.
297. For ndssu see the note on 291. There is a v.l. ndsu.
29$. Pj II 319.16 : sehi dhammehi ti sokehi edrittehi. For sehi see the note on
io3 .
For sidjiam edh- see EV I. p. 169 (ad Th 236) and Brough (1962.9.234).
Tlwre is resolution o f (he first syllable in pda f.
299. Pj U 3*9.15 foil. : tattha vipalldso ti viparftasadnd ... viydkdran ti
sompattim. According to Jayawickrama (UCR Vili, 3. p. 183) (his verse is
late because of the occurrence of vipattso and viydkdrom in it.
For the r/i alternation in vipoUdsa see the note on 29.
There is resolution of the fust syllable in pda d.
300. Pj II 319.33 : ajaiinosomyutu ti assdjaneyyaymte. For jania cf. 304
anti 544. Cf. djdniytt 462.
With vibhatte bhdgaso mite cf. Mil 3 4 .J-S : nagaratthanam ... vithi ...
paricchedena vibhajitvd nogaram mpeti. Cf. V v 78.6 : vibhattd bhdgaso
mitd. For bhdgaso cf. 305. For the -so suffix see the note on 288.

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The Group of Discourses

301. Pj II 320.10-11 : gomnndala-paribbulhan ti goythehi parikinttmn. See


EV I, p. 281 (ad Th 1143).
In p5da d hr- in brahmone docs not make position.
302. Pj TI 321.7-S : taitful ti, tasmim, yam bhogam abhijjhAyimsu, tom'
nimittan ti vuttam hoti.
For the historical -d in tad upgamum see the note on p. 13.10.

There arc five pdas in this verse.


<53> 303. Pj II 321.13 foil.: assam ettha medbantT ti assamedho, dvihi
pariyannehi yajitabbassa ekavisotiypassq ihopetv bhmiii ca purise ca
ovasesasabbavibhavadakkhinassa yannass' etam adhivacanam, purisam
ettha medhantt ti purisamedho, catuhi pariyannehi yajitabboss:
saddhim bhdmiyd assamedhe vuttavibhavadakkhinassa yannass' etam
adhivacanam ; sammam ettha psantt ti sammpso, divose divase
sammam khipitv tassa patitokse vedim karv samhnmehi ypdihi
Sarassatinadiy nimuggoksato pabhuti patilomam gacchantena
yajitabbassa strygass' etam adhivacanam. Spk I 143.20: assam ettha
medhaniT vadhentT ti assamedho. For the root medh- in the sense of hitpsd,
see Sadd 395 4.

For sammpdsa see BHSD (s.v. Samypsa) and D.D. Kosarobt (1951.
PP- 5 3 - 5 5 )-

Pj II 3 22.2-8 : vjam ertha pivonti ti vjopeyyo. ekena poriyaniieno


sattarasahi pasfthi yajitabbassa beluvaypasssa sattarosasatiarasokadakkhinassa yaflhass etam adhivacanam ; n* attht ettha aggalo ti
niraggafo. navahi pariyannehi yajitabbassa saddhim bhiimiy ca
purisehi ca assamedhe vuttavibhavadakkhinassa sabbamedhapariyya*
nmassa assamedhavikappass' eva etam adhivacanam.
For niraggafa as the name of a specific brahmanica! sacrifice (not in PED)
see BHSD (s.v. nirargada). For the sacrifices see GDhp 196.
For rathesabha see EV I, p. 241 (adTh822).
F excludes sammdpdsam m.c. This then gives a six*p3da verse with
resolution of the sixth syllable in pda c (puristi-), but the list of sacrifices
is so common in this form that the exclusion seems unlikely. With il
included, however, the metre is incorrect.
304. For juhiia see the note on 300.
There is resolution of the third syllable in pda a. and of the fust syllable
in pda b.
305. For bhdgaso see the note on 300. For the -so suffix see the note on 288.

II.

Cfavagga

27

306. For (he sandhi - m - in p u n a - m g a m u m see the noie on 132.


There is resolution of (he fourth syllable in pda f.
307. Horner discusses h i r a d n a at BD I p. 28 note 1. Cf. 769. A number of
parallels can be given for hi occurring as other than second word.
There is resolution of (he sixth syllable in pda a and of the first syllable in
pda d. For pori{k)khro m.c. see Pj II p. 726.
309. For nssu (so all Mss here) see.the note on 29z. For pads as an
instrumental see the note on 119. According to PED visna is neuter.
Therefore the ending -e here cannot be accusative plural, and most be
locative singular.
<S4>3ro. Pj II323J6-27 : pitaro ti brdhmancsu laddhavohr brahmno.
There are eight syllables in pSda a, but the addition of ca (cf. the vJ. va in
Mss BM; for the coiva alternation see the note on 38) after the word pitaro
improves the Sloka metre by allowing the tesolution of the sixth syllable,
which gives the pathy cadence. See Pj II p. 642. The word gave must be
locative singular.
In (ia d -fin nipoti is m.c.
3x1. For the sandhi -m- in atthnavutti-m-gomum see the note on 132.
312. Pj II 324.9-10 : so ca kho tato pabhuti pavattatt parino, showing that
the reading parano in place of (he more metrica) parano is older than Pj II.
as pointed out at Pj II p. 642 (where the wrong reference is given for this
verse).
313. Pj 11324.11 : e v a m

e s o o n u d h a m m o t i e s o l a m a k a d h a m m o h ln a d h a m m o

e d it a m m o t i v u it a m Ito ti', y a s m d v e t t lt n d c .n a d h o n t m o p i a p p a l t o a it it i,
ta s m d ta in s a n d h y fh a a n u d h o m m o It.

Pj II p. 730 queries the metre of passati in pda c. but the metre is correct if
we assume resolution of the fourth syllable. Wc should ignore the
svarabhakti vowel in -garahito in the cadence of pda b and in garohatf in
pda d.
in pda d -f in garahati is m.c.
314. In pda d there is resolution of the first syllable. Wc should ignore the
svarabhakti vowel in bhariyd.
315. For niramkaiv cf. 326. It also occurs in the form nkatv. Pol che
alternation between a short nasalised vowel before a single consonant
versus a long vowel before a single consonant (abbreviated as VNCA/Q see
vasimkoritvd 444 and vaslkatvn in $<>I ; citinnkaritvii/cittT-kr 680 ;

12 $

The Croup o f Discourses

Jigimsanioljigisanto 690 ; ditthim su/dilthfsu $41. See also WD, p. 90 (ad


Dhp 106).
There- U resolution of the fourth syllable in pSda d.
p. 54.17. For the historical ~d in eiad avocum see the note on p. 13.10.
p. 54j j . For ete mayam see the note on p. 154}.
<55> p. 55.*- For -r- in ajja-t-agge see the note on p. 16.1.
316-23. Pj II 325.14 ..calls the N3vSsutta the Dhammasuua. See the
Introduction C7 X
The metre is Tristubh.
316.

The metre is better if we read the v.l. (asmi in pSda c.

3x7. For the historical ~d in td atthikatvdna see the note oo p. 13.10


The metre would be better if we read bhajaif in p5da d.
31$. For the assimilation of vowels in usyaka (< osyak) see the note on
52 -

In pada d there is resolution of the first syllable.


319. For the v.l. pakam with the k/g'alternation see Laders (Beob., 126).
Cf. 322 45S 739 835-47 880 894 935 959. See also WD. p. 63 (ad Dhp 6).
Pj II 330.10: kim sakkati paran neium, sakkhaii ti pi pdiho. For sakkhaii see
Lildcrs (Beob., 149 note 2). Cf. 3:0.
In pdda d etum in idrayetum must be m.c. for ./mm. The ending is a cross
between etum and eyitum according to Geiger (1994, 2o6 X
The metre would be belter if we read pagam for dpagam in pSda a.
320. Fj II 330.13 includes ajdnanto in the exegesis, and there is no reason to
doubt that ajdrtam is the nominative singular of the present participle with
a negative prefix, in agreement with sakkhaii. For jdnam in agreement with
a plural verb see the note on 349?ot sakkhaii see 319.
For nijjhapetum see BHSD (s.v. nidhypayat). For -u- m.c. cf. 322.
<S6> 321. For phiya 'oar see BHSD (s.v. sphija). For the j/y alternation see
the note on 149.
For the change of ri/lo > dilu in upayaililu see the note on 167. For the
labialisation of -a- >
in mutimd see the note on 6r.
In fatrpayannQ a is m.c. See Pj II p. 639. In murfmd -f. is m.c.

li. Cjavagg

229

322, Pj li 330.9-33I.3J avedhodhamtno li afthalii okadhammehi


akamponasabhvo: soldva-dhnpanispapannc li sota-odahanena ca
maggaphainam itpanissayeno ca upapanne. Hare (194s p. 108 note 3)
translates upanis as reason . Pj II 503,8 (ad p. 140.5): k upans km
kranom kim poyojanont.

Pj ]| 330.37: vedagli l. vedasamkhichi camiti maggannefti gaio .e.


taking -gii as coming from the root gam-. 1 take vedagli as the equivalent of
vedaka (see BHSD, s.v. vedaka), and therefore translate it as one who has
knowledge. For the k/g alternation, see the note on 3 x 9 . For the
transference to the *ti class see the note on 167. For bhavitatio see the note
00277.
For *o~In nijjhopoye cf. 320.
324-30. Kimsllasutta. This suda is in the Tristubh and mixed
Trisiubh/Jagat? metres, with a mixed Tristubh/$loka verse (327) and a Sloka
introduction (324).
324. Pj U 332.1-j : nato somm nivii/A* ass ri abhiroto nato ssone
somm poiiuhUo bhavoyya. For the sandhi of + aCC- > -aCC- see the
notes on 707 828922 923925 972994 and Norman (1988. p. 90).
The m e tr e is loka.
325. For subhsita cf. 252.
As S ' p. 56 note 15 states, wc should have expected erayatam, i.c. a genitive
plural of the present participle, in place of erayitam : he should listen to
those uttering a discourse on the dhamma . Pj II 333.9, however, lakes it as a
past paniciplc. and glosses it as vuttam. It must be an example of the
palatalisation of -a- after -v-. See the note on 3.
Pdas bed are Tristubh: pda a is JagatT.
ln pda b there is a redundant fifth syllabic. Ms C* reads 'ssa for e* assa to
conca the metre. Pj 11332 note 8 has grtrir* as a v.l., which also corrects the
metre.
326. For niramkaiv cf. 315.
The metre is Tristubh.
In pda a -* in gnr/inm is m e.. 10 give the break ~ - . Pj )! reads
gartiiwin in the lemma. In pria c wc should ignore the svarabhakti vowel in
'Coriyam and read tlha\tu\mom m.c.
<$7> 327. Pj II 334.10: niyyeiba naycyya ktilom khtpeyya.
Pda a is 3 loka: padas bed are Tristubh. See Pj II p. 643.

230

The Croup o f Discourses

328. Pj II 334.14-17^ hsan li pi piho.Vipassokeno hi bhikkhuna


hosantyosmim vaiihusmint mihiiamaitam eva kcitabbam, niratihakothjoppo na bhdsiiabbo. For japp 3 tanh see (he noie on 592.
The metre is Tristubh.
ln pada a we should read jo[p]pam m.c.
329. Pdas abd arc Tristubh: p3da c is JagatJ.

33- In p5da c PDhp 330 has khnti for santi, and Pj II 335.30 includes
khanri in (he gloss. This may be an example of a vocabulary replacement by
near-synonyms, but it may be an early example of the sfkh alternation. See
Edgeiton (BHSG. 2.26). Schneider (1954. p. 580), and the note on 702.
Pada b is Triftubh; p5gas acd are JagalT.
In p3da a -/> in -pavedite fem e. In pSda b we should perhaps exclude (te
vacasti} m.c.
331-34. Uubnasutta. The metre is Slokx
331. In pda b supito is a past participle used as an action noun. See CV I,
p. 129 (ad Th 36) EV II p. 115 (ad ThI 261X WD. p. 89 (ad Dhp 104), and
Hendriksen (1944, pp. 452-53). See also jTvita mota 440,yuddho 442 $31,
kaAkhi/a 540. samhata 667, akkutthavandita 702, ditiha 788 7 8 9 .
samvedhiia 902. vambhayita 905,gum 960.kankhyita 1021. Cf. kandifarudita Ja III 57.23*; rodila Ja HI 214.12*; abhikkanta potikkanta lokita
vilokita som{m)injha pasdrita osila pila khyia sflyita goto thiia nisinna
sulla jgorita bhdsiia D I 70.36 foil.b M I 57.5 foil.;alikhiUa JaU 296.13**.
atibhiita Ja I (85.7; Mil 135.1* ; BHSD dhdvita laAghUa javita pluvita;
viddha throwing ; pucchita vyamita kattha ninna utivassiio.
For the rii alternation in ruppotant see the note on 29. For nistdatha see EV
]. p.195 (ad Th 441) and cf. 332.
In pSda d the loss of *m in viddhna is m.c.
<$8> 332. For nisldatha cf. 33l.
F excludes [maccurj] m.c.. although ihis leaves a nine-syllable pada ; I?
prefers to exclude [-uha vasdnuge). Smith takes this as an example of
Stoica rhythm continued" (Pj II p, 642. where the reference is incorrect. See
Ee p. 58 note 3).

333For ve = 7 (< Skt vor) sec Ldcrs (Bcob., 22) and S' p. 58 note 6. For
such Eastcrnisms see che note on 7.
Pj II 3 3 8.3.5-339.': nunappakresu visayesu visofoviiihinnovisiatt
visatlikom bhavabhoga-ianham. Cf. Pj II 513.6-7 (ad 768): sobbam lokam

II. Clavagga

231

visaritvo thitatt loke visatti(k)-samkhtain lanham , ami Pj 11 350 ,9 (ad

$57 ") : imam visatddtbhvena visattikfi-sam khtatn


vaitik see EV I, p. 189 (ad Th 400).

m ahdtanhom . For

334. Pj I! 339.31 explains abbahe as uddhare. See the note on 592. The
double bb\ and (he consequential shortening of d- > a*, may arise from the
stronger grade -brah- being used in P3ii instead of (he weak grade brh- as
in Skt, or from the restoration" of the *r- sound even in ihe weak grade.
This latter explanation is supponed by the existence of the past participle
abbsiha < Skt brdha, and also the present form abbuhoii, as well as the
absolutive abbuyha < Skt brhya. For the VCftCC alternation see the note
004.
The metre of pda a is defective. We could perhaps correct it by adding
<sabbcdS>. Sec Th 404 and EV !,p. 190 (ad Th 404).
In p3da b there is resolution of the fourth syllable.
335-42. Rhula-suiia. Jayawickrama (UCR Vi, 4, p. 231 ) considers whether
this can be the L g h u lo v d e m us v d a ip o d h ig ic y a to which Atoka refers,
and. concludes that there is no conclusive proof of this.-Tire meue is loka.
335-36. Jayawicknma, following Katrc, calls these two verses vatihugthd. See U C R V I , 4>, p . 2 3 1 .

335. There is a v.l. obhinham for abltinha-. See the note on 1058.
337.Cf.Th 195.
<59> 339. For -pio see the note on 987.
For sandhi *r- in puna-r-gami see the note on 29.
340. For the sandhi of -e + oCC- > -ynCC- in tyoiihu < it anhu. sec Norman
(1988. p. 91) and the v.l. ry for k before oppamau in 445. which implies the
same sandhi.
ForpSiiinokkhasmhn as locativc/instnimcmal see Luders (Bcob.. 224).
In psda c -I in salt is m.c.
341. 15II 343.19 nimiltan ti rAgaiiluiniyajn sublutnimiiiom.
In p5da c there is resolution of the first syllable.
342. Pj II 343-7-Jt animitlum co bhAveln li evatn ntbbedltabhgiyena
samddhin somhiiaciito vipassonam bhvfh li vuiiatn Itoti. Hare
translates animino **no sign. Pj II 344.3; obhisoniay = klniy vay
pohn potinissagg.
There is resolution of the first syllabic in pSda e.

232

The G roup o f Discourses

p . 59.9. Pj II 344.14: tato param iiHiam sudam Bhagav li Ud

sangftikrnam vacauom. See the noce on 30.


p. 59.15-358. The VaAgTsasutta = Th 1263-78. except for ihc prose. The cty
gives it an alternative name: Nigrodhakappasutia. The uddno calls it
Kappasuita. See the Introduction (6 -7). The metre of the verses is
Tristobh. except for 352 and 355 which are mixed TristubhfJagati. and 35658. which are Sloka.
p. 6 o j. For the historical *4 in etad avoca see the note on p. 13.10
343. In pda b Th reads chetvd and this is a v.I. in E6. For the -iiti/-iv
variation sec BV I. p. 297 (adTh 1263).
In p3da a the metre is improved if we read saiiharam (with ThX P3da b has
redundant fifth and tenth syllable^. We should read vicikicch-chcitd m.c.
(cf. 347b). Th 1263 reads pucdtdnii for -timo.
344. Pj II 347.i1 : namossom acari ti. nomassamino vihsi.
Pj II 347,57-28: dalhodhommadassi ti Bhagovantam ulopati. daihadhamman ti nibbnam obhijjanatihena. tod ca .BhagovO dasseti. tasmdm
lam dnihadhammadassT ri dha, i.e. the cty takes dalbadhaaunadassi atf
vocative: We should presumably read -dssi syith Mss B". The reading with
r is doubtless due to the ply, where the vowel is long because the word is
followed by ti.
For mutyapckJto < *tntiit'-apek/io < *muiii-apekho see Norman (19SS. p. 92).
The sandhi of -t + a- > -yu-, producing a conjunct with -y-, is doubdess due
to a medieval scribe with some knowledge of Skt grammar, who restored** a
quasi-historical spelling. Cf. 710.
In p5da e there is a redundant syllable, either the fifth or the eighth, if we
read acari. We could read namassom instead of nnmussam. and assume
resolution of the fifth syllable. In pda d we should ignore the svarabhaktl
vowel in -viriyo.
345-46. Note the pun on Sakka in these two verses.
345. Pj II 347.29 foil.: Sakkd ti pi Bhagavantam eva kidandmena topaii...
sumantacakkhfl ti pi Bhogawniam eva sabbadiUiladdnen' Qiopoti.
There is resolution of the first syllable in pda c. Th reads nu in p5da d.
346. There is a pun upon snmnnttutikkhu and sohusstoietia here.
Pj 11 348.S: bhripaiidu * mahdpaiina, i.e. hht'iri means "abundant'*. For its
u>e in the sense of earth see the note on 792. and in the sense of "wisdom"
see the note on 1136.

II. Ctavagga

Pj li 348.1a foli.: yaih Sakko sahassanetto devnom majjhe tehi


sakkaccam sompaticchitavacano bhsati, evarn amhkom majjhe amhehi
sakkaccam sampaticchitavacano bhs ti.
In pda a there is resolution or the fifth syllable and in pda b resolution of
the first syllable.
In pda d Th reads devna m.c.

347- See EV I, p. 297 (ad Th 1267). Th 1267 reads gondh instead of ganthd
in pda a. For the voicing of -nth- to -ndh- see the note on 153.
In pSda b the short -a and single ih* in viciktccha-thn are m.c.
<6l> 34S. Pj II 348.26 : puriso ti Bhagavantam sandhy' ha. Fof pdas cd
see EV I. p. 297 (ad Th 1268). In pSda c Th has rtibbuto. Th has different
words in pSda d.
PSda d has the opening - - - *. We could read tamo v<a> assoand assume
a redundant fifth syllable.
In pSda a we should read jt m.c. For -d-'in vihne m.c. in pda b see 394.
349. For pda b Pj II 349.7 reads-vfro in the lemma, and glosses:padhnaviriya-samanngata, which seems a clear indication that' 1Tra is the correct
reading. The reading dltira probably arose because of dhr in pda a. I did
not read vtra when making my translation, but I do now in the revised
version. For the valdha alternation sec the note on 44.
In pda c E6 has jdnam ; Mss C*b have jhnam ; Pj II 349.1: jnont, i.e.
plural. This explanation is followed by Pj II p. 698. Ifjnam agrees with the
subject of the verb, then we could take it as a aamui absolutive. See the
note on 773. It could be an incorrect form of the present participle, with a
singular ending instead of the expected plural. It is. however, better to take
it as j&na = jnamna, so that /donni s jnantam. i.e. the accusative
singular we approached the one who knows. Cf. jfmo Ja III 21.>* (glossed
jtinamnno, 24.5) and jnttin ttpgamhnha. Th 269 (glossed juantam, Th-a
HI 200.26). Th reads upAgamimha for atnha and parisya for sti.
The ending -imho is the expected development < -tsmo. Doubtless amha
was formed by analogy with this. See Geiger (1994. 159)
In pda d there is resolution of the first syllable.
350. In pda a Pj 11 349-, J-*5CXplains: khippam gironi eraya Inlmm
arirdyanunto vaiano! bhia raggiti mottoramam Hluignv. The failure to
gloss vugguvaggtun suggests ihm wc have here 10 deal with vaggu and
vaggum as separate words. I accordingly take vaggu as a vocative.

234

The Group o f D iscourses

With ujjU'gata cf. vagga-gata in 371. Th reads hamso for httms, and
saniknm nikjam for sanim nikfija.
351. Pj II 349.24-25 : niggayh ti stitthu ydcitvS nibonjhitvd', dhonan ti
dhutasabbapdpam. For dhoita cf. 786 813834. Nidd 1 77.22-78.27 (ad 7$6):
dhond vuccati po/ind, yd paRrid pajonahd ... sammdditthi. kitnkdrand
dhontl vuccati paRn? tya pannya kyaduccartam dhuton ca dJiotan
ca sondhota ca niddhotan ca, .. ., sabbkusaldbhisamkhrd dhut ca
dhot ca sandhot ca ntddhot ca. arah imehi dhoneyyehi dhammehi
upeto samupeto ttpagato somtipagato upapanno samupapanno
samanngato ; tasm arah dhono. so dhutargo dhutoppo dhtuokiieso
dhuiaparijho ti dhono. Pj II 522,22-25 (ad 7S6): sabbaditthigatdidosa
dhunanya panRya samanngotatt dhono ... dhonadham m osamanngom dhonossa dhutasobbapdpossa arahato. The ely tradition
therefore connects dhuta with dhona. See also HV I. p. 298 (ad Th t27i).
Th 1271 reads va for ca in pda d. For the c/v alternation see the note on 3$.
For die compound sa/nkheyya-kdro see the, note on 72.
In pSda a we should read -JiF m.c.
352. For the sandhi -y- in tava-y-idam, cf. somb&hby-aggam (93, ntf-yidam (vJ.) 714, n ay idhayyo, mama-y-idofiZoC, ta-y-idam 1077, yotha-yidam 1092. Since in each case the preceding or following vowel is -i*. it is
clear that -y- has been evolved for phonetic reasons. Warder (1967. p. 43
note 2) suggests that tava-y-idam here and nO'y-idha in 790 should be
pronounced as tavedam and nedha respectively (Th 1272 reads tavedam). In
790 the form can easily be explained by assuming resolution of the fifth
syllable. I see no reason to doubt that we have resolution of the tenth
syllable in this verse.
Th reads samujja- for samujju-. See EV 1, p. 298 (ad Th 1272).
Pdas abd are Trislubh; pda c is Jagatl.
There is resolution of the first syllable to pda c.
In pda c -f in aiijalf is n l c . In pSdad we should read mohayl m.c.
353. Pj I] 3 5 o . 2 - u : parovaron
sundarsundaram dresantikom vd.

ti

lokuttaraiokiyavasena

Pj 11 350.17-xo: suiam puvassd ti sutasamkhtain saddyatunam pavassa


ptigghara munca pavattehi'. salasso voss ti pi ptho. vnttappukdrassa
saddyatonossa vatihim vass ti ottho. For the CC/NC alternation see the
note On 168. For the pis alternation see EV I. p. 134 (ad Th 49). and cf. 418

II.

C javagga

235

774 782. Por the explanation in Th-a see EV I. p. 298 (ad Th 1 273). Hare
translates: "Rain down thy lore", reading the v.l. See Oolle (1973. P- 602).
For the sandhi of -am + a- > -2* in pSda d cf. 365 788 896 1033 1057 iodi
1083
In pda a we should ignore (he svarabhakti vowel in ariya. In pads b we
should read mohayi m.c. and ignore the svarabhakti vowel in -viriy.
<6a>354. Pj U 350.93: yath vimuiro ti kirn anupddisesdya
nibbnadhtuyd yath asekh, udhu saupddisesya yoth sekh ti
pucchati. Poranupddisesa and saupdisesa sec EV J. p. 129 (ad Th 5). Note
that here saupddisesa is applied to KappSyana, not to nibbnadhtu.
I presume that E6 reads yadatthiyam as one word in pSda. in the belief that
the form of yad- shows that it is part of a compound. There arc. however,
many examples of -d appearing in a fossilised sandhi position. e.g. etad
avoca (see the note on p. 13.10). allhough by the noimat rules of MIA tt
should have become -m. I therefore separate the two words yad and atthiya,
and assume that yad is accusative singular, in agreement with -cariyom, I
assume that atthiya means proper, fir, useful**, and derive it from Skt
arthya, although PED derives it from atthika.
Pj U 3SO.M : Kappyano ti Kappam tv a pQj&vascna bhanoti.

I have changed the translation I gave in EV I.


Th reads sunoma for sunma.
In pda a -S- in aedri is m.c. We should ignore the svarabhakli vowel in
cariyam. For kacci (j]m m.c. in pda b see Pj II p. 670. There is a redundant
fourth syllable in pSda c.
355. For the reciters rematks see the note on 18-29.
Pj li 3SI.1 ascribes the words tri Bhagav to the sortgitikrtras. and also
p5da d. See the note on 30.
Pj M 3 5 *.S*: poncasettha ... paiicannam pathamasissdnain partcaraggiydnam settho pancahi id saddhdthi indriythi sUtidihi vd dhammakkhandhehi ativisitthehi cakkhhi ca Settho ti.
Th reads tanhdya for Kanhassa. Pj II 350.19: Kanhantnakassa Marasso.
P2das acd are Tristubh. pda b is Jagati.

There is a redundant fifth syllabic in pda b. In pftda c wc should read -jrttl356.

For esa with the first person verbpasidmi sec the note on p. 15.13.

236

The Croup

of

Discounts

Pj II 3 5 1.11: isisattam ti Bhagov ist ca saliamo ca uttamatrhcna,


Vipassi-Sikhi-Vessabhu-Kakusandha-Kongamana-Kassapanmake cha
isayo aitan saha salta karonto piubhto ti pi isisattamo. For the
alternative interpretations of isbsaitama see HV I, p. 293 (ad Th 1240). For
the rii alternation in kira see LOders (Bcob., 31) and th note 00 29.
357. Th reads acchedi for acchid.
358. For Kappyono see Pj II p. 681. Hare translates: Kappa, the capable
(Kappiyo); Kappa, the way-fartr (Kappyana) .
There is resolution of the fourth syllabic in pskla c.
<63>359-75. Sammparbbjaniyasuua. Pj 11 352. gives U the alternative
title MahSsaroayasuita. and quotes a v.l. Munisotta from Ms B \ but this
reading is not found in J3C.
The metre is Aupacchandasaka with some VaitJTya pSdas in 360 and 374.
359. Pj II 362.5: thiiattan ti, lokadhammehi akampaneyyacittam.
In pSda b we should probably exclude [tinnam\. In pSda d we should
probably follow F in excluding [bhikkhu] m.c^ and we should also read
katha[m) and exclude (so) (which has come in from 361 foil.).
360. For the reciter's remarks see the note on 18-29.
Pj II 362.16: mahgaltl ti Matigala-suite vutttinam ditthamadgalOnam dam
adhivacanam. For the t/d alternation in upptafuppda see the note on

193PSda a is VailSITya. In pSda c Ms Bm reads so for sa m.c. See Pj II p. 700. In


pjda d we should probably cxclOde IbA/AJtAi) m.c., so that the p3da
resembles the following verses.
361. In pSda b we should read dibbts m.c. In pSda c we should read
ati[k]kamma m.c.
362. PSda a does not scan. Pj II p. 764 wants to scan - " , presumably by
reading vtpitthikatva, but if we read \upifthi-katv<no> with the v.l. and
67a, then we have a syncopated opening.
In pada a we should scan kdariyam. which would be a vrddhi formation
noun.
364. Pj II 363.JJ-364.1 : upadhfsil ti khandhupadhtstt, ddnan ti pi
Sdiitobbanhena It {khtmtlhtipadht) y<va Minanti.
PSda a does not scan. We could either read no for no, or insert Ai after na. It
is possible that an >0 is to be derived < no sma, in which case we might
read <s>so. Cf. 515.

II.

Clavagga

237

<64> 365. ln p3da b we should scan viditvd m e. See 368. For the sandhi of
tun + a > -a- in pda c see the note on 353.
36 6 . Pj II 364.ta : na sandhiyethd ti na upanayheiha na kuppexya. A similar
meaning of sandhiyaii is to be seen at Ja VI 370.13*. where it is glossed: n'
cna maAku ohosi (570.2$'). I assume that sandhiyaii is to be derived <
sendhayatha, with palatalisation o f -a- >
before -y- (see the note on 3).
The meaning would be reflect upon" and then resent". Skt has
sandhoyati, but with a different meaning (see MW, s.v.).
For -n/- in tmnomcyya see the note on 206.
In pda a we should read n[a) m.c. .
367. For the double ablative ending -to in -bandhandto see the note on
19? We should read -did m e.; cf. BUS -Om (BHSG 8.50). Pkt -du (Pischcl,
305) and Caillat (1970. p. 22). We could also repair the metre by reading
bandhand ca with the v j. For the civ alternation see the note on 3$.
36S. Pj II 364.26-365.2: yathtathiyan ti yathtatham yaihbhtam ;
dhanunan ti khandhdyatandbhcdam yathbhtonnena, catusaccadhatnmam vfl maggtna viditvd.'

In pda a we should read either sdrupiyam (cf. rp ija and ruppa ) or


Sdruppatn. ln pda b wc should read bhikkh m.c/We should read ydthdand viditvd m.c in pda c. See 365. E*(3) reads iv<na> here but not in 365.
tl does not scan in either place. See Pj 11 p- 751.
369. Pj II 365.4-$: so nirdso nittariho hott, lato sya abhclvenn kad
rCtpdidhammam ndsinisnti, tenha nirsayo ansaydno ti. Cf. th noie on
56. F reads nirsaso here, bui CPD (s.v. sasa) gives no references for the
existence of sasa in Pili, and takes nrsasa as a vj. for nirii.mya, due to
the misreading of ya assn in the Sinhalese script. The same explanation, in
reverse, would apply to andxaxfino, since CPD quotes the verb dsayati "to
wish* only from Manis, where it looks like a commcotarial invention. For
the sly alternation, cf. yenalscna 430, yef-se 827 and see EV 11. p. $0 (ad Thi
84). In Volume 1 i translated nirdsayo as "without any inclination (to
evil)", but in view of the cty*s explanation by s and dsimsvti here, the
pun on &$& and nirsaya in 634. and the contrast between nirsayo and
ansasno in 1090-91. I think that the idea of "hope, aspiration" is
preferable. Cf. Jain nrsamsa "without desire (for this world) .
For the nominative plural ending -se in samiihatse see the note on 7.

2 3s

The Croup of Discourses

For ansasno Pj H 365.3 reads anosayimo and E*(3) reads this. This is
another example of the sly alternation. For the Una ending sec the note on
131 In pSda b we should read a<k>kusa! m.c.
<6>> 370.Fj U 365.7 : savakhlno li khinoeatursavo. For the suggestion of
another reversed compound see the note on 639. LWcrs (Bcob., | 179)
objects to the metre, although it can be paralleled elsewhere. See EV 1
$ 29(a)(i). The more usual khtndsavo would be metrically irregular, and
LQdert suggests that in an Eastern Pkt it would have had the form
khfadsinave pahinomne.
Q II365.12:parinibbuto li,kilesaggvpasamcna sltibhio.
371. Pj II 365.15-24: niydmadsst li. samsrakantramlhe toko amatapuragmino sammotta-niydmabhiassa maggassa dassvT, ditthamoggo.
ti vintatit holt, voggagatesu na vaggnsr li vaggagaid noma dvsatthidinhigaiikd onnama/inam patiloman. evatn vagghi ditthihi gaiesu
sotiesu na vaggasri "idam ncchijjissati. idam rath* eva bhavissati" tt
evam ditjhivasena agamanoto.
ln p3da c there is resolution in the cadence. Cf, 372.
373. Pj n 365*7 : sainsuddhajino li samsttddhena orahaitamoggena vijitakileso, i.e. victorious by the purified thing (3 the road to arahot-ship), 1
prefer to translate it as a dvandva compound, although if we saw another
example of -jina < -Jda here (see the note on 84). we could translate
"knowing (he purified thing = knowing the pure**. Horner and Rabula look
it as a karmadhiraya compound "purified conqueror**, which is also
possible.
Pj II 365.2t: vivattachaddo li vivatardgadosamohochodano. In Voi. I here
(and in 378c 1003a and 114 7c) I translated vivatta-cckaddo as of
widespread fame**. This was because I believed that there was a relationship
between vivattacchadda and vighustaiabdo. which occurs in BHS texts in
contexts where Pili has vivatta-cchadda. See Norman (1979A. p. 323). 1
deduced that the Pili form was to be derived from the Skt one. When ] did
this. I had overlooked the existence of Pkt viyairaehaumo in a list of
epithets describing the Jina. The existence of the Pkt word in this form has
persuaded me that although I was correct to sec a connection between the
PAH and Skt words, the direction or the development was in the reverse
order, and vighustaiabdo must represent a hyper-Sanskri(i$ation from
vivattacchadda. See von Hinber (1983B. p. 33).

II. Clnvagga

239

My translation musi therefore be incorrect but it is not easy to see what the
correct translation should be. The fact that Pj II gives alternative
interpretations, of which that translated as "with veil rolled back" \t
perhaps the most common in English, suggests that the PSIi cty tradition
was not certain about the meaning. The BUS form suggests that the original
meaning had been completely lost in that tradition. The explanation given
by the Jain tradition differs from that given in Pili. Referring to the
genitive/dalive form in -nam, it states: vydvrttachadmabhyah, ghiikarmdni saipsdro vd chadma tad vyvrttam ksTnam ycbhyas te. The word is
translated by Jacobi (1884A. p. 225) as "who have got rid o f all
unrighteousness, and by Williams (1963, p. 194) as who have thrown off
all travesties**. In kt. according to MW (s.v.), chadman has the mtaoing
deceit, disguise, and J should now wish to adopt this meaning for the
compound, and translate as with deceit removed.
Pj 113664 : anejo ri apagotatanhacalano.
There is resolution in the cadence in pida c. Cf. 371. In pida a we should
read chadda m.c373. Pj II366.11-13: aticca suddhipamo rr.arffa suddhipanUo atikkamtv
vS suddhipanno, kim atikkamitv : oddhflttayam. PED (s.v.) lakes this as an
adverbial use b exceedingly, but CPD takes it after kappdtTto, as an
example of the common use of an absolutive after a finite verb. e.g. ..
upasankami, ttpasankamn .. .. Pj U 533.31-ji (ad 804) explains: aiiccd ti,
vassasataijt atikkamitv, and Nidd I 120.2a on the same verse: aticca JTvati
t i ... atikkamitv. Here again PHD takes it as adverbial, but I think that we
should rather follow the dies in understanding vassa-satam from pSda b.
In pJda a we should read oiitesn or atftisti (giving a syncopated opening)
m.c.. and in pSda b kapptU m e.
374. In p5da b we should read disvd for dsvna (see Pj 11 p. 643). This
might be an example of the Sanskritisation of an older reading dissa <
driya. ln pda c wc should read -inam m.c. with the v.l. (see Pj II p- 777).
although S I 107.24 also has -. F adds <no> to p5da c, giving an
Aupacchandasaka pda, but a mixture of a VattAliya odd p3da with an
Aupacchandasa even piida is not unusual.
373. In path a we should omit In m.c. In pda b we should read
vihdri and dam m.c. Cf. 985 1056 and see Pj 11 p. 678. In jda c we should
omit sabba-. This has perhaps entered the text because of Pj M 367.11-12:
sabbni ca dosa pi samyojanni caiuro ca yoge vttivatto Itoti.

240

The Group o f Discourses

<66>p. 664 404. Dhammikasutta. The metre of this sutta is predominantly


Tri$tubh, with some Jagail verses and a number of mixed Tristubh/Jagatl
verses.
376. For (he nominative plural -se in upsakse see the note on 7. Pdas
a b - P jl 125.1445.
377. In pSda c Be and Pj II 36S.11 read c ' atthi in place of T atthi. The gloss
toy suggests that t' (= ie) is the correct reading. This would be an example
of the sandhi of -e > aCC* > -oCC-. It is possible that the scribal tradition
did not recognise t* and assumed it was an error for c \ An alternative
suggestion is that te atthi > tyatthi, and ty was then palatalised > c. 1
cannot, however, quote a parallel for-such a secondary palatalisation of a
sandhi form.
378. For avecca see the note on 9 .
For the sandhi of -o + a- >'* in vivatta[c]chadddsi (so read m.c.). see
Norman (1988, p. 90). and cf. ralham 461, amittaryam 690. orakyam 692.
In pSda b there is the opening * - - with a redundant fourth syllable. Wc
could correct the opening by reading pakdsayT or paksisi, and we could
remove the redundant fourth by reading paksi. For -i as the third singular
aorisl ending of causative verbs see the note on 8. In pSda d we should read
v ir p ea s t m.c.
<&7> 379. The Tristubh metre of the cadence o f pSda e is incorrect, since we
need a long penultimate syllable. The suggestion by von Hinber (1982
^3. pp. 30-32) that we read an historically correct perfect form jagdma (cf.
Ja V I2034*) here not only corrects the metre, but also gives a better sense,
since we need the translation went away**, which a form from odhigamwould not give. The cty tries to 'solve the problem by assuming that
ad hi gam- could have the correct meaning: ajjhagam ri adh-agamd. gaio
li vuttom boti (Pj II 369.1SX
In pSda a we should read gaMchi (< *gamst) for gacchi. See the note on
138. This is the reading of E?(jX See Trcnckner (1908. pp. 71 folL). In pSda c
we should read so pT or so pi torxjyd m.c.
380.

We should read f{v)am m.c in pda c.

382. In pda, b we should read ea p f m.c.. since it is unlikely that br- makes
position here, but not elsewhere. In p5da c wc should read tuyT m.c. In pSda
d there is a redundant fifth syllable.
3S3. Pj II 373.9: susssomn ti sotukm' amh ti attho, i.e. susss- here is
a genuine desiderative wishing to hear". We might have expeetd the
participle to be in the genitive case, in agreement with no, but it seems to

II.Cffavaggo

241

be an example of a nominative absolute construction. See Norman (1975,


PP- 23-24).
Pj II 373.10-12 : tan no vada ti tarn dhammam amhdkam vada ; rwm no li pi
ptho, ft'flw amhkam vada ti atiho.
For Duddhasetfha see the note on 326.
In pada c (he sixth and seventh syllables are contracted imo a single long
syllable. See (he note on 61. In pads d we should read vada m.c.
384. For Vsava see DPPN, s.v.
In pada c we could read vimolnubuddham m.C., to avoid a redundant
eighth syllable.
VS5. Pj n 373.18-11 : k'ticse dhundtT ti dhuto, cvarpam kiUsodhunanokam
potipaddhommam svaymi vo, ion cd moyd svitam scbbc dhoratha
patipajjatha, m pamSditthd ti vuttam holt. This seems to be taking
dhutam as an active form, i.e. as an adjective to dhammam **the shaking
doctrine. Alternatively, we might see dhuta as-an action noun, in
apposition to dhammai the doctrine, the shaking off*. For dhuta as an
active form see E V 1. p. 271 (3d Th 1087).
For the labialisation of -a- > -u- after m- in mutfmd see the note on 61. For
bhikkhavo as a vocative see the note on 280. in pada b there is a v.l. cortha
(otdhortha. In the imperative ending 6tha -6- may be m.c., or rhythmical
10 avoid the sequence of three short vowels, or it may be the remains of an
historic subjunctive. See the note on 281.
For the cititi alternation see the note on 26. For atthadassT see Warder
(1967.5201).
P&das ac are JsgatT; pdas bd arc TriMubh. There is resolution of the fust
syllabic in p3da c
In pSda d *f* in mutfm is m.c.
<68> 386. Pj II 373.9*3 akaincrim hi sajanti saiig aklocrim
puggatam rgosotigdayo oneke satig sajanti parissajanti upagShanti
nlttyanti. The double 'Ss- in parissajanti suggests that saj- is < svaj-, but
the single
elsewhere may imply that -ss- is analogical, and the
derivation may be < saAj-. Cf. pasajanti 390. obhisaje 632. For aklacrm
sccMvu 111 328.18*.
387. Pj II 374.8: ye te rpdayo nnnppakram madam janetu satte
sammadoyanti.

242

The Croup o f Discourses

388. Pj H 374.>i : songohTtattabhdvo ti sufthagatacitto. Vv-a 39.3:


saAgahitattabhdvd ti saAgahavotthShi altdnam vtya sabhven' evo
paresam songonkaslld.
389. Pj II374J5-J7: sdvakena vd kenaei ahhatitthiyogahatihddind v idh'
eva pobbajttena bhikkhund vd saddhim. sace pi sattope.
390. For the verb pasaj% sec the noie on 3S6.
Pj M 375*7 vdom pafiseniyanti virujjhanti yujjhitukm hutv senya
patimukham gacchantd viya homi. If potiseniyati is a denominative verb
from pratisend, then it Is an example of the palatalisation of -oyati > iyati.
See the note on 3. At AII 2140s foil, patisseneti is in contrast to usseneti.
Mp III 209.) foil.: n ev* ussenett ti ditthivasena no ukkhipati. no
patisenetT ti pativiruddho hutv kalahabhandanovasena no ukkhipoti. It
is, however, possible that k is from pratiirMpratiSreni.
391. Fj II 375.27 foil.: paccavekkhitvd seve varapahnasdvako sevitum
sakkuneyya vorapahnassa Tathdgatasso svoko sekho vd puthujjano vd
nippariyyena v arahd. I take varapohha as an adjective describing the
sdvaka, rather than as a qua$igenitivc element of a tatpuru$a comoound
the disciple of the one of excellent wisdom".
PED states that upavahana is found only here. We should perhaps read
pavdhana. This would entail taking rajif- as the equivalent of rajo-. For -fl- -0- see the note on 122.
P5da a is Trisrubh ; pSdas bed are JagatT.
392. P3das acd are TH|tubh; pada b Is Jagati.
In p5da c -d- in anQpalitto is m.c. In^pSda d wc should read bhikkh m.c.
<$$> 393. Pj II 376.10 foil.: esa kheiiavauhu-ddipariggahehi sopariggaheno no labbhd phossetum no soki adhigantun ti. Cf. 779 $05
809. For labbhd cf. 590. For phassayati see Norman (1962. pp. 324-26).
In pSda e we should read s9 and in plda d phassitu[m) m.c.

394* In pSda b hanotom is the genitive plural of the present participle of the
root Aon-, in agreement with poresoip. For the verb anujdndti with a
genitive in the sense of 'grant, allow" see the notes on 880 982.
For toso and thdvara see the note on 704.
In pSda a we should read hone m.c. Cf. 400 and vihdne 348. Cf. bne in the
same pSda at A I 214.34* and Thi*a 38.13*. but bahne al A IV 254.17* and
2$7.*7*. although the vv.ll. include hone and bne.

395- Pi II 37bjj-J6: bnjjhomdno ti "porosontakam idaaT ti jdnamdno.

II. Cfavaggn

243

In pda b we should read either kwcl {with F) or <s>svoko m.c.


396. In pdas ac we should ignore the svarabhakti vowel in -cariyom. In
pSdad there is contraction of the sixth and seventh syllables into one
long syllable. See the note on 61.
397. Fj 11 377.1-2 sabhaggata ti santhdrddigato. parisaggato ti
pgamojjhagato. Double -gg- may be m.c.. or may be a development from
-mg- < sabhamgato and parisamgato. For the -mg-/-gg- (NC/CC)
alternation see the note on 168. For the v'le' alternation in pda b see the
note on 38.
398. In the compound ummdanantom the word antam is not pleonastic
(see the note on 127), but means Mhaving ummdd -ta as its end**. In pSda c
pipotam is (he genitive plural o f the present participle of pipati = pivaii.
For the p/v alternation see the note on 62.
Fj II 377.5-7 : tattha majjaft ca pdnan 1/ gihbandhasukhatthom tvom
vuttam, ayam pan* atthoz majjapnan ca na samcorcyy ti. The cty ts
therefore taking pajjan ca pnam as a split compound, replacing
tnajjapdnan ca m.c. For such compounds see the note on 751. For other
examples of gdthobondhasukhattham see the note on 09.
399. PSdas abd are Trisiubh; p3da c is JagatT.
<70> 400-401. Fj II 377.JO-J1 : ett&vat ogriyasvakassa niccosttm
dasseiv idni uposa/haAgdni dassento pnc.m na hanc ti gtbddvayam
dha. These two verses recur at A 1 ai4os(-2i$.v IV 254.'7*-J4* 257.17
258.3*.
400. Pj II 377.23-35 : rattim na bhuiijeyyo vH/ilabhojanatt ti rottim pi no
bhuHjcyya, div pi kuldrikkaniabhojanatn na bhunjeyya.
For viram- with (he ablative see Liidm (Beub. 192), but cf. the usage with
forms in -am in 828 92s.
For the palatalisation of *daye > ddiyc sec the note on 3.
The metre of this verse is Jagai. In pda c *< should ignore the svarabhakti
vowel in cariyd.
For *d- in hdne m.c. see the note on 394.
401. Pj II37701 ascribes p5das ed to the sanginhirax (sec the note on 30).
The metre of this verse is Jagat. In pda a there is a redundant sixth
syllabic. We could repair the metre by reading tlhiirc fot dhrayt. For the
Optative of causative verbs cf. phasic 967. Cf. pujjotum dliArcyxa at Pj li
1 5 6 .1 1 .
See BHSG 29.4.
In p5da d -gund is the instrumental of gu.

244

The Croup o f Discounts

In pitta b va is mx. for vd. Mp H 328.17 (ad A 1215-4*) includes v soyetha in


(he explanation. E5 of A IV 254.1* and 258.* prims vosoyeiha as one word.
402. As in my translation of ThT 3t. I assume thatptihriyopakkha s (obc
taken in the same way as the Pkt compounds chouht-pakkhenam "on the
sixth day of the fortnight , etc., and I therefore translate it as a special day
of the fortnight See EV n, p. 67 (ad ThT 31).
Pj II 378.13: susamottorOpam suparipunnarQpam ekam pi divosom
oporiccajanto. It would be possible to derive somatto from sampta (with
Pj II778. S.Y. -somatta), or samosta (with PED) or somdtta (with BHSD). I
follow Smith and take it as from samdpta and translate in its complete
fo. .n. Cf. 7S1 S891000. For samatta < samdtta see the note on 881.
PSdas abc are Jagatl; pdad is Tristubh. In p5da c we should read pati* to
give resolution of the rsi syllable, and we should ignore the svarabhakti
vowel in -hriya-.
403. Pj IT 378.10 comments: upavuttbuposatho ri upavusita-uposatho. For
the labialisation of -a- > - after -v- in upavuttha- see the note on 61. We
can deduce that it is labialised < *vattha < *vasta, since the form from the
weak grade of vor* would contain retroflex ;/&%Le. *tuttha < {y)usta.
PSda a is Jagatf; pdas bed are Tristubh.
404. Pj II 378.29 : dhammen ti dhnmmoiaddhena bhogena.
In pSda c vattayorp is the present participle of vatteti. We should
understand imam vattom with the cty.
<7i>p. 71.3: There is tmesis in tho uddtlna (cf. Sadd 8.9.5 (P- M72]), since
NtivA Snttom is divided by ca. For tmesis see the note on 53.

III. Mahvagga
<7*>4<>5-p. 149.19. For the Mahvagga sec Jayawickrama (UCR VI, 4,
P- >53 )

40S - 24. Pabbajjsutta. See Jayawickrama (UCR VIII, 3, pp. 181-84). He


describes it as a "narrative ballad. The metre is Sloka. except Tor 423d. See
the note on 423. There is a BHS parallel at Mvu I I 198 foli.
406. PED lakes sambdha as an adjective here (cf. D I 63.2 ISv 180,13];
250,11 ;SU 219 j s ; V 35043). but there seems to be no reason for denying
that it is a noun.
407. There is no need to read -rin vivajjayf. See the note on E* p. x t
408. Pj U 3834-4 : kinnavaralakkhano ri sarfre dkiritvd viya shapisavora
lakkhana vipulavaralakkhono vd, vipulom pi hi kinnan si vttecasi,
yoshhe 'kinrtaluddo puriso dhiicetam va mokkhisa'* (= $ I 205.1* = Ja III
309.8* s 539.9*) fi. vipulaluddo si assha. PED notes the fact that Okinnalii'M* is glossed differently at Spk I 298.15-1 (= bahuppo gthappo).
This arises from the fact that Skinna can stand for khinna (see the note on
158-59 and Norman ( ,M9A, p. 327]).
For Magadha see EV 1. p. 165 (adTh'208). Pj II38243-25: tarn hi PanaavaGijjhokra-Vebhra-Isigilt-Vepuflandmaknam paiieannain girfnom
majjht varo viya thitom, tasmfi Giribbajam v11cfati.
There is resolution of the first syllable in p5da 3.
410. There is resolution of the first syllable in pida c.
4lt. Pj H38340 : ma-kro padasnndhikaro. For sandhi
h-a see the note on 132.

in /ifcokul-m-

412. The way of printing kattfiavaso in pda d of E* can only make sense if
we lake this as a babuvrihi compound: "he will be a having-a-dwellingwhere person. Even if this is possible, it is very clumsy, and it seems far
simpler 10 divide the two words, as in Be and C*. and translate: where will
his dwelling beT Cf. 414.
413. For sapaddnam see Ihe note on 65. For sampaj&na, a present participle
without / . see LUdcrs (Bcob.. 226) and cf. 931.
<73> 4 M' Exactly the same argument that has been given for taking
katthavdso as two words in 412 can bc put forward for taking esshavso as
two woids with Be and C*. and the lemma in the cty (Pj II 3844).

24S

246

The Group o f Discourses

416. For puranhaso cf. BHSpMriwraA (see BHSD, s.v.) 10 the East, on ihc
Eastern side**, with FausboH's translation.against that in PED.
417. There is resolution of the first syllable in p5da c.
418. Pj II 384.9: sajj ti patvd. It is perhaps more likely that we should
read pajja, nee sajja would rather mean attacking. For a similar
ambiguity about Osajjanam at Th 1204 see EV I, p. 287 (ad Th 1204). For the
pis alternation see the note on 353.
419. For sdrdniya see the note on p. 50,17.
420. MW quotes roha in the sense of heap or mountain**, and probably
heap, mass* is what is intended here. There is. however, evidence for the
sense pride (also in MW (RFC}), although it is not quoted in PED or CPD
with this meaning. e.g. Ja V 299.9* foil.
Pida b occurs elsewhere, but with pathamnppattito, at Ja III 218.9* 2nd V!
25J)*. See also Pj II 384.1t and the v.l. in E*. The ending -ik'o seems
preferable. For the tlk alternation see the note on 22-23.
421. PSdas ab must go with 420. although Fausboll takes them withed In
his translation. Pj II 384,1$ agrees that.there is a connection: anikaggon ti
balakydm senmukham uthe head-of, van of. the army. PED ($.v. anfka)
wtotigly takes unTkugga as **a splendid army**. Pausbotl translates il as the
army house", wrongly taking agga as "house".
422. Pj II 384.1s reads uj in the lemma, instead of ujum. and also in the
exegesis. I presume that -fl and -um are alternative ways of lengthening -u
m.c.. to avoid the opening ------ . For the adverbial use of rju straight
on", see MW (sv.)l
Caillat (1974. p. 48 note 43) states that this verse implies resentment of a
vassal/dependent status. Pj 11 365.4-9 : Kosalesu niketino ti bhananto
nQvakarja-bhvam pafikkhipaii, navakarj hi niketi na vuccoti, yassa
porta ddikiato pabhuti anvayavasena so era jonapado nivso, so niketi
ti vuccati. tathrpo ca rj Suddhodano, yam sandhdy Cha : Kosalesu
niketino ti, tena amaydgatam pi bhogasampattim dipeti.
f^j II38404 hasbdhom needrervd. cf. 370.4.P} II384 note 8 stales that in Ms
$* the reading is conected from nddhdretn. with the v.l. 1Scum for btiham.
For the c/dh alternation see the note on 26.
In pida c we should either ignore the svarabhakti vowel in -viriyena or
assume resolution of the third syllable.
<74> 423. For dicea see EV 1, p. 127 (ad Th 26). and Brough ( 1953. p. xv)

IH. Mahavagga

247

P5da c is Tdftubh as it stands, but becomes toka if we exclude [mhi rja)


with F.
424. Note the sandhi of #+<}> -yd in pida a. For other sandhi
developments involving the change of *11 > -v see the note on 144.
I assume that danhu is < datthum < Ski draftum, i.e. an infinitive being
used as an absolutive, with the loss o f -m m.c. It could, however, be an
example of an absolutive in -m. i.e. < *dfstu. Cf. 681 1098.
In pda d -rin raiijatlis m.c.

425- 49- For comments on the Padhina-sutta see Jayawickrama (UCR VIII. 3,
pp. 183-90). It has a BHS parallel at Mvu II238 foil. See also Lai 260.17 folL
It is translated by CJ. Thomas (1949. pp. 72-73). The metre is dioica.
425. Pj II 386.33 : yogakkhemossa pottiy ti catuhi yogchi khemassa
nibbnassa adhigamanattham. For yagakkhema see EV I. p. 128 (ad Th 32).
Jayawickrama says: Correctly pointed out by Katie that mam is error for
nam". He also quotes (UCR VIII. 3. p. 186) Neumann (1924. p. 469) as taking
it = tam imam on the lines of sa 'ham, though the same idiom is not met
with elsewhere". Enomoto in conversation with.me on 24/7/1986 also
suggested tarn (i)mam, but I cannot give another example of the change of
imam > mum after an aitusvii. Pj It 386.16 states: dvthi pi vacancM attntim
eva niddisati. From this it is dear that we should read tam mam and take it
as the accusative of sa aham. See the note on p. 15.13.
For the nil > r alternation in Nerohjar (< Noiranjand) see Geiger (l 994.
43.2) and LOders (Bcob., 44 note 4). For the rii alternation see the note
on 29. and for the it// alternation see Geiger (1994. 43.2). and cf. neltik
BHS llatik. For Chinese translations dependent upon the nil alternation
see Brough (1970. p. 85).
For padhdna cf. Skt pranidhna exertion, profound religious
meditation".
Andersen (1935. p. 103) corrects (he metre of pda a by excluding [mam], but
the metre is correct as it stands if wc assume resolution of the sixth
syllable.
426. Pj II 386.74-16: Nomaci ti Mro, sa hi ottano visoy nikkhamitukdmt
devomanusse na mueati antaryam tesarti koroti. tasrn Nomaci ti vuccati.
For such folk etymologies see tlc noie on 51. For the designation of Mra
as Namuci sec Thomas (1931. p. 146). Cf. 439.
[n p5da a -f in Namuef is m.c. to avoid ihc opening * - .

243

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427. For sahassabhdgo and ekamso, possibly based upon Eastern forms in
e, see Laders (Beob.. 19). For nominative singular forms in -e see the note
on 233. and for such MSgadhisms see the note on 7. See also Lai 26 u<
where we find: sahasrabhBge marapam ekobhge ca jivitam. A more
idiomatic translation would be: **Thc odds on death arc one thousand to
one**.
The cty includes bho in the gloss, so we should probably read jtoa bho.
Pj !( 387.7 uses sdhento in the sense of clarifying**. For puUni in the
plural, cf. the suggestion of reading punBehi in 431. See Liidcrs (Beob.. 14
(p. 20) note t).
I- ?5da a there is resolution of the sixth syllable. See Warder (1967. $244).
<75>42$. In pSda a there is resolution of the first syllable. We should either
ignore the svarabhakti vowel in -cariyom or assume resolution of the
seventh syllable, ln pda b -fi* injiihato is m.c., cf. Pj II 3(7.18: juhato ti
juhantassa.
429. Pj II 387.:&-j j : appfinakajjhdndigahanott dukkltena gantabbo ti
, duggo ... sanlikamaranena Mldisenfipi ppunitum osokkuneyyotp' dura b jtis a m b h a v o .

In pda a p a d h n y a would seem to be a dative of goal o f motion. See


Norman (1971C. p. 2lS). For other examples, cf. y o m ain g a h etv n a d akya
Ja III 296.21 . a p p o s a g g y a g n ccha ii. Dhp 174 (see WD. p. io6>;
dva tto b tm ltd y a , M l 17 1
LaJ 26t .14 has p ra h n a sy a .
n e tt.

Pj II 387,24-2$: im

g lh d b h on a m M r o a tth B u d d h a s sa a n tik e t i ayatn

a d d h a g th s a n g it ik r e h i v u tt . "s a k o la g th p r t i p i e k e , " B h a g a v a lS
e v a patta p o r a m v iy a a tid n a m n id d is a n te n a sa b b a m e tth a evarnjiltikam

For k h a n t i used in this way see the


Introduction ( 3 3 ) and NnamoH (>960. p. 161 note 92). For the s a g g itiktira s see the note on 30.
In pda b we can either read d u [ k ] k a r o (with Pj ll p. 708) and assume
resolution of the first syllable, or assume resolution of the fourth syllable.
v t m u n " ti a y a m a m h d k a m k h ttn ti.

430. Pj II 387.29-00:

y er.

a iitie n t i e n h a p a r e s a m

a n ta r& y a ka ra n en a

Although the cty and all editions I


have consulted read
o n h e n o . the gloss seems to be explaining s e n '
a t t h e n a . as Enomoto suggested to me in conversation on 24/7/1986. La)
261.17 has sv e n itr th e n a . The error would seem to be based upon a confusion
between s and y in an early form of the BthniT script. For this sly confusion
o tta n o a tth en a warn p tlp im ti a g a to ti.

IH .

Mah/ivagga

see (he noie on 369. I should therefore now wish to read s e n


translate: You have come for your own purpose".

249
a it h e n a

and

In pSda e Mvu has krsnabandhu ppimam and Lai has pramattabondho


ppTyam. Von Hinber has raised (he question of whether P51i ppima is to
be derived from ppman (1981. p. 70). and concludes that it is not because,
if it were, the svarabhakti vowel should be -u*. He assumes that ppima is a
new construction, based upon ppa with (he suffice -imo, which is the
explanation given at Sadd 149.31 foil. If (his explanation is correct, the Pli
phrase Mra ppima is not connected in any way with the $kt mrtyu
ppman, as Thomas (1951, p. 146) suggested, and the juxtaposition of
words is quite fortuitous. We should, therefore, have to accept that the
expected derivation from mrtyu ppmqn was completely lost in MIA, but
was replaced by the new formation which merely happened to be coincide
with a possible development from ppman. I suggest that the explanation
in Sadd is not correct, but the expected *ppuma < ppman (cf. pnduma <
podma) became ppima by analogy with other -ima forms. Smith has
already shown that Sadd is probably wrong about candimd (see Sadd,
Index, s.v. candim) and puttim (see Sadd, Index s.v_ puttimat). The
svarabhakti vowel between a dental and a labia) is not always -u*. Cf. $k(
yithivT < f/rihrT, oik) Pti yaihuvF, a well <u yuthuvt.
For (he historical -d in etad abravi see the note on p. 13.10.
In abravi -br- makes position, and is presumably a back-formation <
*abbavi.
43t. Mvu II 238.17* reads amtmtraih and Lai 261.1$* onumdtram. This
suggests an Eastern anumatie as the original form of the word. For such
Mgadhisms see the note on 7. There is a v.l. anumano. which suggests that
the postulated form anumatie did exist and was correctly interpreted as a
nominative singular. For the nominative singular in -e see the note on 233.
It would appear that the Mvu redactor took onttmaite hi as anumatrehi, i.c.
an instrumental plural agreeing with punehi, and replaced it by
onutniroih. It seems likely that we should read punneht here, as both Mvu
and Lai have punyoih in p3da a. and putinnam occurs in p3da c. The correct
translation should therefore be * I do not have the slightest need of
merits".
In pSda a there is resolution of ihc first syllable. In pda d wc should ignore
the svarabhakti vowel in n r a h a i i .
432. In p.ida a wc should cither ignore the svarabhakti vowel in
assume resolution of the seventh syllabic.

v ir iy a m ,

or

2 JO

The Group o f Discourses

434. In pda d litihaii is a misprint for finitati.


435. For sailassa suddhotom, cf. Lai 262.7: sottvasyo suddhatm; cf.
sattvasuddhi (Chand Up VII. 26, p. 2 ) ; jniinaprastidena visuddhisallvas
(Mond Up IIIj .8).
For tassa me see the note on p. 15.23.
Pda c has nine syllables. We could read iw/iefs) with F, but Smith (Pj II
p. 642) suggests Urne.s' tip-, presumably in a positive version of the pda.
<7$> 436-39. These verses occur at Nidd I 96. i *-io* with variants.
436;P jn 389.25-16 explains:pantesit vti sentisanesu atitiataratiAataresuvti
adhikusalesu dhammesu arati uppajjati.
For the endings -iyaJ-Iya in dutfya see the note on 49.
There is resolution of the first syllabic in pda b. We should probably read
catu[t]ihT in pda d and assume resolution of the first syllable.
437: In pda b we should divide chattljti bhiru (with E? p. xt). For the
analysis of ihTnatniddha as thtna-m-iddha see BHSD (s.v. stytina-middha).
For sandhi -m- set the note on 232.
ln pda d we should scan*re as t i m.c,
13$.

For rokktira see BHSD, s.v. somsktira. Lai 262.1t has tamskro.

For somukkamse see the note on 132. Note that in pda b yaso is masculine.
439* Pj 1139 0 .11-15: kanhadhainmasamanntl*galalitiKanhasja
Namncino upaktirtiya samvaitati. For Namuci see the note on 426.
440. Pj 11 390.23-26: esa munjam patihare ti sangmvacarti amvattino
puristi aitano anivananakabhvom titipanatihom sTsc wfl dhoje vti tiyudhe
vti munjatinani bandhonli, 'tarn ayam pi pariharati" ec eva mam dhtirehi.
Pischel disagreed with this explanation, and explained that taking grass or
reed in one's mouth was an appeal to an enemy to spare one's life. To make
this explanation fit die circumstances he had to translate the phrase as Ich
verschmhe das Schilfrohr** **l- refuse to take the reed** (1908, p. 461k
Oldenbcrg (1908 pp. 593-94) rejected Pischel's view by pointing to the use
o f pariharati with muAjamekhahl, etc., in the sense of "wear**. Schrader
{1930. pp. 107-9) also rejected Pischel's view, pointing out that pariharati
nowhere has the sense of **to reject, to disdain**, although we could quote
mrstivtidam pariharri (MDh III 207.4). I k preferred 10 lake munjam
paribare as meaning much the same as vratam badhntimi **l lake the vow to
conquer or die". Hare (1945. p. 64. note 1 ) accepted this explanation. Sec
Jayawickrama (UCR Vili. 3. p. 188) for a summary of these views.

111.

Mahvagga

251

All these explanations agree with PED in taking porihare as the first
person singular middle although Pj I) 390.33 explains it as parihareyyam. 1
would accept Pischel's view that carrying munja grass is a sign of
surrender, but 1 would differ from him in the interpretation of parihare. I
follow Pj U in taking it as a Tirsi person singular optative and ! assume that
it is a rhetorical question: Should I be the one to wear munja grass (= a
sign of surrender), i.e. should l surrender?', implying the answer No,
certainly not. Wintemitz quotes (English edition 111.2, p. 605 ; German
edition III, p. 531 ) from the Laghvarthaniii of Hemacamlra : He should not
kill one who holds grass in his mouth between his teeth
{mukhadantatrnam blam), i.e. one who has surrendered.
For the past participles jlvita and mala used as action nouns see the note
on 33X.
For sandhi -r- in dhi-r-atihu see the note on 29. For yahee cf. Skt sa cel.
441. Pj H 390.31-391.5: ettha kmddikya attukkomsanaparavambhonapariyosnya tava pagth nimuggd anuppavitlhd eke samanabrhmon
no dissonii sUdihi gunehi na .ppakdsanti ondhakdram pavitthd viya
/ronfitele evam pagjh samiind.sace pi kaddei karahaci ummujjttvd
nimujjanapuriso viya sdhu saddlin' is din nOfena umhwjjanti. sth pi
ioya sendya ajjhaittiatattd ... . Mvu II 240.9 reads: pragdh atra
dfSyante eke iromanabrhmon. Lai 262.21 has: atrdvagdhd drsyante eie
iramanobrhmand. In neither version docs na appear. These versions scan,
while Ee has nine syllables. Suggesting that na is an addition to the text. It
is, however, dear that na was in the form of the text which Pj II is
explaining.
442. The commentarial tradition gives two meanings for savtihana "with
army" and "with elephant". Pj II 392.3: s a - hanan ri Girimekha-ngasahitain. MpIII 18.26 (ad A 11 15.29*):... ri sa-senakam. Cf. GDhp (13)4/0
sa Seaka.
Pj II 392j- 7 : imi main thn acvayi main eiasm fhdn apardjtapaltainkd
Mro m eiesf li vuttam bori.
For the past participle yuddha used as an action noun see the note on 331.
Mvu II 240.1 reads yuddhya prariysymi.
In pSda c E* reads paccuggacchdmi. but notes that all Mss have single
with the metre. Wc sliould read paccug\g]ncchdini m e.
443. E* p. 77 note 2 suggests reading bhanjmi instead of gaechmi. Dhp
148 has bbijjoii : GDhp 142 has bfteisidi; UdSnav 1.34 has bheisyati. Lai
263.1 Mvu II 240.11 have hhetsynini. Brough (1962. p. 217) says:

252

The Croup o f Discourses

"futures such as bhecchati arc sufficiently rare to invite alteration**. The


uv.IL make it clear that the reading should be bhecchmi, and this is what 1
translate. The word bhecchati occurs at A I 8.4. with the v.l. bhijjissuti.
Dissimilation of the aspirates gives becchiimi = vecchmi (< vytulli'
according to E? footnote), which probably underlies the w .ll. vecchapi and
vejjhmi. For the bhfg alternation see EV I. p. 157 (ad Th 164) and EV I!
p. 64 (ad ThT 25). Cf. gamissdmi for bavissiitni at Ja VI 496.4* (sec Alsdorf
(1957,'p. 29]); gotam for bhotom at Ja VI 563.1)'; and the v.l. na gijjhoii
for nbhijjhatl at Pj II 568.20. See the note on 948.
Pj II 392.S-9: asman ti psnena. Mvu II 240.11 and Lai 263.1 rea^ ambunil.
There is a v j. ombhan and Jones (Mvu-Trsl. II. p. 237 note 5) states that
this perhaps suggests that, since water is more natural as a destroyer of
unbaked pots, ombun is the original reading. It is true that there are
references in Indiao literature* to water destroying unbaked pots. Cf.
Hitopadefa IX. v. 66 : pratiksonam ayam kiiyah kfTyamno na iaksyate.
makumbha ivmbhah-stho visirnah son vibhvyate. This, however, being
a slow dissolving process, would scarcely be appropriate as a simile for the
breaking of an army. The Sanskritised form asman presumably depends
upoh an underlying amhanS. The evolution o f
between - and rhwould explain die v X umbhund. A (vnWambhtmd with a-Tabkitncd > *aafter -bh- might well have been corrected" into ambun. Fol: the
labialisation of vowels see the note on 61.
In p5da a pp- in ppasahmi is doubtless to produce a long fourth syllable
to give the opening * ---- with the cadence - .
<77> 444. With vasimkaritv cf. vasTkatv in 561. For the VNC/VC
alternation see the note on 315.
445. There is a v.l. ly for le in pda a, which is followed by Ef(3). This is
doubtless to avoid the nine-syllable pda, which can. however, be avoided
by assuming resolution of the sixth syllable. For the sandhi of * + CC- >
-vcCC- see the note on 340.
There is resolution of the sixth syllable in p5da c if we read gami[s)santi.
446. Pj II 393.9: niidhigacchissan ti ndhigantim, i.e. wc are dealing with an
aorist ending with
not a future. See Geiger (994. 159). Pischel (1900.
516), and EV 1. p. 14t (ad Th 78). The doubling of *- here is undoubtedly
m.c. to give the cadence
(pathy). Cf. apucchissam IJ16. explained
as pueehi, in the same position in the p5da. For other examples see
husissirfuu (glossed hasimsu) Ja VI 581.20*. and udapajjissum Ja VI 578.54.

Hi. Mahvagga

253

although the latter is probably a wrong reading, since the metre requires ** ,
which the lemma reads.
In pda a there is resolution of the sixth syllable,
in pSda d -F- in satimoto is m.c.
447. We should ignore the svarabkhakti vowel in anupariyagd in the
cadence of pda b. Sec Pj I) p. 655.
448. Pj II393. : vyas' etto ti vyaso etto, i.e. we have the sandhi of o + e*
> ?*.
SI 124Jand 127.17 (and F) read Gotam, which looks like an ablative after
nibbi)ja. This suggests that Gotamam is an ablative in -am. See Uiders
(Beob.. 194). Pj I! 393^5-17: kdko va setom sojja nibbijjpema, Gotamam
asajja [tato Gotamam] nibbijja apem ti. This seems to be explaining
Gotamam as the object of sojja < 6sad~ **10 attack**, although the Mss are
not in agreement, and add or omit tato Gotamam before itibbijj. Spk 1
186.16 has: so kko viya setom, Gotamam dsajja assddam id santhavam vd
ahbhanto Gotamam nibbinditv apagacchdma, which seems to be taking
Gotamam as the object of both dsajja and nibbijja. fo t ablatives in -am sec
the note on p. 48.8.9.
S 1 124.7 reads apakkame where Sn has apakkami. Spk 1 186.14-15 explains it
as apagaccheyyo, and Pj 11393.10 as pakkameyya. It is clear that both ctics
arc explaining an optative form, which must have been edited out of Sn.
perhaps because the use of an optative (or a form identical with an optative)
as an aorist was no longer current in Pli. Cf. patiggahe 689. Unfortunately
there is no parallel to this pads in Mvu. For such forms see von Hinber
( 1977. Pp. 39-48. and berblick. 445) and Norman (1981A. pp. 168-69).
<78>449. Pj II 394.5: sargTiikr nhoms ti eke.amhdkom pan' etam na
kkbomati ti See the note on 30. For this use of khamoti see the Introduction
( 33).
PED states that antaradhSyaiha is third singular middle, without making
it clear that it is a past tense formation.
P 78.5-454. SubhSsita-sutta * S I 188.25-189.15.
P- 78.6. The words evam me satani are ascribed to the sangitikdras. See the
note on 30.
p. 78.8. Fur the historical -d in clad avoca see the note on p. 13.10.
P 78.9-1ti. Pj I! 396.8: onavajjd ti vajjasainkhOtOrUgddidosavirabi/. ten'
U5S& krana-suddhitn volta dosbUdvam dipeti ; ananuvajj cd ti
onuvdduviinuti, ten* au sabbkdrasampoiiim dipeli.

*54

The Group o f Discourses

p. 78.17. Pj il 398.17 : tanha oparan ri gthbandhavacamun sandhdya


viiccari. For oibcr examples of gSthbandhavacana see (he notes on
p. 126.27 p. 140.16.
430. For subhsita see 252.
Pj II 398.23-24: tanha santo ti buddhdoyo. te hi subhasHom uttamam
setthan ri vannayanri. See Lildcrs (Bcob., 17).
The metre is Triskibh. In pada c we should read dutiyam and in {da c
tatfyani mx. For the endings -iyaf-iya in dutTya see the note on 49.
<7P> p . 79.1. The cty ascribes this prose to the saigtkras. See the note on

30.
p. 79.3. For the historical -d in etod avoca see the note on p. 13.10.
451-54 ; These verses Th 1227-30. They are in loka metre.
452. There is resolution of the first syllable in p5da a. In pda b Ee and Pj II
read pat , with a v.l. pari-. Th reads pori-.
453- Fj II 399.12 : ornata ri atnotosaJisd sdubhvena, vuttah c etam:
saccam have sdutaram rasnan ri, nibbnmatappaccayattd v amat.
It is therefore giving the choice of talcing amata in the sensefof
ambrosial, and therefore' sweet**, or tttcaih-free** in 'die sense Implied by
nibbna. See the note on 80. 1 take amata bre in the sense of undying, i.c.
immortal .
I punctuate pda d as hu santo, patitthil. and compare 450. For the
nominative singular forms in -e see (he notes on 7 and 233. and cf. EV I.
p. 108 (ad Th >46). See LOders (Beob.. $17). Udina-v 8.14 reads: satyom
untie ca dharme ca vdcam huh pratisthitSm, which can be translated
They say. Speech founded on artha and dhamma is true*. This cannot be
correct for the P3li. but we could translate p3da a as: Truly, indeed, speech
is immortal.
45|. In pda a -1 in bhdsatl is m.c. In pda c we should cither ignore the
swabhakti vowel in -kiriyya, or assume resolution of the sixth syllable.
pp. 79.17-86.16. Sundarikabhradvja-suita. Pj H 400.16 calls it Pralisa*
sulta. For the alternative names see-the Introduction $7.
pp. 79.17-80.15. This prose passage * $ I 167.1S-168.3. The prose is ascribed
to the soAgTrikSms. See the note ou 30.
<8o>p. 8 o .i j . For the historical -d in etod avoca see the note on p. 13.10.
455-56. The metre of these two verses is Tnstubh.

III. Mahvagga

255

455. Pj D402.11 : na brahmano no *mhf ti eitho na-kiro patisedhe, no-kro


avadhirone.
P] (1402.14: na vessdyano li vesso pi n* amb.
Pjll 402.16-28 -.manti jinitvi ... manta vuccati panb, tya c* csa carati,
ten* ev* ha: menta cardini ioke li, cbandavasena ratsam katy. For
ebenda in the sens of metre see the note on 2. The cty is therefore giving
two explanations, one based upon manti < mcn/vdand the other upon
manti as a feminine noun, of which manti would be the truncated
instrumental form < mantiya ( paiiiiya). See the note on 159. In either
case we should assume shortening of final *o o.c. For such shortening see
the note on 2. Morris (1885, p. 21), however, takes manta as < 'mantrya, cf.
imanto < imontrya (= mantelvi, Ja UI 209.19*[ad 209.17*)). I take it a: \
shortened form of manti < montar.
For the meaning of pariHiya see the note on 202.
In pSda b the metre requires vesiyino, as E* p. 80 note 8 states. The asterisk
before vesiyino should be deleted, as the word occurs at Ja VI 328.31* (as
noted on p. xi). See Alsdorf (1957, p. 23X Laders (1940, p. 283 note 3), and Pj
I! p. 769.
456. Pj II 403.4: nh'iittaktso ti opagotaleso, p hin tok eso m o ssil ti vuttom

hoti. For the protbetic v- in the past participle vutta(< Skt uptn) from (he
root rap-*to sheaf* see Geiger (1994.566.1 X
Pj H403.7-*: mnavehf I t ... monttssehi.
In pSda d okalla is m.c. The pida has thirteen syllables, but the metre can be
repaired by reading puccbasi and excluding \bribmana\ (with F) or,
perhaps more likely, by reading gottam for goitO'panham. Smith (Pj II
p. 639) calls it "Tristubh metre continued**.
<80457-61. The metre of these verses is strange, and Smith and Dolile are
not agreed in the way to divide the pSdas. Perhaps the extraneous portions
are prose, altliough they can sometimes be made to scan.
457. Smith takes the prose** as pidas abc and the verse as p3das def (loka
metre), and pida g (Vaitaliya metre). Pada g may. however, be better as
Sloka with resolution of the first and third syllables. See Pj II p. 704.
It is to be noted that -hr- in n-brihmanam does not make position, and wc
can assume that an earlier version of the verse probably had a-batnbhonam.
In pida <1we stiookl read t<u>vatn m.c.
458. Pj II 404.11-1: yaniia-m-akappayimul ti ma-k&ro podasondhikaro. For
sandhi !* see the note on 132. The cty is therefore taking yotiha as an

The Croup o f Discourses

256

accusative plural form, shortened from yaihie: For other examples of <> -a
m.c. cf. saroda 687. tlvaya 868. uggahonanta 911 912. It may well be.
however, that we should divide (he words yuHiiam akoppayhnsut and
assume that yadiiom is an example of an accusative plural in am (> *om
before a-X See die note on 35.
Pj II 404.1^-14: puih ti bohii Qiwa'piUi dndin bhedena oneko*
ppakre, puih v isayo mantijd khottiyd brdhmand ca, i.e. it may be an
accusative agreeing with yaMo, or a nominative agreeing with isayo, etc
Pj II 404.i?-ii : yn-d-antagii it yo antag. o-krassa a-kro, da-kro ca
pa'dasandhikaro asdhrana*monneson'' ti Udisti ma-kro viya. We arc.
therefore, dealing here not with the survival o f a historical -d (see the note
on p. 13.10). but with yo shortened > yo m.c.. with a sandhi -d- inserted. For
sandhi -d- see the note on p/{6.?. For sandhi -m- see the note on 132. For
another example of the shortening of *o > -a m.c. see the note on 1134.
Pj U 404.22: vaftassa tfhi pariiifhi onta-gaia-tl antag. The cty is
therefore taking -go as coming from the root gam-. For Skt antoga see MW
(s.v. oniagn). For the change of -go > -git see the note on 167. When,
however, fintagli is used as an epithet of M9ra. e.g. ontag Nomuc (I^dd I
4S94sNiddll227.1t) it is more likely that it Is <antaka. See CPD s.v.
iantaga. For ihe k/g alternation see the note on 319. We should probably
assume ibat vedagu also shows ihe same development, and stands for
vedaka. See ihe note on 322.
Pj II 404.14: yassa isimanujakhoiiiyohrah/itonilnam aiidatarasso yaiiiia
J M / f.

Smith takes ihe "prose" as pSdas ah. and the verse as pddas cd (Tristubh
metre), la pda d there is a redundant fifth syllabic and br- in briimi does
not make position. Cf. 1043-45.
459.

For the reciter's remarks see the note on 18-29.

pj II 405.3: loiihtt iti brahmano ti saAgttikrdnam vocanam. See ibe note


0030.
Pj II 405.7: iddisam bhovantorpam. i.e. il is to be derived < Skt tvdri
I take tassa aj referring to the speaker of the verse, i.e. il agrees with an
unexpressed me. See ihe note on p. 15.1.1.
For veihtgu red a k a see ihe noie on 322.
Pda a is Sloka and pidas bed arc Trisfubh. There is resolution of ihe sixth
syllable io plla a (see Pj II p. 642 ). Il also scans as an Old ry 3 pSda (see Pj

Mp. 643X

III. Mahvagga

*57

In pda b we should read vcdogum ro c.


460. Pj II 405.16 : tasm pana iha tvam br&hmana uposamkamma puccha,
i.e. ii divides not as tasm ti ha, but as tasm-t-iha (see CPD, s.v. iha). In
the absence of any reference to a padasandhikra sound, the presence of
pana possibly indicates that -t- was taken for tu, but we may have here an
example of sandhi *1-. See the note on p. i6.t. Geiger (1994. $73.5) prefers to
divide tasm n* ha.
Pj II 405.J0: kodhodhmavigomena vidhmam. Pda c recurs (in the
nominative) a t S 1 141.36*. where Spk 1 207. glosses: kodhodhmavigamd
vidhumo.
Smith takes the words printed as prose as pSdas ab. He says (Pj H p. 639
(IIII)) that pidas ad are ----------- * , but I cannot see that this is
correct for cither p3da.
In pda d we should read idh m.c.
461. For the sandhi of ~o + a~> -d- in ratham see the note on 378.
Smith takes the 'prose** as p5da$ ab. Pda a has a redundant fifth syllable.
Fausbdll excludes \bho Cotama]. Smith points out that by reading yaitne
ratahom [bho\Cotama [yanharn] yatfhukinolnham pajnmi we could
get one and a half Trivtubh p9das. If we read ntiharh pajanam[i] anussaiu
mam (bhavani) we have (wo complete Trivtubh pSdas. Pdas cd are
Trisjubh; pda e is $loka but has only seven syllables. Wc could correct
the metre by reading desayissmi, as Ee p. 82 note 3 suggests. Cf. Ja V
222.11*1 dhatvaam te desaybsdmi. See Pj II p. 710. In pSda c yotlfid and in
pda d tend are m.c. In pda c fv- in tvam does not make position, and we
should perhaps read rfi'Inm In pda d we should exclude [sotam\.
<82> 462 -82. These verses are Tri$lubh, with some Jagati and $loka pidas.
and some prose insertions. See the note on 47S.
462. Pj ii 406.;o-u : dhitim hirl-niscdho djitnfyo itoti imya dhiti-hiripamitkhya gitnti-iaiiipaiiiy jtim uttania-dakkhineyyo. See the note on
(jonita 544. Tbc same explanation, linking jnya with Jtim. is given at
Spk 1234.27 foil., but there an alternative explanation is given ljniyo ti
karonkrano'jnanako. For another example of the (incorrect)
connection between djnyo and the root //Id* see the note on 532.
For co in the disjunctive sense in pda a see EV I. p. 131 (ad Th 41 ). and EV
II. P- 7 3 (ad ThI $5).
In pda a we should read
ancmc.

m.c. In pda C / in munf and 1- in dhilfm

25S

The Croup o f Discourses

463 66. Pj 11407.11-12: povecche paveseyya patipddeyya. Trenckncr (1908,


p. 11 1 note 14) pointed out that pavecchati looks like a derivative from
aviksat, but that neither vii- nor vis- makes good sense. PED (S.v.) rejects
the development from pravii- and also rejects Morriss suggestion af
pravri- <1885,43). Nor does Geigers suggestion (1994. $ >52 note 3) that
povecchati Is based upon a future (of an unstated verb), just as sakkh is 10
be derived <iaksy% meet favour. The suggestion.made by Barnett (1925.
p. 186) that pavecchati is to be explained as being derived < pra-vricati
(cf. vrscati ddnakarmd, Nigh. IU.20) is attractive, since this would meet the
needs of both form and meaning, but as the root is so inadequately attested
in this meaning (MW s.v. quotes provraic only in the sense of cut"). I
hesitate to accept L Von Hinber (Oberblick. 214) draws attention to the
suggestion in Sadd 453.j6:.vcju dne. vecchati pavecchati, paveccham
pavecchanto. and Sadd Index (s.v.) where Smith suggests prayocehati >
pecchati (with -aya- > -e-) which was then influenced by pavesai. I prefer
the explanation given in PED. that payacchaii > *payecchati (with
palatalisation of the vowel after
see tforman (1976A)) > pavecchati, with
the change of the glide consonant y > -v-. See the note on zoo. This
explanation is accepted.by Berger (tp$5. p. 54). For othgr examples of the
(MldbliMlion of voweb see ilic note 011 j r
In these verses pSda c has only ten syllables. It can be regularised by
reading hav<i>yam or by assuming that the short sixth and seventh
syllables have been replaced by one long syllable. See the note on 6l463. Pj II 407.6-7 : vedanmgii ti redehi v kilesdnatn antogoto veddnam rfi
ontam catuiihamagganonam goto.
In p5da b - in -gii is m.c. We should ignore the svarabhaktt vowel in
brahmacariyo. and note that -br- probably makes position.
464. In pda a we should read kdmi m.c.
465. Pda a is iagatl; pSdas bed are Tristubh. In pSda b the break is *.
with caesuras after the fifth and eighth syllables. The metre is improved,
with the break - - - . if we read either Rhu-ggahan or Rah'gahand. If
we read the tatter, but divide Rdhtl gahand, then we have the genitive of a
S t e m in -ti. i.o. -ii < -0 < -oh. and also a caesura after the fifth syllable. For
such forms see the note on 122.
4$6. Pj II 407.16-17: sol ti sutisoinponiu'i : imuntytnl ti tanhaditthi
mwnyitd/ii. Cf. 119.
467-78. In pda d in these verses wc should ignore the svarabhakii vowel in
arohati.

UI. Mah&vaggt

259

467. For tathdgata see EV I, p. 118 (ad Th 3 ).


For the compound abhibhuyya-cBrf see the note on 72.
In pida e (here is resolution of the first and fifth syllables. We should
ignore the svarabhaktivowel in nttoda.
In pSda a we should read kdmi m.c. In p5da b we should read jiT- m.c.
<$3> 468. Pj II407.27 : samo it tulyo, samehl ti Vipassi-dfhi buddhehi, te
hi pativedhasamatl sam ti truccanti Pj II408.29 foli.: visamehi dare ti na
soma visom paccekabuddhddayo ... ko pana vddo svakddisu.
Fordfca vd huram vdef.470 49<5aodseeEVIp. 121 (adTh to).
In pda e *fl* in anpolitta is nix.
469. The retroflexion of -imi- > -na- in panunna- would seem to be spontan
eous, since there is no historic reason for it. For spontaneous retroflexion
see the notes on 100 13t.
In pSda a -f in yamhi and vasaii is tax. Cf. 494.
470. For the palatalisation of -a- > -i- in anupdiyno see the note on 3.
For idha vd huram vd see the note on 468.
Pj II 409.17-19: nivesanan ti tonhditthisevanam, una hi mano iTsu
bhavtju nivisaii, lena tom nivesruuxm manate ti vuccaii.
In pda c there is resolution of the first syllable.

471* Por udatri as an sonst see Geiger (1994. $ 166) and cf. uapdi (Pj II
346.24; 462 .23).
Pj 409.24-25 : diiamman ca ondsi ti sabban ca Heyyadhammam addasi.
Ud-a 138.23 foil, gives five neyyadhammas : abhidneyya-, pariddeyya-.
pahtabba-, sacchiktabba-, and bhveiabbo- (18H).
Pj II 409,23-26: paramya dtthiy li sabbohnutanQnena.
Pdas acd are Tristubh; pda b is Jagatt.
Smith suggests (Pj U p. 649) that we resti c' annsi. We should then read
m.c.
472. Pj II 409.26-27: bhavdsavd ri bhava-tanha-jjhna-nikanti-sassataditfhi-sahagata rg. Pj II 4 0 9 .2 S : vidhpit ti daddh. Cf. 47S. and see the
note on 7 . Pj II 409.30: sabbadhi ti sabbesu khandhyarandisn. For a
similar usage of sabbadhi see Th 47.
For vedagli a vedaka see the note 00322.
In pda c -tf in vedag Ss m.c.

26c

The Group o f Discourses

473- Pj II 409.31 : dukkham pariiiiidyd ti vattadttkkham tihi pariniiQhi


jnitvd. Pj II 409.33-34: sakhettflvatthun t i. sahetupaccayom saddhint
kammakilesehl ti vuttam Itoti. For pariniinya see the note on 202.
<84>474. Pj U 4I9r: vivekadasst ti aibbdmtdassT. Pj II 410.: ditthtm
up&livotto ti dvSOlthibhedam pi micchditthim atikkanto', arammand ti
paccay. punobbhavokrannl ti vuttam hoti.
In p5da b there is resolution of the first syllable.

475. Tor vidkpit cf. 472 and see the note on 7.


Pj 'II 4 I O.7-6 : sameccd ti ndnena pativijjhit, dhamm ti khandh
ynianddayo dhammd.
In pads c -kh- in -khaye is m.c.
476. Pj II 4103-14:scmyo/anmjtikhayantadasst ti samyojanakSJtayantadassT jiikkhayantadasst ca ... anunsikaopo c* ettha vivekajompitiSttkhan" ti ddisu viya na kato. The cty quotes D 1 370; A 1 53.13 ; M 1
Sv and Mp (on these) refer to Vt$m ; cf. Vv-a 2754. For samyojanam- with
-m- m.c. see the note on 181-82.
Pj II410.14 : yo 'panudl ti yo aponudi. This is taking the form from $ pa
rtial^ not from pran-nud-. E*(3) prints it tfcus.
Wc should read panudt m.c. In psda b. In p4da c we should read nt[d]doso
m.c.
477. With pSda a Hare (1945. p. 70.2) compares the VedSntic view: dtmdnam
t/naad pasya see the self by the s e lf, quoted by Max Muller {Collected
Works. XV.81). Cf. dntvtmdnam nirdt/nnain (MBh III.213.27).
Pj II 41 1.3-5: iokodhammehi okampaniyato thitatto', tanhd-samkhdtdya
ejiiyo poiiainnain celoluldnarn atthotthnya ca kanikhflya abitvd anejo
akhilo akamkho.
Pda a is Jagatf; pSdas bed are Tristubh.
478. Pj U 411.1: yakkltossd ti purisassa. Cf. Nidd 1 281.32-24 (ad S75):
yakkhassd ti sattassa narassa ntSnavussa posassa puggalassa jTVassa
jugussa jantussa indagussa mamtjassa. Cf. 875 876. For the use of yokkha
= yaksa, i.c. a pre-Buddhist term, with reference <0 the Buddha see
Nakamura (1983. p. 318) and compare the use of ndga (see the note on 166)
and deva (sec Norman (198111. p. 154}). I translated yakkha as individual'*
in Voi. 1. but now. prefer in-.leovc it untranslated, as 1 leave ndga
untranslated.

IH. M oll vagga

261

Por sambodhi(m) in pda d see E* note 16. Pj II 4 l 1.10: sambodhin t


ardhattam. li is an accusative after potto. The omission of -w is strange,
since its presence would not have affected the metre. E*(3) omits co. but it is
needed m.c. Pj II 4 1 1 .5-6: mohontord ti luohakdrond mohoppoccayo,
sobbakilesdnom etani adhiwcanani.
Pda <J is JagatT; pSdas obf are Tri$tubh. I cannot identify any metre In
pdas c and c. From (he way in which Ee prints them it would appear that the
editors similarly nad difficulties. Bollic omits them from his index of
pdas of the Sn, implying that he does not regard them as metrical pddas. 1
assume that they are prose insertions. See the note on 457-61.
<$5> 479. Fv. vedagu as the equivalent of yedaka see the note on 322 :
vedagunam is the accusative singular.
Por i/Ji* in alattoam (= first person singular), cf. alauha p. |6.> and settho
970.
Pdas ab arc Tristubh, but l am uncertain about the metre or the rest of the
verse. Bolide lists patigtmhdtu me Bftagavd (which can be taken as an odd
Sloka pda with resolution of ihc seventh syllable).* jtfd&C and blumjaiu
me Bhagavii pfiro}irsani as pda d. in which we should need to read
hhunjm m.c. He is presumably taking Brohnid hi sokkhi as prose. Smith
includes (his phrase in pda c.
4S0-S1. These verses arc identical with Si-S2.
4S0. Sec the note on 81.
481. See the note on Sa.
482. Pj II412.i- j : Studiti t <rv<*(iMi/>c* nipdto. I appear* that siidhdham is
< stto + aham. For the sandhi uf -n o- >
cf. 1032 and see Normali
(19S#. p. 91). Pj H41J.5: pappuyyn ti /imJ. We could take pappuyytt as the
first person singular optative, if we wished. C f. the v.l. poppuyyant in M s
B*. Pj U 412.4: uponhttheyywt ti piithoteso. Clearly li e ciy felt the lack of a
finite verb.

Pj II 412 . 3 : vijoiiiid ti jdneyxtm.


Pdas abc arc Tristubh; pda d is dioica. Pda a has eleven syllables, with
else opening * * - *. ami the hcak . * . We could read stto alum.
giving the o p en in g ------ , and icMitution o f the fifth syllable, with the
break
483-86 Illese verses arc $loka. jp u i (10m 4S6. which has one Tristuldi
pda.

483. The v.l. panuriiam stiows ihc tid alternation. See (lie note on 81.

262

The Croup o f Qiscourses

484. Pj 11 4 12.13*17: sfmfi ti mariyfidfi sildhujanavutii, tass am


pariyosfin aparabhfig li katvtl sTmantfi vuccaii kilesfl, lesam vmetrnn
ti attho. simantd ri bnddhaveneyy sekhO ca puthujjnn ca, lesam
vinetrai1 ti pi-eke. The alternatives arise from the foci that vine'nram can
mean 'destroyer or discipliner. In Volume 1 i followed (he first of these
interpretations, and translated "the destroyer of defilements". In Ski sTma
can mean bounds of decency", and that seems to be the way the cty takes it
in the first explanation. Cf. bhinnasTmd as the epithet of a bad woman (Mil
1 2 3 . 3 0 ) . To get a bad sense. sTmanta has to be taken as a tatpurusa
compound the ends, limits of the bounds, of decency", giving the idea of
transgression, sin. In (be compound stnitiga in 795. however, simfi itself
seems to have a bad sense. Nidd 1 99.14 foil, (ad 795): sTmd ti catarro
simfiyo : sakkfiyadinhi victkicch ... tadekauhd co kitesd, ayam pathamfi
stmfi ; otrikom kfimargasomyojanam ... tadekoith ca kiles, ' ayam
dutiyd sim ; anusohogatam kmarfigosamyojanom ... tadekanhii ca
kiles, ayam tatiy sim ; rparfigo ariipargo ... todekatth ca kitesfi,
ayam cotunh sTm. I! 528. (ad 795): cotunrtam kilesasTmnam otatt
stmtigo. It would be possible to see a pleonastic use of anta (see thorhote
on 127), so that there was no diffdren^e in meaning Between stma and
simonia. but I now prefer to lake sFmania as a dvandva compound
boundaries and limits" (of life in the samsra).
Pj H412.1S: mnneyya = panna.

In pSda b vve should read

jfiti- m.c. to avoid the opening

485. In pda b we should read p a fija Jtk fi m.c. to avoid the opening * **.
<86> 486. For mahapphata, showing a development from mahab rather
than mobil-, see the note on 191.
PSda a is Trisiubh; bed arc $loka. In pSda a we should ignore the
svarabhakti vowel in orahati.
p. 86.6. For Ihc historical -d in etad avoca see the note on p. 13.10.
p. 86.11. For esham see the note on p. 15.15.
pp. 86.11-9,1 .o. Mgha-sutta. The prose is ascribed to the safigilikfiras at Pj
II 413.6. See the note on 30. The verses are mostly Tristubh. with some iagati
pdas.
<87> p. 87.1. For the historical din etad avoca sec the note on p. 13.10.
p. 87.1. Pj II 414.4: vadanoti ti ycaknam vacanam jndmi, valiamone yeva
ayam idam arahati, ayam idan" ti purisavtsesfivadhdranena

III. M ahvagga

263

babipakrabbvngabanena vi. The ciy is taking the word as being for


vada + jna. The ending -fin is possibly due to the belief that we have -jiia
here. Cf. vadaiinttn ti vacana-vidum sabbkrena saiinom vintavacandhippyannurt li vuttaiii boti (Pj 11 415.1.[ad 4S7)). Il-a II 57.13-29
gives similar explanations, and gives padahnu as a pthniara. It also
quotes a reading varaniiu from "the old text" (p. 57 note 1 ). For the dir
alternation see lite note on 81. The word is. however, from Ski vadnya. as
the variant vadniya shows. See Mayrhofer (EWA (s.v. vodd/iyoA}). The
reference in PED to Skt vadniya is perhaps an error. See also avadaiidu 663
avoddniya 774. The Chinese version of the latter translates as ignorant".
Pj II 414.6-9: yOcayogo ti ydciium yuuo, yo hi y&cake disvi bhakutin1 kaiv
pharttsavacandlni bha/iati, sc na ycayogo boti, atam pana na tdiso li
dipeli. The word yojati has two meanings, as PED points out: ydjayoga
intent upon sacrifice" of brahmans (see 1046-47 ; Ja V I 199 204-5) and
ydjayoga intent upon giving" of Buddhists. Because of the idea of giving
to ycanakas. we get a mixture of ycj- and ydc-. For the c/j alternation see
the note on p. 13.17. See also Kern (Tocv.ll.136). Spk 1347.75 (ad S 1228j i ):
parchi ydcitabbrabo\ ycayogo ti i'rt ycayogcn' eva yulio. Spk III 280,2$
(ad S V 351.31): yciiahba-yutto. Ja VI 482.17* : puttam varadom ycayogm. There is no gloss on the Iasi, but 4S3.i'hsyociio-ycitassa
vnrnbhondouo dnynkam. Ja VI '544.9* : na A et ycayogt: ycanBya
amtcchavik na homi. Mp II 246.1 (ad A I 150.16) .ycayogo tit ydciium
yuno ycakehi vd vogo essa ti pi ycayogo.
p. S7.4 foli. Note the use of p i after numerals to imply exactness or
completeness Cf. 66 t $04 1073. and see MW (s.v. opr).
487. for the reciter's remarks see lite note .on 18-29.
For vadufuiu ami yaivogo see the note on p. 87.1.
In p3da a Gotamum is against the metre according to Pj II p. 691. although
the break - , - - is not so unusual. In pada c there is a redundant fifth
syllable.
In pSda c -f in patT is m.c. In p!Wn d we should read yajaii m.c. In p&da f we
should read knnhO m.c.
<8S> 488-89. For the reciter's remarks see the note on 1&-Z9In pSrla a there is a redundant fifth syllable
In pida a -Tin /wn'it m.c. In pWa b we should read yojati m.c.
490^503. For Arnioni amljMvralir in p&dac seethe note on 463-66.

2&1

The Group o f Discourses

In (he$c verses pda c has only icn syllables, li can be regularised by


reading hav<i>yam or by assuming that the short sixth am) seventh
syllables have been replaced by one long syllable. See the note on 61.
491. PSda a is JagatT; pSdas bed are TristuM*
493. ln pSda b intervocalic br- probably makes position. We should
disregard the .varabhakti vowel in - e a r l y a .
494. In p3da a we should read yesd m.c., and -f in rosoti is m.c. Cf. 4$9<$9>495. Pj 1 415.29 : vitareyyO it raritvS, i.e. taking -eyyn as an absolutive
ending.
here is resolution of the first syllable in p&da b.
496. Pj II 4 lb. 1 : bhavbhavy ti sassatya v ucchedya v,atha v
bhavassa abhavflya bhavbhavya punabbhavdncbhinibbatliy li vuitant
Itoti; In the first alternative the cty is taking bhavbftava < bhava (eternal
existence'*) * abhova
vibhava annihilation"). I prefer to takebhavdbhava as rhythmical lengthening, for bhavabhava = repeated
existence, various existences. See the note on 6.
For idiiq vd hpram vii see the note on 468.
There is a redundant fifth syllable in pitta a.
497. For v/* aJJu see the note on 215.
In pSda a we s toukl read kibni n tc
498. Pj 11 416 s~e : samitOvino ti samitavanto kUesaviipnsomakanno li
attho. samilriiatiS ca vftargd akopd idha vippahy ti idha loke
vattamne khandhe WA<Jyo..The cty states that some authorities have
another verse after this one: ito poram ye kme hitvd agihd corami
susamvutotid tasaram va ujj ri bnom pi githum kect patitami. This is
identical with 497 ab.
For the possibilities of Tending either Rdhu-ggohand. or Rahil-gahand. or
Rh gahand (-fi = -o'< -oh genitive) m.c. in pitia b see the note on 465.
PSda a is JagatT: pidas bed are Trigtubh.
There is resolution of the first syllable in pida a. There is a redundant
founh syllable in pada b, and -fin gali is m.c.

499- There is resolution of the first syllabic in pida a. There is a redundant


fourth syllable in pida b. In pda b -f in goti is m.c.
500. In pida a we should read jahirv andJti- m.c.

III. MaJivaggo

265

501. Pj II 416.13-14: attadip it attorto girne evo ottano dJpam katv


v/cohwird khTnsav vuccanti. See GDhp p. 210. In 1092 and 1145 the
context shows that dipo ~ dvipa.
SOZ.f^t(4i6.i4:>< h' cah li hnkro nipto padapranamatte.
Pj Q 416.16 foil.: yath idam khandhyatandi, latit jnanli, yamsabhvam uupsabhvam ycva tarn jdnanti aniccdivasena jnatu ... ti
eros ca ye jdnaniT ii, i.e. it is taking yathtoth as two separate words but
reversing* their order, which cannot be correct. Pj U 416.96 foil, (ad 504)
explains it slightly differently: tvam hi ciiha lokc idam sabbam pi neyyatn
yoth-tathd jitsi ythdvato jnst, yildtsam tarn tdisam evo jnSst li v
vuttam hoiL In Ski yath tathd has an indefinite meaning, but I follow PED
(s.v. yath) in believing that the meaning hcre is correctly, truly, in
reality, i.e. it is the equivalent of. and perhaps an error for. yatMtatham.
PJda a is Jagatl; p3das bed are Tristubh.
Io pda b there is resolution of the first syllable.
<90 503. For vedagu as the equivalent of vedala see the note on 322.
In pda a - in vedagu and -f- io sa/fmd are otc.
504. For yathdtathd see the note on 502.
Padas ac are JagatT; pSdas bd are Tristubh.
In jnda b *- in dakkhineyye is presumably a misprint for -n-.
505. For the reciter's remarks see the note on 18-29.
Pidas abc are Tristubh ; pda d is JagaiT.
There is a redundant fifth syllable in pda a.
In pda a -t in pat is me. In pada b we should read yojaif m.c.
506. For the reciter's remarks see the note on 18-29.
Pj II 417.21 : so ettha yaiinc rommonavasena pavaiiiy patitthya deyyadhaamapaccayam lobham paiiggtihakopaccayam kodhoin tailubhaya
niddaam motion ti event tividbain pi johliti dosam. Here dosa is being taken
as threefold: lobho, kodha and molta. It is. therefore, the equivalent of Skt
dofa. In 507, however, lite juxtaposition with rgo would support a belief
that ii is the equivalent of Skt dvesa there.
{*(3) reads ya fiiio for yanham, but I do not know what this could mean.
Pdas bed are Tristubh. Pda a is a ioka pda with only seven syllables.
The v.l. (see E* p. 90 note 11 and p. xii) and F add ca after yojomono. This
makes good sense and restores the metre. It is also in the explanation given
at Pj II417.n . and this is what 1 translate. In pda b there is contraction of

266

T.ie Croup o f Discourses

the sixth and seventh syllables into one long syllable. See the note on 61.
In pitia d we should read either etth or <p>patinhaya m.c.
507.Pj II 4 17.2 3 : .io evom bhogesu vitargo saitesu pativineyya dosam. For
doso juxtaposed with tga see the note on 506.
Pj 11 4i7.jfr.31 lappamatio hutvA tom evo mcttojjhnasamkhdtam sabb
disi pharote appamoAhan ti. Fr the explanation of appamana see CPD.
In p3da b we can correct the metre by reading crfOran and bhilvayam me.
$08, Hare translates Mawolcn"t presumably reading bujjhati lor bajjhati.
Although E6 (p. 90 note 1$) states that Pj II reads bujjhati, it is in fact only
av.!. there.
The presence or evom in 509 scorns to imply the existence of katham in this
verse.
Pj II41$.10: jutim ti Bhagavontom dlopoti. The word is in the vocative
case.
In pSda a wc should read sajjhatf m.c. The long in bajjhaiT is m.c. In pda
c br- in brihi probably does not make position. In pda d there is
resolution of the first syllable. In padao we should read i<n>vom rax. (see
Pj II p. 704 and the note on 457). In pda f we should either exclude
[katham] and read upapujjutf rox.f assuming icsotw|ou o f itic Hist
syllable, or read upOpojjoti it.c. and exclude [juilm\. In juiftnA
is me.
<9i> 509. For the reciter's r .-marks see the note 0 18-29.
Pda a is JagaiT; pSdas bed arc Tristubh.
ln pda a we should read yjati m.c. In pada d there is resolution of the first
syllable. We should read upapojjott me.
p. 9i.u-p. 102.16. The Sabhiyasutta has a parallel in the SabhtkasOtra of the
MahSvasto (Mvu HI 389.1j-401.tS). For a discussion o f some of the
etymologies it contains, see Norman O980B. pp. 173-84).
p. 91.16. Pj II 420.22 : Sobhiyassa poribbjakass ti Sabhiyo ti tossa
nmont. paribbjako ti bhirapabbojjotn updya vuccott, i.e. he had
received ordination in some sect other than Buddhism.
<92> p. 97.5.*Pj II 423.17: n evo sompdyontf ti no sampdenti. If sompdyati
is < sompdayati. then we should assume an intermediate stage
*sampAyayau which d e v e lo p > sompyoti with the contraction of -dya- >
-d-. For the <Uy alternation see LUders (Beob.. 107) and cf. anuvidita 528.
p. 92.S. For the historical d in etad ohosi see the note on p. 13.1.

III.

Mahdvcgga

267

p. 92.22. Pj il 423 .3>-4 * 4 ** rauafiilfl ri. ratanafiA " nibbnaratanam


jnma mayon" ti evam sakaya patinilya lokenpi sammat, bahuratiivid v6. See also D II 77.S (-(*). Th-a 141 .a*. Sv 143.11. See Index 10 Ski MPS
($.v. ratrijila (2.10)). See Norman (1987A, pp. 40-41).
p. 93.6. For the historical - d in etad ahosi soe the note on p. 13.10.
510-40. The verses are mainly Aupacchandasaka, with some mixed
VaitSITya/Aupacchandasaka. and some Sloka additions. Warder (1967.
149) talks of inserted JagatT pdas, but 1 o pda in.the Sabhiya-suua in its
present form is a Jagatl pda. Any irregular p2da which can be lumed into a
JagatT by emendation can equally well >e corrected into a Vaitlfya or
Aupacchandasaka pda.
510-11. As printed in Ee, these two verses are both three*pida verses, with
three VaiilTya/Aupacchandasaka p5das 2nd a portion primed as prose,
which can be made to scan as two Sloka pdas. Ce reads pailham for paflhe.
and this is probably an accusative plural in -am. See LUders (Bcob.. 240)
and the note on 35.
510. For the reciter's remarks see the note on 18-29.
Pda a is VaitSliya; pda b is Aupacchandasaka': pda c is Vailliya, but
becomes Aupacchandasaka if we read puttho instead of me. The remainder t$
primed as proso bui can be token as l->ka, with resolution o f the sixth
syllable in pda d and of the first syllable in pda e. Fs emendations give
Aupacchandasaka pSdas c and d : t- s ' antakaro bhavhi pitttho
a n u p ubb am oitudltom m a[m ] v[y \ ia r ob e.

In pda a we should scan vieikteebi m e. (see Pj II p. 76$). In pda b wc


should read puccbitum abbi m.c. (see Pj II p. 659).
<94>5ii- For the reciter's remarks see the note on 18-29.
The first pda docs not seem to be in any metre. F adds Sabbiyo, from the
reciters remarks, because Mvu III 395.1 icads dr Sabhik tuvam gato
'si, which scans as an Aupacchandasaka ,3da if we ignore the svarabhnkti
vowel in tuvam. Fs pSda does not scan, but we could read dr (or dftrat)
Sobhiya tivm agata 'si. with tv- making position, or Sabhiy with piati (cf.
540).
Pada b is Aupacchandasaka and pfida c >s VaitSliya. PSda c and the prose (=
two Sloka pdns when emended) can be treated in the same way as 510.
512. This verse is in loka metre.
p. 94.11. For the historical

-d

in eta d

ah osi

see the note on p. 13,10,

513. For the reciters remarks see the note on 18-29.

268

The Croup o j Discourses

Pj II 425.4-$: sorotan ti suvpasantam. sratan ti pi pfitho, sutthu


uparatan ti attho.
For the construction of the accusative followed by the nominative with ti
see Lttders (Beob.. 182). Cf. 5215*3 52* 533 53>
Pdas ac are Vaiallya; pdas bd are Aupacchandasaka.
In p3da b the loss of -at in sorata is m.c. In pda d we should scan
v<>ykarohi m.c. Cf. 518 523 52$ 533.
<95> 5>4- For the reciter's remarks see the note on 18-29.
Pj II 425.14-*: parinibbnagato.kUesanibbnopatto, porinibbnagatatt
evo co vitinaokonkho. vipottisompatti-hnivuddhi-ucchedasassotaapufmapunnappabhedam vibhavan ca bhavaft ca vippahya maggavsam
vusitav. This appears to be 00 attempt to give an etymology for the word
bhtkkhtt based upon bhava and khTna.
Pda a is VaitJiya; pdas bed are Aupacchandasaka.
ln pda d we should read vusitava m.c. For the labialisation of -a-> -u-aftcr
v* see the note on 61.
515. Pj II 425.29-30: ime rga-dosa-moha^mna-ditthi-kileso-dttCdSrita
samfoidtd sou* ussadd. Pj U 521.19 (ad 783): rgdoyo sotto ussad. Pj I!
[ad 855} makes no comment, but PJ II 467,22 (ad 624) explains: tanhaussabhvena anussadam (see the note on 624). Sp 985.14-1$ (ad Vin 1 3.9)
lists five ussad (= the first Bve of this list). So docs Ud-a 554 (ad Ud 3.24).
The fact that the list of seven is old. however, is shown by the fact that it
occurs at Nidd 1 72.11 (ad 783) where komm'- replaces duccarita usstula. The
same replacement is found at Nidd 1 244.21 (ad 855) and 354.7 (ad 920). Bapat
(1951, p. 124 note 17) points out that the Chinese which he translates
"protuberances** seems to concspond to ussau. This presumably shows a
confusion with the satta ussad of the Mahpurisa (see D II! 15 t .15).
Pj U 425.2s: samitappatt samano. The pun on satnito- am) somana only
works in a dialect where /- and Sr have both, as here, become s-. It does not
work for SkL Cf. 520.
With pda b cf. na hammai kamcanam savvalue (yr 1.3.3.3).
Pda c is VaitlTya; padas abd are Aupacchandasaka.
In pda a -r- in sotfmd is m.c. In pSda b we should read na <ca> so m.c. with
the Ski version, or read /id or no. or even <s>so if we believe that na so is <
nasma. Cf. 364. ln pda d we should read ussado m.c.
516. Pj II 426.10: nibbijjha notvd potivijjhitv. There are also vv.ll. nibbijja
and nippajja. Cf. the variation nibbijja/nibbijjha in 940.

1)1.

Mahvagga

269

In path a wc should read indrtyni and in pda b bahi[d]dh m.c.


517. Pj II 426.1a : ranfia kappin it ifinhOdiuhiyo, l hi laih taihd
vikappanaio koppdni 11 vuecanii.
Here Mvu 111 3964* has tikTrya for viceyya. Elsewhere there is $amyam<y>a
(398.</ 524 ; his is perhaps a gloss on *vijeyya), or vitrya (399.3* *
525 ; 399-7* =526; 397.12* =529). Probably the BHS redactor had cty
material available 10 him which led him 10 make these back-formations,
whilc'thc Pali redactor did not. so the latter wrote viccyya each time. The
original version probably had *viyeyyo or viyiyya, which could have
developed from vikfrya, vijcyyo or vicrya.
For -Ant as a masculine accusative plural ending in kappOni see the note on
45. For the opening---- - - - o f p5da c see Pj II p. 644.
Pida d is Aupacchandasaka without including ti.
In p5da d we should read -[k\khayom m.c. See Pj II p. 696 (s.v. Jtikkhoyam).
$1$. For the reciters remarks see the note on 18*29.
In p3da b nh- docs not make position in nhiako {<_sniaka) ami we
should perhaps read nioko. See the note on 521. For th^ loss of aspiration
cf. Ski ndpita ( *snpiia) and AMg ninneha (Ulf 14.19) and see F.V II.
p. 109 (ad Ttu 251). For nhatoka cf. 521 646 and see LQtlcrs (Ucob.. * 182 )
and von Hinber (berblick. $239).
Pdas ac are Vaitfiya; pdas bd are Aupacchandasaka.
In pda a we should read khnpottinoat m.c. ih place of -poitimun. as in 513.
In pda d we should read ^<>ykarohi m.c.
<9d>$ii>. For the reciters remarks see the note on tS-29.
Tor such etymologies as we find in this verse see Schneider (1954.14. 57583). Vism 419.5-4 {amhtikani citandola nalvit viya ulfhito. tarm citando
halli ti citando tv er* asso nmnm taranti), and Mette (>973. p. 29 note 96.
p. 32 note 113. p. 33 note 15).
Pj II 427.16 prints sdhtt and samhito separately in the lemma, and this
reading should perhaps be followed.
Fur kevalin see the note on 82. For idi et. 520, and see the note on Rrt. Nidd
I 87 has nisiiio for astio. For asilo see GDhp 7.
The pun on biihctv and hrnhmii only works in a dialect where hr- lias
become h-. That this was the original situation in this verse is shown by the
fact that br- docs not make position bere.

570

The C ro u p o f D isco u n ts

Pj II 427.29: so bmhiru so brahmano. For Ski brahman brhmana, sec


MW (s.v. brahman).
The metre requires (xa) in pda <L^ (3 ) omits it.
520. For the pun on samitavTand samana see the note on 515.
For tdi cf. $19. and see the note on $6.
In pda a -/ in samiiavi is m.c. In pda b we should read natva and tn pda c
jdtt* m.c.
521. lit p3da d nh- in nhtako does not make position, and we should
perhaps read nftako with Mss B3"1. See the note on 51S.
In pda a we shor'd read ninhiiyil and in pda b bahi[d]dh m.c.
522. The verse is quoted at Spk 1,77.12* foil., where E? also reads -samyoge in
pda b. Spk-pt, however, comments: sabba-samyog ti, vibhaiii-lopena
nitideso : sabba-samyoge rr attho |LSC). It is dear from this that Spk-pt
had a text of Spk which read -samyoga (cf. th v.l. in Mss Clk). This must be
for somyogam, with -m removed m.c.. i.c. it is an example of a masculine
accusative plural in -ant (see the note on 35). and we should probably read
the v.l ' -samyoga and assume that it stands for Samyogajn. If we retain
samyoge, then we should scan the final vowtH as / m.c.
Pj II 428.16-18: Ogiin na karoti kiiici loto I yo appamattakam pi ppasa/nkhJium gun na karoti. ngo puvuccati. For the use of nga with
reference to the Buddha, sec the note on 1(6.
Pda d is Aupacchandnsaka without including ti.
In pda c we should read sajjott m.c.
523. For the reciter's remarks sec the note on 1S-29.
PSda a of 524 explains khtttu-jina as meaning kheinltti viceyya kevalni,
and Pj II 428.27-29 explains viceyya as both viceyya and vijeyya: tni
vijeyya jetv abhibhavitvil viceyya v aniccdibhvena vicinitv
upaparikkhtv. The double explanation is repealed : etesrn khettnam
vijitan vicitatt v khettajino {429.6). This doubtless goes back to an
earlier version of the sutia where, in a dialect where both
and */* became
the word appeared in the ambiguous form viyevya.
The BUS equivalent ol the Sahhiya-sutta. however, has ksetra-jha at this
point, and the explanation given there is:
kfetrfini somsuma kevalni
divyam mnutarn yam ca brahmani kseiram

111. Mahvagga

271

sa sarvanuilaksetrabandhant pramukto
kscirajno tyi pravuccait tathatvt (Mvu III 398.19* 399^*).

1 view of this equivalence, and of the existence in Pli of the words kheitarifili and kheita-ilfia, and of the words kscira-vid and ksetra vidyd in Skt
(see MW, s.v. ksetra). think that the BHS reading is the conect one. I
therefore take khetta-jina as being derived from kfetra-jfia, with a
svarabhakti vowel, and in pSda a (and 5240) 1 translate it as fieJdknowcr".
For -jina see the note on 84.

It seems that the Sn tradition was aware of this derivation, for despite the
inclusion of both viceyya and vijeyya in the cty tradition. I know of no
edition of Sn v.iich reads viceyya >05249. The word kfetra-jfia is
presumably a brahmanical technical term (see MW [$.v. ksetra). and cf.
Manu XII.12 foil.), taken over by the Buddha and used in a specifically
Buddhist sense.
For the syntax see 513.
Pda c is Vailalfya; pdas abd are Aupacchandasaka.
We should read v<i>ydkarabi in p&ta d m.c.
<97> 524. For the reciter's remarks see the note on 18-29.
Pj U 428.17 foil.: tfini vijeyya jetv abhibhavitvd viceyya vd aniccddibhBvena vicinitvd upaparikkhiivd. Pj II 429.4: evam etesam kher.dnam
vjitan vicitattd vfl Uiettajino. The alternative explanations suggest that
at one time the verse contained the word *viyeyya, which could be derived
front cither viceyya or vijeyya. For the c/j alternation see the note on p. 13.17.
Cf. vidryam CDhp 196 where the Pli equivalent (A IV 151.5 = Pj I t68.io)
has vijetv < *vtjeyya. Mvu Ml 398.19* reads ksetrfini samyama kewlttt,
where samyoma is perhaps for samyant<y>a or an earlier somyam<m>o, i.c.
the MIA development of saniyamya. This would seem to be a gloss upon an
absolutivc of some compound of ji which has entered into the text, which
would show that the verse already read -jina (i.c. the dialect had a
svarabhakti vowel) bcfoie the etymology was devised.
Pj II 429.4: yad etwa sabbesam khettnam mlabandhanam avijjbhava
tanhdi. tasmd sabbakheuomiilobondhan pannino.
Pj 11429.9: kanmini khellni
For idi sec the note on 520.
In p5da c we should exclude [sabba-) m.c. with F. The pda then has a
syncopated opening. Mvu MI 399.1* reads sa sarvamtiaksetrobandhoni

272

77? Croup o f Discourses

pramukto, reversing the order or the components of the compound. Cf. 525
53O 532. P3da d is unmetrical. Piklas d in 526 530532 are also unmetrical.
525.I jO 42923ikosnain lituana kusola, i.e. kusafa is explained as being
derived from kosa and hi-. Burrow <19726. p. 55) quotes a different
etymology for kusola. viz. kuidndm Idrr*. The presence of .the word liuuw
in the cty implies that it was commenting upon a text which had the
absolutive of the root lu-. i.e. *luniiv or Vavitv. We might have expected
the text to contain a phrase such as yassa kosdni lurdni. Since lurdni docs
occur in 532, we may suppose that some padas have been re-arranged.
Doubtless viceyya/vicrya replaced the' original * hin 11vdl* lavifvd by
analogy with all the other verses.
For rdi sec the note on 520 .
In pSda c we should exclude [sabba-] with F m.c. The pda then has a
syncopated opening.
526. Pj It 42917 foli. : yasm ca na kevolaip pandori ri intinti va pandito ri
vuccoti, api ca kho pana pandarnt ito upagaio pavicayapaiiilya aHfno
li pi pendilo l vuccoti. tosoni tam atthom dassenio dubhayn ti gd/hya
taiiyapanhtun vydksi ... pandardnt ti dyatanni. There is a pun on
pandoro and pondiia. See GDhp pp. 252-53.
For rdi see the note on 520.
FrCIII i n reads dubbalyiini. but this is not metrical. In p3da c -d* in
kanhd- is ra.c. ln pda b we should read bahi[d)dlt and in p3da d pandir
m.c
527. The explanation given in this vei^e tor the use of the word muni is not
very appropriate. Pj 11 430,8.10 explains: yasmd pana "manata vuccuii
nnOm yd pound pajdnand ... p e ... sam m dtfhi, rena tldnena
samanngato muHlmti yuiiam.(quoting NkkJ I 334.16 foli.), so rena mona
samkhdtena paricyaddnena samanngatati muni. The explanation
would, however, make better sense if die verb to know were related
etymologically to muni, and 1 suggest that the original version of this
verse had an absolutive form from the verb mundri. cf. yo muntiti ubho loke
mimi iena pvuccai (Dhp 269). Such an absolutive. probably *mir/v<7.
would by very reason of its rareness require glossing, and I suggest that
iuitrd is the gloss which has replaced it in the text. For other examples ol
glosses replacing the original reading in a text see the note on 44.
The metre of this verse is Aupacchandasaka if we assume that ti in p5da d is
pan of the verse. See Alsdorf (1962. p. 115 note 9). Without ri the last pda

H I.

Mahvagga

373

is VaitSlTya. Warder (1967, 14 6 ) slates that in mixed Vaitliya/


Aupacchandasaka verses the Vaitliya pSda always takes the prior position
and the Aupacchandasaka the posterior. If this is correct, then pSda d must
be Aupacchandasaka.
In pSda a we should read iiatv and in poda b bahi[d)dh m.c.
<p8> 528. For the reciters remarks see the note on 18-29.
For the syntax cf. 513. See Mvu III 397.12*.
For anuvidiia < *anuyi-ydra (with glide -y-. sec the note on 100) < anuvTta
(cf. ASokan upayita) see the note on anuvicca in 530. For the hyper-form.
with -d- < -y- see the note on p. 92.5. Mvu UI3984* also reads anuvidito.
PSda'a is VaitSIiya and pSdas bed are Aupacchandasaka. In the cadence of
pSda b we should ignore the svarabhakti vowel in viriyov. In pSda c we
should read jniy m.c. In pSda b we should read v<i>ykarohi m.c.
529. For the reciters remarks sec the note on.iS-29.
Pj I! 430.26-27: sabbai vedam alicca.yO vedapaccay aiinath v
uppajjanii vc.dand. For -tini as a masculine accusative {jural ending tn
ved&ni see the note on 45. Mvu Til 397.20* reads sarvavcdanm athya
vedako ti. For vedagu = vedaka see the note on 322.
In pSda b w e should reed sam aitna[m ) and assumo cyncopQiion. In pSda.c

the opening is syncopated. In pda d -d in vedagQ it m.c.


530. Pj II 431.11: so ca anuvicca papaiicandmaiiipam ajjhatiam aitano
santdne tanhdinhmnabhedain paponcam toppaccayd niimariipam ca
aniccdnupassaitodihi anuvicca auuvidiiv. We may assume that pttpaiica
is m.c. for ani. or wc can lake it as a compound with nflniarjwin, ns it is nt
Mvu 111398.1 .
For anuvicca <anuvi ina t cf. the suggestion of anuvi-y-iia 10528. For
anuvicca sec Schubring (Ay5r Index, $.v. ei-) and Norman <I987A. pp. 3537). Mvu UI 398.1* reads abhvetva, which is perhaps based on abhiviiya.
For iddi see the note on 520.
In p3da b we should read b a h i[d )d h m.c. tn pSda c we should exclude
(sabba*] ro.C. with F. PSda d is unmcirical

43

531. Although E* of Sn divides viriyav so in pda b. Pj It


.J explains:
viriyavso viriyoniketo, where the presence of nikelo shows that the cty
tradition was reading -vto. I accept this division o f words, and have
translated accordingly, although Pj II docs not make a comparable
explanation for caranavA so in 536.

274

The Croup o f Discourses

The connection between virato in pda a and viriyovso in pda b is not


obvious. Liiders (Beob., 104) saw a play upon viraya and viraja. For the
y/j alternation see the note on 149. It would, however, make better sense If
we thought that in an earlier version of this sulla the word emiro had
occurred in the form vrrnvo, allowing a*pun between viraya and viriyn. This
would then be a v/r alternation. See 535 and WD, p. 117 (ad Dhp 227). For
virato ehi (= ablative), sec LUders (Beob.. 84 note 3).
Pj J1431 a i follows Ee of Sn in reading dhiro in the lemma, and it also
includes it in the explanation: dhiro kilesdrividdhamsanasatnoithatSya.
The explanation in the verse, however, with viriyardso and viriyavd, makes
it dear that the correct reading should be viro. I have translated
accordingly. For the u.Jva alternation see the note on 44.
In pda b we should ignore .the svarabhakti vowel in viriya-. In pda c we
should scan viWvrml m.c. (n p5da b we should read nirayti- or *<d>dukkham
m.c. Pj II p. 717 (s.v. ninna ) suggests reading du[k]khnm. but this gives a
prior pda.
532. Although E*(3) reads itfmi, we need lutdni m.c. The pun with iu<sccms to fit kusala in 525. See the note on 525.
Fot.jn-/jil' see the note on 462. For the pun we scemato need ajOni from
5jd.
For ludi see the note on 520.
In pda b we should read btshi\d)dh m.c. In pda c we should exclude
\sahba-) with F. ln pda d we could exclude tildi and assume a syncopated
opening.
533. For the reciter's remarks see the note on 1S-29.
For the construction of the accusative followed by the nominative with ti
see the note 00513.
Pda a is VaitSliya; pdas bed sre Aupacchandasaka.
In pda b there is resoluticn in coronava in the cadence o f an
Aupacchandasaka pda. Cf. 536 53S. This is one of the very few examples
known to me of the resolution of a long syllable into two shod syllables in
the cadence of an Aupacchandasaka pdn (cf. 536 538). Cf. damsaanososotn
in the cadence of an Aupacchandasaka pda in Uu 15.4.
In pda e we should read pari[b\hjakii m.c. In pda d we should read
v<i>ykarohi m.c.
<99>$34 - For the reciter's remarks sec the note on 18-29.

Ul. Mahvagga

* 7$

For sandhi -tn- in sabbadhi-m-hu :xc ihc note on 132. As E* p. 99 note 3


states, the metre-disturbing sabba- and -ay- in abhinnaya tn pida a aie in
Mvu 111 399.at* also. There is a pun on suiv and sattiya. Cf. Mvu 111 400.)*.
For aaigha see BHSD, s,v.
ln pda a we should exclude (sabbe. -] and read abhiiino m.c. In pda b we
should read either -Onavojjam- (wiilt Pj II p. 783) or Snavo[j\jatn m.c.
535. Pj (1433.4? vidv vintisi vibhti catumaggailnt.
Pj II433 ,S: tanhditthikappdnam ait iataram pi kappam no eti.
Luders (Beob.. $84) saw a pun berveen layni and *Oliya (1 ariya). For
Ihc til alternation see the note on 2<*. 1 cannot see this pun. except perhaps
as a paradox. It Is better to see one on ariya (better riya) and arata (better
drayn) as in the Sanskrit version. Fo *the t/y alternation see the note on 531 r
There is three fold sanUO here. See PED s.v. and cf. 842 according to Hare.
Cf. 635. See Bapat (1951. p. 42 note 3). For the two layas (kma- and
tanh-) see the references tn CPD.
For -dni as a masculine accusative plural ending in asavOni and dlayoni
see the note on 45For chetv see Mchcndalc (1955-S6A. pp. 70-71). Mhv III400.3* reads hind.
Fot tn/sin see Luders (Bcob., $4 179 182) and the note on 336. For the
syntax see 513.
Jn pda a wc should read chetvi7 a id assume syncopation, in pda d wc
should read riya m.c. (see Pj II p. 6< 1 ).
536. Pj II 433.14 : p o m

pano

ti

p r tto b b a in

p a tio : y o

c u r a n a n iin itu v n

c a n t tu th c iu c a r a ttn p p o cca y ft p a ttu b b o m a r a h a ila m p a n o ti

rr.rfctm k o t i .

Pj II 433.26 dues not give lite same explanation for cartolavo no as it does
for viriyavso in 531. For the resolution in coronavo in the cadence of an
Aupacchandasaka p5da. see the note on 533.
In pda h wc should read s a b b d i i o r x a b b o < d > d O nt.c. In pda c we should
read sajjail m.c.
537. Pj II 434.8: uddhan ti ulitatn odho ti anOgntam tiriyviu tri pi tuajjbe 1i
paccttppannain.
Pj 11434.11 : paiibbjayii[v\d ti nikkluunet[v]ii niddhoinci[v\ I assume that
til in pnrivajjayii is an absolutivc ending. Cf. sammaxitii in 6j. and see
von Hinber (berblick, $498). f e(3> reads parivajjayitr, doubtless
influenced by -/Ivjd in Pj 11, but this is not metrical. The pun between

*7 6

The Group o f Discourses

parivajj- and pari[b]biljaka only works in a dialect where -bb- > -vv-. For
the etymology see Dhp 3SS CDhp f6.
Pj 434.19: ptriyttntam aktisi nmaniprm nmariipassa ca pariyantam
aktisi.

patiiiacri is

li-.

In pda c
m.c. for
It is a compound with an absolutive
as the first elen enL For such compounds see the note on 72.
In pSda a we r'iould read du[k]kha- m.c. In p5da b we should ignore the
svprabhaktt vo* <1 in tiriyam and read tiriya m.c. In pads f wc should read
ptiri[b}bjakan m.c.
< I O O > 538. Pj I 434.25-28: osarantlni it ogaharulni tifthttni, ditthiyo ti
(Who, tni yasvd sakkyadktliiy salta Brahnmjle vuttadveisouhiditthigattini gahetui tesaithi honti. For osarono sec CPD (s.v.). Mhv III 401.1*
has o.saranibii :ira osaresi nuirgd which docs nut scan. Pj H 135.5-6 gives
the lemma in (he form oghatant' og, and explains it as: ogha-tanxam
oghandhokdran agii atikkunto. This nukes it dear that Ogharain is the
elided form of oghaiawam, and I translate accordingly. There is a-*v.l.
oghoniam, with a pleonastic onto. See the note on 127. For metrical reasons
we should regard -tain' arid a as being the equivalent of a long syllable in
the cadence. So* the note on 533.
Pda a is Vcgavau; padas bed arc Aupacchandasaka. In pada a we should
exclude [ca) m. \ In pada b wc should read -[p\par(u/a- with Pj II p. 77$.

539. For the lui .alisaiion of -* > -u- after >n- in muttm see the note on 61.
In p:ida a <!in
and pnigli is Ai.cl We shtnild read
m.c.
with Pj II p. 7<>t . In path b wc should read aruhilsi and r|mj m.c.. and
exclude snnumisambuddhn m.c. (but noie the Ski equivalent in Mvu). In
pria d wc should read tutink arei (with pinti) n.c. and attirisi m.c. (or
attirasi with F). Cf. 540. Cf. Pj II p. 649.
1^(3) adds si after prag, against ihc metre.
540. For kaAkhita as a past participle used as an action noun, see the note
on 331.
Pada a is Sloka: pdas bed are Aupacchandasaka. In pda b we should read
wain and attiraviot utdrisi m.c. Cf. 539. lo pda d wc should read akhild
(with pluti: sec the note on 5 11 ) and /i</|c|< n- m.c.. or assume that ihc
metro is. very .svitcopatcd.
<loi > 541-47- Diese verses are in Sloka metre.
541. In pda c . in muni is nut /ct}uirc<t m.c. with the cadence * * ' .

III.

Mafuvaggti

277

sacca,misspells -kkhama.
543. In pda c we should read 'num
odanii m.c. Von Hinber (berblick,
288) Says N
rada-Pobbatais dual, perhaps because o* ubho, although
the compound lacks the -oending which we should expe :t in the remnant
of the historical dual. Mhv III 401.9 reads N
rada-PorvavJ. not Parvatau

542. PHD, s.v.

as von Hinber states, with an incorrect line reference.


Th BHS version also has
For
as applied to the Buddha
seethe noteotiidd.

nganga.

544. Pj II 43d.!:
note on 300.

nga

purLsfijafliifi purisesttjtisa/apann. F-*r janasee the

Mrdbhibhil catumrabhibhavena. For the four Mrssee


Mra).
$46. For the r//alternation in padtitasee (he note on 29.

545. Pj If 436.5:
DPPN ($.v.

There is resolution of the first syllable in pda a.

pdde
Ajiasatu
rand-

547. Here and in 573 it would be possible to understand <he word


in
p3 da e with
in p5 da f, but at BhSrhut the inscription
occurs, suggesting that the root
can be
constructed with the genitive (perhaps in the sense of the dative). In 366
and 1028
takes an accusative.

satthuno
bhagavato vaindate
vandali

toye
punite. ape

Von Hinber berblick. 316) suggests that


is an it strumentai plural
in
(< Ski *.115). but since the parallel words
/
and
appear to be locative singular forms, wc should proba ly take
as
locative singular also. Where the line recurs at A II 39.S*. it is parallel <0
and OPD (s.v.
) suggests reading
The second
was presumably lost l>v haplography. See me note on 47. tn
this passage it would be possible to take
us an instrumental plural, but
the other examples of the word quoted in PTC seem to indicate that
is
normally used in the singular. For other suggestions that
may be an
instrumental plural ending (< -a/s), see the notes on 609 669. See also WD.
p. 76 (ad Dhp lit).
There is resolution of the first syllabic in pda f.

lokena,

na

tipalippati

tayviianopatippuii.

toye

p. tot.. For the historical

ubhoyc
loyt

toya

atin c W avocasee the note 011 p. >3.10.

<102> p. 102.1X-573. Sela-sutta = Sailagitlia of Divy ^0.15:35.1, See


Jayawickrama (UCR V|,4, p. 230). For an analysis see L.I.N. Perora (UCR
Vili, 3,pp. 198-202). The prose is by the
according to Pj II
456.11. See the note on 30 The verses Th 81841 and are i i Sloka metre. Cf.
Av$ II.19 (OHS has
where Pali has

padaio

satigmkiiras
padoko).

278

Tite Croup o f Discourses

iiihambhikhydnaiiht upoyogavacanam.tasso kho


pana bhoto G'ouunass ti ttho (ad: tam bhavaniom Gotomatn ...
kittisaddo abbhuggato). It is ah accusative of specification of state
p. 103A Pj II 441.2-3:

according to Warder (1963, p. 17) or an accusative of respect: A report has


arisen in respect of Gotama, about Gotama .
p. 103.9. Pj 11443.30-31 : vicitrthi vinayanilpythi purisadam
mt srti! si
purisadammasrathi. MW (s.v. purusa-) translates A driver or guide of
men (compared with young draught oxen), i.e. One who is to men as a
charioteer is to animals . For the comparison between men and animals, cf.
U15 usage of
and see FED ($.v.

p'urisdjaMa.
pariso).
-a-in samdapeti, as opposed to Ski ddpayatt. cf.
nopeti jkapayati.
p. 1030306. For the historicaWrf in ttadavocasee the note on p. 13.10.
p. 10304. For svdtandyaas a dative of time see von Hinber (1968. 17$).
Cf. pp. 104.13.19: t05.1j.1S; to .3 . For other examples see Norman (1974B.
p. !0 3 j u i . For the short
< Skt

p. 144 ; 198/B.p. ro2)andWD.p. 145 (ad Dhp 3+2).

-din etadavocasee the note on p. 13^0.


-u+e->
eva, manusstsvetatn

<I0 4 > p. 104.10. For the historical

p. 104.13. For the sandhi of


-ve- in -nfrerv
cf,
6ix /v
pp. 126.13 141.9 foil. For other sandhi developments involving
the change of -a > -v see the note on 144.

eva

Foesviamlyaas a dative of time see the note on p. 103.34.


mitimncce li mint cakammakoreca. ntishhitt si
samilnabhist tkuyontsombandhe pmuulhitddayoavaxtsabandhave ca.
<los> p. 105.3. Fj l 447.33: padamtadavastsoHca vykaranamajjhtli
vedeti cli padakoveyydkarano.
p. 105.3. Fj 11 4 4 7 . 3 3 iokyatt vitandavddasotthc m
ahptirisalakkhandhikrt ca dvdasasahasst mahdpunsalakkhanaxanht amino
pariprakrt ti tokyaiamahdpurisalakkhanesuanavayo.
p. 105.1j.1s. For svdtandyaas a dative of time see the note on p. 103.34.
<io6> p. 1060. For svdiandyaas a dative of time see the note on p. 10304.
p. 10600. Forvivttacchaddasec the note on 372.
p. 104.13.t9.

p. 104.17. Pj II 447.7:

<I07> p. 107.3. Note the occurrence of m in prose. FED (s.v. <*) slates that
=*
is found only in poetry.

va iva

-din eladahosisee the note on p. 13.10.


sujiosee BHSD (s.v. sujiajdta).

<io8> p. 1080- For the historical


548. For

Ill: Maltvogga

279

Time is resolution of the first syllable in pSda a and o f the sixth syllable in
(Ada c. See Pj It p. 765.
In pada d we should exclude [su-] m.c. and ignore the svarabhakd vowel in
viriyovd.
552. E* separates cakiavatti and rathesobho where Th 822 has a dvandva
compound. Pj II 457.30: Jambusandass ti JambttdTpassa.
There ate nine syllables in p5 da a. We Could either ignore the svarabhakd
vowel in
although (he opening - - is not usual with the cadence
- - - * , or assume resolution o f the seventh syllable.

arahasi,

<209> 5 5 3 * Ee reads anuyuttd in pSda b, where the vJ. and Th 823 read

anuyantd. See CPD (s.v. anuyuua).

There is resolution of (he sixth syllable io pSda c.


554. For the reciter's remarks see the note on 18-29.
In pda a the words Stia ti arc required ntc.
555. For the reciter's remarks see the note 18-29.
For
with a nominative in the sense of proftss, claim (to be
something)", see the nte on 76.

patijQndti

-d- satthu-d-onvayo

qqd. For the sandhi


in
see the note on p. 16.7. Th 826
has */ -. For (he
alicrnnlion see the note on Si.
In pSda a the -I in senfipatT is m.c. to give the pathyd cadence. PSda c has
nine syllables. Wc could either omit it. with Th. or write See EV I. p. 243
(ad l b 826).

dtr

557. For the reciter's remarks sec the note on 18-29.


Pj II 4 J 4 .ii: latiha annjto Tathgatan ti TathOgatnheiu onujto.
Taihgaitna hetttn jato fi atlho.
PSda c has nine syllables. Th reads *nuMoi/e/r.
558. This is quoted at Sp 115.71 * foil.
In pSda d br- in brdhmano docs not make position.
$$9. For the -ro suffix in abhinhoso see the note on 288.
In pSda a / in mayf is m.c., to give the pthy cadence. In pSda b br- in
brdhmano docs not make position.

yesomvo

<1 io> $60. E6(p. 1 0 note 11 ) suggests that


in pda a corresponds
to
cf.
596 and sec the note on p. 15.13. If this is so. then
vo Skt
On the other hand,
may be a panicle, equivalent to < Skt
vet. For the comparable particle in the Aiokan inscriptions see Norman

yesomno, tesonno
vos.

vo

ve

280

The Group o f Discourses

(i967B.,'pp. 161-63). For other A&kan features sec the note on 7. Th 830
reads ve. which is also the reading of Mss Mk and Bm. Sec LQdcrs (Beob.,
23 notes l and 2). Cf. 760. Th reads bnddho *smi for sambuddho. Pj II
455.6: sallakatto fi rgasalHldisottasallakatiano. See EV I. p. 243 (adTh
830).
For the -so suffix in abhinhaso see the note on 288.
561. Pj U 455.7: Brahmobh&io ft sefthabhto.
With vaslkarv cf. vasimkatvd in 444. For the VNOVC alternation see the
note on 315.
$62. In pSda d -f in nadatt is m.c.

pp-

563. In p5 da c
in no ppastdeyya is not required m.c. It is probably an
example of the proclitic-use of na. Cf. 724 9351032 1033 and see WD. p. 63
(ad Dhp S). See also Brough (1961. 72 and p. 178) and CDIAL 6931 (no
jnSti) and 6932.
565. In pda a -fin rttecoti is m.c. to give the pothy cadence.
366. For the suggestion of reading ycontt in p3 da b to avoid the opening

.See BV I. p. 244 (adTh836)and Warder(1967.241).antfef.5 7 3 In p5 da c we should ignore the svrabhakti vowel io brahmacariyam.
567. For the reciters remarks sec the note on 18-29.
Pj II 4 5 6.3-4 : toitha samiitthikcin ti paccakkham, aklikan fi
maggilnantaram phaiuppattito mi kulantere pattabbaphalatp. Nidtl II
226.) (ad 1137): sandinhikam akiitikan ti ehipassikam opaneyyikam
paccmtam veditnbbam vhVUViT ti -event sandinhikam. urlio vt't yo dinhe va
dhamtne ariyam atthatigikam innggam bhilveti, tassa maggassa onantar
samantor- adhigecchot' eva phalam vindati patiiabhatl ti evam pi
sandinhikam aklikam. Pj U 605.74-26 (ad 1137): sandinhikam aklikan ti
smam passitabba-phafam na ca klamare pattabba-pholdm. See also EV
I, p. 244 (ad Th 837) and Vism 216.1-15. I follow 8HSD (s.v. sandrstiko) in
believing that sanditihika means visible. I also believe that, when used
of nibbdna (e.g. at A I 158.37). oklka means timeless , i.e. "out of time,
not concerned with time, and it is possible that this was also the original
meaning of the word when used of brahmacariya and dhamma.

>

For the internal sandhi of -n + aCC- -vrfCC- in svtlkkhtan see Norman


(1988. p. 92). For other sandhi developments involving the change of >
-v see the note on 144.

HI. Mahvagga

23j

The opening is not usual with the cadence


so in pda a we
should probably ignore the svarabhakfi vowel in brahntncariyam, and
insen -u- in s<u>vkkhtam m.c. See Pj II p. 789.
<TTl> p. 111.. Fj H456.13-16: bhutiav'm ti bfiuttvantam, onfrapattapnin
li panale oniiapnim aponfiahatthan ti vuiuim halt * laitha
upaganiv ti pthaseso datthabbo. itaroth hi "Bhagavantam eka/naniam nisdi" ti na yujjaii The cty*s uneasiness about the lack of a verb to
govern (be accusatives is shared by Fausboll who inserted in his text
"(add: upOgantvtil)". The phrase is common in the canon, but in wily two
of the references quoted in PTC (s.v. onUapauapni) could it be the object
of a verb (pcchdtsi Vin III I r.io ; obhivdeiv Vin IV 19.7). We have here
an example of the accusative absolute construction. See Trenckner (1908,
p. 1 18 note 28X and Norman (197s. p. 22). That the cties did not understand
this construction is shown by (heir belief that a verb must be understood.
See Sv 277.17-1$ (ad D 1 109.36) wheic the cty includes the word natv in the
explanation, as does Px II 283.10-11 (ad M 1 236.31 ). The explanation of
onftapaltapfini given by the cty is unlikely, since it jnvotves taking the
compound in an irregular way. This difficulty undoubtedly accounts for
the appearance of the w.U. which are recorded by the cties:
oniitapafiapnia li pi pdtho. loss' ottho onittam nnbhtam vinbhStam
pattain pnilo ass li onittapotiapnt (Sv 277.18-12). Sv-pt I 405.9-10
explains: oniiton ti v, mispanaxancna sueikatam. Ps II 283. 1-14 States:
ohiiopattopnin ti pi ptho. lass aiiho : ohitom nnbhtam pattai
pnilo ass ti ohiapaitapni. Ud-a 242.27.rS stales: diu/itipaiMpnin ti pi
po//io. dhoiapttiiahatihan ti auho. The comparable phrase in BUS is
bJuigavm bhuktvi dhautahouo upanitaptro (Mvu Ut 142.1), which
supports the view of the cty that o- is < ava- - apa- The form of the
compound, however, demands that the past participle onfia- should be
equally appropriate for both the hands and the bowl. Since two of the w.ll.
mean "washed*. 1 should wish to adopt a suggestion that onita- is to be
derived from Ski ova-nf- **10 put or bring into (water)* (see MW (s.v.)). and
the compound means "having put hands and bowl into water", i.c. having
washed them. See Norman ( 19796. pp 45-46). The vv.ll. with onitta and
dhota- are. therefore, probably glosses which.have entered into some
versions of the text, bui are now preserved for us only hy the cties. For
glosses entering the text see the note on 44.
For another example of the accusative absolute construction see the note
00805.

283

Th Croup o f D isc o u n ts

Trcnckncr (190S. p. 117. note 24) points out th.n the best Sinhalese Mss
have -n* in oniia-, not -n-, and ->t- is written on the basis of Burmese Mss. h
seems likely that the // alternation is the result of analogy (see the
note on 206) rather than spontaneous retroflexion (sec the note on 100),
perhaps on the basis of panila (< Skt pranfta).
568-69. These verses also occur at Vin 1 246.33 foil. Cf. Mvu HI 426.7* foil.
For mukJia a "best -;f. Utt 25. *6.
568. Pj II 456.1s foil.: tallha aggiparicoriyam vin brhmannam
yaMbhdxalo agg:huttamukh yannS ti vntiam. aggHiottaseiihi oggi
hoitapadhn li ai:ho\ vede sajjhyaniehi pathamam ajjhetobbo SSviitT
chandaso li vuliO. For chanda in the sense of metre'* see the note on 2.
<II2> p. z )2,i. For sandhi - d - in s a m m a - d - e v a see the note on p. 16.7.
p. 112 ,a. For the historical - d in l a d

a n u tta r a m

see the note on p. 13.10.

570. Pj II 456.31 : yon tom saranon 11 ailiiam vykarcina-gtham Sha.


Th reads Sgomma in place of Sgamba. See EV I, p. 244 (ad Th 83$). Note the
v.l. cakkhumo.
In pSda b -i in atthnmi is m.c.
571. For MOrSbhibhS see the note on 545
572. For the rH alternation inpodtita see the note on 29. In pSda c Th 840
has va where Sn has si. Note the v.l. va quoted from Ms Mk.
In pSda a there is n solution of the first syllable.
573. Note that the word nga (sec the note on 166) is here applied to
bhikkhus. The cty makes no comment on this usage.
In pada d we should perhaps understand pd from pSda c, to go with the
genitive Satihuno. See the note on 547.
In pda b we should read linhanii m.c.. with Th. See the note on 566.
574-93. Sallasutta. The metre is loka.
<U 3> 575. There is resolution of the first syllable in p5da x

576-81.These verses arc quoted, with variations, at Nidd t m .r-15*


576. In p5da b pio is a mistake for niccnm. which occurs as a v.l. The
mistake undoubtedly arose from a context such as Ja IV 127.3*. where the
verse occurs with the reading niccam. but next lo a verse which has pio at
the beginning of the second pada. so that pflto was written by diuography.
The version of the verse found in the GOhp (147) has nice, and UdSna-v
( 1. 11 ) reads nityam. Pj II4593* states : iena Mni phalni pio pio niepa-

111. Mahvagga
klam p a l a m i ,

283

which seems to be an explanation of both readings. I

translate n ic c a m .
Rintfyana 11.105.*7 (quoted by Laders (1940, p. 39)) has n d ny a tra p a ta n d
b h a y a m . For the ablative with b h a y a m see LUders (Beob., $195). For
pap aton see Liidcrs (Beob., 19$ note t). Cf. 964 and see p. 48.4.9 where
b h d y a ii is constructed with m am and ta m , which may be accusatives, or
examples o f the ablative in -a m . Ee(3) reads p a p a t a t o with Fj II 459.33. We
should read p a ia n o la with the v.!.. according to Brough.(l962, p. 222).
$77. In pSda e we should ignore the svarabhakti vowel in p a riy a n ta .
In pda d the loss o f-min macani is m.c
579. ln pda b p a r a lo k a t o ("from the next worldO makes no sense, and I
read p a r a lo k ii o with the v j., but divide it as p a r a lo k * (a p o r a t o k a n ., i t o
(from this place to the next world).
580. Pj n 460.9: y atlt g o v a jjh o evam
see the note on 4.
Foryeva see Norman (1967B, p. 162).

nFyati.

For the VG/VCC alternation in

nfyaii/m yyati

581. Liiders (Beob., $20 note 6) suggests that t o k o . etc., here with
nominative singular endings (cf. Ja VI 26.11 m s *)-aro wrong translations of
locative absolutes in

For the cadence of pSda d see Pj II p. 757, and cf. 5S8. We could read
-poriyayom m.c. and either ignore the svarabhakti vowel or. assume
resolution of the sixth syllabic; cf. ceto-poriya-nna -pariyya- (D II
8241).
552. For a b ito

a a le

see LUders (Beob.. 202 note 2 ).

553. Pj M460.1 : udabbahe ti, ubbalteyya dhreyya. Although PED (s.vv.


udobbahe 3 nd ubbohaii) takes udabbohe as the optative of ubbahaii, this
cannot be correct unless we assume the existence of a present stem formed
from the oorist including an augnvent (see the note on addhiibhovanto 968).
It is more likely that ubbahe is the optative of *udobbahati < Skt
*udabrh-. Cf. abbahe 592. ForthcVC/VCC alternation sec the note on 4.
For the historical -d in kancid see the note on p. 13.10.
In pda d we should ignore the svarabhakti vowel in kayira.

ninna

554. For
as a past participle used as an action noun see the note on
331. For upahan- see Liidcrs (Beob., 110).

The Croup o f Discourses

284

<TI4> 585. Ja IV 127.9- reads a i t a n o , which is the v.1. here, and glosses
(128.16' foil.): o tt n a m attorto t i o tt a n o a tta b h a v a m s o k a p a ritlev a t/u k k h en a h im sa n to ("hurting his own seif).
Pj II 460.30-51 : n a p o le n t i n a y p en ti n a tam te sa m u pa k r ya h o tt. Tt
would seem that there are two verbs p S t c t i in PSIi. One is < p la y a ti to
protect**, i.e. the denominative verb from p lo . The other is < p d ra y o ti, i.c.
the causative of p r - to overcome, withstand, be capable o r . See MW (s.v.
I .pr*). For the Eastern instead of -r- sec the note on 29.
86. Pj II 461.1 foil.: ta ttk o an u tth u n a n to t i a n u so ea n to . vasam on v og ii t i
vaseu i g oto i.c. it is taking the participle and verb as singular, probably
because of the singular forms in p5das ab. although the endings o n to and
-a are historically plural. The verse is presumably made up from two pans
which were originally separate. I translate the second line as siogular
because the jump from singular to plural makes awkward reading. For
a n iitih u n cf. a n u s v o r o GDhp 139b. a n u c in tit h (Jd5na-v 174. Here and in
827 E6 reads -n-. although there seems to be no historical reason for it. We
should presumably classify it as spontaneous retroflexion. See the note on
JQO.
For the suggestion that kfakata is to be derived from Skt kOlakrt, see the
note on 14 6 .

There is resolution of the seventh syllable in pSda c. See Warder {1967.


U 5 )-

587. Pj II 461.5: tatiha gamine li gemile, parolokagomonaseijje thite ti


vuiiant hoti. It is interesting that the cty echoes the meaning of Ski gamin
intending to go**. For gamine and pfinine as masculine accusative plural
forms from -in stems sec the note on 220.
558. For the cadence of pSda d see Pj II p. 728. and see the note on 581. We
could read
m.c.

pariyoyam

559. In p2 da a there is resolution of the First syllable.


590. Pj II 461.13-1 $: na so leibbhO may iti ti so peto idni mayd pano
jtvat ti na tabbh iti parijQntmio. We should understand an infinitive
with tabbh'. Cf. Inbbh phassetum 393.
I understand a verb one should think in p5 da d. and take vineyya as an
absolutivc. although it could be an optative. See the note on 20-21.
For the past participle paritleviia being used as an action noun, see the
note on 331.

III.

Mahvagga

2$ 5

592. Pj II 461.21 : pajappan ti tanham. See (he note on 328. With pojappo cf.
ja p p o ii.n Z J op p.A s 365.71 ; jappd strna vuccati' tanh. Nett 12.3; Netl
U.te* quotes 1033: jappbhilepena. C f. S 1 123.S: bbavaiobhajappa; Spk
I >85.23: bhavahbhnsakhtam tanham. See BHSO (s.v. jaipS).
For (he present middle participle ending -na in esno see the note on 13 1.
Pj 11461.22: abbahe ri, uddhare. See the note on 3 3 4 . For the VC/VCC
alternation see (he note on 4.
593. Pj 11461.27 : pappityy ti ppunitv.
For the VC/VCC alternation in abbiilba- see the note on 4 .
<115> pp. 115.1-123.1S. The Vsetihasutta is also found at M sulla 98
(omitted in E? (M II 196]).
<Il6> p. 116.6. For tarn kho pana bbavantam Cotamam ... kittisaddo
abbbuggato see the note on p. 103 6 .
594-656. These verses are in Sloka metre.
594. In pada d we should read -ya[m\ m.c.
595. Pj II 463,14 *ij :'tevijjnan ti tivednam, kevalina ii niuhamgat. For
kevalin sec the note on 82. Pj II 463.17: jappe ti vede. E? reads jape.
The cty quotes smote in the form annose' osmose iti amba bhavma (Pj II

463.13). For the ending -mate see the note on 32


For the historical d in sad okUidtam sec the note on p. 13.10. For padaka

see PHD and BHSO.


In p5da e there is resolution of the first syllable. In p5da d wc should ignore
the svarabhakti vowel in cariya.
< ii7> 596. For tesan no sec the note on p. 15.23.
There are nine syllables in pada d. Wc could correct the metre by reading,*n
instead of iti m.c.

597* lo pada a saiiiiattunt is the infinitive of xvnujnd- (< natnjhapttim). Note


the w .ll. soMl&petum and npetum.
For re rnayom sec the note on p. 15.23.
59S.PjII463^3-24: kbaytitan ti nahfnivam utitani, jiaripimnun ti anha.
Cf. Ult 25.17 (jahft condom gahniy citthann pomjattud) and see Alsdorf
(1962. p. 135). The meaning is *Goc beyond waning a waxing again ,
according to Alsdorf. Pj II 463.24 ( Ps 111432.2$):pecc ti upagantv. There
is a v.l. pacca.
In pda d we should read tokasmt[m) m.c.

286

The Group o f Discourses

$99. For the labialisation o( -a> -u in the ending -emu in jtlnemu see the
note on $1.
In pSda d there is resolution of the /ourth syllabic. In pads f h r- in

brhmanam does not make position.


600. For the reciter's remarks see the note on 18-29.
For tesam vo (< Ski vas) see the note on p. 15.33.
Io pada a we should read v<i>y- rttc. Cf. viycikkhati and vykhyta io Pj 11
pp. 765 and 770 ( S .W .) . In pda d we should read jatf- m.c. with P} (I p. 697.
to avoid the opening

<i i 8>6o2. For kuntha cf. Jain kuruhu. See Jacobi (1895, p. 220 note l).
605. II 465.7-3 : odake ti- udakamht jte, maced p i anekappakdrd rohitomacchtiibhedena. For odake cf. Th 345. For the pda cf. utlae udayacar
(yr L6.1.2

(3 Schubring,

1910, p. 70J).

606. In pda a pakkhi is the masculine accusative plural o f an -in stem. For
the aominativc plural o f an -in stem see the note on 243.
608-10. A close paraJlel to these verses is found in Divy 626.1S-23.
609. Divy 62632 reads methunaih. which Supports the view that, as the other
words in the verse are instrumentals, methane an d sombddhe are
instrumental plural forms o f -a stem nouns in -e (< -ais). For this ending
see the note on 547. According to a footnote to Abh i.methuna is the sign
of the zodiac called "twins'*. I assume that "twins'* is used here in the sense
o f testicles". Since, however, PED (s.v. sambh) states that the word is
used o f both mate and female sexual' organs, we could take methuna to the
sense o f sexual intercourse and translate by sexual organs and (ways of)
sexual intercourse". The main objection to this would be that all the other
words in the verse refer to parts o f the body.
In p k b b there is resolution o f the first syllable. W e could correct the
metre, if it were thought necessary, by reading n(n]* or nod-.
610. In pSda b there are nine syllables. We could correct the metre by
reading (a)*.
< ii9 > 6 1 1 . For the sandhi o f *11 e- > -ve- in p3da b. see the note on
p. 104.13. For other sandhi developments involving the change o f *u > -v
seethe note on 144.
There are nine syllables in pda b. Neither o f the vv.ll. repairs the metre.
612-19. In pSda d br- in brhmano docs not make position.

Ili.

Mahvagga

287

612-17. For upajivati with an accusative **10 live upon, to make a living
from see CPD (s.v. upojivati).
613. Pj IT466.13 : puthusippen ti tanlovOyakommOd'mindsippena. I follow
the cty in taking puthu and sip pena together as a compound.
620-47. These verses also occur at Dhp 396-423.
In 620f and in pda d o f the other verses hr- in brhm anam does not make
position.
620-29.Cf. Uu 23.19-29.33- 34 ; Syag L2.2.IS.
620. Pj II 466.24 foil. : yvyam catusu yonisu yattha katthaci j to 1atropi v i
visesena yo brhmanassa samvannitya mtari sam bhto. ram yonijam
m a tlis a m b h a v a m . The cty includes the word m tisam p atti in the
explanation, which supports PE D 's suggestion that m atti is < m iti- <
m lr-, Udana-v 33.13 reads m t rsam bhavam . With m atiisom b h a v a cf.
pettikasambahova in Ja VI 485.30" and see Brough (1962. p. 183).
This verse occurs at Dhp 396 with the reading sa ce. but Dhpa reads sa ve ic
both the repetition o f the verse (IV 138.13*) and the explanation (IV 159.19X
For the efv alternation see the note on 38. The version of* this verse in the
GDhp (17). however, which is written in the KharosthI script where the
akfaras co and va are not confused, reads sayi. T h is might be thought to

support the reading sace, since intervocalic -v- would not be elided, but it
is not impossible that y i = y e , i.e. an emphatic particle with (he same
meaning as ve. Udina-v 33.15. however, reads sa c e d and this is supported
by the Tibetan Ud3na-v reading gol-te. See Brough (1962, p. 1S3).
Pj II 467.1-6: y a s m i "b ho bh o -* t i vacanamattena oii ehi sakcanehi
visitthott bhovdf nma so Itoti, sa ce hoti sakincano. yo panyam yattha
katthaci kute j to p i rgdikincunbhvetta okiiicano ... tain aliatit brmi
brhmanam. kasmz yasmd bhitapjto tt.

621. With paritassati cf. p o rtu o se in 924.


<120>6z2. Pj II 467.11-16: nandhin l i nayhonobhvena pavanain kodham
varattan t i b a n d h a n a b h v en a pavatiom
to n h a m , s a n d n a m
sahanukkaman ti onusayonukkomasahitom dvAsouhiditthisanddnam ...
avtjjdpalighassa rikkhitiattd ukkhiuopaligham , cotnnuain saccnam
btiddhatt buddhom. For palikha/paligha see Luders (Dcob.. 130). ant
for the -r-l-l- alternation see the note on 29.

623. In pada c -f- in khanti is m.e. to avoid the opening - - - - . Pj II 467.10


m reads khanti* in the lemma.

The Group o f Discourses

624. Pj II46701-25: tanh-ussadbhvena anussadam. For ussada cf. 515.


Pj II 467.13: vawonian ti dhutavatena samanniigatam. For (he dhutaAgas
see EV I. p. 245 (ad Th 844-56).
In pda c -d- in -sdriram is m.c. lo give the pathy cadence.
625. For sandhi -r- in Aragge-r-iva see the note on 29. With pSda c cf. Utl
7.27 and BU IV4.28: no karman lipyateppakena.
626. Pj II 467.30 : pannabhrun ti ohiiakkhandhabhram. For panna- see
Nprman (1979C. pp. 47-48). Cf. 914.
628. Pj II 468.9-10: anokasArin ti anAlayacrim. Cf. 966 and see S I 127.3
and Spici 188.3.
In p3da b ondgdrehi should historically be anagrehi. C f. 639-40.
629. Pj II 4 6 8 .1 1 -1 * :tasesu thAvaresu c ti ranhdtOsam tasesu
wnhbhfivena thiratya thAvaresu. Cf. nihya dandatn pnehitp, ydr

I-S-3-I.
631. For sandhi

in ssapo-r-iva see the note on 29.

< i2 i> 632. For abhisnje see CPD, and cf. 386. In p3da b sacca is < *stya.
Sce CDhp22 (a Dhp 408), Chnd U p .iv^ vi-5.
633. I rend ami translated 'dha in place o f ca in pSda a. following B* and
seeing a parallelism with 636 639 and 640, all o f which begin with yo 'dha.
The verse is the same as Dhp 409. which also reads dha. as does Dhp-a in
its repetition o f the verse (IV 184.1*). For the caldha alternation see the note
on 26. Ud5na-v 33.25, however, reads tu and the GDhp (19) reads du, which
suggests that in the exemplars followed by ihe redactors o f those two texts
there was a reading ca which they interpreted in the meaning 'but". I am.
therefore, not now so certain that I should have suggested any change in
the reading.
For the nasal in omini- see CPD (s.v. anum-thfa).
For the palatalisation o f -a- >

in adirati see the note on 3.

In p!da c there is resolution of the seventh syllable.


634* Pj II 469.1 : nirasayan ti nittonham. For the pun on Ast and nirsaya.
and for the change in my translation o f the latter, see the note on 369.
635. Pj It 469.5: amatogadham onuppattan n amatum nibbnam ogahetv
onuppattam. I take ogadha 10 be a by-form o f ogdha. and therefore
translate it firm basis, foundation . For amata see the note on 80.

III. M ahvagga

*89

I assume (hai yassdlaya is a misprint. We should read yasslay with Dhp


4 t l. For lo y o see (he note on 53$. In pada c there is resolution o f (he first
syllabic.
There is resolution o f the first syllable of pda c.
636. Pj It 469.8 seems to be taking saAgom in apposition to ubho, rather
than in agreement, but Udna-v 33.29 bas ubhau satigv upaiyagdi. We
should probably take saiigam as a masculine accusative plural. For -am as
an accusative plural ending see the note on 3 5. and <f. Dhp 4 12 and GDhp
46.
637. Pj II 469.14: nandibhava-parikkhtnan li Ifsu bh o v esu parikkhfnOjnhom .

In p5da c *rinnflnrff- is m.c. to avoid the opening * .


638. Pj I! 469.16-17: samsraiattaii ca catunnam saccinam appativijjhana*
mohaii ca atito. UdSna-v 33.41 has samsdraugham upotyagt, and
Demhard*s note (ad loc.) suggests the reading saqaram ohom accas for
Dhp 414. A different punctuation would give the compound samsra-moham (< ogham), with the meaning the -flood o f somsra". The
nasalisation of -a before -w- would result in somsram-m-oham, which was
interpreted as satnsdram moham.

Por the r// alternation in palipatha see the note on 29 and cf. Luders (Bcob..
61).
ln pda a there is resolution o f the fourth syllabic.
639.40. Bc has ya 'dha. GDhp 20 (33) has du < ut, so wc should probably
read ca in the sense of but . For the cfdh alternation see the noie on 26. For
andgra see the note on 62S.
639. Pj II 469.13(3 Dhp a IV 198.1$) explains: run} parikUmwkfunail c era
parikkhfnahhavad ca, i.c. it takes km abhova as a dvundva compound.
Radhukrishnan takes it as a reversed la tp u n tfa compound (for reversed
compounds see the note on 370). and translates Dhp 413 in whom all
craving for existence is extinguished (1950. p. 185). but I do not think that
this is possible.
642. In pda a there is resolution of the sixth syllable. In pda b
is m.c.

in

iiin ip a d h h n

<12Z> 6 4 3 . Pj II 4 7 0 .6 : catunnam saccdnam buddhatdya. For an


explanation of the word Buddha see the note on 622. For the suffix -so in
sabbaso see the note on 28S.

290

The Croup o f Discourses

6.J.}. Pj IE 470.S-9 : savdnam khinatya khindsavatp, kilesehi rakati

arahantam.
645. Pj H 470.10-11 : pure ti oiitokkhondhesu, paccJt ti atuigatcsu, majjhe
ti paccuppoimesu. Pj II 470.11 : kincanan ti yeas' etesii thnesu tanfidgatO
soikfulram kidcanam n* alibi. Cf. jossei n* alibi puri! pacchd, majjhe tasso
kuo syil. y5r 14 4 3 . Cf. afofuyo akntcam. Un 25.28.

646. There is a v.l. dhiratn for virata. For (he v/tlh alternation see (he noie on
44. In pda c we should ij none the svarabhaki vowel in nahtaka. For (he
nh-tyuih- alternation see (N: noie 00 518. We should perhaps read niakam
with the v.l.
647. P) 1(47020 >11.: vo pubbenivdsam ptikatam katv jnati. chabblsatidevaloketbhedam saggam cotttbbidhotn apdyaii ca dibbacakkJtun passati,
atho jtikkhayasamkhdtam rahanom patto, tam ohant brhmanam
vadami ti oidio. These three items are the three vedas of Buddhism.
648. For the labialisation of -0- > -a- after *m* in sammucc (v.l. tammoccS)
see the note on 61. The BH$ equivalent of sommati is samvrti. which shows
the mfv alternation. See Brough (1963. p. 18 1 > and the note on too. Por
samudgatam cf. 1049
(49. Pj II 4 7 1.0-10: ajdnantd no pabrtmtt... ojnant yeva evam vadami.
I (he filai edition o f my t r a n s la tio n I t r a n s l a t e d n o twice. Since ( h e C ty
takes it as yeva, ! now omii His".
In pda a ihcre is rcsoloiiot of the fourth syllable. In pda b we should read
ditthf- m.c. (see Pj II p. 707). In pda c there arc nine syllables. The large
number o f vv.ll. for p a b n n a n ti shovvs .the problems this has caused for
scribes. We should perhaps read pabrumi with the lemma in Pj II.

650. ln pdas b and d -br in abrdhmano docs not make position, which
suggests that an earlier version of this verse had abam hano or abambhano.
In pdas b and d we should perhaps read h o t' m.c.
<I23> 653. For the compound pancca-sanmppada see the note on 72.
In pda c there is resolution of the third syllabic.
654. In pjdas a and b -1 in vottoif is m.c.
655. For brdhiiuina as an abstract noun (3 bnihmandti) in pda d. see V I.
p. 217 (adTh63i).
In pda a wc should ignore the svarabhakti vowel in curiyena.
656. Pj II 472,2: santo ti santakileso. i.e. = Ski inta. C f GDhp 7 {adu.
Pj II 472.23: Brohmt) Sakko ti Brohm ca Sakko ca. yo evariipo. so na
kevalam brahm ano api ca kho Brahma ca Sakko ca so vijtinatam

H l.

MaJuivagga

291

ponditdnam. Pj 11 p. 771 ($.v. (])5Wa) suggests a Slesa, which leads Hare


to translate (p. 97 note 1 ): "best possible of knowers*'.
p. 123.15. For

in njja-t-agge see the note on p. 16.1.

p. i23.S'^78. Kokliya-sutta. For parallel versions see E* (p. 123 note 13).
Pj II473a has Koklika. as has S 1 14941. For the kjy alternation see the note
on 22.
<i24> i>. 124.5,2.1 a.9l For the historical -d in etad avoca see the note on
p . 1 3 .1 0 .

p. 1244.iM3.t9.ao. Pj II 475.6: nd A* evan n m evam 6ba, m evam bhani ti


a. :o. The absence of any reference to It (< AO suggests that here A* evam =
hevam, i.e. an emphatic form of the word. Cf. Afokan hevam. The word is
common in the phrase na hevam vattabbe in Kv, where the Eastern ending
-e may well be appropriate in company with this non-P3!i word hevam. If we
are not dealing with hevam, then this is an example of the sandhi of *1 + e->
-e-. See the note on p. 218 .ts.
p. 124.7. Pj 11475.6-7: pesala itpiyasilO. This explanation can be classed as
a folk etymology. See the note on 51.
<12$> p. 125.5. For paggharimsu (< $ki pra-kutr-), allowing the develop
ment of
> ggb-, sec FED (s.v. paggharati).
p. 125.13. For the historical -d in etad see the note on p. 13.10
<ii6> p. 126.10: vTsotikhdriko ti MAgadhokena poithena condro patthd
Kosatoranh ekopanho Itoti tetta poithena condro panh dlhokoin.
canri dlhakni donata, catudonam mnik. coiuntnikom khri, tyo
khriy vTsoiikhriko.
p. 126.1a. For the sandhi of -u * e- >
in tveva see the note on p. 104.13.
For other sandhi developments involving the change of -u > -v sec lite note
00144.
p. 126.17. Pj H 4 7 7 :,o: nthjMiron ti todatthovisesanhadipaktun giithdbandhanam santihoya vututm. For gdtltobandhavacana and gthbondhana sec the note on p. 78.17.

<127> 657-61. These verses have parallels in Udana-v 8.1-5. although the
order is different.
657.

The metre is loka.

65S-S9. The metre is Vaitliya.

292

The Crou p o f Discourses

658. For kali and v i d n t i sec i.Udcrs (1940.p. 149). For ihc suggestion that
tom in pda b is a masculine accusative plural see IDdcrs (Bcob., 218) and

the note on 35.


In pda a we should read nindlyam m.c.
659. Pj II 477.^5 : manam podosaye Hi. yo manam padoseyya, lassdyant
manopodoso evo.
To get the pun on the word kali in the meanings losing throw at dice* and
catamity . which is not stressed in PED (s.v.), we must take
dhanoporiijayo both as an adjective agreeing with kali the losing throw
which possesses (* causes) the loss o. vcalth" and as a noun (he loss of
wealth**. See BHSD (s.v. kali),and EV (I, p. 163 (ad Thl 458). For kali
wicked see 664. The BHS version (Udna-v) shows how the verse began:
yo aksena dhanam parfijayet, i.e. (he losing throw which would lose
wealth at dice . This would give the same construction in pda b as in p3da
e. In MIA this would appear as dhanam parjaye. It would appear that the
verb was mistaken for a nominative singular in -e (for such Eastern forms
see the note'on 7 ) and the Final -m of dhanam was dropped, so that the two
words could be taken together as a compound dhanapariijuye. The metre
(VaitHya) shows that we should restore -/. The difference of construction
between BHS akyena and Pali akkhesa must arise trom art Eastern form
akkhehi. which could be either instrumental or locative. See LQders (Bcob..
22t note 5). ;nd for other Eastern forms see the note on 7. See Mettendole
(1968.P.44).
This is the only Vaitliya slan/.a which I can quote which has five pdas.
The structure of the verse makes it clear that p3da c should be omitted as in
the BHS version. Pdas ab and pdas de an: then completely parallel. In
pda c sobbassiipi must sabbossom api, t.c. an accusative after the
optative form panijaye. For the sandhi of am + o- > -d- see the note on 365.
In pda a we should read opprimano m.c. For mahanaro (= Ski) cf.
piyatiora (see EV U. p. 138 (ad ThT 375)),
660-62. These verses are mainly in the Tristubh metre, with some JagatT
pdas.
660. For the suggoiitm that yam niriiytnii are masculine accusative plural
forms in -am see the note on 35. Uiia-v has yOn ntirakOn. The names arc
mu names of hells, but of numerals.
Pdas abc are Tristubh ; pda d is Jagatl.

111.

Mahvagga

293

In pida a we should read sohassna{m\ m.c.. and in pda b e. In p5da c we


should ignore hoih die svarabhakti vowels in ariyagarahT m.c.
661. For the suggestion that nirayam is a masculine accusative plural form
in *am see the note on 35. For pi used after a numeral to emphasise the
completeness of the number see the note on p. $ 7 .4 foil., and sec MW (s.v.
apt).
The metre is Trislubh, but the metre o f p9da b is defective. It seems clear
that both ti and c- in eoha arc the remnants of hi, and it is likely that c- is
m.c. force* <ty<ti. $ec Brough (1962. p.258 (ad GDhp 269)) for possible
reconstructions of this pSda. Dhp 306 reads: yo vpj vanti no karomi cha,
where GDhp ..ads yo ya vi (< cpi). For the vie alternation see the note on
38.

Pj II 478.7-: pecca sam bhavanti li, ito patigannti niray'/tpapatyd


senn bhavanti.
662. In p5da a oppoduttha is < Skt aprodusta (Udna:v 28.9 reads this).
PED (s.v. posa) regards posa as being contracted from purisa, but H is more
likely that posa, purisa and p u n ita are all independent developments from
the root por- to nourish*. See Brough (1962, p. 250. quoting Bailey, i960,
pp 85-86)
PED (s.v. ra ja ) lists rojo as masculine only here. It is doubtless a scribal
error arising from the ending -o.
Puda a is Jagati; pdas bed are Tristubh. PSda c has only ten syllables, and
Pj II 720 suggests reading p a iiyeii fur //acceli. UdSna-v 28.9 reads protiytiti.
The metre, however, is regular if we assume contraction or the short sixth
and seventh syllables to make one long syllabic. Sec the note o n d i. In
pada d there is resolution of the first syllable.
683 -76. Pj II478.14-17: idOni nn itavaithugOihO nuta cuddasa gihd ha.
imo kira Koklikam mhnnulnam ovadanienya.unat Malutmoggallnena
valid "MohbrahmunO" li eke.
The metre of these verses is VegvatT.
663. Pj II 478.31 : avadaiblu it. avacananii butldhOnani p i ovdctn
agahanena. See the note on vtuUnnnt p. 87.3. Pj I! 478.33-33: macellari ti,
p a iica vid h a m a cch o riy en a . pesuniyasmim onuyutto aggasvoknant
bhcdoknuitya. For the five types of ntacchariyo sec PCD (s.v.).
PED docs not recognise the meaning given Tor Pli saddha by Khler

0973 . P- 60): one who gives in the hope of acquiring merit**. The negative
of (his would make good sense here, in combination with kadariya. It is

294

The Group o f Discourses

likely that (he same meaning is to be seen in no sadtlfio in 853, rather than
PEDs credulous. See Norman (1979D. p. 329).
For the retroflex -n- in guna see Bunow (1971. pp. 555-56) and see the note
on 100.
The metre of p3da c is not correct but if*wc scan assoddho as assoddh we
have a posterior pads, in place o f a prior one. In pads d */ in macchari is
m.c., and we should read pesuniyasm[im)' m.c.
< I23> 664. Pj U 479.3: mukhadugga mukhausama, vtbhta vigatabhiUa
ntikovfldi. Cf. vebhiiiiya in 158.

Pj'II479-3* bhiinahu bhtihanaka vuddhintlsaka. Although Miss Horner


( 1957. p. 181) translated this as the destroyer of growth at M I 502.3s,
Saksenahad already pointed 001(1936.9.713) that U is the Pali equivalent
o f Skt bhmnohon. Alsdorf ((965. pp. 46-47) explained the change of -n- >
-n- as being an Eastern form (see the note on 7). For the change of ha{n) >
-hu see the note on 167. For the further development of -An > -Wiu, cf.
gottobhu and vairobhu and see von Hinber (1978. pp. 326-32). Ruegg
O981. pp. 175- 77) and Norman (1987^ pp. 37-39).
PjH 479 koti alckkhipurisa. Scc EV II. p. 163 (ad ThI 458) and Th 323. Pj
H 479.4-$: avajaia bufldhassa avajjltaputta. For kati = losing throw at
dice* see 659.
For the sandhi -m- in ribhiiia-m-anariya see the note on 232.
.In p3da a we should ignore (he svarabhakii vowel in -amtriya. In pSda c we
should read kali m.c.
665. Trenckner (1908, p. 125) recognised g a ilch isi os a-future, and gave
other examples, e.g. u p o g a n c h is i S I 186.3* (v.l. for u p a g a c c h a s i) :
abbhuggafichati M I 392.17 (E* gaflchiii) The correct explanation of fleb
ili undoubtedly that given by Bloch (1934. p- 88). quoting H. Smith. We
have here an anit form of the future, i.e. *gom syali, in which
has been
evolved between -m- and -s*. i.e. *guntisyaii. See Brough (1962, pp. 73-74).
The group rntsy- has developed > -/Ich*, cf. -try* > -cch- in bhecchati < Skt
b h e lsy a ii. The same explanation accounts for hafleh which is found as a
future of Aon-, e.g. iihaehom M ! 171 .u*; haflehema Ja II4i8.1t* (future
optative, glossed hunissnia. 4 18.16*) h u flch a ii Ja IV (02.?* (glossed:
f w iis s o ti. i02^> ). Presumably forms such as bnnkh- and haflh- are merely
by-forms of hunch-. The tmU form humsyaii is found in Ski. See Whitney
1 1885. s.v. hart-). BHS has a future middle form of gam-, i.e. abhigarnsye,
and also a form gamsati which also shows some simplification of the -mrygroup (BHSG, p. 238). Smith quotes gam se as an optative. From Aon- BHS

111.

Mahovgga

295

has hansyc and vihoisyase (= vihamsyose). See BH$G, p. 238. For the aorisi
ganchum, see (he note on 138.
For (he future endings -isi, -iti and -inti see the note on 28. They may be
explained in two ways. We may be dealing with the palatalisation of the
vowel -ri- after
i.c. syati > * Syiii (for palatalisation see the note on 3X
with subsequent simplification of (he consonant group >
> -A-. Cf.
bhhisi 719 and see WO, p. 119 (ad Dhp 236). Alternatively, we may have an
old variation between -s-ya- and -s-i- in the future ending (see Smith (1952,
p. 182)), which docs not require simplification, since -s* can develop > -A-.
For the most pan, forms in -1- are restricted in P31i to anil futures: from the
canon I can quote only kfrihUi it will be done Th 424.foe a set future. The
secondary ending in to parallel secondary -om may possibly occur in
dhailhi (for hahhiip) Vin 1 8.26*. It occurs in A M gphim 1 diali drink,
Uu 19.39.
Pj II 479.6-7: papaian ti sobbham, papatan ti pi pllio, so ev' altko ;
papadan fi pi pllio, mahnirayan ri. aitilo. In note 1 Smith records
Trenckners suggestion of popton for papatan, but this would be
unmetrical. PED does not list papalA, but there seems.to be no reason to
doubt the existence of the word < pro * pata. The reading papati would
then show spontaneous retroflexion (sec the note on IOO), while papad
would be either a borrowing from a dialect which voiced I- > -d- (sec the
note on 193), or a formation from the root pad-, which also means to fall.
In pSda a we should .read kirasT m.c. In pSda b wc should ignore the
svarobhakli vowel in garahasi. In pada c wc should read bohu\ni co) m.c.,
as E*(p. 128 note 13) states.
666. Pj II 479.S-10: eti ho ton ti, ettha ho iti nipio, ton ti tarn
kusolakusalakammam : atha v hatan galani paiipannom. upaciian ti
attho. EF (p. 128 note 16) refers to Pj II reading iti ha tarn, but Smith docs
not adopt this reading in his text of Pj 11. It would therefore seem that he no
longer favoured the suggestion that the cty was taking eti as a metrical
form of iti. Tn 6 we should read fri* as the metrical form of iti- (see (he note
on 6).
667. It does 001 seem possible to translate tatto avo gufnsannbham as
three separate words as they arc printed in E*. although the cty glosses ayo
and gii/a*sannibhnm separately (Pj II 479,i?-:8)- Smith (Pj II p. 699) lists
tatto in the form latw(ni), which suggests that he thought that the word
should be taken separately, with the anusvro lost, presumably m.c. There

296

The Croup of Discourses

is. however, no problem if we read the three words as one compound. with'F.
and I translate accordingly.
1 now prefer to translate ayosamkusomhoiatthdna the place of impaling
upon iron spikes. For (he use of the past participle samhata in plla a as
an action noun equivalent in meaning to sunuiluniana the act of striking
upon. i.c. impaling, see the note on 331.
Pj II 480.1 : paiiriipan ti katakammilnurtipam.
For ayO or ay- and -lt]ihilnam m.c. in pda a see Pj II p. 661. In pSda c wc
shuld read sa[n)uibham m.c. and assume that there is the resolution of a
long syllable imo two short syllables in the cadence. Cf. 670c.
<i2p> 668. Pj U480.3*4 explains that vadami and nilbhijavand refer to the
narakapl. It continuesr nctidrjam upend li, tnatn lenam padsaronain
htitv na upagacchonti, ganhont hanant eva upend ti vuuaip /in/,
which makes it clear that the narakapOld are also being taken as the subject
of upenti: they do not approach as a refuge. The phrase saranam upeii,
however, is so common that it would be more natural to take tnam here as
the goal of motion, and understand (he hell-dwellers as the subjeot of
upend. Pj II 480.10-11 : agginl samanr jolitan d samoniato jaiiiam sabbadissu v sanmaii jaiitam aggim.
In pda c we should read samhati m.c. The copy ot Sn in the CPD ofTice in
Copenhagen has a note suggesting the reading -nisama{m]-jaHtam in pda
d. bui agirti- m.c. is belter (wc can explain aggini as a conflation of aggi x
agini). Cf. 670.
669. The form onahym can only be the nominative plural of the passive
present participle (see Geiger I1994. $192)) of onah- they, being bound,
which docs not fu the syntax of the sentence. Since the final syllable of the
pda is anccps. *4 is not m.c. here. Pj II 480.14 glosses, the word as
palivetheiv. so it would seem that the writer o f the cty read onahiyna.
and this is probably the correct reading. The reading -iydnd perhaps entered
the text from the cty. where it occurs cs onahixn d. See also the note on
paripucchiydno 696.
Pj II 480.10-1*: tarn vitatam hi yalhd mahikyo d. tad ca andhadmisam
ntahikxo viya vitihaiam holt ti artho, vikatan ii pi plho. For the kit
alternation see the note on 22-23. PED suggests mahikd = fog, and is
followed by Hare.
It is probable that timisa is a conftation of tamas x limiss. although we
should note that both tarn- and dm- exist in Ski. and arc probably forms of
the same root. Pali has limiss (Ja II) 433.10) < tamisr. and we can also

Ul. Mahavagga

297

deduce the existence of *timisa (showing the VC/VCC alternation (see the
note'on 4 ]), since timisika exists (Ja IV 98.15*)*
lo pSda b we should read -kte[hi] m.c., and take -e as an instrumental plural
form < -ais (sec the note on 547). In pSda c we should read either ttmisam or
timissam m.c. We should read yanti nur.
670. Pj H 480.33-25: aiha fohamayan ti ayam pana Lohakumbh pathavapariyantik catunahutdhikni dve yojanasotasahassni gambhir
samatttikd taitaohapr boti. The sii gufar kumbbim in pSda a refers
therefore to the name of the hell, while the word idsu in pda c refers to the
pots in that hell. For pana in the sense of puna as a connecting particle see
TED (s.v. pana), Brough (1962, pp. 109-10). and the note on 23.
Pj II481.1-5: samuppilavso li. samuppilovant, sakim pi udhom SOkim pi
adiio gacchomnd pbcnuddehakam pacconiT ti vuttam boti. There is no v.L
in the cty, but F reads samuppUavds, Ms Be samnppilavie, and Ms Bm
smuppitavdse. The last sgems to be an attempt to change the reading into
the more common nominative plural ending -se (sec the note on 7). and
ihcrp seems to be no reason to doubt that we have here tl$ nomEastem form
of this, viz. -Oso. This is recognised by Pj H p. 779 and PHD ($.v.). See
Geiger. 794.
I'orolglgini- m.c. in pSdas bd see the note on 668. Pada c is unmcincal. We
could cither read cira-ra\t)tom m.c. and then assume the resolution of the
penultimate long syllable into two shorts (cf. 667c). or read cirya for eiraranarn.
671-72. In both verses kim paecatt causes difficulty, since it is not clear
what kim is. Pj II481 u-s states: totiha kin ti, tallito, as though kim is some
son of panicle to be taken with taiiha. perhaps meaning nothing more than
*VcU?"

We should read ti(m] m.C.


671. Pj II 481.5-7 : aditiseli ti. gacchati. abitiseli ti pi /xiifto. tattha yam yam
disun olliyati apossayoti ti ouho. fat the confusion of odhi and abbi (and
ari) sec odhimanasd/abhimano.id 69z ; ajjhbhavotHahhibhnvati 968 ;
aSdevolatideve 1148: and see EV I. p. 196 (ad Th 447)- Cf. atiyakkha Ja V(
502j 6* (= Skt adhyaksa). See von Hinber (1974. p. 72 note 23).
PII481.7-S: kilissati ti. bddhiyati. kilijjatl ti pi pdtiio, p-hoii ti attho.
* has kilissati as a v.l. Pj II 48 1 .*-9: samphusamiino ti. trito ptibbn
labkena phuttho samdno. This interpretation shows (hat we should take
the participle as passive, and read sompl-ussamuno with ss . as the metre
requires.

2<)8

The Crou p o f Discourses

In pda a Wc should read pubbd- or pttbbam ro.c.


<J5o>072. Pj 1(481,13: gantum no hi tiram ap' atihT ti.apa-ganttim no hi
tiram aitili ; liravam aulii ti pi pdtho, so yrv attho. tiram eva ettha
tiravon ti vultnm. This v.l. must presumably be taken as iTra(m) va-m-atthi.
For -m- see the note on 132. It would seem possible that we have tmesis of
gantum and apa. Tmesis docs occur in MIA: see CPD (s.vv. apa, ajjha,
antara-dhflyati, onto a >d apa gantum) and Sadd S27.H-17. Cf. Bv (Introd. p.
xvi): vuddhitum par. : ajjha so vast4
, ajjha 'ham vasinr, cf. anv-aham
pjayanto, Samantak * 64. In AMg (see Upadhye (1933. pp. 987-88)): ai
bhummim na gacchejjd. Dasav 5.24; taya som va jaJti se rayam. SQya
l .2.2.1 :abhi nmakadchi mite,..tie, 1 .2.1.7 ; asenthn karissSmi pawn, 1.13.1.
Cf. BHSG 23.16: na tvad'ut te lekh longhayih' for uUangh-. Av l
223.11 \anu fry enam jar hauti, Udna-v I.30. Despite these examples, I
think that it is more likely that we have here an abbreviated form of apt. For
tmesis in the sense of split compound, see the note on 151.
I assume samanta is m.c. for samantam, i.c, ao adverbial accusative. Pj II
481.15-18 : sabbasarnil hi samantakapalt ti,yasm tass kumbhiy aparibhge pi' nikkiijjitaitA sabbattha samd samontoto-kathd. tasm
apagantuin Uran n' atshr ti vuttam hoti.
673. THd Asipattavana Iteli is also described in Jain texts, c.g. Utt 19,60. The
punishments describee arc also very similar. With batisena in Pili. cf.
galehim in Utt 19.64. Pj II 481.21-13: lam pavtsanti samaechidagattd ti, torn
pavisanti. tato sutthu chinnagaiiti homo. I assume that samacehidagana
is the same type of compound as SkL c/1idra-kornn. with -cchida m.c. for
cchtdda. The v.l. samacchinna-. however, gives the possibility that
*cchida has replaced -cchina, which was m.c. for echinna. Presumably the
word is from the verb snmcchid-.
Pj II481.23-482.3'. rajuyrajny vihananti ti.yath manuss oltocammam
bhmiyotn pattharitv khtehi kotaui, evum kotetv pharashi phdletvd
ekam ekatn kotm chinditv vihananti, chinna-chinnakoti pttnappuna
samutthti ; Orocayracay ti pi piitho, dviiijitv dvinjitvd ti attho ; etam
pi Devadte avuttnkammakiranam. For the clj alternatimi see the note on
p. 13.17. E* (p! 130 note 13) points out that the first explanation seems to
agree with the second reading, and refers to Wackemagcl Il.t 124b. where
compounds made up fiom two imperatives arc listed. The origin of such
compounds is perhaps to be seen in such forms as asnatha-pivathakhddathd ti dnsnmena saddena (D II t47.11). If we accept the reading nte-.
then the idea ts presumably Arranging and re-arranging, i.c. pulling this

U I.

Mahvagga

299

way and that If we read dra;% ihen we have the idea of scoring, slashing
(cf. ranjita, M 1 178.28). Wackecoagel states that such compounds are
feminine, and this seems to be true of (he examples given in illustration of
PSini 2.I.72, e.g. iidharotsrjO, uddhamovidhamd. utpacavipacd, urpaianipatd, although the KiikS explains them as adjectives in agreement with
kriyd. If they are feminine, then -d here is presumably a truncated
instrumental. See CPD (s.v.X which takes it as a re-iterated absolutive, with
-d m.c. Such absolutives in -oya are rare e.g. mantayo at la VI 271.9
(glossed -ayd ri -<rvd,271.17'). although Alsdorf (19 7 t. P- 35) suggests
reading -tyd.
For pana see 670 and the note on 23.
674. The Jains also refer to the River Vetaranl as having khura-dhr. Sec
Utt 19.59. For pana - puna see the note on 23.
In pSda c we should read tatthd m.c.
<131 > 675. Pj II 482.13-15: sdmd sobald- fi etant parato son ti imin
yojetabbam, smavann kamm&savann ca son kJidantt ti vuttom hott.
The words sma and sabat are also found in the Jain descriptions o f bell,
e.g. Utt 19.54. Cha^>cmier (1922,p.350) points out that these words ar<
reminiscent of RV X.I4.IO.
Pj II 482.15-16: JtJfco/agand ti kanhakdkagand. pajigiddhd ti sutthu
sanjtogedh hutwt, mahdgijjhd ti eke. The cty seems not to know of (he
reading paiigijjhd in E*.
PSda b is unmetrieal. We could correct the metre by reading kk[o(\agan,
which would give the meaning "groups of crows . Utt 19.54. however,
includes the compound kota-sunaehim, which suggests that we should
rather read {kd]kolagand. In Vv 52:1$. however, the metre guarantees the
correctness of kdkolagand.
For -n- in son see the note on 100. For /- in place of -r- in kulala (= Sk
kuraro) see LOders (Beob., 52) 3nd the note on 29.
In pda c we can either read sigafd m.c. or adopt the v.l. sona-sigdld, whief
is also metrical. In p&da d vayasa is m.c. We should read cd m.c.
676. The cty glosses idha in pSda a as narake, and idha in pSda e as toke.
In pads a we should read kiccha m.c., and in pSda b jon m.c. PSda d it
unmetrieal but the metre could be corrected by reading ssa (* osso) for
siy.
677-78. Pj II 477.13-14: avasdne gthddvayam eva pana Mah-otiho
kathyam vinicchhopOthe n' aulii. Adikaram (1946, p. ! I) interprets this tc

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The Croup o f Discourses

mean that these two verses were not in the original form of this sutta.
Although this may have been so, U is more likely (hat it means nothing
more than the fact that the verses were not in the Mahvhfra recension.
Even* this is not necessarily the' fase, since their absence from the
atthakath may simply mean that no cty on the verses was brought from
India by the early missionaries. It seems unlikely that the two verses were
added in Ceylon, for their' metre seems to be unique and old. Since the
verses give the answer to the question asked in the prose introduction. it is
likely that they were composed at the same time as the intioduction. It is
interesting that the author of the cty did not compose his own cty upon the
verses. The Ganacchandas metre is an extended form of Vcgavati= Dodhaka
(according to CPD I 23*]. P8da a is in the' form of a posterior, no* 1 prior.
pSda. P5da c is a posterior oSda. but extended with - o r - - at the beginning.
677. PED does not give the meaning compared On number) for upanTta,
but it ts found in this sense in Tht 498-99. This verse gives the answer to
the question asked on p . 126.1-2 : ktvadigham... Radume niraye
yuppamnam? If nohuta b to be derived from Ski nayuta, then we have
an example o f glide -A- replacing -y-. For -A- as a glide consonant see the
note on 143, and see WD. p. 112 (ad Dhp 201).
In"pSda a we should read viduhT and in pSda c kotiyO m.c.
67$. I do not see how we can take ydva-dukkhd and tva-dram as being in
parallel, and I accordingly separate ydva from dukkh (with E* and C*). and
translate accordingly. It is possible to take sucipesalasddiutgunesu as a
descriptive compound and to take pSdas cd to mean one should keep
ones voice and mind safe amidst the virtues , or as a possessive
compound: one should restrain ones voice and mind in the midst of
those who have virtues. I prefer the second interpretation, since (his seems
to refer to Koklikas original offence o f speaking abusively to Siripuua
and MoggallSna.
In p5da a we shoutd read du{k\khd m.c.. In p3da d we should read vdca[m\
m.c.
679-723. Nlaka-sutta. See Jayawickrama (UCR VI. 4. pp. 230 foil.; VIII, 3,
pp. [90-97). The parallel version at Mvu III 386-89 is called Nilakapraina.
It is also called Moneyya-sutta by Chalmers (1932. p. x). which suggests
that it may be the MoneyasOte mentioned in Asokas Calcutia-Bairtt Edict.
I do not know his authority for using this name, although 701 contains the
words moneyyan te upannissom. Jayawickrama (UCR VIII, 3, p. 197) calls
the Mvu version Mauneya, but 1 do not know his reason for doing so. See
the Introduction (15).

III.

Mahvagga

301

679-9$. These iwemy verses are called vatthu gth at Pj II 483,1s. See
Jayawickxama (UCR VI. 2, p. 81). They are ascribed to nanda at the lime of
the soAgiti, as are the vatthugth at the beginning of the Pryanavagga
(see Pj II 580.29). See the note on 18-29.
Warder (1967, p. 213 note 2) suggests the name nandajta for the metre of
ibis section because that is the first word of the first verse. It is mainly an
extended form o f Tristubh (occasionally mixed with extended Jagati),
which is the equivalent o f having a redundant fifth syllable, with the
second fifth syllable resolved, giving an actual' break o f Otherwise the Jagati verses are normal: 681-82 684 689-90 ; 688 is a
normal mixed Tristubh/ JagatT. When the caesura comes after the fourth
syllable, there is no redundant fifth, and we have a normal Tn$jubh (or
Jagati),' with resolution of the fifth: 691a (Tristubh); 697bc (Jagati); 698d
(Jagati). In 679d there seems to be a redundant seventh syllable. In 680b
685c 691c 692c we have ovoc- where we require . We. should perhaps
read avc- or avac-. In 691 d 692c 6933d 694b we have -issati where we
require - - . We should perhaps read -i[s]sati. Two pidas (693c and 696c)
have another redundant syllable. By reading dyo(m] in 693c we wouid have
a resolved fifth syllable in both, as well as a resblved redundant fifth.
679. Pj II 483.30-32 : nandajte //; samiddhijlc vuddhlppatte, patite ti,
tutthe ; athavO UnandajSte ti. pontuditc, paffte (, somanajsajOtc. For the
use of -jta after nouns at the end of compounds in the sense of become
characterised by, full o f see BUSO (s.v. -jto) and the notes on 995 and
XX23. For jta after adjectives at (he end of compounds with the meaning
"become, being", and often atmost untranslatable, see PED (s.v. jota). For
-jSta in the sense of "class" (= jti) see the note on 863.
Pj U 483.22: sucivasane ti akilitthavasaite. devnam hi kapporukkha
nibbottni vaswtdni rajatn v malam v no ganhonti.
There Is a v.t. sakkaii ca for sakkocea. For the alternation of nasal +
consonant versus double consonant (NC/CC) see the note on 168. For the
sandhi -r- in ati-r-iva sec the note on 29. It is of interest that the two
components of Skt oliva were still pronounced separately, and could have a
sandhi consonant between them. For iva in the sense of an emphatic
particle (a evo) sec MW (s.v.).
The metre is extended Tristubh.
In pMa d there is resolution of the first syllable, and we should read ist m.c.
The metre of the pda is defective, since a short syllable is missing before
div-. As it stands it is a normal Tristubh with a redundant seventh
syllable. If we read addossa with the v.l., then wc should have a redundant

302

The Group o f Discourses

fifth syllabic, bui il would not be resolved. If we read a[d\dosa we have a


normal Tristubh with a resolved fifth syllable.
<rj2> 680. Pj 11484.18-19.* udagge ti, abbhunnatakOye\ cittimkaritv li,
daram karva; kailarpo it, tutihariipo. The v.|. viltim arises from the c/v
alternation (see the note on 38). See MW (s.v. citt), and BHSD (s.v. citri-).
For the VNC/VC alternation in -imk-l-Ik- see the note on 315.
For the sandhi -r- in ati-r-iva cf. 879 and see (be. note on 29.
The metre is extended Tristubh.
In pida b we should read avcsi (or avaedsi) me.

6$x.Pjl3 484^2: saiigomo ti sangSmo.


Pj U 485.23: kim abbhutom>dotthu mora painodit ti ajja kim pana
abbhutom disvd crom dev pamudit ti. Le. maro (< Skt maral) is used of
the devas as a whole.

For dotthu see the note on 424.


The metre is JagatL
. In pada a *d- m soAgmo is m.c. The metre would be improved by reading
si m.c. In pSda d theJoss o f -m in dotthu is *
(&2 .P } T l

tr io n fi ti. mtikheda ttrsefanasaddarp nutricanti. P j II

485.27: pothenti appojhemi. FED does not list appothetf, but only
apphoteti. The forms poih- and phot- are much confused, and although it
would be possible to derive both from Skt sphut-, and assume metathesis
of the aspirate in poih-, Kuipcr suggests a Proto-Munda etymology (1948,
p. 146 note 35).
Pj il p. 750 comments on the metre of Merumuddhavsine but the break
*
is not so unusual. The Jagati metre can in any case be normalised
by reading Mint-. For vdsine asjhe masculine accusative plural of an -in
stem, see the note on 220.
In p5da d the metre is improved if we read sa/nsaya[m), and kh'tppa is m.c.
683. Pj 11 486,6-7 : bodhisatto ti, bujjhanakosatto sommsambodhim
gantum oraho sotto. For the etymology of bodhisatto see Bolide (1974.
p. 36 note 27). For Lumbineyya see Charpentier (1914. p. 18). Ms B* reads
Lumpiincyye and Ms Bl Lampuneyyc. For the *mp-l-mb- alternation, showing
voicing after a nasal, see the note on 153. For the sandhi -r- in oti-r-iva cf.
679 and see the note on 29.
The metre is extended Tri?tubh.
In p3da c we should read Sakyno[m) m.c.

111. Mahvagga

305

6S4. Pj II 486.25 : naresu usbhasadisatt aarsabho. The cly is therefore


taking the compound as a tatpurusa, not a karmodhraya compound. For
the etymology of Isi-patana see Caiilat (1968. p. 181).
There is a v.l. mtgvibh for migdhibh. For the dhiv alternation see th
note on 44.
The metre is Jaga.
In pSda c we should read m ussati m.c.
< i& > 685- Pj n 486.28 : avamsarl ti otari. The cty explains that Asita had
the power of going up to heaven, which is where he had this conversation
with the devas. When he had finished he descended from heaven. The idea
of heaven doubtless accounts for the vv.lt rusitam and tupitam which lead
F to adopt the reading Tusit from the Tosila heaven**.
For the insertion of a nasal in avamsarl ra.c. see the note on 181-82. Cf.
samavassari nThT2io. We could, however, divide avara san, and assume
avam < avoidavn, as PED does (s.v. avara), but this is the only example of
avam used absolutely. For aham apt sec LQdcrs (Beob., 221 (p. 154)
noje 2X
The metre of pdas acd is extended Tristubb; p5da b is extended Jagatl.
In pSda a -m- in ovamsart end in b tad are m.e. In pSda a we should read
sadda[m) m.c.. in p3da b Suddhodonassd, and in pda c totth and avcsi
(or avaesi)686. Pj II 486.50 : ukkmukhe vd ti, mSsdmukhe: PF.D does not list tns. Cf.
Skt mf. mdst crucible", and see CDIAL 10262. Pj II 486.31-487.?:
sukusolasampahaithon ti, kusolerta suvaanakStcno samghattitain,
samghattentena tapitan ti adhippyo. Pj II 487.2: daddattomnan ti.
vijjotamnom. This verb is normally taken as being the equivalent o f Skt
jjvalyati. See Geiger (1994, 41.2). Lttdcrs (Bcob.. too note 4 ) end
Brough (1962. p. 1S6). There arc examples of'-j- being dcpalataUsed 10
as in the later Sinhalese Prakrit, or -dy- becoming assimilated rather than
palatalised, e.g. Pli data and jta <dyuta: Pli desin and junh <
*dyot$nfjyotsn&, although von Hinber rejects these examples
(berblick, 248), but the existence of the v.l. daddolha suggests that we
arc dealing svith a root containing /-/-//i-. -f-f-dh-, not jvai-. For the dfj
alternation see the note on 968.
The metre is extended Tristubh.
In pda d the loss of -m in dassesu is m.e. In pSda b we should read v and
in pda c siriya m.c. For -v/r- not making position in Asitvhayassa see Pj

3<*

Th Group o f Discourses

n p. 664, sec and contrast 689. and see (be notes on 686 710. Cf. vihvol- >
Prakrit vihal- (Pischei, 190. 332).
687. Pj n 487^-5 : trsabham v fi, trnam usabhasadisam, candan ti,
adhippyo. PED. however, (s.v. tr) states that U Ts thc'sun. Pj II 487.6:
sarada-r-iv ti.sarade iva. For the sandhi -r- see the note on 29. If this
explanation is conect, then Sarad has been transferred to the short -a
declension in Pli. For other examples of a replacing *e m.c. see the notes
on 458 868 911. For the shortening of -o > -a m.c. see the note on 458.
The metre Is extended Trigubh.
In p3da c we should ignore the svarabhakti vowel in suriya. In pSda b we
should read v m.c.
688. Pj II 487.9-11 : anekdshton ti, anekasatkam, sahassamandalan ti,
rattasuvannamayasahossamondalayuttam. Vin IV 338.11 speaks of two
sub-divisions of umbrellas: mandalabaddha and salkabaddha. Sp
894.37-29 explains: ideati pana tinnam pi chattnam panjaradassanattham
vuttam, tni hi mandalobaddhni c eva homi salkabaddhni ca. From
ibis it would appear that some umbrellas had their handle attached tir the
ribs; in the middle, le. as in a modem umbrella, while others had their
bandle attached to the rim or circumference (see Vinaya Texts HI, p. 133
note 1 ). The use of the words mandala and sftkhd here possibly suggests
that we are dealing with an umbrella which had thousands of rims or
circumferences, one above the other, like a pagoda. It would, however,
perhaps seem more likely that the circles were painted, or sewn, or attached
all the way around the rim, as a decoration. See the illustration o f an
umbrella with a similar type of decoration in a Jain Ms reproduced by W.
Norman Brown (1941. Hate 22 Fig. 67). Pj li does not comment on no
dissare. It presumably means that those doing the fanning were not seen,
were invisible, le. could not be seen.
For the r!l alternation in antalikkhe see the note on 29. For the
palatalisation of -a- > -<- in vili- (< Wyifi* < viyaii-) see the note on 3.
P3das acd are Jagatl; pda b is Trigubh. There is a redundant fifth syllable
in pSdac.
In p3da d <A- in -chaita- is m.c.
<I34> 689. Pj 11 487.14-1 j : tom kira Sirikanho ti pi vhayanti. Smanienti.
With Kanhasiri cf. Skt frikrsna.

HI. Mahvagga

3Q5

Pj II 487.15-16: pandukambale ti, rattakamboie. Pj II 488.2 : patiggahe iti


ubhohi hotthchi pafiggahesi. For an apparent optative being used as an
aorist see the note on 448.
For the -/-/ - alternation in nikkha/nekkha, cf. upanissam 701 and vissaf
veiman Dbp 266, V I, p. 274 (ad Th 1104). and cf. -u-f-- in sussumisossam
694 ; kussttbbhaJkussobbha 720; ussesu (NkkJ I 250,13t reads ossesu) 860.
Cf.WD.p.157 (ad Dbp 392).
The metre Is Jagatl. In pSdi a -vA-. makes position in -siri-vhayo. Contrast
the note 00 686.
In pSda e the loss of -nr in dhariyanto is ntc.
690. Pj II 488.6-7 : jigimsako Ii,jigimsonto magganto r ariyesanto
upoparikkhanto. It also includes sesalakkhanni jigimsnto in the
exegesis. This makes it seem that the word means examining, searching,
investigating, but I do not understand how the desiderative o f ji- could
have this meaning. The present participle jigimsanto occurs in 700, where
the cty glosses pariyesamdna. I think desiring, longing for makes good
sense in both contexts. There is a vJ. jigTsanto. For the VNC/VC alternation
in -irps-I-Ts- see the note on 31$.
Pj 11488-9: onuttardyan ti anuttaro ayam, For the sandhi of -o + n- > -dsee the note on 378.
For pana in the sense of puna then see the note on 22-23. Pj u 488.7-8:
lakkhanamantapdrogS ti, lakkhannan ca veddnofi ea pdragato.
The metre is Jagatl.
691. Pj II 488.39-489.1 states: no ce kumro bhavissoti antardyo ti
bbavissoti nu kho imasmim kumre antardyo, j.e. it is taking no as the
equivalent of mi, the interrogative particle, although its position as first
word would be unusual. Smith (Pj II p. 718) takes it as the negative. This
would make better sense if we read ve for ce. I translate no ve. For the v/c
alternation see the note on 38. Referring to the same incident Bv-a 2773
states: kun nu kho amhkam ayyaputtassa koci antardyo bhavissati,
which gives the possibility of taking no as the plural of the first person
pronoun. Since, however, this is the enclitic form, it would not normally
come at the beginning of a sentence. Pj II 488.13-1): oth' ottono gamonon
ti,patisondhivasena ruppagamanam. Pj II 488.17: assiini pteti galayati,
goroyoti ti pi pdiho. For the r-l-l- alternation in this v.l. cf. poretUpaUti
X144 and the note on 29.

3o6

The Croup o f Discourses

The metre is extended Trisiubh, except in pads c, where we have a nonna)


Triftubh with a resolved fifth syllable.
We should read avcum (or avacum) in pda c m.c. In pda d we should
read bhavis[s\ati m.c. Cf. bhavis^ati 692 693 694phusissati 693.
sikkhissmase S14.
692. PED does not give the meaning unconcerned" for odhimanas, but
slates (s.v. adhimana) that the word is a neuter noun here, presumably
taking -manasd as the instrumental singular of -manas, but it is diffieull to
see bow this can be so. Smith (Pj n p. 652) takes it as an adjective, and this
must be correct Sanskrit has only abhimanas. For the adhi-fabhl-foiialternation see the note on 671.
For the saadhi -o + o- > in orakyarp see the note on 37$.
For the ending -ditto iabhaviha see the note OD2S1.
For the sandhi -nt- in isi-m-avoca and na cdpi-m-assa see the note on 132.
In pSda a it seems to result.ftom.the occurrence of trim ovocum in 691, as
Smith points out (Pj Q p. 743). He also refers 10955 957, Ja V 375.11 \u* and
VI 2o6.j *;* (presumably a mistake for 2o6.is*.t7*> for comparable instances.
The metre is extended Trigubh.
For the scansion of bhavis[s)aii in pSda e see the note on 91. In pda a we
should read avc and in pda c assd m.c.
693. Pj 11 489,6-7 : paramavisuddhadaSsT li, nibbnadassi, ram hi ekantavisuddhotrd paramavisuddham. Pj II 4$9.S: brahmacariyan ti sdsanam.
In pSdas a and c note the sandhi of *i + a- > -J-. For the sandhi of -atp
aCC- > -aCC- in pda d see the note on 225.
For the sandhi -y- in sambodhi-y-aggam, see the note on 352.
The metre is extended Tristubh.
In pda c there is a redundant syllable in the break. See also 696. For the
scansion o f phusis[s\tui in pda a and bhavis[s]ali in pda d see the note
on 691, ln pSda a we should read ayam and in pda d oss m.c. and we
should ignore the svarabhakli vowel in *cariyam,
<I35> 694. It would appear that na cirom idhdvaseso is a split compound
for no idho'ciro-m-ovaseso not having-a-long-rtmainder here. CPD (s.v.
{uvasesa) lists the whole phrase as a compound. For split compounds see
the note on 151.
Pj II 489.^-13: oth amer ti, amara yeva, ossa sambodhipaiiito orato ev
li vuitam hoti ... aghvt ti, dukkhito, sabban1 domanassa-uppdam eva
sartdhya dha. FED lists aghvin under the form aghavin, but it is an

111.

Mahvagga

307

example of (he suffix dvm.cf. dassdvin, medhdvin. For its use with past
participles see Geiger (1994, 198). See also Whitney (Gram., 1232b),
BHSG ($22.51) and BMSD (s.v. aghvin). For so *ham see the note on
p. 15..
For the -u-f-ff- alternation in sussomisossam see the note on 689.
The metre is extended Trisiubh.
For the scansion of bhavis[s]ati in pda b see the note on 691. In pda a we
should read y rr and we should ignore the svaxabhakli vowel in -kiriy
in pda b.
695. Pj U 489.18 : bhgineyyam sayan tl sakam bhgineyyam, i.e. sayam
svakam, cf. Ja.-VI 414,37*: hitv sayam ko parahattham essati {414.30':
sayan li sakarattham hitv ko parahattham gamissati). For the k/y
alternation see the note on 22-23.
The metre is extentled Tristubh.
ln pda a janetva is m.c. and io pda b niragama is m.C^ In p5da b hr- does
not make position in brahma-. In pda a we should read vipu/a(m) m.c.
(with Pj II 489.16 lemma). In pda d we should read samBdapestme.
696. It is possible that paripucchiydno is (1) a middle present participle in
-na from a verb *pari pucthayati (se Geiger. 1994. $192), with
palatalisation > -iyati, although a present participle cannot be fitted into
the syntax ; or (2 ) an absolutive in -iynom, as Smith (Pj II p. 727) suggests,
with
> O. as a scribal "correction* of a "mistake in gender (see the
note on onahtyn in 669). IF reads a middle present participle
paripucchamdno (cf. 380). FED (s.v. paripucehoti) seems to read iyna.
Pj II 4 8 9.17-*$ : dhanmomoggan ti.poromodhommosso nibbBnasso
maggant, dhommam v oggam saha patisambhdya nibbnam. We may
divide dhamma-moggam os dhammam aggam. For the comparable
ambiguity at Mil 2 m *. see Homer (1963. p. 29 notes).
Pj II 489.29t tasmin ti, tassa sontike.
The metre is extended Tristubh.
As pda c stands we seem to have a resolved fifth syllable as well as a
redundant resolved fifth syllabic. Since the other pdas. however, have a
single long fifth syllabic, we should perhaps read tatth m.c. and recognise
that there is a redundant syllable in the break.
In pda a final -a In yada is rn.c. Besides tatihO we should read samayo[m\
m.c. In pda d br- does not make position in brahma-, and we should
ignore the svarabhakti vowel in -cariyam.

3o8

The Group o f Discourses

697. Pj U 490.7: paiikkhan li gamoyamno.


For ttidin see the note on 86.
PSdas ad are extended JagatT, exactly parallel to the extended Tristubh
pSdas earlier in this retta. PSdas be are JagatT. with resolved fifth syllables.
698. Pj 490.21-2S: nisabhasadisam isinisabham Bhagavantam. pasanno
li, salta dassanen' eva posannocitto hutv. moncyyascithan li, Adn Ultainam, rnaggnartan ti vuttam hot!, samdgate Asitavhoyassa ssane ri.
Asiiassa isino oxddakU anuppaile, lena hi "yadd vicaroti dhamma
maggam, tad gantv paripucchiySno carassu tosmim Bhagavati brahmacanyon" ti anusiffho,ayaA casok&lo. See DPPN (s.v. til~ka and \Astia),
P3da a is extended JagatT; pSdas be are extended Tristubh; pcla d is JagatT
with resolution of the fifth syllable. In p3da d *vA- probably docs not make
position in vhayassa. See the note on 686.
<Z36> 699-723. The metre of these verses is loka.
699. Pj n 491.4-6 : lan ton il, tasm tom. sabbadhammnam pdragun ti,
Hemavatasuttte vuttanayena chahi krehi sabbadhammnatn pragatfrn.
ln pSda d the loss of -ih in -dhammana is m.c. Ih pSda c there is a v.l.
pucchdmi. Cf. Mvt ni 386.19* : prcchm.
700. Pj li 49 i.9: moneyyan titnmfnam sontokam. I assume that moneyya
has the same meaning here as in 696. For jigimsoto see the note on 690.
Mvu 111387.1 reads: ctkiqoto.
We should ignore the svarabhakli vowel in caryam. I assume that -brmakes position in pabrBhi to avoid'the opening
701. For the reciter's remarks see the note on 18-29.
Pj li 491.D-14: upaiinisson ti, upannpeyyom vtvareyyam, panAdpeyyan ti
attho. The cty therefore seems to be taking the form as the optative of the
causative, i.e. upaMeyyam, although upaniieyya could be a future passive
participle "it is to be known as ... ". Where the word recurs in 716. Pj II
498.17-18 explains: upahassan (sic) li. upaniiayissam, kaihayissan ti
viitta/p hoti, i.e. as the future of the causative, and it is possible that E*
(p. 138 note *12) is referring 10 this when it states: upaiiAassam (3
uponAasissam), Le. -s- written in error for
It Is possible that F and Pj II
498.17 read upaAAassom as a future because of Aassati which occurs as the
future at D 1 165.19. It would be possible to lake upaAAassom as upa-nyasymi with the secondary ending -am for -mi io the present tense (see
Alsdorf (1936. pp. 321-22 1). It seems likely that upaAAissom is merely an

111.

Mahvagga

309

Orthographical variant of upannessam, with -* for ~i- (< -aya~) before (he
doubled consonant. For (he
aliemation see the note on 689.
Pj II491.14-25: hand li, vyavasnaiihe nipte. Vor handa < hanta, show
ing the voicing of a consonant after a nasal, see the note on 153.
There is resolution of the fourth syllable in poda b.
702. P] 11 492.S-9 : samnpbhgan (sic) ti, samabhgam. ekasadisam
ninnSndkaranam. The same replacement of -v- by -g- is found at Mvu III
3874* {bhga). It is also common in Prakrit (see Pischei [1900, 231 ]).
Pj II 492.9: akkuttha-vanditan ti, akkosan ca vandana ca. For the past
participles akkuitha and vandito used as action nouns see the note on 331.
Senart suggested changing vandiiairt > vanditah, and he is followed by
Jones (Mvu-Trsl. Ill, p. 385 note 1), but this is unnecessary. Pj 11 492.12
foil.: akkuifho monopadosam rakkheyya, vendita santo anunnaio (Mvu
reads anumato) care ratin pi vandita samno mam vandali* 1 i
uddhaccam npajjeyya. This makes it appear that the cty is taking santo as
the present participle of the verb Mto be, but 1 do not think that this can
possibly be so. Smith (Pj II p. 775) takes it as being fronft Skt tenta <Mvu
has ksiinto ; for the sfkit alternation* see the note on 330). Mvu III 387.7
reads rakyesi for rakkheyya. For (his type of optative see the note on 1064.
For mi- in anunnata see (he note on 206.
In pSda d Ms C* adds va after santo. It is not required mx. Mvu reads ca.
<*37> 73- Pj U 492.17-21 : uccvac nnoppakr rantman niccharanti
cakkhdtnain ptham gacchanii, te ca kho aggisikhpom parifhajonakatthena yoth v dayhamne vane oggisikh nnappakratyo
uccvoc niccharanti sadlulm pi ml pi pit pi . . . . Pj 11 492.50-71 : I su
tom md pobbhayum l ndrvo tam md tu palobhayutn. For su ma = md su <
Skt md sma sec EV 1. p. 178 (ad Th 293). For patobhayati in the sense of
attempt to seduce** see EV II, p. 142 (ad Thi 387).-For the -y-t-v- gli.de
alternation in Pili dyatSVx dava see the note 00 100.
There is resolution of the first syllable in pda e.
704. Pj II 493.10-19: parapnkkhiyeut pdnesu oviruddho, ottapakkhiyesu
asratto. Sabbc pi satanhaniitanhatayya lasolbitvore pne ...pdnesu ye
ked tose vO thdvare vd pne no haneyya shaiihikdihi payogehi no
gbiiiaye dnnttiikddihf ti. Since tasothdvara seems always to be plural, the
form in ~e can only be accusative plural, which is difficult to fit into the
syntax of 704. and should rather be taken with na haneyya no ghtaye in
705. MvuIiI387.1t* has: ye salv trosasthdvorh. with which tesa should
be understood. The original version of 704 probably had lasesu thdvaresu

3 io

77ie Croup o f Discourses

ca (as in 629) which had to be changed when pnesu was introduced into
he pida, perhaps from a gloss.
705. Cf. na hant na vi ghyae, yr I.5.5 4.
706. Pj 049321-30: yaitha satto putkujjno yasmim cTvarQdippaccaye tehi
icchlobhehi puthujjono sotto laggo patibaddho ttthat. Pj II 494.3-5:
tareyya narakam imam, duppfiratthiena narakasanftitam micchdjTvahetubhtant imam paccayatanham tareyya imdya vd potipoddya tareyyd
ti vuttum hott. Mvu UI 387.1s* reads pratipajjeyya but the Mss have
prativarj-.
707. Pj II 494.16 foil. : ndaro homo pi ca mithro ossa bhojane
n. tianHQ ... paccaya-dhutanga-poriyatti-adhigamavascTiQ catubbidh&ya
oppicchotya appiccho asso. For the sandhi of -0 + oCC- > -oCC- in
apptcch* assa see the note on 324. Pj n 4952-6 : so ve icchdya nicchdto
aniccho hoti nibbuto. ydya icchdya chdtd homo sott khuppipstur
viya atittd, tdya icchdya aniccho hoti anicchattd ca nicchdto hoti anturo
paroma tiilippatto, evatp nicchdtattd nibbuto boti vpasantakilesaparilho. Cf. Pj II 506.6 (ad 733): nicchdto ti mttonho. With such a.folk
etymology for nicchdta cf. the note on 31.
Mvu m 387.14* reads hitvd-m-iha olpicchdm pi aniccho bhohi nirvrto. For
the civ alternation in the v.l. soce see the note on 38.
708. Pj II 495.13-14: vanantam abhihdraye ti apapadcito gihipapancena
vunam evu gacciieyyo. For the pleonastic -onta in vananta see the note on
127.

The metre of pSda c is defective.* but can be normalised by reading


ttpa[r]thito and then assuming resolution of the first syllable.
709. Pj II 495.50 : dhtro ti dhitisampanno. Mvu III 388.9* reads ndtitofoye.
For the oti/abhi/odhi alternation see the note on 671.'
710. Pj II 496.19 : raty vivasane ti rattisamatikkame, dutiyadivase. It would
appear likely that the original reading of the word raty was *rattd <
rtrys. See von Hinber (1982. p. 138). The conjunct with -y- is doubtless
due to a medieval scribe with some knowledge of Ski grammar, who
"restored'* a quasi-historical spelling. Cf. 344.
For the pleonastic -anta in gdmanta sec the note on 127.
Pj li 496.13-17: arhdnom nbhinandcyyd l "bhanie amhkam ghare
bhudjitabban" ti nimontanam. "deli nu kho. no deti, sundaran nu kho deli.
asundaran nu kho deti'* ti evarnpam vitokkom. bhojanon ca patipodapdrako bhikkhu nSbhinondeyya no patiggaheyyo.

UI. Mahvggga

3 ii

Pj II 49-J&-497.3: abhihroii ca gdmoio ti.sa c e gamam pavitthassa


ptisauM pi bhattam abhiharonti. tarn p i ndbhinandeyya tato ekasitthotn
p i na potigganheyya. andodonhu gharapatipdtiy pindapdtam eva
careyya. Cf. avhdndnabhinondan at Vism 68.21.

The shortening of d- > a* in avhdna shows ihm -vA- makes position. See the
note on 686.
7 U . Pj II 497.6-9 : ghdsesanant chinnakatho na vdcam payutam bhane ti
chinnakatho yiya tyutvd obhdsaparkathnimittavidiattipayuttam ghs'esanavdeam na bhane. The cty seems to be taking ghsesanam as an
adjective agreeing with vdcam, whereas it might seem preferable to take it
as a noun with care. Mvu HI 388.1* reads ghdsesT n a ... prepsutdm.
In (Ada a fin muni is m.c.10 avoid the opening
7ia.Pjn497.16-.17: ubhayen* eva Idbhdldbhena so iddi nibbikdro hutvd.
For the historical -d in yad idam see the note on p. 13.10.
For the change o(-am >-dm m .c. in kasaldmjti, see EV If, p. 14s (adTh?392)
and WD.p. 97 (ad Dhp 143 A). Cf . passatdm iva 763; tdrcitdm iva Ja VI
529.54*; Sundarikdm api M 139.15*. A comparable change is also found in
PJct. See Pischel (1900. 68).
In pSda d there is resolution o f the fourth syllable.

<I3S> 713. For mdga-sammata cf. sukha-somtnata 760.


Mvu 1H 388.3* reads nSvajdniyd. and an optative is certainty belter stylisti
cally. We should therefore adopt the v.l. and read ndvajaniyd.
In pdda a there is resolution of the sixth syllable.
714. Pj II 497.76-498.3 : sd cdyam magga-palipodd uttamanihTnabhedato
ucctivacd buddhasamanena paksit - sukhd pulipodii hi khippdbhmnd
ucca, dukkhd patipadd dandhObhiddd avacd, itard dve chat' angena need
rkena avacd, pafhamA eva vd need, hard fisso pi avacd * idya c" cidya
uccdya avaedya vd pattpaddya na pdram digttnam yanti ... ekamaggena
dvikkhatftint nibbdnam na yanti ti attho, kasnul : ycna maggena ye kilesd
pahind , tesam puna oppahdiobboro, elena parihnadhommbhdvam
dTpcti. This is a reference 10 the four modes of progress. See Ohs $5 176-80
(pp. 36-37). In a private communication Miss Horner suggested that those
who follow the high and low paths do not go to nibbna twice, because the
defilements have been destroyed by the path they have gone on. and cannot
be annihilated again (quoting Ps I 230.11 foil, and Sv 744.7 foil.). As a kind
of paradox, nibbdna is not experienced only onec, but possible four times,
by the praciiscr as sotdpanna sakiddgamin aniigdtnin and Qrahul. Out as

3*2

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the defilements cannot be annihilated again, he does not have to tread the
same part of the path again, but treads it in stages, so that every time he
gains n ib b n a it gives him an experience not to be repeated, so he does not
go to the far shore twice. In the languagc%of tradition the movement of the
spirit is non-repetilive. A slightly different earlier (and perhaps easier)
explanation by Homer is quoted by Jones (Mvu-Trsl. III. p. 388 note 1).
Mvu III 3890* reads irdm anyena for sam anentu
An alternative way of explaining this difficult verse would be to say that ir
one takes samana as an ascetic any ascetic, not the Buddha then it
would be possible to Understand this verse as meaning there are two
extreme paths (a the two antd rejected by the Buddha], but these (two
paths) do not constitute two ways o f getting to nibbna in fact neither
works, so one cannot even get there once.
Pj II 4 98.) foil.: na-y-idam ekagunam m utan l i ta CO ident pdram
For the sandhi -y- in the v.L
na-y-idam see the note on 352. For the labialisation of -a - in m uta see the
note on 61. For m uta applied to all senses except seeing and bearing see
PED, and cf. mutt 846. 1 prefer experienced or felt, in the broad sensfof
; the word, to sensed since the latter would include seeing and hearing.
The metre of pSda a is incorrect, but cen be corrected by assuming
resolution of the sixth or seventh syllables. Sadd 637.2. however, quotes
this p2da in the form uecvae hi patip, Le. with an alternative
development < Skt pratipad, with the loss of -d and the lengthening of the
resultant -a to make a feminine noun; cf. uponis and parisi! < -sad. Cf.
921. Pda d has nine syllables, but the metre can be corrected by reading
ekakkhattnm yeva phusanraham p i na hotL

715. Pj II 498.9-10: atthasataianhyiearitabhavena visatoto visat toitlu


n atthi. The word occurs (with -/-) at Ntdd I 8.17 in a list of synonyms of
visatlik and at Dhs 1059 in a list of synonyms o f iobha, and (with -/-) at
Nidd II 152.24 in a list of synonyms of jappd. It is defined as visartikd at As
364.1 and explained: rifpddisu vittharanauhena visotil at As 364.10. which
supports Smiths suggestion (Pj U p. 766) that we should see a connection
between this word ami risata in t . The -t-I-t- variation also supports a
derivation < sVt visrta. Wc must therefore assume that it is a feminine
adjective, comparable to jdlinf. dmiyel, etc., which also occur in the lists, in
agreement with an unspecified noun, perhaps tanh. "the diffused (thing)".
1 translated v i s a t d as clinging" in GD I. in the belief that it was m.c. Cor
v i s a t t Q and connected with the word v i s a t l i k (see the note on 333). The

IH. Mahvagga

313

variant spelling with


persuades me that this is incorrect, and I now
translate it "craving".
Pj 11498.10: kilesasotacchedena chinnosotosso. Nidd I 433.15-19 (ad948):
sold vuccati tanhd. pass* esd sold tanhd pallina samucchinnd vQposantd
patipassaddhd abhabbuppailikd ndnaggind daddhd, so vuccati chianasolo. For chid- in the senses of both cut and cut across, cross, see
Mehcndak (1955-56^ p. 72).
716; For the reciters remarks see the note on 18-29.For upoiiiUssam see the note on 701.
Pj U 498.36*29: jivhya tdhtm Shocca udore samyato siyd ri, jivhya tSlum
uppUcrvfi pi rasatanham vinodento kilitthena monena uppanne paccayc
ascvonoio udore samyato siyd.
7x7. Pj II 499.4: nirSmagandho... ri nikkileso. See (he note on 251.
In pda d we should either ignore the svarabhakti vowel in -caribo- or
assume resolution of the third syllable.
718. Pj II 499.7.9-10: eksanassS ri viviusonassa ... eksanassd ri ca
sompadnaracanam (i.et genitive dative). For the cases used with the
verb sikldi- see the note on 916. Cf. Th 239 S
The v.l. ekdyanassa
shows the y/s alternation. See the note on 369.
Pj II 499.10-1?: samnniipsanassa cd ri samanehi upttobbasso atthaItmsdrammanabhdvondnuyogassa samandnam vd ttpdsanabhfitissa
otthatimsdrammanabhedass* evo. idam pi sampadanavacanam eve.
iipsan'aiihan ti vuttom hoti\ culto ca ekdsattena kdyaviseko
samanpdsanena citraviveko vutto bori ti veditabbo. ekattam nxonam
akkhdtan ti. evatn idam kdyacittovivekavasetta ekattam motion ti okkhdtam.
Pj 1! 4 9 9 . 1 7 - 1 9 reads: eko ce abhiromissasi ri idam pana tataragdlhdpekkhopodam (see CPD (s.v. uttQragdrhfi)),,atha b/tdsihi dosa disdi'
ri hninassa sambamllto. .We need the second person verb to go with
bhdsihi in 719a. and 1 therefore accept the v.l. abhiromissasi. This is
supported by the BHS equivalent: eko va obhiromisyasi (Mvu 1)1 388.13*).
The word va in the BHS version presumably stands for eva. and would
support reading the v.l. ve instead of ce. ! translate eko va abhiromissasi.
For the va/ca alternation see the note on 38.
For pda c see the note on 719. There is resolution of the fourth syllable in
pda d.
719. Pj II 499.19 explains: bhdsihi ti bhdsissasi paksessasi. It seems
unlikely that the future ending rissasi could have become -itti at this early

3*4

The Group o j Discourses

stage of the development of MIA. It scans advisable to read bhhisi, with


the v.l.. and to assume that we have here the future, not of the verb bhs-,
but bh-, with the change of -s* > -A-. For the metathesis of consonants see
the note on 20-21. For futures in /*see ttys note on 6(5. For the ending -isi
sec the note on 2$. Mvu III 388.13* has evam gamisyaii diio dada.
Pj II 499.17 : mmako li, evam hi sante mama sdvako hotl ti.
The cty explains nigghosa as kiltighosa. The word b is a slightly different
meaning at 818 and iodi. For the meaning soundless see 959.
This,verse has five pdas. It seems essential to take pda a with 7iS d , and
the two equivalent pdas form a half verse together io Mvu III 388,13*. It
would seem that 718c is an intruder.
There is resolution of the first syllable in pda a.
.39> 720-21. For the alternation nJn in sanantO and the v.l. sanant see
Geiger (1994. 42-5) and the note on too.
720. Pj II 499.31-500.5; sobbhesii ti mOhktlsu, padares ti, darisu, katham:
sanatila yanti kussubbh, tunhT yami mahodadht ti, kussubbh hi
sobbhapadardibhedO sabb pi kunnadiyo sanant Saddam karqnt
uddhatd hur\0 yanti. GoAgOdibhedd pana mahnadyo tunhT yanti. It is
clear that the cty 1$ reading the v.l. yanti. and it seems likely that yti is the
"correction of a scribe who thought that mahodadht must be singular. See
MW (s.v. mahodadht) where they are sahl to be four in number. I read and
translate
There is a v.l. kussubbhil. For the alternation ul see the note on 689.
721. Mvu III 389.7* has iina-kumbhopamo instead of addha-.
In pda d we should either ignore the svarabhaktt vowel in rahado
(metathesised from hrada) or assume resolution of the first syllable.
722. Pj II 500.12-14: yam buddhasamano bahtttn bhsati upetam attho
samhitam atthpetam dhammpetan ca Arreno co samhitam, n a
uddhacceno. This makes it dear that wc are to understand aitha- with
upeia, extracted from attha-samhim. For such abbreviated compounds see
the note on 195.
There is resolution of the second syllable in pda a.
723. Pda a has only seven syllables. Wc could correct the metre by reading
<sam>yatatto with F. In pda c we should ignore the svarabhakti vowel in
arohati. In pdas ed in muni is m.c. to avoid the opening * .

III. Mahavagga

vs

pp. 139.16-149,19. The Dvayat&nupassanasutu. The prose is by ihe sangttikras according io Pj II 504.8. See ibe note on 30. The verses are in Sloka
meire. except for 728 which is in the Tristubh metre. The sutta deals with a
series of pairs (dvayat), of which dukkha is always the second, and
explains how the pairs are causally linked, with the second element always
arising from the first. La Valle Poussin (1907, p. 453) suggested that the
paticcasamuppda system is only a recast of this wprimitive fragment of
Abhidhamnur.
<240> p. 140.5. For upanisd see the note on 322.
p. MO.6- For this use' of pucchitro cf. S 111 6.16.
p. 140,16. Pj II 504.8: tanha idan
"ye te bhikkhave" ti ddi-vuttanidassanam, etan ti iddni "ye dukkhan" ti evamddbvattabbagthdbandhanidassanam. For giltbondha see the note on p. 78,17.
For the historical -d in etod avoca sec the note on p. 13.10.
724-27. These verses recur at It io6,i*-ao* and S V 433.s,- u \
For mho cf. 43.
724. Pj n 504.18-19: yaitha cd li.nibbdnam dossed.
There is no metrical reason for the initial pp- in ppajnanti in pSd a. It is
possibly to be regarded as an example of the proclitic use of no. Sec the
note on 563
725. Pj II 504.22-25: cetovim u tnh T nd te otho p a n v iin u id y ti, e tth a
rdgavtragd c e to v im u tti, a ra h a ita p h a lo p a n n d
a v ijjd v ira g d panddvimuitf t i veditabbd. The construction of pida b is not
dear, and we should probably assume that vimuttiyd goes with an
understood hind extracted from the compound in pSda a. For such
abbreviated compounds see the note on 195.
In pdda e wc should either ignore the svarabhakti vowel in -kirtyya. or
assume resolution of the sixth syllable. Pads c has nine syllables, probably
because it is the opposite of 727c
a ra h a ita p h a lO 'S a iii d h i

<141 > 727. The construction of p5da b is not dear and we should probably
assume that vimuttiyd goes with samponn, which has been extracted
from the compound in pdn a. For such abbreviated compounds sec the
note on 195.
In pSda c we should either ignore the svarabhakti vowel in -kiriydyo, or
assume resolution of the sixth syllabic.

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p. 141 ,9. For the sandhi o f -u + f - > -ve- in iveva see (he note on p. 104, 13. For
other sandhi developments involving the change o f -u > *v see the note on

144.
p. 141.tu a . For the historical -d in trad aroca see the note on p. 13,10.
728. There is ihe same pun upon the two meanings of upatlhi as in 33-34.
See the note on 33-34.
The metre is Tristubh. There is resolution of the first syllable in p5da a.
In pSda a *F> in upadhT- is m.c. In pada b wc should read lokosmim in place
of iokasmitp m.c. In pSda e we should ignore the svarabhakii vowel in
kayird (< *hary<l, with metathesis of -r- and )).
p. 141.32. For the sandhi of -u + e-> -ve- in tveva see the note on p. 104,13.
For other sandhi developments-involving the change of u > -v see the note
on 144.
p. 141J4. For the historical -d in etad avoco see the note on p. 13.10.
<I42> 729. Pj II 505.11-22 : itthabhAvaAnaihbhvan ti imam manussabfvatn ito avasesa-aiia-nikya-bhtii'aA co.
Tn p^a a we should read jtf- m.c., to.avoid the opening ? * .

730. Pj II 5OS-S3 : ovtjjd h* ayon ti avijjd hi ayam.


For (he vie alternation shown in the v.l. ca for va in pads e see the note on
3.
Fda a has nine syllables. In p3da b samsita must be the past participle of
samsarati (< Skt sotnsrta).
p. 142.9. For the sandhi of - u * e -> -ve- in tvevn sec the note on p. 104.13. For
other sandhi developments involving the change of u > -v see the note on
144.

p. 142.11. For the historical -d in etad avoco see the note on p. 13.10.
732. Pj II50541 : so/ifujnan ti kdmasaAAddfnam maggesi* evo uparodhand.
Mss Ckb also read saAnnatp for saAA&ya. For saniM see EVII. p. 55 (ad ThT
6X
In pdda c the opening is * - . Warder ( 1967. $242) states that with the
cadence - - * the opening can be either this or

733- Fj II 506,>-j : samma-d-anAyd ti samkhutani oniccdito AnU'. I have


translated aAAAya as though it were the instrumental singular of the noun
aAAd. For sandhi -d- see the note on p. 16.7.
Pj II 506.3: Mrasamyogan ti tebhdmavottom.

III. Mahvagga
For

3 7

vedagu= vedakasee ihe note on 32 2.

There is resolution of the first syllabic in p3da c.


<143> p. M3. - vinnnapaccay ti kammasahajtdbhisamkhravlflifnapaceoy. See Collins (1982. pp. 205 foil.).
p. 1434. For the sandhi of - + r- > -ve- in tveva see (he note on p. 104.13. Por
other sandhi developments involving the change of -u > -i* see the note .on
S44p. 143.5. For the historical -d in eiad avoca see the note on p. 13.10.
735. Pj U 506.6: nicchdto li nittanho. See the note on 707.
Pj II506.6-7 : parinibbuto ti kifesaparinibbnena parinibbuto. For the two
forms of parinibbna sec EV I, p. 119 (ad Th 5).
p. M3.17* For the historical -d in etad avoca see the note on p. 13.10.
737. Pj II 506.15 : parinndyd ri thi pariniihi parijdnitv. The three
pariitu5 are fidta-, (frana- and pafin-parh/d. it is clear that the third
type is very similar to the Jain use of parinnya in the sense of knowing
and renouncing". Sec also 1082 where pahyo and paYiUndya are iised in
parallel constructions, and cf. pariieyyam porijdnitv pahtabbam
pahya at Dhp-a IV 233.?. See also F.V If. p. 95 (ad ThT 168X
Pj II 506.16: oiiiUly ti orahaitomoggopoMiya iiatv. As in 733 1 translate
it as a noun. Pj 11506.17-1* : phassSbhisamayA ti phassanimdhd.
There is resolution o f the fourth syllable in p5da b.

ti e- >-ve- tveva

p. 143.24- For (he sandhi of * +


in
see the note on p. 104.15.
For other sandhi developments involving the change of > see the note
on 144.

-u -v

p. 143.36. For the historical -d in etad avoca sec the note on p. 13.10.

<*44> 738. Pj II 506.30-31 : adnkkhom asukham sahQ ti adukkham astikhena


Sofia. Wc should presumably punctuate pida b as adukkham asukham solid.
and take soh as an adverb "simultaneously. For safid see the note on 49.
although - is not m.c. here.
739. Pj J1506,14 : pafokinan ti jarfim
aranelri pafttjjanodhominam. For the
kfgalternation see lite note on 319. Luders (Dcob.. $ 13t) and EV II. p. 83 (ad
Thi 101 ). Pj II 506.75-26: phussa phussa ti udoyavyaynnnenn phusU
vd
phusitv. vayampassai* ti. ante bhaAgomevo passatilo. For vaya see
Lden (Bcob.. $173X

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The Croup o f Discourses

p. I *) ." - For the sandhi of -u + e- > -ve- in tveva see (he note n p. 104.13.
For other sandhi developments involving (he change of -u > -v see the note
on 144.
p. 144.1j. For (he historical -4 in etad avoca see the noie on p. 13.10.
740. For -r- in -duiiyo m.c. io pda a 10 give the opening * ---- with the
cadence * * * , see Pj II p. 699. For the ~iya/4 ya alternation see the note
on 49. In p3da b the loss of - in addhdna is ro.c. to give the cadence
741. In p3da b the v.l. tanham probably arose from the inability of the
scribes to fit the seeming nominative tanftd into the structure of the
sentence. This problem disappears when we realise that tanhd is a truncate
instrumental = tanhfiya (see the note on 110). Pj II 507.1-3 : etam dukkhassa
sambhavam tanhya Qdtnavirm Hon'd.
p. 144.10. For the sandhi of - + -> -ve- in tveva see the note on p. 104.13.
For other sandhi developments involving the change of -u > -v see the note
on 144.
p. 144.12. For the historical -4 in etad aVoca sec the note on p. 13.10.
742Pj II5074-6 : upadnopoccay i i kammasambhr-upddnapaccay.
bhavo ti viptlkabhnvo khandhaptub^Uvo. bhiito dukkhan ti. bhiito
sambhiito vattadukkham ni$occhoti. Since bhuta is the past participle of
the root Ww- which underlies bhava, it means someone who has come to
bhuva. existence**.
There are nine syllables in p5da a. because of the need to fit a long technical
term into a p3da which is not really long enough to hold it.
743. For the sandhi -</* in sammo-4 -amiyo see the note on p. 16.7.
<i45> p. 145.3. For the sandhi of -u + e- > -ve- in tveva see die note on
p. 104.13. For other sandhi developments involving the change of -a > -v
set the note on 144p. 145.5. For the historical -d in etad avoca see the note on p. 13.10.
744. Pj II 507.11-13: rambhopaceay ti, kammasompayuttaviriyappoccoyd.
This verse is Quoted at As 145.31* foil.
74$. Pj 11 507.13-14: anrambhe vimuttino ti, anrambhe nibbne
vimuttassa. PED seems to be taking the wrong meaning of rambha in
giving the meaning unsupported, independent for (his passage.
There are nine syllables in pida c, but the metre can be corrected by reading
patini[s]sajja with the v.l.. and then assuming resolution of the sixth
syllable.

111. Mohva$$a

319

p. 145.1S. For ihe sandhi of 4 e- > -vc- in rveva see the note on p. 104.13.
For other sandhi developments involving the change of -u > -v see the note
on 144.
p. US.M. For the historical -d in etad avoca see the note on p. 13.10.

747>Pj II 507,15-16: dhdropaccayd ti, kammasampayunhdrappaccay. The


cly then proceeds to give an alternative explanation based upon the four*
fold nature of hra : kabaiimkrhra, phasshra, saMSdbhinibbatiomanosacetanhra and samkhrbhinibbattavinnnhra. See also M !
48.1 foli.; Ps 1 209.16 foil.'. Nett 114.27 foil.; and PEO (s.v. hra).
748. For parinndya see the note on 737.
<146>749. fy II507.25lrogyan tl nibbnam. Pj I I 507.15-16: samkhdya
ScvT ti, catiro paccaye paccavekkhitv sevamno. pj U 507.2&-30:
dhammattho li, caiusaccadhamme ihito. samkfiam na upeil ti, 'devo' ti
manusso ti vd ddikam samkham rut gacchati.
For sandhi -d- in samma-d-anndya see the note on p. 16.7.
For vedagu s vedaka see the note on 322.
There are nine syllables in p2da d. We can normalise the metre by assuming
resolution of the third syllable or by reading n(<2] upetL
p. i46.fr. Fur the sandhi of -u + c-> -ve- in tvevo see die note on p. JU4.13. For
Other sandhi developments involving the change of -# > -v see the note on
144p. 1464. For the historical -d in etad avoca see the note 00 p. 13.10.

750-SI* Pj II 508.1-3: injitapaccayd li. tanhmdnadinhikammoklesaijitesu yaio kuioci kammasambhrijitapaccay. ejam ossajj ti, tanham
cajitvd. Vibh 390 lists nine injitas. They seem to be mental worries, or
agitations, shaking (calano) to the mind, or turmoil, or fluster. The
translations corn-motions" and e motions" are an attempt to get the word
play on the two forms from the same root: inj and ej-. See Rhys Davids
(1910. p. 317 note t). For (an-)eja see Luders (Bcob.. 103).
751. Pj II 508.3: ejam ossajj ti tanham cajitvd. Note that the lemma has
ossajja for the text's vossajja. Nidd 191.23-26 (ad 791): ejd vuccaii tanhd.
yo rgo srdg ... pc ... abhijjhd lobho okusaiamiam. ejnug ti
ejdnugd ejnugat ejnusatd, tjdya pann patir abhibhtd
pariyddinnaciltd.
Smith (Pj II p. 769) draws attention to the metre of p5da c. which has only
seven syllables. Bf adds hi after tasma. We might think of reading
v<iy>assajja.

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The Group o f Discourses

P-146.19* For the historical -d io etad avoca see the note on p. 13.10.

75*. In pSda b updiyom is the present participle o f updiyati. The v.L


updiya s the absolotive. For the palatalisation o f -a* >
see the note on 3.

in updiyati

753*For mohabbhaya see the note on 191.


P* <46.24* Pj 506.9-10: rttpehT ti, rBpabhavchi rposampattihi r.
Arupp ti, arpabhav aroasamdpattiyo v. i.e. those living in the
rilpvacara and the arpvacara regions.
<!47>p* 147.1. Pj II 508.1 rinirodho tl, nibbdnam.
p. 147.3. For the historical -d in etad avoca see the note on p. 13.10.
754. The cty does not comment upon 0ganiro. It seems to be an example
o f an agent noun being used as. a periphrastic future, as CPD (s.v.
garua(r)) states. See also CPD (s.w. aganta(r) and anganta(r)). For
other examples o f this usage see: gant, Ja V 267.19* (= gacchati, 273.11O1
270.13* (gont te gantro te (= pi). 276-11*)* Such forms are also found in
Pkt, e.g. (addh. Isibh 6.5 (explained as lapsyate); ganti (6 *gamit).
Saltassi 149 (explained, as gamisytui).
The" v.l. ruppatthyino suggests a connection with arpatthyino found
at It 62.5* where It-a II 42.16 explains: ruppatthyino ti arpvacar.
755. P5da b seems to make no sense, since the idea appears to be that those
who are rid of both the rpa- and the anipa-avacara arc liberated in
nibbna. We should therefore adopt the v.l. nsanthiul for Sit-, as in It 45.16*
and 62.9* where these verses recur. 1translate asanthit. It-a II4 4 and 42.19
explain: rpesulrupptsu asartthit ri, arpargena arpabhavesu
appatitthohant te pi parijrtant ti aitho. !l-a 11 42.21 (but not 4.10)
explains : ye hi niptamattam. See EVII, p. 154 (ad ThT4 ! 8).
Pj II 508.u - ij: maccuhyino li, maranamaccii-kilesa'maccit-devapiittO'
maccuhuyinO, tividhatn pi tarn maccum hitv gmino ti vuttam hoii. See
also EV I. p. 15t (ad Th 129).
For parinyo see the note on 737.
For rupe as an^accusative plural neuter, see EV I, p. 273 (ad Th 1099) and cf.
Prakrit rve at Utt 16.10.
p. 147.1e.1j. Pj II 508.16.21: tatlam ariynan ti, Hun idam ariynnam. Cf.
p. 148.6.10. PEDdoes not Usi tadam or yodum (which occurs at Nidd I 54.12
[ad 7781).
p. 147.15* For the historical -d in etad avoca see the note on p. 1 3.10.

lU.Mahvagga

321

756. PjQso8js*i6: anattani attamnan ti,arancini nmarpe altamnim.


For' this type of construction see EV I, p. 256 (ad Th 953).
757. Pj II 509,9-4 : mosadhammam hi inorarti, yam iitaram partitapaccupaffhdnam, lam mosadhammam nassonadhommam hotit tathrpah
ca nmarpan ri.
<jC48> 758. For the historical -d in tad ariy see ihe note on p. 13,10.
We should ignore the svarabhakti vowel is ariy in p5da b.
p. 148Aia, For tadam see the note on p. 147,10.13.
p. 148,16. For the historical -d in etad avoca see the note on p. 13.10.
759. Pj Q 500.17-19: ySvai' atthT li vuccatT ti.yvat eie cha ramman
uatthTn ti vuccanit, vacanavyatlayo vcdilabbo. The ose of atihl with a
plural subject is so common as to make the a y s remark about change of
number unnecessary. I follow EV I. p. 273 (ad Th 1099) in my translation of
dhamm.
760. Pj II 509.19-90: eie vo ti, ete niptamanam h' ettha vo-kdro. For the
alternation of vo and ve (< vai) as an emphatic particle see LUdcrs (Beob.,
$23) and the note on 560. For ve as an Eastern farm see the note oq 7. For
sukha-sammata cf. mgasammata 713.
761. Pj H 509,29-93 paccantkam idam holt ii,paiilomam idam dassanam
hoti* Wc have to assume that paccantka is constructed with the
instrumental.
We should ignore the svarabhakti vowel in oriyehi in pda a.
<t49> 762. For the historical -d in tad ariy in p3das b and d see the note
on p.
In pddas b and d we should ignore the svarabhakti vowel in ariy.
Pda fhas nine syllables. The metre can be normalised by reading *rrh(o)\
763. Pj II 510.3-1 : santike na vijnanti mag dhammass* akovid ti, yam
aitano sarire tocapancakamattam paricchinditv anaiuoram eva
adhiganlobbato aitano khandhanam v nirodhamattato santike
nbbnam. tom evam santike santam pi no vijnonti magabhut jam1
moggmaggodhontmassa sobbodhommavta v akovid. For Ihe idea of
ignorant animals, cf. my axnanu. Un 8.7. The aliernativc explanation
given by the cty is interesting in ihat it seems to depend upon Ihe */**
alternation which is only possible in the initial (anccps) position in the
pada. and is most likely due to a misinterpretation of -g- written at a time
when double consonants were not written. See (he note on 175.

322

The Croup o f Discounts

For the long -& in passaim m.c. see (he note00712.


764. i j II 510.12 : mradhfyydnpannehX li, rcbhmakavaftam anupannehi.
765. Pj It 510,14-1$: thapetvd ariye'ko nti afiXo nibbdnap'adam jdniium
arahatU The presence of j&nimnt in the cty confirms the rending
sambuddhum. The v.I. sambuddham doubtless arose from a belief that we
have here an adjective agreeing with padam, just as there Is the adjective
susambudho (with v.I. -ouddho) agreeing with dhammo in 764.
For ahnatra in the sense of except' see the note on p. 15.5.
For the sandhi -m- in anatra-m-ariyehi see the note on 132. For sandhi *din samma-d-aiiHOya see the note on p. 16.7.
We should ignore the svarhbhakti vowels in ariyehi and arahaii.
There is resolution of the first syllable in pda d.

IV . Atthakavagga
<1SI> 766-975.

The meaning of atthaka in Atthakavagga is not 'certain.


Jayawicknuna (UCR VI. 4* pp. 232 foil.) quotes the Sanskrit equivalents,
and shows that only the Chinese version o f the Vinayauof the
MahSsSAghikas gives the idea of eight** (a Skt A?ta-varga). The other
versions can it Artha-varglya or Arthapada. The Chinese version translated
by Bapat also confirms the name Arthapada. For other atfhakas see Bapat
(*9 SI.PP-i 9 -oX
Since the four suttas which have auhakasutta in their names all have eight
verses, in the Triftubh metre, which is generally speaking an old metre In
PHi, we might reasonably suppose that these four suttas are the core o f the
Anhakavagga, to which other suttas have been added. The name Affhaka
actually occurs in the canon at Vin I 196.36, and the version o f the same
episode at Ud 59.23 mentions the number of suttas (i.e. 16), implying that
the additions to the vagga had already been made.
Levi (1915. p.414) pointed out that the ArthavargTya is quoted or referred to
in'the Abhidharmakofa* and the Bodhisaltvabbrqi. Hocrnle published
(f916A, pp. 709-32) an edition of fragments o f a Sanskrit version o f the
Atthakavagga from Chinese TUrkcstan.Tt comprised portions o f suttas 7-10
( 814-61), to which were prefixed, prose narrative introductions, which
differ from those supplied in Pj 11. Hoemte also noted that there are other
more or less serious differences o f wording from the Pli version,
suggesting that the vernacular text underlying the Sanskrit version must io
some places have differed considerably from the existing Pali text.
766-71. Kdma&utta. These verses also occur at Nett 5-6. The metre is loka.
A Sanskrit version is quoted from the ArthavargTya in the Yogcirabhmi,
with a verse which has no complete PSli parallel replacing 7 7 1 . Sec
Enomoto(!989,p. 35)
7 66.
The singular kmam in pdda a is surprising in view of kdm 767, kme
768 and 769, and kmni 771. It is possible that this is an example of a
masculine accusative plural in -am (see the note on 35). The apparently
singular verb samijjhati could be taken as samijjha{n)ii m.c., but it would
be difficult to explain tarn in pdda b.

For (he historical >d in yad tediali see the note on p. 13,10.
Nett 5.23 has saddh as a v.l. for atfdha, but no v.l. is quoted for (he same
verse when it recurs at Nett 69.1-2. nor at Ja IV 172.*. The reading addit is

324

The G roup o f D iscourses

supported by aiha in MBh XIII.93.47, quoted by Bapat (1951. p. 13 note).


Both Nidd 1 2^5 and Pj II 512,19 explain, it .as.an emphatic pamele.
767.. Although the ending -na (seo.thc note 00 131) is correct foe present
participles, of middle verbs in Sanskrit (Whitney. Gramm., 1043 0 and is
found in Pli .(Geiger, 1994, $192) i t is. clear that by the time o f Nidd I it
was already going out of use and was not fully understood. Nidd 1 4.3-7 :
kmaynass -\ti kmayamhassa, j icchamnassa sdiyamnassa
patlhayamnassa .pihayamdnassa^<abhijappamnassa. othav kma-.
taAhya yyati niyyti vuyhati samhariyati. Pj II 512.31-31: tassa ce
kmaynass ti tassa puggalassa kme icchamrtassa, kmena y
dyyamnassa. CPD (s.v. yyamna) states that this is a-doubtful reading
( ir is n o tin PED), and quotes^ Trenckncrs suggestion of, reading
syamnasso. but does not deal with this suggestion (s.v. syati). In
view of the occurrence of yyati in Nidd I 4.10. it seems likely tliat the
correct reading is yyamnassa. Be reads kmayomnassa, although this
gives a nine-syllable (Ada. but Nett 6.1 and Vism 576.30 read kmaynosso
and the Abbidharmakoia (quoted by Bapat) reads kmaynajya.
Surppsingly, Bapat (1951, p. 13 npte) states that, the-Chinese version
supports kmayamnassa, which suggests that he did not realise that
can be a present participle.
Maung Tin (1971, p. 694)
translates yna as vehicle.

kmoynassa

Pc

Niddl4.ir-i7: chandoti yokm


esukma-cchandokmargo... '.tassaso
kumacchondojto hoti. saAjto nbbatio abhinibbatto pfftubhto. Pj II
513.1 : chandajiassdti jiatanhassa/For chandasee F.V I, p. 265 (ad Th
1029) and E V 11, p. 58 (adThT 12).
Fot ihc
alternation in
see (he note on 29.

rii

mppadena

pad

768. Pj II 513.6 includes


in its explanation, showing that
is
the truncated instrumental of an -a stem in -d. For olher examples of this
see the note on 119. For (he idea of treading on a snake's head see Th 457.

visaiiik

For
see (he note on 333.
P5da c has nine syllables. The metre can be improved by reading
with the v.l. from Ms B*.This is also (he reading of Be, Th 457, Nell 6.7 and
Nidd 1 6 .v

so'mam

769. For the sentiment of (his verse see the verses quoted by LUdcrs (Bcob.,
$235). Nidd I 11.*. 10:

dds ti cattro ds. mtojtako dJso, dha/iakkitako dso.smomv ddsavisayamupeii, uk/nako v dsavisayam
tiperi. It then quotes Ja VI 285.4'-7*.

IV. Aithakavagga
325
porisanti tayopuris, bhatak kammakr upajTvinoti.
porisa

Nidd 1 11,15 :
The
form
is presumably used here m.c. For ihe form see Berger (1957,
PP- 3 - 7 >-Cf.Th 1166.- .
:s
Nidd I 11,17.18
Pj II 513.11:
For other occurrences of
see PTC (s.v.).

:thiyoti itthipariggaho vuccari.


inhisafUiik
thT
For the sandhi of -a+ oCC- > -dCC- io gavssasec Geiger <1994, 7) and

thiyo.

Norman (198$, p. 90).


Pj II 513,1.1 (lemma) and Nidd I to jj* and 11.20 (text and lemma) read
fo
The quotation at Ud-a 120.28 also has
Nidd I 11,20-21:
This reading, giving (he cadence * - - *
would seem .10 be pre. .rable.
.
..

tputhu.
puth kme ti bah kme.
(pathyd),

puth.

puth

abala kiles,
kites

770. Both Nidd 1 12.13 and Pj n 513.14,16 explain


as
but it is
difficult to see how this meaning could have arisen, since
are likely
10 be suong rather than weak. There would rather seem to be an intentional
word play upon
and
the weak actually overcome a man
who is greedy**. There seems to be no good reason for rejecting the
explanation given by CPD that the word means women**,. Presumably this
meaning of
was not knowo to the cties. The Chinese versipn'has
weak'*. Both Nidd 1 12.1$ and Pj n 513,15 give an alternative explanation,
adopting the reeding
although there seems to be no authority for
this reading in the text. Tim b then taken as agreeing with
Nidd I
12 ^023
Pj II 513.15-16:
which seems to be an attempt to read both
and
Nevertheless the word-play would seem to be better with the
reading

abai baliyanti:

abai

abaiam,

nam.
:yassa n' atthi saddhabalam..., te kiles tarn puggaiam
sahanti.
saddhbaldi-virahena vabaiamtompuggaiam
aboldkiles baliyanti,
abai
abaiam.
abald.
For a discussion of this verse see Enomoto (1979. p. 33), and cf. AV 5.19.8b.
For parissayasee the note on 42.
Pda c occurs elsewhere (Dhp 1 s GDhp 202 Udana-v 3 1.23) in a context
where follows** makes good sense for
(cf.
MBh III 207.23). Here, however. CPD*s suggestion of enters
would seem preferable, as also in Dhp 124:
poison docs not enter (sci),
a hand) which docs not have a
wound .

anveti

purkanna,

pdnitn:

yo

krtamanveti kartrtun

nbbanam visam anveti


nam.

Note that the correlative of in 769 is three times


Nidd 1 12.9* omits vo in pSda a. and there is no gloss on vo in Nidd I or Pj II.
If we keep the reading then like women would be a satisfactory rendering.
B*. C* and Nett 6.15 also omit vo, but this is probably normalisation of a

The Croup o f D iscourses

326

nioe-syllable pSda. The metre is correct if we assume resolution of the first


syllable. / .
. .t* v ,1

ndvamsitv va prag ti yathd gantkamnvam


bhrikamudakamsirv osincitv chaddetv tahukya ndvdya khippam
lahumappaknsiren' evapdramgaccheyyya. Pj II 513.26-38: yathd puriso
udokagamkamnvamsulcitvtahukyanvyaappakasiren*evaprugii
bhavcyyapdramgaccheyya.

77X.Nidd I 20.1-3:

For the idea of Bailing out boat cf. Dhp 369 = GDhp ;6 = Udina-v 26.12 a
Mvn m 421 . to foil. Joins doubts (Mvu-Trsl. Ill, p. 422 note 6) about the
meaning Bair seem unnecessary. I assume that there are three'roots s/c- in
Indo-Aryao, just as there are said to be three roots
in Iranian (Bailey.
1958, p.531): i) to pour ; 2) to dry ; 3) to satiate See BHSD (s.v.
CPD (s.w.
and
and Norman (1980A, pp. 108-

haik-

utsidcaii),
9 )-

For

-dai

ussiilcati

osidcaii)

'
......................
as a masculine plurh) accusative ending in

kmni see the note on

45-

The cadence------ of p5 da d is unusual for a toka pda, and one o f the


w.U. avoids the problem by reading
Be, Nidd 1 18.10-20, Netti 6 ji
and Ft however, all read
The presence of
in both Nidd.1 20.1
and Pj 0 51346 seems (o confirm va as the correct reading, and if we sad
weshould also read
for metrical reasons. I read and translate
772-79. Guhatthakasutta. The metre of these verses is Tristobh.

stvdva.

sirv

siheitva.

yathd

va
sitvva.

772. Nidd l 23,6-10: guhd vuccaii kdyo:... deho ... sandeho... nO


v...
raiho... dhajo... vammiko... niddam... nagaram... ktttf... gando ...
kummo... ntigo... ti vd kdyass' etamadhivacanam.Pj II 515.30: guhdyan
tikye.PAdas ab are quoted at Th-a 1 28.33 *-34*Niddl 23.11.14-24.3: sa/fo visorio tisatto loggo laggito palbuddhosatto ti
lagganadhivaeanam.Pj II 515.30: sattoti laggo. For the -l-l-r- variation in
pali see the note on 29. For the labialisation of -a- > -if- after b~in
palibuddhosec the note on 61.
'
Nidd I 24.4.12-13 : bahunbhicchanno ti bohukthi kilesehi channo,
ucchannodvutonivujo ovutopihitopaticchannopatikujjito. Pj II 515.3:
bahun rdgddikiiesajtena abhcchanno. Mss Bam read -chando for
channo. which looks like a back-formation made by a redactor who was
aware of the development of nd>nn, as happens, for example, in GSndhSrT.
and so does Ms S in Nidd L Bapat (1951, p. 18 note* & Introd. p. 12) points
out that the Chinese version, translated many things he craves for.

IV. Atthakavagga

-chondo.

3*7

-citando

supports the reading


He believes (1951 p. 14) that
is the
better reading. If this is so. then has developed as a result of the
change
Cf.
(Luders, Beob.. $ 166), and for other examples
of this type o f development in Pli see Nornian (1989, p. 371).

nd>nn. Channa

chonno

Nidd 1 26.33 states that there are three vivekas:


They are therefore detachments, not seclusions.

kya-, citta-, and upah-.

hi
-ch- -channa

For the second in pda d as an emphatic particle see the note on 90.
In pSda a
in
is m.c.
<l2> 773. Nidd I 35.3-4 : purim
e vajappan ti arile panca kdmagune
jappantpajappantabhijappantti imevakmepurimevajappam.Pj U
516.17-19: im
e vakmepurime vaJappan ti-ime vOpaccuppanriekme
purime vduvepi atUBngatebalava-tanhyapatthayamn. Both cties.
therefore, take jappamas the nominative plural of the present participle (as
docs Smith (Pj 11 p. 695]). For the etymology of Japp- see CDIAL 5122,
where the basic meaning is taken to be to squeeze, press", and *jopp-is
compared to *capp to press", rather than cappayati to chew" as PED
(s.v.) had suggested. The form is clearly singular, add the-most likely
explanation is that the verse represents a patchwork, put together without
any attempt being made to remove incongruent forms. It is not impossible,
however, that we have here an example of a
absolutive (see EV 1,
p. 125 (ad Th 22). EV II. p. 65 (adThI26), and WD. p. 101 (adDhp 156). For
the suggestion that
in 349 might be another example of (his type of
absolutive see the note on 349! To the examples of an absolutive in
we
can add
(Ja I 355.13; IK 361.27).
(Mogg V 64).
(see PED (s.v.J),
(see
CPD ( s .v .J), and to that in
we can add
(D I 74.3; M 1 276.35; II 15.13 ; III 92.3) glossed
(Sv 218.1; Ps II 322.3).
(Vin II 213.33-35; IV 188.1 foil.),
(M III 167.33) glossed
(Ps IV 2 13.13).
(M li 138.1 >).
(M II 138.14).
(Vin | 50.10) glossed
(Sp 9$ 1 jo). Edgcnon (BHSG. $35.6) quotes
and states that he
has found no parallel. One exists in Pili in
"beating the breast",
which was recognised by Tienekner (1908. p. 134) as an absolutive.

namul

jnam

-am
karamara-ghamgahetv
odana-pkam
sayati
kucchi-puiam
asannidhikdram
-okam
paripphosakam
poripphosokomsanneyya
siiicitvdsicitv
kyappoclakambhuppaclakain
sisoppaclakamgacchant
dantuliehakam
khdanti
ullehitv
khulukhulukrakam
samparivattokam
somporivattakam
samparivattakam
samparivnttetvd somporivattetv
udaka-hrim
ura-ttfim
The Chinese version interprets apekhom
n as though
pekhanuin(Bapat, 1951. p. i 8 note 9).
lnpdadva ...

wj is m.c.

for vd ... vd.Cf. 1024.

it were

a*

*28

The Croup o f D iscourses

774. Nidd!
ttvadniy tl avamgacchantl ti pi ovadniyd.
maccharino pi vuccnliavadniy, buddhdnaip buddhosavaknam
vaconamvyappathamdesanamanusitthimn' diyantiti avodniy. Pj H
516,11-30: avaiigam
anaiSyo' macchariiya buddhdlnom vacanam
ondiyanoiya cn avadniy. Ni<kJ I 37.13-16 includes the word
avadanAutdyain the exegesis. For avadannusee the note on 487.
Nidd I 37.26-28: visoine tiyisam
e kdyakamme, vacTkamme,manokamme,
pntipte... nivitfhd. Pj II 516.30: kyavisamddimJvisamenivhtha.
For the nominative plural ending -se in cutsesee the note on 7.
Ms S of Nidd I 35.9* reads sam
fktr pamalhd. Ms Ba of Pj II reads the
same ; Nidd 1 36-26 reads sam
mQfhd,and Mss Sk* of Pj II read the same. The
gl s sam
moham pannait(Nidd I 38.29) supports this. For the sip
alternation see the note on 353. .
There is resolution of the first syllable in p5 da b. In p5 da d we should read
sit m.c.
775. It seems clear that there is some sort of pun upon different meanings of
in pSdas b and c. The Chinese version appears to support this view,
and Bapat translates: The world that is amiss is hard to lean on; levying
the -right, no thought "of attachments would I cherish". I assume that
is the equivalent of
living wickedly**. If
in psda b could be the equivalent of
in the sense of "without
an equal, having no equal**, then the meaning would be: "knowing what (or
who) Is without equal in the world, one should not practise wickedness tor
the sake of that (* to obtain it?)".

visama

visomamcareyya
visama

o-soma-cdri(n)
asama

idh' evdti imasmimyevossarte. For this meaning of idhasee

Pj II 517.1 :
the note on 26-27.
For
m.c. in pada c (=
should read
m.c. in place of

het

*heto<hetoh)see the note on 122. (a pitia d we


fivitom.
776. Pj II 517.11-13 ibhavdbhavesdtikdmabhavddisa. athavd
bhavbhaves ti bhova-bhavesu.pttnappunabhavcsd ti vutlomboti. For
the rhythmical lengthening in bhavbhavesusee the note on 6.
For the nominative plural -setaaviioianhsesee the note 007.
In pSda b the metre is better if we read tonhd-(with Ms B1 and Nidd 1 45.23*)jivitam

See Ij II p. 699.

mamdyile ti tonhddinhimamatiehi"mamon li
poriggahUc vatthusmim. It seems likely, therefore, that appodake'and
khinasote are also locatives, although they could theoretically be
777. Pj II 517.16-17:

IV. Atihakavagga

329

bahuvrihiadjectives agreeing with macche. Cf., however,


appodake macchnam,Ja VI 26.10. For mamyitasee119.
778. Nidd 1 52.1-6: antdd phossoekoonto.phassasam
udayodutiyo onto,
alito eko anto, ondgato dutiyo anto. sukhd vedano... dukkh vedan.
nmant ... rpam.chaojjhattikni yatanni... cha bhirni dyatandni.
sakkyo... sakkyasamudayo.Pj II 5 17 .2 4 -2 5 : phossaphassasamudyddisu
dvTsuparicchedesu. Bapat (1951,p. 120 note 14)-suggests that-the two
accusative plural

extremes may be the extremes of the heresies o f eternity and annihilation,


and quotes Sam9 dhir3jas3 tm 9.27 (= GilgU Mss, II, 1, p. 103.11-15). Fot
see the note on 8 0 1.1 sec no reason to doubt that the two
are those described in the Dhammackkapavaftana-sutta.

ubhayante

ont

For the translation of parinnya sec the note on 455. Nidd I 54.12-14:
attagarahfti dvihi kranehi attnamgarohati, katattcaakatattco.
For the historical -din yadattagarahfand tad akubbam
nosee the note
on p. 13.10. Nidd 1 54.12 : yadanriyam
. This presumably means that Nidd I
was taking yadas yof, lx . yadoni with -amelided before erra*, possibly
because the commentator did not recognise a word ending n -d. PED does
not list yadamor tadam
. See the oote on p. 147.10.13. Cf. 796.
In pSda b -d- in annugiddha is m.e. In pid* c w e should ignore the
svarabhakti vowel in -garahl. In p5da d *f in lippatfis m.c.
<153> 779. Nidd I 56.10-11: sotV
iampariAhd ti sanhamtihi parinnahi
parijnilv nlaparinilya tiranaparinnya pah&nopannnya, i.e.
pariilfldis for parinnya. cither as the truncated instrumental singular of
parifiii (see the note on n o ) , or as the absolutive of parijnti. For
pariHMyasee the note on 202.
Nidd I 57.4-$ : poriggoh ti dve pariggahd. tanhpariggaho ca ditthi
pariggoho ca. Pj II 5 1 $.4-5: lanhditihpariggabesu lanlidifthiiepoppahdnenaanupafitto. Cf.393.
Nidd I 60.26-97: ndsim
sati, naicchati nasdiyoii napaitheti nopiheti
ndbhijappati. For the palatalisation of -a-> r- after -in *ioms- see the
note on 3.

abblha- sec the note on 4.


simsatim.c.

For the VC/VCC alternation in


In pSda d we should read

780-87. Outthatthakasutta. The metre is Trisiubh.


In pdas ab there is Ms authority for the reading ce in place of ve. For
c/valternation see the note on 38. There is a v.l. eiefor ekein both Sn

780.
the

77e Croup o f Discourses

330

and Pj II, but ihe gloss ekacce some** would seem to confirm eke. Nidd I
624 reads aiWe for aiho in p5da b. For aiho cf. 43.
Nidd I 63,16-18: m
unino frata-(Eeah$ra-)cinatkhilojdtotdpi n otthi;
pancapicerokhiUtn*otthi:tayopiktiildn otthi.Pj Q 520.3-4: oyammuni
rdgddikhilehi n' otthi khilokuhinct ti veditabbo. Although it is possible
to take khilo as a noun and translate the sage is not a fallow field, this
seems strange. The simplest way of taking khilowould be as an adjective,
but this would be the only example of the usage in the canon known to me.
In 'Sanskrit, use as an adjective is quoted (see MW (s.v.)> only from the late
Bhgavata-purna. Alternatively we might see a split compound here. i.e.
tsee the note on 151), or perhaps more probably
(in which
must otherwise be taken 'as m.c.) is for
< Ski
For the
development o f -1 < -f<
the note on
(<
) in 122.

munUkhilo
I

-e,cf.

munf
*mune
munch.
hetu held<heto

I take vodonti here in the sense of "dispute". Cf. 787 832 843 845.
In pda a there is a v.l. ce for ve. For the v/c alternation see the note on 38.
781. Nidd I 65.9-1 r: sayam somattdni pakubbamdno ti sayom samattam
karoti, paripupnam anomam aggam settham yisettham pOmokkham
uuotnam pavaram karoti. Pj II 520.38 : ayan va pripnndni tSni ditthi
gattini karonto. At Nidd I 298.10(ad 8S9) the gloss is reversed: poripunna
nint ti samattatnOnT atiomamnT. Smith (Pj II 778 (>.. \umutla}) takes
sa/iiQtta as from samtlo, but I now follow the ctys explanation, derive it
from samOpto, and translate "fulfilling, with Homer aod Rabula, rather
than "perfecting. Sec the note on 402.
782. Nidd 1 6S.10: pdvd ti ottano" silam vd vattam vd silavattam vd
p vadati. Pj If 521 .s : pdvd ti vodati. It is not clear how pdvd can be from
pravadati. La Vallee Poussin and Thomas (Nidd I vii-viii) state that the
Sinhalese reading pdvoda (giving a Jagati pda) shows that pdvd is the
imperfect o f povadati. corresponding to Skt prdvadot. and the cty is
presumably wrong in establishing a present form prdvadoii. Sadd 323.1-1
(quoted by CPD (s.v. ^ovati)) explains pdvd as being from pro u. PHD
does not list the form under either pa vadati or pdvodati. Geiger (1994.
$ 1604) suggests that we are perhaps dealing with a root aorist (not attested
in Sanskrit) of pen vac*. It would probably be best to lake if as (he
imperfect of pro + vac. which would be prvn*(r) (RFC). Nidd ! has the v.l.
for
For the
alternation see the note on 333.

stiva pdvd.

pts
-votni

Ntdd I 66.5*.9 reads


in both text and lemma, but explains H as
(I 66.13). Such alternations probably go back to a form written in a
script which did not write double consonants (see ihe note on J75),

-vatidni

IV. Atfhakavagga
although the confusion between
(s.vv,)). See 898.

331

vrttaand -vratais found in Skt (see MW

Pj H 521.10-11 : >0 evamattdnamsayameva vadali, lassa latti vddam


anariyadhammoeso li kusoldevamkathenti.
In Nidd I 66.6 there is a v.l. vafor cain pda b. This perhaps makes belter
sense in the context. For the dvalternation see the note on 38.
In pSda c we should ignore the svarabhakti vowel in ariya.
In pda b *d- in andnuputthoand the toss of -m in poresaare m.c,
783. Nidd 1 71,15-17: hi *han it padasandhi podasatpsaggopadopdripBri
akkhara-samavdyo vyanjanasilitthaipadnupubbot-m-etam,iti'han IL
Pj II521,13-15: iti *hanl sllesuakattham
dnoti "ahamasmisilosamponncT
ri dini nayena ili sibtu akattham
no,sTlanimittam attpandyikam
vdcamabhdsamno.
Note the sandhi of -i + a- >
ih iti'han.

Pj LI 521.16-1$: ra
maryadhanunamkusalvadamiti tassatomakatthanam
ariyadhammo esomti buddbddayokbandhddikusaldvadami.
For the seven itssadsee the note on 515.
There is resolution o f the first syllable io p 3da b. In pSda c we should
ignore the svarabhakti vowel in -ariya-:
* '
*

<154> 784. Nidd I 73as dham


md vuccanti dvdsatthi ditthigatdnf ti
pakoppitd somkhat yossa dhammd. Nidd I 73.1S-J1 : yadattoni ti yam
ottoni,and vuccati ditthigatamxottano ditthiyd dve dnisomse passanti,
dilthidhammikadcaSnisomsamsampordyikanco dnisamsom.Nidd I 74.10i t : tisso santiyo: accaatasonti tadangasonti sam
matisanti ...
sommossami vuccanti dvdsatthi dUthigot ditthlsontiyo (see Nidd I
314.14-1$ ad 900). Nidd 1 75.1-7 : tan nissito kuppa-paticca-santin ti
kuppasaatimpakuppasantimeritasantimsameritasamim colitasanthn
ghatitosantim kappitasantim pakappitasontim an'tecam somkhatom
poticcosomuppannomkhayadhanmomvayadhommamvirdgadhammam
nirodhadhammam santini nissito dsito aitino upgato ajjhosito
adhimuttoti.
Pj II 521.30-522.6: yasmd o ttan i tassd d itthiyd dilthidham m ikad c o
sakkurdim sampordyikan c o gativisesddim ; tlnisamsam p a ssa ti, tasm d
tail c o dnisamsQin tan ca kuppatyu ca p oticcosam upponnatdya ca
sammutisontatdyo co knppa-patieca-santisomkhdtant ditthim n issito va
hott, so tannissitatt attnom v uUunnscyya p o re vd vambheyya abhtehi
p i gunadosehi. There is Ms authority for the reading k u p p a m , and I

The Croup o f Discourses

332 .

kuppo
akuppa nibb&na),

kuppa

presume that
is m.c. for this. I take
to be the opposite of
(a
i.c. he i$ dependent upon a peace which is conditional
upon that which b not unshakable.
.
. .
?

avivadt ti avodtd. For vTvaddta< $kt vyavaddta via


viyara-,
vyati-. i.c. vyati-> viyati->*viyiti->*viiti->
-a->-i-after -y-see the note on 3.
For dnisam
sasee the note on 256.
For, the historical -d-in yadottanisee the note on p. 13.10.
In pSda c -Tin ottaniism.c.
785. Nidd 1 76.4-6: nlccheyyd ti nicchinitvd vinicchinitvd vicinilvd
pavicinitvd tulayirvdtfrayitvd vibhvayitv vibhtamkatv. Pj II 522.11
explains niccheyyaas nicchinitvd. It is hard to see why PED rejects this
Pj D 521.37:
viyiro* <
cf. vili* <
vW-. For the palatalisation of

explanation, and takes it as a potential ( optative), which, of course, it


could formally be. The word recurs in 801, where Nidd I t so.*(-13 again
explains it as an absolutivc. Cf. the note on
20-21, which can also
be taken in two ways.

vineyya

For the pair or words nirassatiand dtfiyat, cf. attam


.and-Jtirattamin 787.
Pj II522.17-19: tamtoni d
hammarrxnirassati caddtyaticajahdti caganhdti
ca.vanamnkkafoviyatorri tamsdkhanti vmtnintinti. Cf. 954 whet* Nidd I
444.9-iS explains: ndesT ti rpairi ndeti ndiyatt na updiyati na
ganhti na pardmasatl nbhinivisati ... tta nirassatT ti riipamna
pajahmi tinvinodetl na bytmtikaroti naanabhvamgameti. Pj II 569.1617 : ndeti na nirassati ti rQ
pddist/ kidei dhammamna ganhati na
nissajjati.
Nidd I 76.17-19: nidassati ti dvihi kranehi nidassati.paravicchindanuya
vd nidassati.anabhisambhunanto vd nidassati. The reading nidassati
shows the diralternation. See the note on 81.
For the palatalisation of -a-> in ddiyatisee the note on 3.
Note the internal sandhi of -u- + -a- > -vd- in svtivattd. For other sandhi
developments involving the change of -u > -v see the note on 144.
In pda a -F- in
and -d- in
arc m.c. In p5da d c is m.c. Cf.
829. Ms Bm corrects the metre by reading
For the VC/VCC
alternation see the note on 4. In pSda d we should read
m.c.

ditthl-

sv-ntivatt

ca
iyari co.
nirassati

dhonasee the note on 351.


ttpnyoti dve upuyd. tanhiipayocadittfnlpayoca. tassa
tanhiipayo,pahtno.ditthiipayo patin'tssauho... anpayoso..Pj II 522.33:
sohi tanhdditthi-upaydnamdvinnomabhvenaanpayo.Cf. 787.
786. For

Nidd J80.J1-81.1:

IV. Anhokavagga

so heiu n' althi paccayo n* atthi kronamn* atlhi yena


gaccheyydli, sakenagaccheyya. Pj II 533.99: rgdtnamdosnamkena
gaccheyya ditthadhamme samparye vd niraydisu gativiscsesu kena
saAkhamgaccheyya.

For (he rhythmical lengthening in bhavbhavesusecthe note on 6.


In pSda a f in hr and in p5 da d -8-in anO
payoare mx. .
787. Pj II5234-11 explains: tassahi attaditlhi vucchedaditthi van* atlhi.
gahanamuiicanam v<9 atianirattasaiiAitom n* atthi. The same two
alternative explanations are found in Nidd I 82.24-29: and (lemma sic.
although E* of Sn reads aiiam
,as does Nidd 1 351.25* and 352.17 [ad^i9j) n*
sassatadiifhi n' atthi, niratt (sic) ti ucchedaditthi nwatthi. attS ti
gahitamn*atthi, niratt ti mitilciiabbamn atthi... gahanamuHcanam
samatikkanto muni. Since the panicle vd is usually used to signify a
Nidd 1 81.13:

preferable alternative, this docs not seem to justify the statement in PED
(s.v.
) that the cly prefers the explanation from
for
Pj n 598.16-17 (ad 1098):
Miss Homer and Dr Rabula translate .here as though the
derivations were from
although they do not do so in
the comparable contexts in 858c 9i9d and 1098c. It seems to me that the use
of
and
here is a direct reflection of the statement
in 785C, where a man is said to la y dowo or take up a
doctrine". There is a contrast made with a man who is not involved. How
can one dispute with him when he has taken up or bid down nothing? Thir.
makes it clear that
here is to be taken as derived from
and
as from
a discussion of the fact that
develops >
. whereas
develops
see Brough (1962, p. 225).

ritratta

ytittamhoii.

nirtman niratta.
nirattamvti nirasitobbamra.mudeitabban ti

tmannd.nirtman,

ottani mrattain
diyaiiccadhanunam

nirossati

atta
tta niratta
nirasto. For
nirosta
niratta
apdsto
>apattha
Pj II 523.2-3: ttpayoti tanhaditthinssto. PHD does not suggest that upaya
can be an adjective. Perhaps it has been extracted from anttpaya786. as its

opposite.
Nidd I 83,3-6 : So sabbatn ditthigatam idh' evo aditosi dhuni niddhttni
pajalii vinodcsi vyanii-oksi onabhvamgamesI ti adhosi sodttthimidh'
evn sobbom
. The inclusion of adhosi seems 10 show the connection, in the
Cly's eyes, of dhonawith dh- 10 shake", although Nidd 1 in the exegesis
(see above), uses dhutaand dhonatogether.
For vadeyyain the sense of "dispute" sec the note on 780.
Nidd I 81.23* reads ditthim... sabbamand explains it as sabbomdittitigatom(83^), as docs Pj II 523.12-13. Presumably we should read ditthi ...

The Group o f Discourses

334

sabba$ the lectio difficilior. For the sandhi -m-in diuhi-m-idhosee the
note on 132.

There b resolution of the first syllable in pSda a.


In pSda b -- in
b m.c. In p3da d -1 in
plural)) b m-c.. although we might punctuate
was an accusative plural form in

anpayam
ditthim<dinhim

ditthi(*dinhT(accusative
ditthimidhaand assume that
-bn. See the note on 104. ;

788-95. Suddhatthakasuua. The metre b Tri$|ubh.

dittheno... ti cakkhtiviiiiidnena rtipadassanena.


tenacaditthisamkhdtena
dittha-).dassanena.
'padassanasanikhtena dittheno.
dittha
ditthi.
evbhijnam
evam

7$$. Nldd I 84.1a:


Pj U
526.14^13:
(Smith queries
In
the gloss on 789 Pj U 52640 explains
We seem to have
as a past participle in the sense o f an action noun
(see the note'on 331)
Nidd 1 844 reads
and Sn has
thb as a v.l. Both Nidd 1 and Pj II include
in the explanation, and it
seems clear that this is the correct reading.

Nidd 1 85.1-3 : yo suddhampossati so sttddhnupassi.pacceti fnan ti


cakkhuvinddneno riipadassanamnnan ti pacceti, maggo ti pacceti,
pothti pacceti niyydnantipaccetfti suddh&nupasstijracceti nnrn.Pj
II 526,16-iS: so event abhijnanto tarndassanam~param
on*ti Hand
tasmimdassanesuddhnupassllamdassanam'^tnaggandnin"ti pacceti. It
seems as if both cties are taking pSda d as though it were suddhnupassT
paccetiHonanti (seeing the pure he comes [to the view) St is the way*).
For the sandhi of -am+ a- >
in etbhijnamsee the note on 353.
<155> 789. Nidd 1 85.24-2S; addetta so sujjhati sopadhko ti annetta
asuddhimaggena mtcchOpatipadOya aniyynapathena ondatra
satipatthQnnehi... aHAatraariya-tthaiigikotnaggena naro sujjhati. Nidil
1 S6.H-3 : sopadhiko ti sargo sadoso sam
oho samno salando saditthi
sakilesosa-updnoti. Pj 1 1 526.11-24: evamsanie ariyaipaggatoonflena
osuddhimaggen evaso sujjhati rgdthi upadhihi sa-upadhiko samno
sujjhatili dpannamhoti. nacaevamvidhosujjhati.
Nidd I 86.4-6 : ditthi hi nani pva tath vadnan li sa va ditthi tam
puggalampvadat: iti vdyampuggalo micclulditthiko vipartaassano
tt. Pj 11 526.23-27: sdnomdifilli yeva"micchOditthko ayan" ti kutheri
dinhi-anuriipam"sostato oko" ti dinnayena talliti ttith vadami. For
radunasec Jones (Mvu-Trsl. HI. p. 445 note 1). and for he preseni middle
paiticiple ending -nasee the note on 231.
,
For the use of ditthaas an action noun cf. 788 and see the note on 331. For
p6vasee the note on 782.

IV. Atthakavagga

335

sopodhikois m.c.
790. Nidd I 86.17-87.3: brhm
ano ti sartannaijt dhammnambohitatt
brhmano\sakkyainhl bhito... vicikicch ... sllabbataparmso
rOgo... doso ... /noAo ... /ndno ... bOhit* asso o/t// pdpok akusal
dhamm. It goes on to quote 5x9. Pj U 526.28-39: bOhitappoitObrhmano
boti.
For pSda c cf. pu/litopdpopaAAiasxa arahant (Dhp 39) [IBH].
Both dies include ahnenainstead of annoto in their explanations of pda
In pda c -f- io

a.

seems

ditthesale

Nidd 1 87.18-90.6
to be understanding
, etc., as though they
were the means of purity, etc., i.e. as though they were instrumental forms:
...
...
...
(sie) ...
Pj I I 52 630-527.,
however, seems to be taking them as locative of the field of activity:

sani' eke samana-brOhman ditthasuddhik sutasuddhik sito


suddhik vattasuddhik
mutasuddhik.

ariyamaggahOnato ahnena abhimangaiasammatarpasamkhote ditthe


laihOvidhasaddasamkhie sute ovitikkamasamkhOte site hatihivat-(sic)dibhede vate ppthavi-adibhede mule ca'upponena micchOhdnena
suddlnmnaha.
For m
ulaapptied to all senses except seeing and hearing sec the note on
7 X4 Nidd 1 90.34-91. :

atianjaho ti aiioditfhijaho; attaiijoho li ghamjaho;


ottohjaho ti tnnhvasena ditthivasena gahitam parmattham
abhinivinhamajjhositamadhimuttoip,sabbomtomcottamhot vantata
multompahinampatinissattham.Pj II 527.^7: attaditthiyyassa kassaci
vgohonossapohinattattajaho. I do not believe it refers 10 self*.
Nidd I 9 1 .x-$ : na-y-idha pakubbom
no ti puhhbhisamkharam vd
apunnbhisomkhram v nenjbhisomkhram v akubbomno
ajonayamno asahjayamnoanibbonayamno amibhinibbattavamno ti.
Pj II 527.7-10: punM
bhisamkhrdnainakaranatona idhapakubbamno
ti vuccati. tasm nomevampasomsanto Oha;sabbass' eva c' asso
purimapadenasombondhovedilobbo.
For the sandhi >** in na-y-idhasee the note on 352.
There is resolution of the fifth syllabic in p5 da d. In p3 da c -- in
anpatittois m.c.
791. For ejseethe note on 751. For panna. the past participle of pad- in
the sense of to fair, see MW ($.v.) and Norman (1979C. pp. 47-48). The
explanation given in PED should be corrected.

336

The Croup o f Discourses

nirassajati
nirassati nissajati.
nir-a-ssajati,
addhAbhayati
For the nominative plural ending -U
sein sirasesec the note on 7.

Smith suggests (Pj II p. 7 17) that


represents a "confusion
between
and
but CPD (s.v. *a-. Rem. b) suggests that
perhaps we have
i.e. the augment added to a part of the verb
where it is not appropriate. Cf.
96S.
There is resolution of the first syllable in pSda a.
792. Nidd 1 93.7-9.saniiasatto ti km
asaiinya vypddasannyavihiitts
saiiilyadifthisandyasotto visattodsatto laggo laggilopalibuddho.
Nidd f 95.7-11 : nanccvacamgocchaii... na satthdrato satihdram... na
dhammakfhdnato dhammakkhnam... naganatoganom... naditthiy
ditfhim... napotipadyapofipadom... namaggatonoggamgacchoti. Pj
II 527.26: sanasattoti km
tnasonUddisulaggo.
Nidd I 95.11-14: bhripan ti m
nhdpaio pttthuponHo hsapaniio
javanapaiino tiWwpanno nibbedhikapanno.bhri vuccati palliavi;tya
pathavfsamyapndyavipulya vitthatyasamanngato. This-seems to
be an attempt to see the meanings extensive" and earth simultaneously
for
See the note on 346.

bhtiri.

Pj II527.5s:

^
catuhi maggafinavcdchi'catusaccadhommcuhabhisameccti.

Nidd ! 93.jo.jj quotes 529.


There are twelve syllables in pda d. The metre can be corrected by reading
()' Tor
In p2da b
1- is m.c.

na.
sahru

793. Nidd I 95.56-30: send vuccati M


ilrasen;kdya-ducearitam ...
Mdrasend. It then quotes 436-39..and continues (96.11-13): yato canlhi
niuggehi sabbdcaMdrosendsabbeeti pttiisenikarfl kilesdjhd capardjild
ca bhaggd vippotuggdpanmmukhd. so vuccati visenibhto. Pj II 528.2-4:
tesu sabbadhammesu Mdra-senamvi-nsetv thitabhvena visenibhto.
This clearly intends a folk-etymology based upon W- and send. See the
note on 51. Nidd I 174.16-175.4 gives the same explanation when the word
recurs at 833 (where it quotes 436-39) and at 3 3 3 >'5->< (ad 914)- So does
Nidd II 1 20.18 (ad 1078X Pj H 542.18-19 (ad 833) stales:
Spk I 207.19 (ad S I 141.19) states:
(which is not in PED
The related verb
(S
III 89.J1 ) is explained (Spk II 296.51).
The BUS form, however, is
and the absolutivc of
the verb is
implying a denominative verb from
(see
BUSO (s.v.)). The meaning of
would presumably be without

kilesasenanrvinserrd.
kilesaScnfiyaviseno

swnpindeti.
viirenayitvd.

visenikatvd ti
viseni-bluVo ti
jto.
viseneti
viveneti no uxseneti ti vikirati na
vtsreni-bhtito.
viSreni
viireni

IV. Atthakavagga

337

association! not associating". If this is the correct interpretation, then the


writing of -n* for -n- in Pili would be an Eastern feature. For such Eastern
features, sec the note on 7. The Jain tradition also explains the word as
being derived from
At yr 1.6.33 (ed. Schubring, p. 30.1) we find
Jacobi (1884, p. 58) translates "He who discontinues (to sin)".
Schubring (Index, s.v.) equates it with
and quotes (p. i o i ) the
:
;
; and SiliAkas cty (p. 164):
He explains: den
Kausalnexus or die Reihe der Existenzen unterbrechend.
. .

vlssentkajtu.

vitretti.

viirayanF
irkO rohanFodaranFvdpasatthd appasaithd ya ... appasatthFe
ahigQro
sa/judratrenFsamsdrdvotaranTrgadvefokafdyasaniatis tdmkfdntydind vlirenTrp kftvd.
tarnevadassimvivatamcarantanti tamevasuddhadassim.
tarn dassim.
tarnevadassim
tamevamvisuddhadassim.
evadassim
'evamdassim. eva- evam-,
evarSpo
kappSti dvekappdlanhdkappo ca diuhikappo ca. tassa
tanhkappo pallino ... anhkappassa pahFnatt ... kena rgena
kappeyya ... kranamn* atihi yena koppeyya vikappeyya vikappam
pajjcyya.PjII 528.6^: kenaidhaloke fanhkappenavd'ditthikappenav
koci vikappeyya.
794. Note that purekkharonli<puros-kr shows Eastern -efor -0 < -os, but
also the development of -*&* > -kkh-. Cf. Pkt nam
okkdro(Erz 35.30) <
namoskra.
<i$6> 79$. For sT
miigasee the note on 484.
In pdab va... va arc m.c. for vd... vd. In pida d fin allhiis m.c.

Nidd 1 96,17-18:
N* divides
evo
Pj n 528.4 has
io the lemma, but
explains:
It would seem preferable to lake
as a compound, meaning
For
cf.
in 279-80.
Nidd I 97.1-17 :

796-803. Paramauhakasuua. The metre is Tristubh.

uttarimkurute ti uttarimkaroii.oggamsettham
visetthampfimokkhamuitamampovaramkorot. Pj II 529.22-73: yad
uttarimkurvte ti yamottano sauhrddimsenhomkaroti. For the use of
littorias an adjective (not in PHD) see CPD (s.v.).
Pj II 329,24-3]: tomaitanoslthrdimthapeivd tato aine sabbi "hFn
ime tidha. In pda c sabbais m.c. For the sandhi in sabba-m-hasee
796. Nidd 1 102.19 -103,:

the note on 132. It is. however, possible that we should divide the words as

sabbotndhaand take sabbani * sabbant as an accusative plural in *om (see


the notes on 35 and 687).
For *dni as a masculine accusative plural ending in
on 4 5 -

vivddni see the note

The Croup o f Discourses

33

yadttttdrvpkurute see the note on p. 13.10. Nidd 1 102.19


yadantiyam,as in 778.
: *^
*
For the palatalisation of -- > -1- in a-virivaiiosee the note'on 3.

For historical
again glosses

in

In pSda a theft is resolution of the first syllable.

-bb~ paribbasOnois Wc. for -v*. Cf. 878 880


-nasee the note 00131.
797. Nidd I 105:9-11? sam
uggahy ti gahetv uggahetv ganhitv
parmasitvdabhinivisitv.
For the historical -din yadottaniand ladera sec the note on p. 13.10.
In p3da a it S probable that
in
895. For the present middle participle in

InpSdaa-rinorronrisraa .............

^ ..- .l i

798. Nidd I 106.16-171 na

nabhiniviseyya.

........... ^

nissayeyya na ganheyya na pardmaseyya

In pdda c va is m.e. forn i


<I57> 799. Nidd 1 107.6-13: sam
o ti bstnamanpaneyyti sadiso'ham
asmiti attnamnauponeyya.hinonamafmethavisesi vpiti hino.*ham
asmiti attnamnauponeyya. It is clear from this that Nidd ts lakifig both
anpaneyyaand manneiha as compatible forms, i.e. as optatives. CPD
mentions this possibility (s.v. ananupnneyya). but prefers to take it as an
absoiuiive. If it is an optative, then it is a negative finite verb; see EV t.
p. 190 (ad Th 405) and CPD (s.v. 3-).
In pSda c -0 - in
and in pSda d -/ in

aniipaneyya
vises*are m.c.
9.attainpahyti attaditthimpahya\attainpahy
ti attagahom
-ghamby Thomas (1951, p. 99)) pahya".attam
pahy li tanhvasenadifthivasena gahitamparmatthomabhinmuham
njjhositamodhimutiampahya. Pj II 530.16-iSexplains: attornvpahya
anupdiyanto, idha v yampubbe gahitam tant pahya aparam
aganhanto. For these two comments see Thomas (1951. p. 99 note 1).
Nidd I 108.9-10 explains viyattesu by: vavatthitesu bhinnestt dvejjh*
dpannesu dvefhoka-jtesu nnditthikesu. Pj II 530.19, despite the
statement in E* of So. also reads viyattesu in the lemma and explains it:
nndifthivdsena bhinnesu sottesa. There is a v.l. viyattesulisted in the
800. Nidd I 107,26-2
(read as

cty. and I earlier suggested the adoption of this reading. I now think that
this is unnecessary. 1 would prefer to keep the E? reading
and 10
derive it from Ski
, translating it as Mset apart, separate,
distinguished**.

vyakta

viyattesu

IV. Affhakavagga

sa

339

tad

The word
mim be a misprint for
(see Pj II p. 700 [s.v.
J). Nidd I
107.14. Pj U 530,19 and F read
Nidd ! i 08,23 and Pj II 530,2a :
For thescansion of
(with the short sixth and seventh syllables contracted
to a long syllable) see the note cm 61.

pacceti

sa.

na pacceti na paccgacchati.

801. Nidd I 109.4* and U O.to (verse and lemma) and Mss B3* read

samuggahTtamas in 785*
Nidd I 109.6-8: ant ti phasso eko onto,phassasaniudayo dutiyo onto;
atitameko auto,angatameko onto. It then continues with the same
comment as on 778. See the note on 778. Pj 1 1 530.25: ubhayante ti pubbe
vuttaphassdibhede.
Note the sandhi of -a+ u->-u- in yassubhayante.Cf. nSparato914.
Nidd I IO9.13 and Pj IT530.26 gloss ponidhias tanhd.
For the rhythmical lengthening in bhavbhavyasee the pole on 6.
Nidd 1 109.20 foil. :idli ti sakaitabhvo, bur ti parattabhA
vo\idh ti
S akar pavedan saH
nsamkhrovi niinant, hard ti
pararpavedansaflftsamkhravinhnam,etc. Ej U 530.27-28 ; idha vd
huramvti, sakattabhvdibhede idha vparattabhvdibhede parottha
v.For huramsee EV I, p. 121 (ad Th to)..
802. Nidd 1 111.14-24 : koppti dvekapp. tanhdkoppoco dinhikappoco.
tanhkoppasso pahTnatt ditfhikappassa patinissatthatt, kena rgena
... dosena... m
oheno... etc.... koppeyyya? kehionusayehikoppeyyarotto.
ti vduffhoti v... oniffhangatoti vthmagatoti vJ?
In pada a vafor vand in pda b -uin andare ntc.
803. Nidd 1 113.14-20: napurckkharontfli purekkhrti dvepurekkhO
ra,
tarthpurekkhra ditfhpurekkhro. tanhpurekkhrassa pahinatt
diffhipurekkhrasso patinissoffhatt. natonhamvnaditthimvparato
katvdcorami.
Pj H 53t.: dham
m... dvsoftliidittlngatedhamm.
Nidd 1 1 14,10: napaccetiti sotpattim
aggenayekiiespahfn. tekitesena
punapacceti napaccgacchati ... arahattamaggenaye kiiespahfn te
kilese na punapacceti napoccgacchotTti prahgato napacceti. Pj II
prahgoto na pacceti tdi ti nibbanopramgaio tena iena
maggesapahlnekilesepunangacchati.
For tdin see the note on 86. For the nominative plural ending se in
paficchitsesee ihe note on 7.
5 3 1 .3 :

34 0

The Group of Discourses

For. th scanse) of p h c c e t i see the note on 662. For the replacement o f the
short sixth and seventh syllables by one long syllable see the. note on 61...
804-7X3. Jarsutta. The metre is VailSIfya.

V* ,*ft i>"

**

i&fff.

<IS8> 804. NiddI 121 a nd Fj I I 533.ix lja r a s d ... li ...jo r a y a . Nidd .11 205.1
gives the same gloss on 11 2 3 . These are the only examples o f ja m s osa
neuter -b s stem in' the canon, i f PTC is to be believed.
N id d I 120.22: a iicca ^ a iik k d m itv . Pj II 533.31-3 : oiiccQ ti vassasatam
,

arkkamrvd. Seethe nbton 3 73 . ' * "

^assme that p i fie f v a s s a s a t in p3da b is an example o f its use after


numerals to imply exactness or completeness. See the note on p. 844 foil.'
805*Q 11533 foil .:m a m d yite ti mamyavaithukdran.
Nidd I 122.26-27: vlnfyhyasantam e v idnn

. , ..

nd nd bh ve

vinbhve

annathbhve san te saittvijjam ne itpalabhiyamdne. Pj II 533.3) foli.:


vinbhdvasantam ev* dan ti san tavinbkvom vijjamdnavinbhvam evo
idari) na sakJtd vfribhdvena a bhavitn ti vttam hoti. The explanation in

Nidd as a locative absolute suggests that we have here an example o f an


accusative absolute construction. S ee the note on p . u t . a. I therefore
assume that vinbhdva is m.c. for -bhdvam . This occurs a s a v.l. in Nidd.
Nidd I I22.IO explains p a r ig g a h as tanhdporiggaho c a diithipariggaho
c a . I presume that the word has the sense o f possessions here. C f. 393.

In pada b w e should read s a n t i m.c. In pSda c we should read vtnbhvam.c. M W quotes vinbhava- for Sanskrit.
806. Nidd I 12 5 .3 -3 : m dm a ko

ti

buddham m ako

dhom m om dm ako

sa n g h a m m a k o ; s o Bhagavantam momdyati. Bhagovd toni ptiggolam


p a r ig g a n h ti. Pj II 534.3-4 : m dm ako ti mama updsako bhkkhu v j ti
sandduun goto, buddhddlni vd vatthiini mamdyamdno.

For sandhi - y in pSda b see the note on 352.


The metre o f p3da b is defective. W e could correct it by reading mam[a-yY
idan. In pSda c we should read viditvd m .c
807. Nidd I 126.5-6:- saftgaton ti sangatom sam dgatam sam hitam
sannipatitam . Pj II 534.4-5: songotan ti samdgaion ditthapubbam vd.
< I59 >

808. Nidd I 127.KK-2I : akkheyyan ti okkhtum kathem m bhonitum

dipayitum voharitum. Pj II 534.* : okkhtum kothetum. This seems to be

taking akkheyya as being derived < ttkhyeyo. S.M. Katre. however, prefers
(IH Q XI. p. 199) the meaning "indcstruciable" < Skt okseyo/aksoyyo/vthkh

he quotes from Panini, although it is not listed in MW.

IV. Atjhaka vagga

y\ \

In p3da e wc should read nmant m.c. in place of nmam.


809. Nidd I 129.15 gives the usuai explanation of pariggoha (see the note
on 80s). Cf. 393- Nidd I 130.3-5: khemadassino li lna* lena saraiiq.
abhaya* accula- amata* nbbdna-dassino. Pj I! 534.9: khemadassino li
rtibbdnadassino.

in pSda a we should tead


or soka-<p>pa- or sokd- m.c. In p5da b
we should read jaham m.c. In p3da d wc should read aCari[m]su or acarum
rox. (with Pj li p. 647).
Sto. Nidd I 130.13 reads viviliom sanam (instead of vivitte-mnasam) in
pidab in the repetition of the verse and explains (131.16-17):
bhajamdnassa vivittam sanan fi. sanam vuceali yaltha nisidanli. Pj II
makes no comment. Although Ee quotes ho w.H., Be and Sc follow the
reading of Nidd. The Chinese translation is said to support this. See Bapat
(195t. pp. 14 and 52 note 4). Vism 666.* agrees with Ee, bur the version in
Nidd is supported by the Jain equivalent of this pdda: bhayamnassa
vMkkam sanam (Syag 1.2.2.17 s Suit I 106). It is clear that we ere dealing
with tjte metathesis of consonants, i.e. with sona alternating with nasa. For
metathesis of consonants see the note on 20-21.' I translate vivittam
Ssanam.

Nidd I 130.16-17: poinacar vuccanti sana sekh: arah patilfno. Pj II


534.11-13: paiilTnocarassd ti tato tato patUfnom cittam katvd carantassa.
Pj II 5^4.13-14 : bhikkhuno ti kaiynaputiutjjanosso sekhassa vd.
Nidd I 131.27-3* : smaggiy ti fsso smaggiy. gonasmaggf dhanunasmaggf anabhinibbattosmaggi. CPD (s.v.) translates the last of these as
"completeness or unanimity as to the not coming into existence (again)"
Nidd 1 132.19-23: toss' esd samaggt, etam chonnotn, etam potiriipom, etam
anucchavikam, etam anutomom. yo evam pofipanno niraye ... attitnani na
dasscyya. Pj II 534.15-17: toss' etam potirpam fihu, yo evam patipanno
nirayddibhede bhovane attdnam na dosseyya. PED does not list "pleasant"
as a meaning for sdmaggiya , although it does give "unpleasant" for
asdmaggiyo. CPD. however, gives "want of concord, disharmony" for the

latter.
Nidd I 132.14-17: bhavaue ti nerayikdnam nirayo bhoranam. tiracehdnayonikdnam tirocchnayon bhavanam, pittivisayiknom piltivisoyo
bhavanam. manussdnom manussaloko bhavatiom. devnam devaloko
bhavanam. Pj II 534.16 follows this interpretation : nirayddibhede bhavaue.

Hare points out (1945. p. 121 note 2) that both Nidd and Pj U seem to be
taking b/iovono in the sense of bhava.

342

The Croup of Discourses

The v.l. citici' for invitta- shows the civ alternation. See the note on 38.
The metre of pda <1is incorrect, but can be corrected by- reading / attnam
instead of yo astdnam. It is likely that the scribes would have (incorrectly)
written ySttnam, yvattnam, or even yvttnam. in such circumstances. Sec
the note on p. 15J.
Sii . Kkld 11334-0 sabbauha

m uni a n issito ti sabbam vuccori dvddas-

dyaian&ni. Pj H 534jo: sabbatth ti dvdosasu yatanesu.

Nidd I 134.15-

17: no piyom kubbaii no p i appiyan ti ayom me satto piyo, ime c o m e


samkltdrS manp ti bhaAgavasena piyom no karoti. ayom m e sotto
appiyo. im e c o me samUtr amanpa ti patighavasena oppiyom no karoti,
no ja n e ti no soiijaneii na nibbatteti ndbhinibbatteti.

In p5da a we should readnrwif blc.


$1:. (n poda d we must assume that idam has been attracted into the relative
clause in the same case as die subject of the clause, so that yad idem1 really
stands for imosmim yad. For the historical d~ in yad see the note on p. 13.ro.
See the noie on 813.
Nidd I 135,3*: udabid ti vuccoti udokothevo; pokkhorom voccatt
pddumapattam. There seems, however, to be no good reason for seeing
anything other than the usual sense of pokkltara (blue) lotus" here.
<i6o> 813. It is difficult to make out the syntax of pSda'b, and it looks as
though it has been taken over, perhaps from S12. without proper adaptation.
Pj II534.**-*7 tries to make sense of il : tatrpi "yad idam drtihasutam, iena
volthun na marinali, mutesir v dhainniesii na ma/iialTmti evam evan1
sambandho veditabbo. This interpretation requires us to believe that
maniiaii is constructed with the instrumental tena to which the relative yad
refers (with idam attracted into the relative clause as before) and also the
locative mutesu. '

Nidd I 138.1619: na hi so rojjali no virojjaif ti sabbe bblaputhujjand


rajjanti: kalydnaputhujjanam updya salta sekh vrajjanli: arah n'
eva rojjoti.no vrajjati, virato so. khoy rdgassa vrargattd .... There is
a v.l. virano for virato. Pj II 534^9 Has only virano. See also 795.
For dhona See the note on 351.
814-23. Tissametteyyasutta. The metre is loka.
814.

Nidd 1139^6-140.1; iced ti podasandhi podasamsaggo podapripri


akkharasamavdyo vyafijanasilijthoi paddnupubboid-m-etam iced if. Pj II
5)6.4: iti ti evom 6ha. The metre shows (hat the words icc yasm Tisso
Metteyyo are not original, and we can deduce that these are the reciter's

IV .

Auhakavagga

343

icmarks (see the note on 18-29). The fact that they arc commented upon in
Nidd shows, however, that they were added to the text very early on.
Nidd I 140,17-18 : viveke sikkhisdmase li viveko li layo vivekd, k&ya- citta*
upadhi-viveko, Pj II 536,(0-12: viVeJfce sikkhissdmase li sohdyam Orabbha
dhammadesanam ydcanto bitonali, so pana sikkhitasikkho yeva.
Pda d has the cadence
This can be normalised by reading
i(s]samase mx. with the v.l. and Nidd 1 139.6. For this scansion see the note
on 691. For the -dmase ending see the note on 32.
815. Nidd 1142.25 : Metteyy ti Bhagavd ri lam thcram gottena lapati. This
shows that the reciter's remarks bad already been added to the text by the
time of Nidd I (see the notes on 18-29 554).
Nidd I 144.7-8; tam pi mussati parimussati, paribhiro hotT ti evant pi
mussati evdpi sdsanatp. Pj II 536,13-14: mussate copi sOsanan ti partyatti'
patipattito duvidham pi sdsanam nassali : p i ti padapiiranomattam. For
the dv alternation see the note on 38.
Note andriyom (with -d- probably m.c.) in the cadence of pada d.
816. Nidd I 144.25-26: cko pubbe carirvdnd r} dvihi franchi tko-pubbe
caritvdna ; pabbajjdsamkhdtcna vd gandvavassaggonhena itf. Pj ll 536,17
has ganavassaggaithena (perhaps read -voss- with Bc) instead of gandvavassagganhena.
Nidd I 146.18: puthu kilese janensl ti puthujjan. For such folk etymtogies
see the note on 51.
817. Nidd I (48.8-9: sikkhethd ti fisso sikkhd, odhisilo- adhicittaadhipoimd-sikkhd.

818. Nidd ! 149.27 : kapano vtya mando viya niomho vyo. Nidd I 149.24-27:
kdmasamkappena
vySpdasamkappena
vihntsdsomkoppena
ditthisamkappena phuttho pareto samohito samanngato pillilo. Nidd I
149.31 : jhyaii pajjhyali nijjhyati avojjhOyati. The BHS version
(Hoernle, i9t6A, p. 71 i ) has dhydyato, which shows that the BHS redactor
did not realise that MIA jh could develop < ks.
Nidd I 150.23-24: glosses nigghosam as vacanom vyoppatham desonam
onusdsanom anusitthim. Pj II 537.: nindovacanam. See the note 00719.
Nidd I 150.25-26: moiiku hoti. pi/ito ghaitito vyatthito domonossito hoti. Pj
il 537.
maniku hoti ti dummano hoti. The BHS version has monkur
bhavoti. See BHSD (s.v. maiiku).
819. Nidd I 151.12-16: satthdnl ti tini satthdni, kayo- voci mono-saifhom ;
tividham kdyoduccarttom kyasoitham. catubbidhdm voclduccaritam voci-

344

The Group cf Discourses

sasiham. lividharp manoduccaritam manosanham. Pj II5374-6: satthnl 1$,


kdyaduccaritddini. tni. hi affano' paresan ca chedanattkena satthdnl ti
vuecanti.
, "x ''. ;
. ,,
Niddl 15149-152.3: mahdgedho mahvanam mahgahanam mahkantro
mahvisamo mahkutilo mahpanko mohdpatipo mahdpoUbodho
mahbandhanam, yadidam sampajnamusdvdo. Pj II 537.10: mahdgedho
ll mahbandhanam. In Aoka*s Fifth Rock Edict wo find apolibodha (<
budh- to bind*) alternating with opatigodho (< gudh- **to bind" {see MW
s.v.)) The similarity o f meaning between "attachment** and greed** may
have led to a confusion between *godha and gedha. leading to the
replacement o f the former by the latter. See BHSD (s.v. godha).
For the sandhi o f *0 + aC C - > -voCC- in Urvossa see the note on p. 154.
S20. Nidd 1 15309-154.1 : matido va parUdssatl ti kapano viya momho viya

kissati parikissati ponkilissoti.


ln pda b we should ignore the svarabhaktf vowel in <ariyam.
<i 6i > 8 i i . Nidd 1 156.9-11: elan ti pubbe samanabhdve yaso ca kitti ca,
aparabhdge Buddhom dhammam saAgham sikkhatn paccakkhdya
hftdfyvattassa ayaso ca akiti ca, etom sampottivipaitim natvd. Q I I 537.1619: etom "yaso kitti ca yd pubbe hayate*v3p i tasta sdT ti ita pebhuti vutte

pubbdpare idha tmasmim sdsane pubbato opare somanobhv


vibbhantakabhve ddnavam muni ilatvd.
In p3da c we should ignore the svarabbakd vowels in -cariyom and kayird
(by metathesis < *kariy < *Jfcaryd).
822. Pj 11 537.21-23: na iena settho mandethd ti tena ca vivekena na
attSnam settho oitan**t maiineyya, iena thaddho na bhaveyya.
For the historical </ in etad ariyduam see the note on p. 13.10.
In p5da b we should ignore the svarabhakti vowel in ariydnam.
823. Nidd 1 15849-159.1 : rittassd tl rittassa vivittassa pavivittassa, kdya+ -duccaritena rittassa. Pj II 537.24: rittassd ti vivittassa kdya-

dmccaritddivirahitassa.
In pada a there is resolution o f the seventh syllable, and in p2da c
resolution o f the sixth syllable.
824-34- Pasrasutta. The metre o f 824-33 is Tristubh. with a Jagatl p5da in
829. P3das acd o f 834 are VailSIiya ; pSda b is Aupacchandasafca.
824. Pj II 540.31-32; ime ditthigatik aitano ditthim sandhya ~idh*'va
suddhl ti vodanti. Nidd I t 6 i 4 and 16245 reads suddhim.

IV .

Atthakavagga

345

saithram dhammokihnom ganam ditthim


pttpadammaggamnissit. tatth ti sakyadittbiy sakya khantiy
sak&ya ruciy sakya laddhiy. Pj II 5 4 0 oj-$4 1 .r : evamsante aitano
saiihrdtni nissitiaiih evaesavdosubho ti evamsubhavdhuh'.
Nidd I 161.4 reads subh vadn (ot subham vadn. explaining:
subhavd sobhanayd, etc. Elsewhere in Sn vadn is used with a
Nidd I i62.ifr-i3;jram

nominative io the sense of saying oneself to be something (see the note


on 825). which is inappropriate here, and it. seems likely that the
construction has been modelled upon $25 in error. For the present middle
participle ending
in
the note on 131.

*na vaddnasee
puthsamanabrhmanputhupaccekasaceesunivitth.
vdiyati.Cf. Skt vivdayati= vivadati.

Nidd l 162.17-1*:
Note the palatalisation of -a- > -/ in
For palatalisation see the note on 3.

vigayhaogayhaajjhogahervpavisin.
te anftamaniiom bdlato binato nihtnato omakato
lmakato jatukkaio parinolo dahant possami dakkhanti otokenii
nijjhyanti (with Bc and v.L; E* -ggh-j upaporikkhomi. Pj II 541^-6:
"ayamb5!nti evamdve pi janS anHamoRHambdlamdalianti bdlato
passanti.
Pj H 54 ! ,S-S: vadam
i te afiasii kathojjan ti te annamanhasatthrdim
nissir kahhamvadami. For ujja(< Ski udya)in kathojja. Smith (Pj II
825. Nidd I 163.9:

Nidd I) 63.14-16:

p. 672) compotes Pinini UL1.106.

kusalvadan

subhvadn
pi moyom kusalavd

Nidd I 163.19 takes


to mean much the same as
in $24. but Pj II 541.9-10 explains: 11M0
which 1 take to mean not saying a
skilled thing, but saying that they say skilled things, i.e. claiming to be
experts. For the present middle participle ending
in
see the
note on 131.
In p3da d the final
in
is m.c.

panditovd"ti evanisaniino hutv,

-na vadno

a- pasamsavinghtf half ti pubb' eva saltp kathamkathi


vinightf hott: jayo nu kho me bhavissati. parjayo nu kho me
bhavissati?The meaning would therefore seem to be apprehensive**. MW
does list afflicted, distressed (as the mind) for vinihata, but the
association with pasom
samiechamsuggests that it ought to have a more

826. Nidd I 164.19-21 ;

active sense, perhaps provocative, attacking 10 which pitia c would then


provide the contrast, when his arguments are defeated.

The Croup o f Discourses

346

aphatasmin fi panhvlmamsakchi "atthpagaiam te


bhanitam,vyanjonpagatemle bhanitaiTtl dtndnayenaapasdiievde.
For randhnm
esinsec ihe note oq 188.
Ir pda b'-i in vinighti (the nominative singular masculine of vinighStin)

Pj II 54 1*14-17:

ism.c.

* v. '

yam
'Use

si quern

<i 62> 827. In pda a I take


to equal
(see the note on 782). For
the nominative plural ending
see the note on 7 . The reading
which
is found in Nidd 1 164 49 and also as a v.l., arises from the
confusion (sec
the note on 369).
For the

alternation in

yls

ye,

-vTmamsaka(< mimmsaka)see the note on

to o .

For

anutthuntisee the note on 586.

There is resolution of the.fiftl syllable in pda c.


In pda b the metre is better if we read -vi* (see Pj n p. 7 2 1 ). In pda c'we
should read paridevati m.c. In pSda d -- in anutihunli is m.C.

jayena ... citramugghtitamhoti,parQjayena ...


cittnmnightitamhoti. Pj II 541.27-29: eiesu ugghti-nghti hott tietesti
vdesujayapardjayddivasenacittassa ugghtamnightancapptfaanto
ug^hli-nighlimvahoti. From this it^eems that tigghfltiand nighti (or
merely the latter if we have a compound) are m.c. for -f. i.e. they are
adjectives, not nouns (pacePED).
For kathojjamas an ablative in -amafter virarnecf. kukkuccam925, and see

828. Nidd I 168.3-4 :

the note on p. 48.1.9 and cf. Laders (Beob., $ 92).


Nidd 1 168.1708: pasam
saibhaAiiootthon*aititi. Pj II 541.31-32: nah*
annndotth' otthi pasomsalbhti na hi tuba pasamsalbhato oniiattho
atthi. Fausboit (Glossary) therefore seems to be wrong in assuming that
atthis for -otthu. For the sandhi of -o+ aCC- > -aCC- see the note on 324.
For sandhi -d-see the note on p. 16.7.
In pSda d final -a- in posam
sais m.c.
829. Ntdd 1 169.21-23: ottonovdamokkhyacikkhitvdanitvitdamakkhttya
ticikkhitv thambhoyiiv brhoyitv dfpayitvA jotayiivd vohoritv
poriggonhitvd. Pj II 542.1 : tarnvdompartsamajjhedipetvJ.
Nidd I 169.23-27: so ienajoyotthena tutthohoti hatthopahatthoottom
ano
paripunnasamkoppo:othavdontavidamsakamhosamno11 so hassati.
Theoretically a form with -rs* should be from horf-, not has-, but as the two
mots are confused in Pili, this distinction is not maintained. Cf. 887.

'

IV. Atthakavagga

347

yathmono yathcino yalhsamkappoyaihvinnno.

Nidd 1 170.5-6:
,
The
lastTwo words should noi, therefore, be separate as in E. The explanation
takes
as though it were a masculine nominative singular, but it*
must be an indeclinable adverbial phrase "according to his intention". For
this meaning of
see 873.

yalhmano

mono
unnamaii

For -nn- io
see the note on 206.
PSdas abc are Tristubh ; p5 da d is JagatT. In pida c we should read
m.c. InpSda
is m.c. Cf. 78$. In pSda d we should read
m.c. in place
of/am.

ccca

tom

HassaiT

vighlabhmi,ugghlabhmi. It is hard to reconcile


ugghdtigiven for 828.

830. Nidd 1 170.18-19;


this sense of
with the meaning of

ugghia

For -nn- in u m ori see the note on 206.


Note the sandhi of *d + oCC- > -CC- in

vdayetha

sssaand cf. savssa1100.


vivadayati.

'

The optative W
shows that (he verb is
and supports
the belief that vivdiyati is merely a palatalised version of this (see the
note on 3). It is the causative of vivad-, not a denominative as PED states.

umori
831. Nidd 1 17 1.30; rtjokhadayaputritotirjokhodonyena raja
bhojontyena putrito. For Kerns suggestion of reading rajakkhatSyasee
PED (s.v. rjo).
Nidd 1 172.8-10; yen' evanoditthigarikolenapalebt... sotuyhampatisro
.... Pj II 542.11-13: yenasotuyhampatisro,lenagaccha.
Pj H 542.13-16: pubbe va n' aititi yodidamyudhy li yampan* idam
kilesajdramyuddhQyo siyd, rameiatnpubbeva a* anhi. bodhintleyeva
pohtnatt ti dasseu. PED (s.v. yuddha)takes yudhdyaas the dative of an
archaic yudh. but it is more likely to be m.c. for yuddhya (Le. the past

There is resolution of the first syllable in pSda d. ' '


ln pSda a we should read
m.c.
'

participle used as an aciion noun. Sec the note on 331).

poltri
-d yadidam

r/l

For
cf. 1144 and for the
alternation see the note on 29. For the
historical in
see the note on p. 13.10.
There is resolution of the first syllable in pida b.
In p3 da a the metre is belter if we read
m.c. with Nidd 1.

-khodya
radossuin the sense of "dispute" see the note on 780.
Nidd 1 1 73^8-174.4 iyepoiisenikaiipatilomakaitpatikoniakallS
poiipakkhokatt kalahamkareyyumbhandanamkareyyum viggaham
kareyyumvivdamkareyyummtdhagnmkareyyum.ten anhi nasantina
832. For

The Croup o f Discourses

343

samvijjontl n* upalabbhanti. See the note on palisenikarontiin 932. Pj II


542.18 however, takes patisen'ikattdas singular (= patilom
akrako). If this
1$ $0; then the second tein p5 da c must equal tuyham
.
The v.l. cafor 'dhoin p3da c shows the cldhalternation. See the note on 26.
For the palatalisation of o > -i- in vivdiyanti and vdiyanti see the note
on 3.
In pSda b there is resolution of the first syllable.

visenikatvd

<l<$3> 833. For


see the note on 793. For the folk etymology
given in Pj II see the note on 51.

yesamdvsatthi ditthigalni pakinni soAiucchnnai


posantdni patipassaddhni abhabbuppattikdni nnaggin dadtfhni.
te ditthhi ditthm avtrujjhamn aghattiyamSn appatihahhamn
appatihatamnti dttMhi ditthmavrujjhamdnd. MW (s.v. virttdh-) lists
Nidd I 175.5-9 ;
vii

the use o f the verb in the passive with the instrumental, but I cannot
explain the use of

ditthim.
lobhethafor lobhetho:kirnlobheihri patrtallamkim
iabhissasiT
-ethosee Geiger (1994. (27X.
Nidd 1 175.13-15 ;> ' T
dhan atthXparam'uggahitanti yesamarahantnam
khinusavdnam idamparamamoggam settham visetthampdmokkham
uttamampavaranti gahitam.I assume therefore that paramshould rather
be written as param
' * paramam. and I have changed my translation
Pj II 542.19-10 reads
For the ending

accordingly. Note the srndhi of -cm + i* > -F-.


Pada c has only ten syllables. We should read
(with Pj II p. 704).
and
m.c. In pda d we should read
m.c. with Nidd 1 175.13.

t<u>vam
aithl
NiddI Vfi.y$:pavitakkamtigam
it takkentovitakkentosamkappento:
jayonukhomebhavissati, parjayorut kitomebhavissati?
Nidd I I77.4-I5: Pastiro paribbdjako na ppatibah dhonena Buddhena
bhagavatdsaddhimyugamsamdgamsamgantvQyugagghamganhitum
skacchetttmsoltopitumskacchamsampojjitiun. tamkissahetu?Pasro
paribbiijako hino nihfno Omako linakojaittkko poritto. so hi Bttddho
aggo ca settho ca visettho capdmokkho ca pavaro ca.yath saso na
ppalibalo mattena mrahgeno saddhimyugamsamgamsamgttntv
yugaggdhamganhitum.yath kouhako... sihena... ,yath vacchako...
nsabhena. . . . Pj II 542 .11-14 : dhonenayttgamsomdgamdti dhutakilesena
buddhena saddhimyugagghamsampanno. For dhonasee the noi on
35X. For yugamsee BHSD.
testi

IV. Atthakavagga

349.

hi tvamsagghasi sampahdtave ti kouhu-ddayoviya


slh&dihi dhonenayugamgahetvekapadompi sompaytumyugaggham
cvavsampdetuntnasakkhissasi.
For the alternation sakkh-lsaggh- see Liidcrs (Bcob.. $*149) and CDlAi.
13080. Ntdd 1 17507 reads sakkhasi.
Pj U 542.24-17: no

Pdas acd are Vaitlly?; pSda b is Aupacchandasdka. In pSdas a and d rvdoes not make position.
835-47- Magandiya-sulla. Cf. Divy 519 folk, where M 3gandiya is called
Makandika. For the
alternation see the note on 2 2 -23. 1 ^ SM
version from Chinese Turkestan he is called Mgandika. See Hocrule
(1916A, p. 714). For the 4
alternation see the note on 319.
The metre is mainly Trifubh, with a Jagatl pda in 845. Verse 83d is all
Jagatt.

-k-i-y-

-k- -g-

835. Ntdd I 181.7-2: Tanhaii ca Aratiti ca Rgo ca M


radhtaro. disv
passitv.Pj II 544.22-25: kn ev idant imissdrikyaniuttokansopunnom
rpamdisvbhavissati,sabbadpdpi namsamphusitumnaicchc,knto
nenasamvasiium.PED does not Hst nena(s.v. na*).Ofnssa(Ja V 203.2t*).
For pdas an instrumental singulr in -d. see the note on 119.
There is a v.l. Aratiti caR
dgarn, which is supported by Midd I 1S2.1. This
avoids the necessity of assuming the shortening of -d- > -o- in R
agamm.c.
Dhp-a 1 202.3 reads as Sn ; Ud-a 383.1 reads A
rati/nFaganca.
<1&4> 836. Pj II 5 4 4 o - 5 4 5 . i ditthigatam silavatnujiviian ti ditthm ca
sftaii ca vaiaii c a jM ta ii ca. Nidd I i82.u*-i7* includes this verse, but does

not comment on It.


The metre is JagaiT.
In p5da e we should read ditthh m.c. See Pj II p. 707.
837. For the reciter's remarks see the note on tS-29.

nalassahati ti namaybamboti.

Nidd 1 182.27:
For examples of first and
third person pronouns together, see the note on p. 15.23.
Nidd I 183.4 foil.: dhattunesfl ti dvsatthiy ditthigatesu. uiccbeyy ti
ntcchinitvvhccbinin, etc.
Nidd I 183.15-17: passati ca ditthisu anuggnhy ti ditthisu dinavom
passatiladitthiyonogaitbminaparmasaminaabhinivismi. Pj II 545.9*
>1 : saedini pavicinanto ajjbattnam rgO
dinam santibhvena
u'jjhaticSaniisamkhtamnibbnamevaaddasam.
838. For the reciter's remarks see the note on 18-29.

Tne Croup of Discourses

350

Nidd I 186.1-3: vinicchayd vucconti dvsaith ditthigatdni dittitivinicchayd. pakoppitdni ti kappitii abhisamkhaid santhapitd ti pi
pakappild,athav aniccd samkhatd paticcasanntppannd kltayadhammd
vayadhammd virgodhamm nirodhadhamm viparinSmdhanmd ti pi
pakappild. Pj II 545.1 1 -1 4 ' ydn' iinni ditthigatdni tehi tehi sattehi
vinicchinitv gahirattd vinicchayd ti ca ottano paccayehi
abhisamkhatabhvddindnayenapakoppitdni cdti vucconti.
Il seems that atthomis neuter here.
For -dni as masculine nominative plural endings in ynl pakoppitdni, in
agreement with vinicchayd. see the note on 45.
839. For the reciter's remarks see the note on 18-39.

fidnd
&

The metre of pda a is irregular. It can be regularised by reading


for
and assuming that this is an instrumchia! singular in
(see the
note on 1x9). It is likely that
entered the text front the gloss in Nidd
1 187.1$. In p3 da c
which is also an instrumental, remained because
it is not glossed by
In p5 da d
is an instrumental
singular.

ddnena,

iidneita
ohndnd,
annnena.

asllat

obbatd

For
as the instrumental singular of an - 4 stem noun see the nte on
iod.
*
In p3 da a we should read
nt.c. In pda c we should read
m.c. with Nidd 1 18741.

<s>sutiy

a[ii\ndnd

840. For the reciters remarks sec the note on 1S-29.

pticcenii

paccentTti jdnanti.
pacceti.
paccdgocchati.
pacccif ti icchati

Nidd I does not gloss


here. Pj 1! 546.10:
Although Nidd I 85.1 (ad 788) does not gloss
in I 108.25 (ad 800)
and 1 J14.11 (ad 803) it glosses :
Here, however. 1 think the
meaning is that given in Spk I 266.11 (ad S 1 182.29):
("believe in").

ponheii

-m-in manne-m-ahamsec the note on 132.


kiralkiiasec the note on 356.
For aniidnand obbatd as instrumental singular forms of -astem nouns
For the sandhi
For

see the note on 119.

asiloidas* the instrumental singular of an -dstent noun see the note on

For
too.

Pda f has only ten syllables. We could correct the metre by reading
if we assume that a single long
syllable has replaced the short sixth and seventh syllables (see the note on
61).

patiyanti, but the metre is acceptable

IV .

Anliokavagga

kira
nnena

35.

ditrhiya

ln pda a we should exclude ire


J m.c. In pSda we should read
m.c. For
in place of
see the note on 839. For other changes m.c_
in pdas abed see the note on 839.

hn

<J5> 841. For the reciters remarks see the note on 18-29.

diiihisu

ditthifi ca.

ditthim
ditthimsu,

Nidd I 193.6 reads


lor
but includes
in the
explanation. We should probably assume (hat
is for
with
being replaced by -ft-. For the VWC7 VC alternation, see the note
on 315.

-imS

dinhlsu

anupucchamanotipunappunompucchati.
itoajjhatiasantilovpofipaitiiovd dhammadesanatoid,
yultosannam pouosannomvlakkhanasannam'vd kdranasaMamid
fhdnasamam nopaiilabhasi'.kutoiinam?
Although dahati is derived from Skt dodhdii, k does not normally have -<!'
in Pali. We should therefore assume that dahsi is m.c. in pSda d.
Nidd 1 193.9-10:

Nidd 1 193.21-3}:
id
vd

There is a redundant sixth syllable in pSda a, but the metre can be corrected
by reading

nissy\a)\
yo

842. Pj II 546.22-23:
evan tivid heu n n en a vd d itth iy A id m a n u a li. For the
three modes of sdf-conccii sec Th 1076.
*'
There is antithesis between pSdas ab and cd. and there should be a full stop
at the end of p3 da b.
In pads b in
is mx. The original reading was perhaps
In
p3 da c we should read
m.c.

-t maHAatt
mannaie.
Usa
843. Nidd I 193.13-19: brahm
ano li sailOnnamdhommonombhiian
brahmano. Pj II 346.17-1$; so evarpo pohtnannadiithiko mdiso
bAhiinppdind nayena brahmano, i.e. we are referring to a brahmanoin
the Buddhist sense of the word. See EV I, p. 167 (ad Th 221). This is perhaps
always true except in the compound
For
in the sense of "dispute" sec the note on 780.

vadeyya

samanabrOhmana.

844. Nidd 1 197-200 does not comment on this verse, but quotes S 111 9-12
verbatim, where this verse is discussed, and is said to come from the
MSgandiya-paflha in the Auhakavagga.

apnrekkhartinOti dyalimatiobhvamanobhinibbaitento.
purekkliarno, valloni paralokuntmdno. The
nibbna**.
Pjll547.7-$ explains: kaihamno viggayhajattena kayr ti jonena
saddhim viggdhikakaiham na katheyya. The phrase is, therefore, the
Pj II 547.6-7:
Spk II 260.17 (ad S 111 9.27*):
idea is presumably "not preferring future existence to

55*

The Group o j Discourses

vigrhya-vdo. For such compounds see the note on 72.


Ci.kathamvigghikamnakothayeyya^o.
For nias a masculine accusative plural ending in santhavni see the note
equivaleot- of Skt

on 4 5 In plda d
in
svarabhaktt vowel in

-gg- viggayha is m.c. In pda d we should ignore (he


kayir.
845. Nidd 1 201.0 : yehTti yehi ditthigatehi. vivitt ti kyaduccaritenan.
sabbkusaibhisamkhrehi vino vVi//o pnvivitto. vicareyy ti creyya
vihareyya... ypeyya.Pj 11547.9-10: vivittovicareyydririttocareyya.
Nidd I 201.20-21 : ngoti dgfrm no karotTti ngo; nagacchatf ti ngo:
ngacchaiTti ngo. For ngttas applied tc He Buddha see the note on 166.
For vadeyyain the sense o f .dispute" see the note on 780.
Nidd. 1 202.29-203,1 : elant vnccati udakam
.ambuvuccoti udukatn.ombujom
vuccati padumam.kantoko vuccoti kharadando. If etatiduka, then there
is tautology: eia= am
bu. Pj II547.12-1} : elambujanti elasaniiokeombumhi
jtamkantakantam rrijom. 1 do not know the source of the reading
flambiyaquoted in PED.
Nidd I 203.11-13 : smtivado ti $antivdo m
uni tnovdo tenavdo
saronavdoaecutovddo amatavdo nittbilnavildo.
For the root lip- constructed with the instrumental in plda d and the
locative in plda e see EV I, pp. 271 and 285 (ad Th 1089 and 1180).
PSdas abdef are Tristuhh: plda c is Jagatt.
In pda a we should read
m.c. In pda c -f in
and in pda f -d- in
are m.c. In pda e we should read
m.c. (with Nidd 1 201.1 X

ntuiif
-vado
<i66> 846. Pj N 547.27-29 cxpalins: imkanunanno pi sutenaneyyoti
pubhisamkhrdikamman vd sutasuddhi'din sutena vJ. so
netabbonahoti.
Nidd 1 205.21-26: na ditthiy It ... so dinhiy na yyatl, naniyyati.na
vuyhoti.nasamhariyatiznapi tomditthigptamstiratopacecti.napoccgocchaitti navedagditthiy. It is not entirely clear that this explanation
is taking ditthiyas a compound, but this is clearly so in Pj It 547.19-14: na
vedagditthiy ri latumagguvedagmdisaditthiyyikounhoti ditthiy
gacchonto in tarn srato paccento vna hoti; tattha vaconattho:
ytl ti. ). tato karanavaconena ditthiy y(tf) l pi ditthiy.
upayogatthenasmivacanenadtthimyttt ti pi ditthi-y.
^
Pj II 547.29-3 ' so dvinnampi upaynatnpahlnott sabbesu tanhaditthinivesonesu anupanito.
anitpatino

yeht

IV, }4tthakavagga

353

vednam... antam goto ti vedagu. For vedagu as the


vedakasee Ute note on 322.

Nidd I 205.8:
equivalent of Ski

muti

For
(< mori*) in the sense of feeling (by the senses other than seeing
and hearing)" see the note on
in 7x4. The etymology
quoted from Vibb-a412.8 in FED shows the
alternation (see the note on
227). For the labialisation o f *fl- > -u- after -m- in
and in
in
Nidd 1 206.1 see tbc note on di.
The metre is Tristobh, but pSda a is defective. We should read
m.c.,
and assume that a single long syllable has replaced the short sixth and
seventh syllables. See the note o n .61. ln pda a we should ignore the
svarabhakti vowel in
In pda d -tf- in
is m.c.

muta

t/d

"mudati ti muir

mutiy

kammund

ditthlyd

mutiy.

848-

anponTto

61. Puiabbedasutta. The metre is loka.

849- 56. All these verses are a description of the


constructed with
In 861.

savesantoti vuccati

uttaranara, and are to be

S49. For the reciters remarks see the nte on 1S-29.


Nidd I 211.14-15:
etc.

bhe,

purbhed ti pur kfiyassabhed, pur ottobhvassa

pubbamantamanissito ti pubbahtovuccaii atrioaddit;


attomaddhnamrabbhatanhOpahtn Itoti. Pj 11 549.2: pubbamantam
anissito ti attaddhdibhedaHca pubbam antamanissito. The Chinese

Nidd 1 212 ,28-29:

translation takes this as referring to the future. See Bapat (1951. p. 156
note ]6 and Inlrod. p. 14).
Nidd 1 213.19-31: vem
ajjhe vuccati paccuppanno addltil,paccappannam
oddhnamrabbhatanhpahTnhoti. For purekkhotam, referring to the
future, see the note on 844.
Pj II 549.3-5:

vemajjhenfipasamkheyyoti paccuppannepi addhani"ratto"


ti din nayena na upasamkhdtabbo. Although PF.D derives
upasamkheyya from upasamkharoti. it must be from upasamkhy- "to
reckon.

akukkuco ti hanhakukkuccdivirafiito.
(ceraso vippaiisra)
mantabhnin

<i 67> 850. Pj 11 549.1a:


Nidd I
218.32 gives also the interpretation remorse"
and
Kor
sec EV I. p. 117 (ad Th 2) and EV II. p. 22
(adTh!28t).

manovitekho.
Pj II 549.13:
(ad Th 74).

anuddhato ti uddhaccorahito. For uddhoccasee EV I, p. 140

vikanthinakaukriih.
<in okokkucois m.c.

Ud5 na-v 26.28b reads no


ln pda b

The Group o f Discourses

354

nir&sattl for -sani. PED must be wrong in taking


-in
dsalta. It is nir+ dsatti< Skt sakti.
Pj II 5 49.16-17: vivekadasst phassesii It paccuppannesu cakkhu*
samphassdisu attdibhvavivekom passali. This is one of the
851. Nidd 1 221*12* reads
this as an
formation from

explanations given in Nidd I 222-23, where three are given in all. This is
unnecessarily complicated, and there seems to be no reason to take the
passage at anything other than its face value as referring to present lime:
seeing seclusion (even) in the midst of (all) the sense-impressions (of his
present life).
The cties seem unable to differentiate between
(the passive
of nr- to lead) and
<
to go out. Nidd I 223.29-30:
By taking it as a
passive here, the locative
makes less sense than an instrumental.
So Pj II549.iS explains:
It is,
however, possible that the confusion arose from an Eastern form
which could be both locative and instrumental. See LOders (Beob.. 225).
See the note on 29.

niyyati<niyate
niyyati niryti
so
ditthiynaydyati net niyyqti no vuyhati naspmhariyati.
ditthisu
dvdsanhbditihfsukyaci dinhiydnaniyyati.
ditthihi

$52. Nidd I 224.16-18 : akuhakom


ti. tnu kuhonavptthni, poccaya*
patisevanasamkhdtam kuhanarotthu. iriypathasamkhtam
ktthanavntthn.smantajappanasamkhtamhthanovotthu. This with the
exegesis is quoted at Vism 24-26.
Nidd 1 227.^-22: pihJ vuccaii tanh... yass' esd pthd pahTn. . . . so
vuccati apihlu.sorupe... Mammenapiheri. naicchott,nasddiyati,na
pattiteli. nbhijappati ti apihiu. This is. therefore, following the
etymology from sprh- (the expected *phih- becoming pih- by
dissimilation o f aspirates). Foe the dissimilation of aspirates see the note
on 52. Pj 11 549.!-2i : aphlii ii apihanasilo,pauhantonhyya rahito. I
take apihanaas being from asprhana. and 1 do not understand why PED
(s.v. apihdiu) suggests that it may be from a*pi*dhd . Elsewhere (s.v.
pihana) PED suggests a derivation from piheti. PED (s.v. pihdlu) suggests
a derivation < piydru. but the .example of jr>A quoted there (pafthayati>
patthahati)is not an example of that change.
Nidd I 2 2 8 !t->3 t.ts: appagabbho ajeguccho ti pugabbhiyan ti tint
pogttbbhiyani kdyikampdgabbhiyamvdcasikampiigabbhiyamcclajikom
piigabbhiyam... yass* imdni tini pgabbhiyni pahindni ... so vuccati
appagabbhori. Pj II 549.22: appagabbho ti kyapgabbhiydirohito. Cf.
94 *-

Nidd 231.32-232.2: katam


oca puggaloajeguccho?idhabhikkhu sttavd
hoti.pdtimokkhasamvarasamvuto viharaii dedragoearasampanno. dnu1

IV. Atthakavogga

355

matteria vajjesu bhayadassdvt samdya sikkhati sikkhpadesu. Pj H


549.13-14: ajeguccho ti sam
pannastldifya ajegucchoniyo asecanako
mandpo.See also EVI, p. 258 (adTh 961).
853. Ndd I 233.16-26: sdtiyvuccantipaiicakm
agun... yesamessatiyd
tanhdpahtn... tesamcakkiiulorpatanh... nasavati, napasavati,na
sandati%na pavattatf ti stiyesu anassvT. Pj II 549.35-26: stiyesu
anassdvt ti stovotthusu kdmagunesu fanhdsanihavavirahito. I assume
that sdliya is from Skt 9
Sdtya(< Sia), and is not an example of the tld
alternation. See the note on 193.
Ndd I 234.14-15 states: potibhdnavd ri tayo patibhdnavanto.pariyanipafibhnav paripucchOpaiibhnavd adhigamopatibhnav.
Pj U 549.27-28: potibhdnavd tipariyattiparipucchdhigam
aparibhdnehi,
samanndgato.
Nidd 1 235.9-11 : nasaddhoti sm
amsayamabhiiUiiamattapaccakkham
dhammamnakassacisaddahaii.Pj II 549.29: smamadhigatamdhammam
na kassaci saddohati. In the context, however, na saddho na virajjaii
ought to mean the same as narojjati navirajjari in$1$. It is likely, then,
that saddha here reflects the alternative sense o f Sraddh "desire (see
Kbhler (1973. p. 60) and Norman (1979D, p. 329]). and would therefore mean
"desiring. See the note on 663.
8 * . Nidd l 239.22-31 : viruddho ti yo c'm
assa ghdto potighto
anuvirodho kopo...\ayamvuccoti virodho. yass' eso nirodhopallinolo
vuccatiavintddho, Pj II 549.32-33: virodhbhvenaaviruddho hutvd.
Pj II 549-33-550.i : tanhya m
tarasdisu gedhomnpajjaii. Pj II 549.32
reads rasent for rasecain the lemma. Nidd ! 240.12 includes rasesit in the
explanation. F reads rasesu, but raseoccurs with anugijjhin 922. Cf. 769.
For -knm
y, 9truncated form in <3 -ya, see the note on 110. Cf. "name
dei*nakuppejjd, y5 r 1.244.
855. Nidd I 244.11-13: sadiso'hamosm
i ti /ndiiom,... seyyo'hamasmiti
oiimdnom... Inno'hamasmitiomdnam(Bc so; E6 urduo/ii).
For ussodasee the note on 515.
856. The v.l. nissayan(found also in the lemma of pj It) arises from the
scribal confusion of naand ta in Sinhalese script. It would be a verbal
noun made from the verb nisroyori. while nhsayai is an abstract noun
made by adding -lto nissaya.
Ndd I 245.31-31: bhvyd ti sassatiditfhiyd: vibhi-y ti ucchedaditthiyd-

356

857.

The Group o f Discourses

For visattik sec EV I, p/189 (ad Th 400X

85$. Nidd I 248.0-18: aits ti sassatadinhi n' althi, niratt ti ucchedadhthi


n' a uhi; atti li gahitam n althi. niratt it muncitabbam n' atthi. gohanamuncanam samatikkanto arahd vuddhint parihdnim vlrivatto.

For posavo see LQUcrs (B'eob., 213). PED lists the word (s.v. posa) as
occurring at $ 169.30, but elsewhere (s.v. posavo) gives a different meaning.
SpkJ 134.13:gomahisakukkutasiikardayo posavo.
ln pda a there is resolution of the sixth syllable.
<l63> 859. Pj il 550.18-19; tasmd vdesu 11 ejati ti tanikuran niitdvacanesu na kampati. This seems to be interpreting vdesu as a locative of
cause. He is pot agitated because of their accusations. Cf. Mahbh?ya
2.3.36: saptamyadhikarane Ca. Cf. ajinamhi hahate dlpT.ngo dantehi
hanilati, dhanamhi dhanino hauti aniketam asanthavam, Ja VI 61.3*. Ja VI
6r.tj' foil.: ajinamhl ti camnatthya cammakran, donreht li aliano
dantehi harinaii, dontanimittam haJinati ti aitho, hanti ti haiihoti. Cf.
MBh$. 1458.18 (ed. Kielhom): carmani dvlpinom hanti, dantayor hand
kudjaram, keSesu camarlm hanti, sfami puskalako hatah. The Ja verse is
quoted in a slightly different form at Sadd 727.13-24: jinamhi kahnate
dipt, kunjaro dantesu hannate evam nimittacthc (ad $ 6 4 1 1 kamnta Starano

nimittotthesu sanami). Cf. Mogg II35.

Nidd I 249.13-14: vajjum = vadeyyum.


Nidd 1250.3-9: tassa tonhpurekkhro pahino. dinhipurekkhro pahino;
na tanham vd ditthim v<J purato katv carati ; na tanhya vd diuhy v
parivdrito carati ti tam tossa apurekkhatam.

Nidd 1250.12*14: n' ejati. na ejati. na calati, na vedhati. na ppovedhati, na


sampavedhati. PED docs not list ejati.
Pda a has nine syllables, but we could read puthu{j\janA and assume
resolution of the sixth or seventh syllable. The toss of *m in vajjtt is
presumably m.e.
In pSda b br- in brhman does 310t make position.
$60. Pj II 550.19-21: na ussesit vadati ti visitthesu atinam antokatv
"aham visittho" ti aii/mnovosena na vadati esa nnyo itaresu dvfstt.
Nidd 1250 reads ossesu for ttssesu. For the Oht alternation sec the note on
6S9

Nidd 1 251.23*27: tanhkoppam vd diuhikappam v Stoppest na joncti na


sahjaneti na nibbaueti n&bhinibbattett ti koppom n* eli akappiyo. Pj II

IV .

Atthakavagga

357

550.22-J4'. so evarpo duvidham pi kappam na cti, kasmd: yasntd akappiyo,


pahlnakappo ti vuttam hoti.
If wc adopt the reading vadati in the lemma of Pj II. we should have 10 read
vadati true., but the middle form radete is not only more metrical, but also
suits the grammar better: speaks o f himself* (cf. the middle participle
vadna).
'
Pda.b has nine syllables. We should either read *>{<]* m.c. or assume
resolodon o f the fourth syllable.
1''; .
S6l. NkJd 1253^-253.1 j : asatd ca na socati ti viparinatam vd vatthum na
socati \ ... athavd asatdya (Be asantya) dukkhya vedanya phuttho na
socat; . . . athavd osante asamvijjamdne nnupalabbhiyamdne-na socati.
Pj II50,25 gives only the last of these : avijjamndind ca asatd ha
socati. Dhp-a IV 100.1S foil, (ad Dhp 367): asatd ca na soeatr ti tasmid ca
ndmarilpe khayavayam patte "mamarBpant khtnatn ... p e ... manta vinnnam
khlnon" ti na socati na rihandati. Since asatd is an instrumental; it would
seem that the meaning is he does not grieve on account of that which docs
not exist** (cf. asoli aparttassond, M I 136.23 foil.), but it is clear that the
phrase has caused difficulty in the various traditions. BUS (Udna-v 32.17)
reads asantam ; CDhp (79) reads osata, and -/- in GSndh&T can only stand
for
although it may be a scribal error for asada, which could then be
the equivalent of cither reading, since both /* and -nt- appear to become
-d~. as the anusv3ra of -md- is not written. The phrase occurs again in 950,
where Nidd I 435-36 gives (he same explanations, except fur asdtdya in
place of asatdya (B* reads asatdya), but Pj II 568.31 glosses:
avijjamdnakdran astakrand na socati ( Be reads asnnta-).
Nidd I 253.13.20: dhanmesu ca na gacchati ti na chandagatim ... na
dosdgatim ... na mohgatim ... na bhaygathp gacchati.no rgo- na
dosa - na molta- na ninna- na dittiti na uddhocca- na vicikicchd na
anusayavasena gaceliati, na vaggehi dhammehi ydyati niyyati vuyhati
samhariyati ti dhammesa ca na gacchati. Pj II 550.2tr. sabbadhammesu
chanddivasena na gacchati.

862-77. Kalahavivdasutta. The metre is Trijtubh, except for pads d in 873


which is Jagaff. There arc five p3das in 863.
862. Nidd I 256.1-3 : kuto politila kuto jdt kuto soiijt kuto nibbattd kuto
obhinibbana kuto pdtubhiitd, Pj M 551.10: kuto pahtd ... kuto jdtd. PED
docs not give the meaning arisen" for pahSta. Cf. pahoti 867.
Pj II 551.15: ycanauho hi itngh 0 niptiio. For the historical -d in tad
imglta see the note on p. 13.10.

35^

The Group o f Discourses

There is resolution of the first syllable of p5da b. In pSda d hr- in brht


does not make position.
$63. Nidd 1258.17 reads' piyappaht for piy poht, i.e. taking it as a
tatpurusa compound. Pj II 551 ,is-r6: piya pohilt ri piyavatthuto jtJ.
yutii pan' ettha Niddese vutt. PSD does not give the meaning
compound for yutti.
I take -jra in compound with vivda- in the sense of a collection. class",
anything included under the name vivda**. See MW (s.v. jota). Por -jata
after adjectives at the end of compounds with the meaning become,
being, see the note on 679. Such an interpretation would give the meaning
among the disputatious here.
There is resolution of the first syllable in p5da b. In pJda d we should
ignore the svarabhakti vowel in macchariya-.
<I9> 864. Nidd 1 261.16-28 : ye samparyya narassa homi ri ye narossa
paryand,dtp, fn, len. saran honli\ naro nitthparyano hoti. Pj II
55t. 18-29: ye samparyya narassa homi samparyanya homi,
parypnom hontF ti vttttam hoti. Hare(l945. p. 127 note.:) suggests' that
sampardyya perhaps means going with others to the next world, as
opposed to the sages ekatta lone state.
Ntdd 1 261.11-13: ye vii p i ti khattiy ca brhman ca vess ca sudd ca
gahatth ca pabbajit ca devo ca mnmiss ca. Pj II 551.24-27 : ye vii api
klutttiydayo lobh vicaronii lobhahetu lobhenbhibhOt vicaranti,
tesam so tobho ca kutonddna ti dve atthe ekya pucchya pucchat. Il
would, however, seem better to take lobh not as an ablative but as a
nominative, in agreement with ye. MW lists eager desire for or longing
after as a meaning for lobha. and (his would make good sense in the
contest with s and nitthd.
In pads a we should read
m.c.

lokdsmi[m)

866. Nidd I 265.7-12: ye v p i ti ye kodheno ca mosavajjena ca


kathamkathyo ca sahagat sahojt sotnsutthii sampayutt ekuppOdii
ekanirodh cjtavatthukd ekrainmon ; ime truccati ye v pi dhamm.
athav ye rd pt ti kiiesd aajtikd annavihitd ; ime vuecanti ye v pi
dhttmmff. Pj If 552.2-4 : ye v Oline pi kodhiiJThi sampayttild tathiirpii ivi
akitsul dhamm buddhosamanena vutt.
Nidd 1 265.13-13: samnnena vutld ti samaneno samitappena brhmuiiena
bhinppena bhikkhun bhinnakilesamlena. sobbakusalotn ilabondhan pamuttena vutul.

IV . Anhakavagga

359

lokasmi[m)

Iii pdda a we should read


m.c. The metre of pida c is defective.
Smith points out that we need the scansion - - * (Pj n p. 750). Tbc BHS
version (Mvu III 2x4.8) reads
so w
should perhaps read
See also 868.

krodho mrsvda kathamkathd ca,


musvda[mca\
867. Pj II 552.4 foil.:/am Spam
ss&yapahoti chandott ram sukhadukkhavedantadubhayavatthusamkhdtom ststam upanissya samyogaviyogopauhartvasenachandopahoti.
In p3da b -fi- in Spa-is m.c.
868. Nidd 1 269.35 : dvaya-m
-evasaute ti stste sante. Pj It 552.14-17:
sdtstadvaye sante evapahonti uppajjanti. For -e > -am.c. see the note
00687. For sandhi-m-see the note 00x32.
For the dative (of purpose) with

sikkh-,cf. vmayin 9x6 and vinaydyain *

974For the metre of pda a see the note on 866.


869. The syntax and grammar of this verse are rather loose. We can accept
that
is neuter plural, agreeing in theory with
but
in pda b is a masculine form, although sfili agreeing with
In pida c, however,
can only be masculine,
since ihc words are masculine. The cty postulates a change of gender. Pj II
552.31-jj:
;
bhavo
Cf. WD, p. 89 (ad Dhp 104).
In pda c (here is resolution of the first syllable. In pda d we should scan
m.c. In
- makes position.

kutoniddnd
eie
astonco.

ribhovombhavahca

stani asdrahca,
sdtam

slsiam vibhavam bhavah ca etam pi yam artham.


Hhgavyattayo ettha kaio dampanavuttamhoti: "ststdnamvibhavo
cd' tiyoesaattho.
ml

pobrhi br

870. PSda a has only ten syllables. We can assume (bat a long syllable has
replaced the short sixth and seventh syllables. For this see the note on 61.
There is resolution of the first syllable in pda c.

phassd m.c., but there is a v.l. phassam-. In pSda d


pobrhi-6r makes position.
< 17 0 871. Pj II 553.4-6; kism
n vibhQte na phusanti phassd ti kismiin
vTlivatie cokkhusomphassdayopancaphassdnaphusanti.
For the alternation ch in the vX edpifor vd pi see (he note on 38.
872. Nidd 1 275.73* reads icchdy' asantyinstead of icchno sonty. Nidd I
277.3-4: icchya asanty asam
rijjamdndy' anupalabbhiyamdnya. If wc
In pda a we should read
we should scan m.c. ln

tl

follow the reading of Sn. then icchd must be a truncated locative ending (=

-dya). See the riote on ixo. For the change of santiyd> santydsee Geiger

3&>

TheCroupofDiscourses

( 1994 * 86.2). It is possible that the variation between no- and -y* is the
result of a coofusion of no and ya in the Brhml script

For -Uni as a masculine plural nominative endiog in' -nidnni
pariggahni see the note on 45. For speh Eastern forms see the note on 7.
For the sandhi -m- indvaya-m-eva sec the note on 132.
873. Nidd 1 279.16-15: lam jncyyma jncyyma vijneyydma
pativijdneyyma pativijyheyym li tarn jnySmi, This seems to be an
optative formed by adding -yd to the root, with a svaiabhakti vowel. Cf.
jaiin without the svarabhakti vowel, and kayir < *koriy with a
svarabbakti vowel.
For mano in the sense of intention** see the note on 829.
Pidas abc are Tristubh; psdt| d is JagatL In p5da c we should scan mi m.c. In
pobrhi -br- makes position.
S74. Nidd 1 279^9-2803: saAnasonnino vuccanti ye pakatisoAAdya ihiu'r,
no pi so pakatisaABya. thito.visahnasaiihino vuccanti ummattakd, ye ca
ukkhiltacitt', na pi so ammollato, no pi khittacitto ti na sa/inasanin na
visannasaftnT. osannino vuccanti nirodkasampann. ye ca asannqeott ;
n o pi so nirodhasamSponno,no pr asonhasatto. vibhasannino vuccanti
ye cautnnam arpasompotiinom lbhino; no pi so catunnam orupasamdpattTnam tabhT ti no pi osanni na vibhutasohni.
Pj II 553.13-*: na sanHosannt I t ... so pokotisanhya sonni p i na itoti, na
visailnasailiV ti visaJUiyo pi viriipya sannya sonili na boti ummattako

vd

khittacitto yd; no p i osanni ti sannvirahito p i na hoti


nirodhasampanno v asafiasoito vd; na vibhtosonni ti "sabbaso
rpasaAAnon" (3 A II 184.31) li din nayena saniotikkantasannf pi no
hot* orpajjhnaibhi.

Nidd I 280.9-19: idha bhikkhu sukkassa ca pahn... pe ... caiuttham


jhnatn upasampajjo viharati. so evamsomhite citte ...
kdsnaAcyatonasampottipatUbhatthya cittain abhiniharoti.
evomsametasssa evampotipannassa vibhoti rpam.
11553.19-33: etasmim sanilasaAnitdibhilve athotvO, yad etam vuttam "so
evam samdhte citte_pe ... dksnahcyatanasamdpattipatilbhatihyo
cittom abhinihorati" ti evamsometossa antpamaggasomoAgino vibhoti
riipam.
Pj

P3 da a seems dear: he is not j>f ordinary or non-ordinary (i.e. deranged)


perception. P3da b seems to mean: he is not without perception. Le. has not
reached nirodha (a nibbdno) nor become an asaiiilasatto (see CPD [s.v.]).

. IV . Atthakovagga

361

Nr has his perception ceased, i.e. he has not reached any of the four
immaterial spheres. He 4$..then, in the fourth jhna, and is at the stage
where, having overcome perceptions of form completely, he is about to
enter the sphere of unbounded space.
With p a p a ca in pSda d cf. avijjdayo kilts miam^ tarn
papancasamkhya mlom (Pj U 562.17-11).
In pSda a
in sana- and visana- is ro.e. In pSda b we should read pt nuc.
875. Pj II55348 : udhu annam pi etto arpasampdttito adhikam vadami.
Pjn553.ijandNkMI281.19aDd282.16explainetfdvar* aggamas ettvat*
aggam. It is perhaps 3 compound of eivat(a) + agga. Cf. BIISD (s.v.
tttvot-pra).
For yakkhassa suddhi see the note on 478.
For the historieal -d in tad imgha see the note on p. 13.10.
Pj H55347 explains no as nu. and this occurs as.a v.l. For the nominative
plural ending se in ponditdst see the note on 7.
This verse has 5 pSdas. In pSda a -f in
is m.c.Jn p5 da b we should
read foCnsl irLc.
,r i"
.~

'

akittayl

<vjt> 876. Nidd I 2 8 2,27-32: eie samanabrdhmana ucdtedavd


bhovatajjit vibhavom abbinandomi, te sal