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Brief Contents

CHAPTER 1

PEOPLE , POLITI CS, AN D PAR TICIPATION

CHAPTER 2

TH E CONSTITUTION

32

TH E CO N STI TUTI O N O F THE UN I TED STATES O F A MER ICA

60

CHAPTER 6

C H A P T E R 3 F E D E R ALISM
C H A P T E R 4 CIVIL LI BE R TI ES
C H A P T E R 5 CIVIL R I G HTS

144

POLITI CAL SO CIALI Z ATI O N AN D PU B LI C O PI N I O N

180

C H A P T E R 7 I NTE R EST G RO U PS
C H A P T E R 8 POLITI CAL PAR TI ES
CHAPTER 9

E LECTIONS, CAM PAI G NS, AN D VOTIN G

C H A P T E R 10
C H A P T E R 11

C H A P T E R 18

G LO SSA RY

CREDITS
INDEX

P C -1

I -1

R -1

208
236
266
300

POLITI CS AN D TECH NOLO GY

324

F O R E I G N POLI CY AN D NATIO NAL


SECU R IT Y

352
382
414
442
472
502

532

584

G ROUPS IN TE X AS POLITI CS

602

POLITI CAL PAR TIES AN D ELECTIONS


IN TE X AS

622

C H A P T E R 22

C H A P T E R 23
C H A P T E R 24

564

TH E TE X AS LEG ISL ATUR E

648

TH E O F F I C E O F G OV E R N O R AN D STATE
AG E N CI ES IN TE X AS

678

C H A P T E R 25 TH E CO U R T SYSTE M
C H A P T E R 26 PU BLIC POLI CY
C H A P T E R 27 LO CAL G OV E R N M E NTS

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C H A P T E R 19 I NTRO D U CTIO N TO TE X AS G OV E R N M E NT
C H A P T E R 20 TH E STATE CONSTITUTION
C H A P T E R 21 PAR TI CI PATI O N AN D I NTE R EST

G -1

REFERENCES

80

TH E M E D IA

C H A P T E R 12 CON G R ESS
C H A P T E R 13 TH E PR ESI D E N CY
C H A P T E R 14 TH E BUR E AU CR ACY
C H A P T E R 15 TH E J U D I CIA RY
C H A P T E R 16 ECONO MI C POLI CY
C H A P T E R 17 D O M ESTI C POLI CY

APPENDIXES
A: The Declaration of
Independence A-1
B: Federalist No. 10 B-1
C: Federalist No. 51 C-1
D: The Declaration of
Sentiments D-1

I N TE X AS

706

IN TE X AS

726

I N TE X AS

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Contents
Part I

Foundations of American Democracy

PEO PLE , POLITI CS, AN D


PAR TI CI PATION 2

y shd u stdy am dem now? Or, Why Should You Study American
Democracy Now? 4
How Technology Has Changed Politics 5
The Political Context Now 5
Civic Engagement: Acting on Your Views 7

THINKING C RITIC ALLY


Vote Matter? 8

What Government Does

ABOUT

D EMOCR AC Y : Does the Youth

G LOBAL C ONTEX T : The Legitimacy of Elections


in Africa 10

Types of Government 11
The Origins of American Democracy 12
Democracys Origins in Popular Protest: The Inuence of the
Reformation and the Enlightenment 12
The Modern Political Philosophy of Hobbes and Locke 13
The Creation of the United States as an Experiment in
Representative Democracy 14
Political Culture and American Values 14
Liberty 15
Equality 16
Capitalism 16
Consent of the Governed 16
Individual, Family, and Community 17
The Changing Face of American Democracy 17
A Population That Is Growingand on the Move 17
An Aging Population 18
A Changing Complexion: Race and Ethnicity in the United
States Today 18
Changing Households: American Families Today 20
Why the Changing Population Matters for Politics and
Government 20
Ideology: A Prism for Viewing American Democracy 22
Liberalism 24

A NALY ZING

THE

S OURCES : Ideology by Age

TH E CONSTITUTION

32

What Is a Constitution? 34

THINKING C RITIC ALLY ABOUT D EMOCR AC Y : Should Congress


Call for a Second Constitutional Convention? 35

The Creation of the United States of America 36


Colonization and Governance of America 36
British Policy Incites a Rebellion 37
The Common Sense of Declaring Independence 39
The State Constitutions 40
The Articles of Confederation (17811789) 41
Crafting the Constitution: Compromise, Ratication, and Quick
Amendment 42
Consensus 42
Conict and Compromise over Representative Democracy 43
Conict and Compromise over Slavery 45
What about a Bill of Rights? 46
Congress Sends the Constitution of the States for
Ratication 46

G LOBAL C ONTEX T : The United States Constitution:


No Longer a Global Model 49

The FederalistAnti-Federalist Debate 49


The Bill of Rights (1791): Establishing Civil Liberties
The Constitution as a Living, Evolving Document 51
Formal Amendment of the Constitution 52

51

A NALY ZING THE S OURCES : Constitutional Right to


Privacy 54
Interpretation by the U.S. Supreme Court

54

TH E CONSTITUTI ON O F TH E
UNITE D STATES OF AM E R ICA

60

25

Conservatism 25
Other Ideologies on a Traditional Spectrum:
Socialism and Libertarianism 26
A Three-Dimensional Political Compass 27

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F E D E R ALISM

80

An Overview of the U.S. Federal System 82


Unitary System 83
Confederal System 83
Federal System 83
What a Federal System Means for Citizens

The New Judicial Federalism 93


Evolution of the Federal System 93
Dual Federalism 93
Cooperative Federalism 94
Centralized Federalism 94
Conicted Federalism 94
Landmarks in the Evolution of Federalism: Key Constitutional
Amendments 96
Further Evolutionary Landmarks: Grants-in-Aid 97

84

G LOBAL C ONTEX T : The United States of Europe: The


European Union 85

Constitutional Distribution of Authority 86


Concurrent Sovereign Authority 86
National Sovereignty 86
State Sovereignty 88
The Supreme Courts Interpretation of National versus State
Sovereignty 89
State-to-State Obligations: Horizontal Federalism 91

Fundamental Principles

CIVIL LI BE R TI ES

108

Civil Liberties in the American Legal System 110


The Freedoms Protected in the American System

111

A NALY ZING THE S OURCES : Balancing the Constitutional


Tension 112

The Historical Basis for American Civil Liberties: The Bill of


Rights 112
Incorporation of the Bill of Rights to Apply
to the States 113
Freedoms of Speech, Assembly, and the Press: First Amendment
Freedoms Supporting Civic Discourse 115
The First Amendment and Political Instability 116

G LOBAL C ONTEX T : Cyber Oppression During the


Arab Spring 117

Freedom of Speech 119


Freedom of Assembly and Redress of Grievances 121
Freedom of the Press 122
Freedoms of Religion, Privacy, and Criminal Due Process:
Encouraging Community and Civic Engagement 123
The First Amendment and Freedom of Religion 123
The Right to Privacy 126
The Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Eighth Amendments: Ensuring
Criminal Due Process 130
Freedoms in Practice: Controversy over the Second Amendment
and the Right to Bear Arms 133
Competing Interpretations of the Second Amendment 133
Citizens Engaged: Fighting for a Safer Nation 135
Civil Liberties in Post-9/11 America 135
Perceived Intrusions on Free Speech and Assembly 136
Perceived Intrusions on Criminal Due Process 136
The Occupy Movement 138

Federalisms Continuing Evolution:


Mandates 100
Intergovernmental Relations (IGR) 101
Educational Policy Statements 101
Educational Policy Financing 101
Educational Policy Implementation 102
Scope of IGR 102
Todays Federalism 103

A NALY ZING THE S OURCES : The Tensions of a Federal


System 92

Part II

THINKING C RITIC ALLY ABOUT D EMOCR AC Y : Should the


United States Devolve to Dual Federalism? 100

THINKING C RITIC ALLY ABOUT D EMOCR AC Y : Should Citizens


Engage in Direct Action to Protest Growing Economic
Disparities? 139

CIVIL R I G HTS

14 4

The Meaning of Equality under the Law 146


Slavery and Its Aftermath 149
Slavery in the United States 149
Reconstruction and the First Civil Rights Acts
Backlash: Jim Crow Laws 151

G LOBAL C ONTEX T : Modern Forms of Slavery

151

152

Governmental Acceptance of Discrimination 153


The Civil Rights Movement 154
Fighting Back: Early Civil Rights Organizations 154
The End of Separate but Equal 154
The Movement Gains National Visibility 155
Local Organizing and the Strategies of Civil Disobedience

The Governments Response to the Civil Rights Movement 157


The Civil Rights Act of 1964 157
Other Civil Rights Legislation of the 1960s 158
Impact of the Civil Rights Movement 159
The Movement for Womens Civil Rights 159
The First Wave of the Womens Rights Movement 160
The Second Wave of the Womens Rights Movement 162
The Third Wave of the Womens Rights Movement 164
Other Civil Rights Movements 165
Native Americans Rights 165
Citizens of Latin American Descent 166
Citizens of Asian Descent 168
Citizens with Disabilities 169
Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgendered Citizens 170
Afrmative Action: Is It Constitutional? 172
How Afrmative Action Works 172

THINKING C RITICALLY ABOUT D EMOCRACY : Should Hate Crimes


Be Punished More Severely Than Other Crimes? 173
Opposition to Afrmative Action

173

Contents

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155

A NALY ZING THE S OURCES : A Famous Image from the


Civil Rights Era 156

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Part III

Linkages Between the People and Government

POLITI CAL SO CIALI Z ATION


AN D PU BLIC OPINION 180

Indirect Strategies to Advance Interests 227


Interest Groups, Politics, and Money: the Inuence of Political
Action Committees 228

Political Socialization and Civic Participation 182


The Process of Political Socialization 183
Participating in Civic Life 183
Agents of Socialization 184
Family Inuences on Activism and Attitudes 184
The Medias Ever-Increasing Role in Socialization 184
Schools, Patriotism, and Civic Participation 185
Churches: The Role of Religion 186
Peers and Group Norms 186

Types of Political Polls 198


What Americans Think about Politics 198
The Most Important Problem 198

G LOBAL C ONTEX T : International Opinion of


Womens Equality 199
Public Opinion about Government

200

I NTE R EST G RO U PS

208

The Value of Interest Groups 210


Interest Groups and Civic Participation 211
Pluralist Theory versus Elite Theory 211
Key Functions of Interest Groups 213
The Downside of Interest Groups 214
Who Joins Interest Groups, and Why? 214
Patterns of Membership 214
Motivations for Joining Interest Groups 216
How Interest Groups Succeed 217
Organizational Resources 217
Organizational Environment 219
Types of Interest Groups 219
Economic Interest Groups 219

G LOBAL C ONTEX T : Pressuring for Fair Working


Conditions 221

Public and Ideological Interest Groups 222


Foreign Policy Interests 224
Interest Group Strategies 225
Direct Strategies to Advance Interests 225

viii

POLITI CAL PAR TI ES

236

Parties Today and Their Functions 238


What Do Political Parties Do? 238
How Parties Engage Individuals 239
What Political Parties Do 239
The Three Faces of Parties 240
The Party in the Electorate 241
The Party Organization 242

THINKING C RITIC ALLY ABOUT D EMOCR AC Y : Should


Abortion Be Legal? 187

ANALYZING THE SOURCES: Examining Americans Ideology

THINKING C RITIC ALLY ABOUT D EMOCR AC Y : Should Super PACs


Enjoy Unlimited Free Speech? 230

Political and Community Leaders: Opinion Shapers 188


Demographic Characteristics: Our Politics Are a Reection
of Us 188
Measuring Public Opinion 193
The Origins of Public Opinion Polls 193
How Public Opinion Polls Are Conducted 194

A NALY ZING THE S OURCES : Is Lobbying Increasing in the


United States? 226

195

A NALY ZING THE S OURCES : The Peoples Opinion of the


Parties 244

The Party in Government 244


Political Parties in U.S. History 246
The First Party System: The Development of Parties,
17891828 246
The Second Party System: The Democrats Rise to Power,
18281860 247
The Third Party System: The Republicans Rise to
Power, 18601896 248
The Fourth Party System: Republican Dominance,
18961932 248
The Fifth Party System: Democratic Dominance,
19321968 249
A New Party System? 250
Two-Party Domination in U.S. Politics 250
The Dualist Nature of Most Conicts 251
The Winner-Take-All Electoral System 251

G LOBAL C ONTEX T : Political Parties in Burma

252

Continued Socialization to the Two-Party System 252


Election Laws That Favor the Two-Party System 253
The Two-Party System Today: In Decline or in
Resurgence? 253
The Partys Over 253
The Partys Just Begun 254
Third Parties in the United States 255
Types of Third Parties 255
The Impact of Third Parties 257
New Ideologies, New Technologies: The Parties in the
Twenty-First Century 257

THINKING C RITIC ALLY ABOUT D EMOCR AC Y : Are Third Parties


Bad for the United States? 258
Struggling for the Heart of the Republican Party: Moderates
and a Tea Party Movement 259
Democrats Today 260
Changing Both Parties: New Technologies 260

Contents

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E LECTIONS, CAM PAI G NS,


AN D VOTIN G 266

Political Participation: Engaging Individuals, Shaping


Politics 268
Elections in the United States 269
Nominations and Primary Elections 269

THINKING C RITIC ALLY ABOUT D EMOCR AC Y : Should the United


States Have a National Primary? 271

General Elections 271


Referendum, Initiative, and Recall 272
The Act of Voting 273
The 2000 Election and Its Impact 273
Types of Ballots 274
Why Ballot Design Matters 274
Voting by Mail 274
Running for Ofce: The Choice to Run 275
Formal Eligibility Requirements 276
Informal Eligibility Requirements 276
The Nature of Political Campaigns Today 277
The Professionalization of Political Campaigns 277
Media and New Technologies: Transforming Political
Campaigns 278
Revolutionizing the Campaign: New Technologies 279
Money and Politics 279
Early Efforts to Regulate Campaign Finance 280
The Court Weighs In: Money = Speech 281
Independent Expenditures 281
The Bipartisan Campaign Finance Reform Act of 2002 281
Circumventing the Rules: 527s and 501(c)4s 282
The Court Weighs In (Again): Organizations Are Entitled to
Speech Rights 283
The Growth of PACs 283
Presidential Campaigns 284
Party Conventions and the General Election Campaign 285
The Electoral College 285
Who Votes? Factors in Voter Participation 286
Education LevelThe Number One Predictor of Voting 286

A NALY ZING THE S OURCES : Exploring the Youth


Vote in 2012 287

The Age Factor 287


Race and Voter Participation 288
Income: A Reliable Predictor of Voting 288
Party Competitiveness and Voter Turnout 289
How Voters Decide 289
Major Factors in Voter Decision Making 290
Campaign Inuences on Voter Choice 290

Why Some People Do Not Vote 291


Lack of Efcacy 291
Voter Fatigue and Negative Campaigns
The Structure of Elections 292
The Rational Abstention Thesis 292
The Consequences of Nonvoting 292

G LOBAL C ONTEX T : Elections in India

10

TH E M E DIA

291

293

300

The Modern Media 302


The Political Functions of the Media 303
Providing Information 303

G LOBAL C ONTEX T : Bassem Youssef: Egypts Jon


Stewart 304

Interpreting Matters of Public Interest and Setting the Public


Agenda 304

A NALY ZING

THE

S OURCES : Confidence in the Media

THINKING C RITIC ALLY ABOUT D EMOCR AC Y : Should Television


Be Subject to Stricter Regulations than Other
Media Are? 318

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305

Providing a Forum for Conversations about Politics 305


Socializing Children to Political Culture 306
The Press and Politics: A Historical View 306
The Early Role of the Press 307
Yellow Journalism and Muckraking 307
A Widening War for Readership 308
The Media Go Electronic: The Radio and Television
Revolutions 309
How Radio Has Opened Up Political Communication 310
Television and the Transformation of Campaigns and
Elections 312
Convergence and Consolidation 314
The Proliferation of News Sources and
Greater Scrutiny 314
Blogs: The New Penny Papers? 315
Biased Media? 315
Regulation of the Media: Is It Necessary? 317

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Part IV

11

Institutions of Government

POLITI CS AN D
TECH NOLO GY 324

The Modern Technological Revolution: The Internet and Cellular


Technology 326
The Digital Divide 327
Who Uses the Internet? 328
New Forms of Community 328
Technology in the 2008 Election: The Web 2.0 Election 329
Technology Now: Changing How Politics Is Done 330
Politics on Demand 330
Technological Tools: Paving the Two-Way Communication
Street 331

G LOBAL C ONTEX T : Using a Dating Website to Spawn a


Revolution 332
A NALY ZING THE S OURCES : Netroots and Grassroots 334

Technology: Creating New Campaign Strategies and Modes of


Political Participation 335
How Governments Use Technology 339
Whats Next: How Technology Will Continue to Transform the
Political Landscape 340
What Is the Impact of Technology on Political Life? 342
Technology Is a Powerful Tool for Democracy 342
The Downside of Technology in Politics 343
The Issue of Accuracy 344
Fomenting Polarized Partisanship and Extremism 344
Privacy Issues 344
The Internet and Free Speech 345
Regulation of the Internet: Is It Necessary? 346

The House and Senate Compared 363


The Legislative Process 365
Introducing a Bill 365
The Bill in Committee 366
Debate on the House and Senate Floor

THE C ONVERSATION OF D EMOCR AC Y : Should Congress


Regulate the Internet Infrastructure? 347

12

The Origins of Congress 354


Congressional Elections 355
Incumbency 355
Reapportionment and Redistricting
Powers of Congress 357

A NALY ZING
2010 358

THE

3 52

368

Presidential Action 368


Congressional Leadership 369
Leadership in the House of Representatives 369
Leadership in the Senate 370
Decision Making in Congress: The Legislative Context 371
Political Parties and Partisanship in Decision Making 371
Colleagues and Staff: Trading Votes and Information 373
Interest Groups: Inuence through Organization 374
The Presidents Effect on Decision Making 374
Constituents: The Last Word 374
The People and Their Elected Representatives 375

13

TH E PR ESI D E N CY

Presidential Elections

3 82

384

THINKING C RITIC ALLY ABOUT D EMOCR AC Y : Should We Abolish


the Electoral College? 385

Presidential Roles in the Domestic Sphere 385


Chief Legislator 386
Chief Economist 388
Party Leader 388
Presidential Roles in the Foreign Policy Sphere 389
Chief Diplomat 389

CON G R ESS

367

G LOBAL C ONTEX T : Congresso Nacional do Brasil

G LOBAL C ONTEX T : Examining World Opinion of U.S.


Leadership 390

Commander in Chief 390


Overlap in the Domestic and Foreign Policy Roles: Chief Executive
and Chief of State 391
Chief Executive 391
Chief of State 391

357

S OURCES : Congressional Apportionment,

Functions of Congress 359


Representation Comes in Many Forms 359
Policy Making: A Central Responsibility 361

THINKING C RITIC ALLY ABOUT D EMOCR AC Y : Should Congress


Eliminate Earmarks? 362
Oversight: A Check on the Executive Branch 362
Agenda Setting and Civic Engagement 363
Managing Societal Conict 363

Contents

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The President and the Executive Branch 391


The Vice Presidents Role 392
The Cabinet 393
The Executive Ofce of the President 393
Presidential Succession 396
When the President Dies in Ofce 396
When the President Cannot Serve: The Twenty-Fifth
Amendment 397
Sources of Presidential Power 397
The Constitution: Expressed Powers 398
The Constitution: Inherent Powers 398
Statutory Powers 399
Special Presidential Powers 399
The People as a Source of Presidential Power 401
The President and the Bully Pulpit 401
The President and Public Approval 401

A NALY ZING

THE

S OURCES : The Birth Certificate

Accountability to Congress 434


Accountability to the President 434
Internal Accountability 434
Can Bureaucratic Performance Be Improved? 435
The Best-Performing Bureaucracies 436
Does Contracting-Out Improve Performance? 436
Citizens Role in Bureaucratic Performance 436

402

Technology and the Media as a Tool of Presidential


Inuence 403
The Evolution of Presidential Power 404
Early Presidents and the Scope of Presidential Power 404
The Watershed 1970s: The Pentagon Papers, Watergate, and
the Imperial Presidency 405
The Post-Watergate Presidency 406
Impeachment: A Check on Abuses of Presidential Power 407
Women in the White House 408
The First Lady 408
When a Woman Is Elected President 408

15

14

Bureaucrats and Bureaucracy 416


Who Are the Bureaucrats? 416
Bureaucracy: An Organizational Structure 418
Federal Bureaucrats 418
Political Appointees 418
Civil Servants 419
State, Local, and Shadow Bureaucrats 423
The Evolution of the Federal Bureaucracy 423

A NALY ZING THE S OURCES : Federal Department


Spending on State, Local, and Shadow
Bureaucrats 424

Departments 426
Independent Administrative Agencies 426
Independent Regulatory Commissions 428
Government Corporations 428
Executive Ofce of the President 428
Hybrids 429
Federal Bureaucrats Roles in Public Policy 429
Agenda Setting 429
Policy Formulation 429
Policy Approval 430
Resource Allocation 430
Policy Implementation 431
Policy Evaluation 431
Federal Bureaucratic Accountability 432
Accountability to the People 432

G LOBAL C ONTEX T : Freedom of


Information Laws Worldwide

433

Accountability to the Courts 434

414

TH E J U D I CIARY

4 42

The Origins of the U.S. Judiciary 444


The Constitution and the Judiciary Act of 1789: Establishing
the Federal Court System 444
Marbury v. Madison: Establishing the Principle of
Judicial Review 445
The Judiciary Act of 1891: Expanding the Federal Courts 445

TH E BU R E AUCR ACY

THINKING C RITIC ALLY ABOUT D EMOCR AC Y : Does


Contracting-Out Save Taxpayer Dollars? 437

GLOBAL CONTEXT: Judicial Review in European


Countries 446

The Sources and Types of U.S. Law 447


Judicial Decisions: Common Law 447
Constitutions: Constitutional Law 448
Statutes: Code Law 448
Executive Orders 449
Administrative Rules and Regulations:
Administrative Law 449
Criminal Law and Civil Law 449
State Law and Federal Law 450
The Federal Court System 450
Jurisdiction of Federal Courts 451
The Structure of the Federal Courts 451
Selecting Judges for the Federal Bench 453
Selection Criteria 454

THINKING C RITIC ALLY ABOUT D EMOCR AC Y : Should the


Constitution Be Amended to Increase the Accountability
of Supreme Court Justices? 456

The Senates Role: Judicial Conrmation 456


The U.S. Supreme Court Today 457
The Supreme Courts Jurisdiction 457
Choosing Cases for Review 457
On the Docket: Considering the Case 458
Meeting in Conference and Assigning Opinion Writing 459
Deciding How to Vote 459
Writing the Opinion 460
The Supreme Court Today: The Roberts Court 460
Judges as Policy Makers 461
From Judicial Review to Judicial Policy Making 461

A NALY ZING THE S OURCES : Citizens Changing Views on the


Supreme Court 463

Judicial Activism versus Judicial Restraint


Checks on the Courts 465
Legislatures and Chief Executives 465
Intra-Court Constraints 466
The Public 466

464

Contents

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Part V

16

Public Policy

ECONO MI C POLI CY

472

Economic Health and the American Dream 474


The American Economy 475
Economic Theories That Shape Economic Policy 476
Laissez-Faire Economics: An Unrealized Policy 476
Keynesian Economics 477
Supply-Side Economics 478
Monetarism 479
Should One Economic Theory Predominate? 479
Measuring Economic Health 480
Traditional Measures of Economic Health 480
Other Measures of Economic Health 480

G LOBAL C ONTEX T : Economic Development and


Well-Being 481

Fiscal Policy and Economic Health 482


Tax Policy 482
Spending Policy 483
Creating Fiscal Policy through the National Budget
Process 484
Decit Spending, Debt, and Economic Health 485

THINKING C RITIC ALLY ABOUT D EMOCR AC Y : Is It Time for a


Balanced Budget Amendment? 486

Monetary Policy and the Federal Reserve System 488


Regulatory Policy 489
Business Regulation 489
Social Regulation 490
Trade Policy in the Global Economy 491
Trade Policy: Protectionist or Free Trade? 492
International Trade Agreements 492
The U.S. Economy, the Global Economy, and the American Dream
Today 493

A NALYZING THE S OURCES : How is the U.S. Economy


Doing? 494

17

D O M ESTI C POLI CY

502

Citizen Engagement and Domestic Policy 504


Tools of Domestic Policy 506
Laws and Regulations 506
Direct Provision of Public Goods 506

THINKING C RITIC ALLY ABOUT D EMOCR AC Y : Should the USPS


Close the Money-Losing Post Offices? 507

Cash Transfers 507


Loans, Loan Guarantees, and Insurance 508
Grants-in-Aid and Contracting Out 508
Environmental Policy 509
Environmental Degradation 509
Environmental Protection 510

G LOBAL C ONTEX T : Ecological Footprint

511

Energy Policy 513


Evolution of U.S. Energy Policy 513
Energy Policy Today 514

A NALY ZING THE S OURCES : How Dependent Is the United


States on Foreign Oil? 515

Income Security Programs 516


Social Security 516
Unemployment Compensation 518
Minimum Wage 518
Earned Income Tax Credit 519
Temporary Assistance to Needy Families 519
Government Denitions of Poverty 520
Health Care Policy 521
Medicaid 521
Medicare 522
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act 522
Homeland Security 523
Four Challenges for Policy Makers 523
The Importance of Intergovernmental Coordination 524
Immigration Policy 524
Authorized and Unauthorized Immigration 525
Proposed Immigration Policy Reforms 525

18

FO R E I G N POLI CY AN D
NATI ONAL SECU R IT Y 5 32

The Tools of U.S. Foreign Policy 534


Diplomacy 534
Trade and Economic Policies 534

A NALY ZING THE S OURCES : Egyptians Opinion of U.S.


Economic Aid 535
The Military Option 536

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Who Decides? The Creators and Shapers of Foreign Policy 537


The President and the Executive Branch 537
Congress 539

THINKING C RITIC ALLY ABOUT D EMOCR AC Y : Do the Geneva


Conventions Apply When Terrorists Have So Drastically
Altered the Rules of War? 540

The Military-Industrial Complex 541


The Media and New Technologies 541
Public Opinion 542
Private Citizens 542
U.S. Foreign Policy in Historical Context: Isolationism and
Intervention 543
The Constitutional Framework and Early Foreign Policy
Making 543
Hegemony and National Expansion: From the Monroe
Doctrine to the Roosevelt Corollary 544
World War I and the End of U.S. Isolationism 545
Internationalism and the League of Nations 546
World War II: U.S. Foreign Policy at a Crossroads 546
The Postwar Era: The United States as Superpower 547
International Agreements and Organizations 547
The Cold War: Superpowers in Collision 549
U.S. Efforts to Contain Communism: Korea, Cuba, and
Vietnam 550
Dtente: A Thaw in the Cold War Chill 552
The Reagan Years and Soviet Collapse 553

Part VI

19

I NTRO D U CTIO N TO TE X AS
G OVE R N M E NT 56 4

H OW TEX AS C OMPARES : Comparison of Growth Rates of the


15 Most Populous States 569
ANALYZING THE SOURCES: Texas Changing Ethnic Make-up 570
LatinosHigh Population Growth and Increasing
Political Clout 570
African AmericansSteady Population and Political
Participation 571
Asian AmericansModerate Population Growth and Political
Inroads 571

H OW TEX AS C OMPARES : Political Culture


in the States 572

The Political Culture of Texas 572


The Economy of Texas 575
Economic Regions 575
Economic Sectors 576
Consequences of Economic Changes

G LOBAL C ONTEX T : The United States and IranA Complex


History 558

State and Local Government

Texas Society 566


Settlement Patterns in Texas History 566
Urban and Rural Contrasts 568
Population Growth and the Changing Political
Climate 568

Post-Soviet Times: The United States as Solo Superpower


in an Era of Wars 553
U.S. Foreign Policy After 9/11 554
The Bush Doctrine: A Clash of Civilizations 554
The Obama Doctrine: A New Tone in U.S. Foreign Policy 556
Future Challenges in American Foreign Policy 556
The Ongoing Threat of Terrorism 556
Nuclear Proliferation 556
Environmental Issues 557
Technologys Potential in Foreign Affairs 557

20

TH E STATE
CONSTITUTION

58 4

Texas Constitutions 586


Constitutions Under the Republic of Mexico 586
The Republic of Texas Constitution of 1836 586
Statehood Constitution of 1845 587
The Civil War and Reconstruction
Constitutions of 1861, 1866, and 1869 587
The Constitution of 1876 588
Political Culture and Constitutions 589
Principles of State Constitutions 590
Separation of Powers in State Constitutions 590
Bill of Rights in State Constitutions 591
Supreme Law of the State 591
The Structure of State Constitutions 591
Revising State Constitutions 592

THINKING C RITIC ALLY ABOUT D EMOCR AC Y : Should Students be


Allowed to Carry Handguns on Campus? 593
A NALY ZING THE S OURCES : Considering the State
Constitutions 594
Patterns of Amending 594

578

THINKING C RITIC ALLY A BOUT D EMOCR AC Y : Should Texas Ban


Sanctuary Cities? 579

H OW TEX AS C OMPARES : Constitutional Amendments Among


the States 595
Process of Amending 595
Prospects for Amending 597

Contents

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21

PAR TI CI PATION AN D
I NTE R EST G RO U PS I N
TE X AS POLITI CS 602

Legacy of Restricted Ballot Access 604


Poll Tax and Annual Registrations 604

ANALYZING THE SOURCES: Why Dont More Texans Vote?

605

White Primary 606


Property Ownership Restrictions 606
Gender Discrimination in Voting 606
Factors that Affect Voter Participation Today 606
Effects of Social and Economic Status on Voting 607
Party Competition and Voter Turnout 607
Timing of Elections 607
Early Voting 607
Voter Identication Laws 608
Types of Interest Groups 609
Economic OrganizationsPromoting Business
and Professionalism 609

613

H OW TEX AS C OMPARES : Classification of States Based


on the Overall Impact of Interest Groups 616
Professionalism of the State Legislature 616
Fragmented Government Structure 616

22
State Party Systems

POLITI CAL PAR TI ES AN D


ELECTIONS IN TE X AS 622

639

H OW TEX AS C OMPARES : Limitations on Campaign


Contributions by PACs in Statewide Races 643

23

THINKING C RITIC ALLY ABOUT D EMOCR AC Y : Are Texas


Environmental Policy Makers too Responsive to Business
Interests? 610

Citizens GroupsPromoting Ideas and Causes 611


Government OrganizationsPromoting Local Interests
Interest Group Tactics and Their Regulation 613
Lobbying 613
Electioneering 614
Grassroots Lobbying 615
The Strength of Interest Groups in Texas 615
Economic Diversity 615
Political Party Competition 615

Crossover Voting 637


ConventionsElection of Delegates,
from Precinct to State Level 638
Runoff Primary Elections 639
Delegate Selection Systems 639
The Administration of Primary Elections
Campaigns and Elections 640
The Role of the Media 640
Political Consultants 642
Money in Campaigns 642

TH E TE X AS
LEG ISL ATU R E

64 8

Methods of Election 650


Reapportionment and Redistricting Issues 651
Redistricting in the 2000s 652
Redistricting in the 2010s 656
Getting Elected 657
The Impact of Informal Qualications 657
Size of Legislative Districts 658
Competition for Ofce 659
Legislative Turnover 659

A NALY ZING THE S OURCES : Texas House of Representatives


Party Competition in 20022010 660
Texas Senate Party Competition in 20022010 661

Legislative Procedures 661


Leadership Roles 662
The Role of Committees 664
How a Bill Becomes a Law 664
Rules, Roles, and Styles 668
Rating the Texas Legislature 670
Staff Assistance 670
Salary and Building Facilities 670

H OW TEX AS C OMPARES : Legislative Salaries in the Ten Most


Populous States 671
THINKING C RITIC ALLY ABOUT D EMOCR AC Y : Should Legislative
Pensions Be Reduced or Even Eliminated? 672
Annual Sessions 672

624

H OW TEX AS C OMPARES : Party Competition in the United


States 625

State Party Ideologies 625


Political Parties in Texas 626
Democratic and Republican Party Strength in Texas 626
The One-Party Era in Texas 626
Party Realignment in Texas 627
Straight Ticket Voting 629
Socioeconomic Factors in the Political Parties 630
The Death of the Yellow Dog Democrat? 631

THINKING C RITIC ALLY ABOUT D EMOCR AC Y : Can the Texas


Republican Party Attract a Majority of Latino Voters? 632

Third-Party Movements in Texas


Party Organization in Texas 634
Party Strength 636
Primary Elections 636

xiv

633

A NALY ZING THE S OURCES : Primary Systems Used in


State Elections 637
Contents

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24

TH E O F F I CE O F G OVE R N O R
AN D STATE AG E N CI E S I N
TE X AS 678

The Roles of the Governor

681

A NALY ZING THE S OURCES : Women Governors 682


H OW TEX AS C OMPARES : Term Limits for Governors 685

THINKING C RITIC ALLY ABOUT D EMOCR AC Y : Should Texas


Abandon or Modify the Plural Executive Structure? 693

699

TH E CO U R T SYSTE M
IN TE X AS 706

State and Local Authority 748


Municipal Governments 749
General-Law and Home-Rule Cities 749
Incorporation 750
Forms of Municipal Governments 751
Municipal Elections and Voter Turnout
Election of City Council 754
Challenges to Cities: Revenues and Mandates 756

718

H OW TEX AS C OMPARES : Incarceration Rates

719

Death Penalty 719


Tort Reform 720

26

LO CAL G OVE R N M E NTS


IN TE X AS 74 6

H OW TEX AS C OMPARES : Property Taxes 757

County Governments 758


The Structure of County Government 758
Challenges to Counties: Weak Authority
and Limited Financial Resources 761
Suggested Reforms of County Government 762
Special District Governments 762
School Districts 763
Challenges to School Districts: Financing, Quality, and
Curriculum 764

THINKING C RITIC ALLY ABOUT D EMOCR AC Y : Should Victims


Rights Groups be Able to Influence Parole Board
Decisions? 717
A NALY ZING THE S OURCES : Who is Arrested for Crime? 718
The Effect of Punishment on Crime Rates

737

H OW TEX AS C OMPARES : Policy Liberalism 738

27

The Structure of State Courts 708


Local Trial Courts 708
County Courts 710
District Courts 710
Appellate and Supreme Courts 710
Judicial Selection and Removal 710
Issues in Judicial Selection 711
Removing and Disciplining Judges 714
Juries 714
Grand Jury 714
Petit Jury 715
Issues in the Justice System 716
Racial Disparity 716

737

691

692

Agencies with Elected Ofcials 694


Single-Head Agencies 696
Boards and Commissions 697
Legislative Agencies 698
Other Agencies 699
Citizen Control, the Sunset Review, and Technology

THINKING C RITIC ALLY ABOUT D EMOCR AC Y : Should Texas


Legalize Casino Gambling to Enhance State Revenue?

Sex and Abortion: Upholding Texass Conservative


Tradition 739
Gay Rights and Gender Equality 740
Environmental Policies 741

H OW TEX AS C OMPARES : Powers of the Governor

25

A NALY ZING THE S OURCES : How States and the National


Government Raise Revenues 734

Social Policies

Administrative Agencies of State Government

730

College Tuition and Funding 735


Afrmative Action 736

The Governors Powers 685


Executive Powers 685
Legislative Powers 689
Judicial Powers 690
Military Powers 690
Informal Powers 690

680

Rules of the Gubernatorial Ofce

Taxation: Who Is Targeted?


Budgeting and Crises 732
Education Policies 733

A NALY ZING THE S OURCES : Measuring Progress in


Education 765
THINKING C RITIC ALLY ABOUT D EMOCR AC Y : Should Texas
Reform the Standardized Testing System for Public
Schools? 768

APPENDIXES
A:
B:
C:
D:

The Declaration of Independence A-1


Federalist No. 10 B-1
Federalist No. 51 C-1
The Declaration of Sentiments D-1

G LO SSA RY

PU BLI C POLI CY IN
TE X AS 726

G -1

REFERENCES
CREDITS
INDEX

R -1

P C -1

I -1

Economic Policies 728


Expenditures: Where Does the Money Go? 728
Revenue Sources: Where Does the Money Come From? 729

Contents

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