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Course Code: BUPH 21012

Title: Buddhist Analysis of Mind

Date: 29th June 2006, Thursday
[ continued]
It is stated elsewhere after noticing Dhamma with the help of mano [that] one pleases
with the object. Here mano means sense faculty. Centering mano citta and viJJAna begin
to function. Therefore, citta and viJJna are mano-centered. In order to support this point a
quotation is found in the Chabbisodana Sutta that shows that with regard to emancipation
of the mind Buddha emphatically uses citta in stead of mano:
muttaj me cittaj.
The case is that even achieving complete realization six faculties are going to exist in that
very life. But colouring of the mind in connection with the object happened to be ceased
down. Therefore, here citta is used. Thus it is clear that citta, and manovibbana try to
express the different facet of the mind with regard to their functional side. Mano
represents one facet, i.e. on of the six faculties or the faculty which stands as a noetic
awakening point of the subliminal consciousness. Citta represents the subjective aspect of
consciousness. Mano, the noetic awakening point or faculty of mind, and subliminal
consciousness are appertained to it. Therefore, it is better to say that citta is manocentered vibbana. It is a powerful force. It signifies a surviving entity:
My citta is not of such nature that it is returned to the plain of sense pleasure. Knowing
this, this citta is well provided with understanding
(AN, Vol. IV, 402)
There is another quotation you find in the SN which emphasizes the same functional side
of the citta:
Yet his citta, if for a long time practiced in faith, virtue, learning, and
understanding, moves upward, and goes to distinction.
yabca kho assa cittaj digharattaj saddhaparibhavitaa sila sota
tyaga pabba paribhavitaj taj uddhagami hoti visesagami
(SN, Vol. IV, 369)
Citta here represents whole characteristic of individual thought process.
Sometimes it stands as ones notice:
For a long time, indeed, I have been defrauded, deceived, and cheated by this citta
(MN, Vol. I, 511)
digharattaj vata ahaj imina cittena nikkhato, vabcito, phaladdho
With regard to this utterance it convinces us that because of its subjective side citta can be
controlled, tamed; it is not a deterministic factor. The method of getting ones citta under
control is concentration. Thus, it can be manipulated and directed. The citta can be
trained because of its functional attitude. It works as a centre of perceptual and cognitive
Ideation and sensation are mental processes, depend on citta

sabba ca vedana ca cetasika ca ete dhamma cittapativaddha; tasma

sabba ca vedana ca cittasavkharoti
(SN, Vol. IV, 293)
Thus citta is a conscious stream; it cognizes one and the purposeful one. It is formed
individually. It gives the sense of more mentally conscious process, but it also represents
the continuous process. Abhidhammapitaka has made detail classification on this subject.
The Abhidhamma recognizes citta as an abstract reality. In its definition three different
ways of predication have been introduced:
1. kattusadhana (the predication of agency)
2. karanasadhana (the predication by instrumentality)
3. bhavasadhana (predication by simple flux)
Under this citta is being defined. Under first predication it shows that citta works as an
agent: rupadi arambanaj cinteti vijanati vijanatiti cittaj
Citta is that which thinks of or understands its objects
Here it is understood that there is an agency which understands the object, i.e. citta. Citta
also works as an instrument. cinteti va etena karanabhutena
samprayuttadhammati cittaj
The object which is associated with related Dhammas is understood by citta. Therefore,
it is called citta
Here citta is an instrumental. With the help of that it thinks of related objects.
The third predication supposed to be a correct definition:
cintanamattaj cittaj
Citta is that which thinks
This definition yields real function of the mind. The Abhidhamma commentaries further
analyze citta under four formulas:
1. lakkhana (characteristic)
2. kicca (function)
3. paccuppatthana (consequence and manifestation)
4. padatthana (proximate cause)
The main characteristic of citta is recognizing the objects, vijananalakkhana. The
function of the citta is the forerunning (pubbavgama). Its manifestation is the
connection (sandhanappaccuppatthanaj). Its proximate cause is the sustenance of
mental and material organism (namarupapadatthana).
(Dhammasangini Atthakatha, Page 112)
According to Abhidhamma citta recognizes the object. Since it reaches the sense-door it
stands as a forerunner. The eye sees the visual object; but it is cognized by the citta. Citta
always appears as a continuous entity. It connects with the other thoughts. Finally citta
always arises as a result of causal interdependent of mind and matter. According to
Abhidhammapitaka citta is a continuous stream. It arises as a form of continuous series. It
does not arise singly but with a number of mental factors (cetasika). They are 52 in
number. Citta and cetasikas are inseparably connected with one another. Citta does not
exist apart from its concomitants. Abhidharma says that arising together (ekuppada),

perishing together (ekanirodha), having an identical object (eka-alambana), and

having a common basis (ekavatthuka) are the inseparable dynamic relation which
connect one another. Citta is also described as a part of vibbanakkhandha.