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- The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology Volume 67 Issue 5-8 2013 [Doi 10.1007%2Fs00170-012-4600-7] Khaledi, Hamed; Reisi-Nafchi, Mohammad -- Dynamic Production Planning Model
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Planning in a Competitive Environment

Ibrahim M. Elamin

Mohammed T. Al-Saba

King Fahd university of Petroleum & Minerals

Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia

e-mail: imelamin@kfupm.edu.sa

Saudi Electricity Company

Dammam, Saudi Arabia

e-mails: h2mts@se.com.sa

companies would like to maximize their profits and share of the

electricity market. This can only be achieved if transmission

access and network availability is satisfactory. New mathematical

models for generation and transmission planning are thus

needed. The problem is divided into two sub-problems of

generation and transmission. The two sub-problems will then be

combined to provide a composite solution. The generation subproblem considers investment costs, fuel cost, operation and

maintenance costs, generation limits, and limits on unserved

energy. The transmission sub-problem takes into consideration

power flow, cost of adding lines, number of circuits in a route.

The transmission sub-problem is formulated as a mixed integer

optimization problem. The developed algorithms were solved

using Branch and Bound method. The transmission sub-problem

was solved through DC power flow based on a successive

backward method. This was tested on two systems including an

artificial an IPP seeking an appropriate location. The results

provide a location for the IPP with sufficient transmission access

and at the same time minimized the overall costs.

Keywords: power system planning; IPP, transmission

congestion, composite generation & transmission studies.

I.

INTRODUCTION

ways of doing business, from vertically integrated mechanisms

to open market systems. With deregulation of the electric

power industry, the system planning process has undergone

drastic changes. Generation is deregulated and Independent

Power Producers (IPPs), individually, invest on generation

which can be built anywhere and at any time. This imbalance

between generation and transmission expansion could cause

some bottle-necks and congestion in certain locations within

a system.

Techniques and algorithms for generation and transmission

planning, in traditional power systems, are well documented

and have established formulations [1]. However, in a

deregulated power system, generation companies are

distributed and would like to maximize their profit and share of

transmission access and network availability are satisfactory.

So, new mathematical models for generations and

transmission planning in deregulated system need to be

developed.

This paper introduces a mathematical model for composite

generation and transmission planning in a deregulated power

system in which locational balance for both generation and

transmission are achieved. The paper solves the models using

optimization algorithm in conjunction with branch and bound

method.

II.

TRANSMISSION PLANNING UNDER

DEREGULATION

generation and transmission planning are no longer a

coordinated function. New generation sites and power plant

closure will be determined virtually independent of the

transmission system.. This adds a level of uncertainty in

transmission planning process. Generation closure as well as

new connections may require local system reinforcements [17]. The generation expansion problem is affected by several

external variables such as future market prices , investment

costs and the properties of the new equipment[8]. These are

uncertain and difficult to determine. Q. Xia, Y.Song, C.Kang

and N.Xiang present a comprehensive model of generation

capacity expansion in which the geographical distribution of

the load, the capacity of a transmission line, its investment

and operation costs are all taken into consideration [9].

Focusing on the problem of the location of the generating

units, the paper simplifies the electrical network as a

transportation network and optimizes generating unit location

and electrical network expansion simultaneously from an

economic point of view.. The Generation Capacity Expansion

(GCE) is decomposed into Optimization of Generation Mix

(OGM) and generating unit location optimization (GULO).

The paper then established new models in which the fuel price

and electrical demand of different areas, the investment cost

107

POWERENG 2009

consideration. The objective function seeks to minimize the

sum of investment and operational cost within the planning

period. The constraints include both expansion of generation

capacity and electrical network system operation. The

computational results have shown that a reasonable plan of

generating unit location can save much investment and

operation cost of electrical network expansion. The composite

model described in this article, focuses on achieving the least

cost of transmission expansion investments by finding the

optimal location for the new generation unit.. The objective

function is to minimize the transmission expansion costs while

satisfying the transmission operation constrains and at the same

time finding the optimal location for the new generation units

to added to the system.

III.

GENERATION AND TRANSMISSION

v = cij nij + ai ri

ij

Subject to

(1)

S f + g + r + gn = d

T

(2)

f ij (ijo + ij ) f ij

0gg

(5)

0 gn gn

(6)

0 nij nij

(i, j ) (7)

0rd

Where

(4)

(8)

nij

iho

ai

penalty factor associated with load curtailment at bus i

caused by lack of transmission capacity;

ri

node branch incidence matrix;

s

f

vector of active power flows through the lines;

g

vector of generated active power;

vector of new generated active power to be added

gn

r

vector of load curtailments;

d

vector of predicted loads;

ij

of efficiency and more competitive prices for electric energy

by means of the introduction of competitive mechanisms in

generation and supply. It involves changing the traditional

monopolistic structure of utilities and causing the separation of

the different activities that were traditionally carried out by

electric utilities. Generation and supply services are open to

competition and network activities are subject to a strict

regulation. Different agents with conflicting interests and

viewpoints about how the system should be expanded may

participate on network development. Transmission planning

must therefore consider additional factors that did not exist

before including [10] :

1. The uncertainty about the location of new generation

units

2. The growing impact of distributed generation

3. The participation in the planning process of network users

and other affected agents.

4. The coordination of network development with the

connection of new generation units.

The composite planning model is described as follows:

Minimize

cij

i

j

voltage angle at bus i;

voltage angle at bus j;

f ij

g

nij

planning model and the proposed planning model is the

introduction of the vector group of variables gn. The new

vector group of variables, gn, represents the decision of

candidate locations for the new generation units to be added.

The model finds the best location for the new generation units

and at the same time produces the least cost of new

transmission circuits to be added.

IV.

Flow

The model is formulated as a mathematical mixed integer

nonlinear optimization problem. The model is first solved by

relaxing the integer conditions to a continuous one and finding

the optimal solution of the relaxed problem using the

fmincon function of the Optimization Toolbox of MATLAB.

Then, branch and bound algorithm for nonlinear mixed integer

programming is run on top of the relaxed solution. The

solution provides the optimum number of lines, finding the

optimal location for the new added generation unit and as well

as the corresponding lines addition cost.

B. The Hybrid Mathematical Optimization of the DC Power

Flow Model Simulation for Case-1

108

POWERENG 2009

power flow model while relaxing its nonlinear constraints.

There are various ways of formulating hybrid models, although

the most common is that which preserves the linear features of

the transportation model.

toolbox and running Branch and Bound method. The method

resulted in the selection of one unit of Thermal-20MW and

three units of Thermal-40MW. Fig. 2 shows the results of the

generation additions. The results indicated that all generation

is located at bus 1.

Backward Method

The heuristic method of network planning is mainly

characterized by expanding a network step by step by through

the lack of consideration of interaction between decisions of

additions. Therefore, it cannot guarantee mathematically an

optimal solution, which is the main disadvantage. The model

starts by solving the DC load flow. Although AC power flow

gives accurate operation cost, the DC power flow is viewed as

sufficient for planning purposes because of its simplicity and

less computation time.

V.

SYSTEM APPLICATION

section four shall be used to solve several power system

networks to test those algorithms.

A. Traditional Generation and Transmission for Test System

1: The RBTS 6-Bus System

The 6-Bus RBTS system, shown in Fig..1, is solved using

the traditional generation and transmission planning models.

The RBTS case consists of six different types of generation.

The total existing capacity is 240MW. The load is forecasted to

reach 325 MW. It is required to identify the generation and

transmission additions to meet system load within a known

planning criteria.

Fig 2.

composite planning model

A MATLAB program was developed to test the traditional

transmission planning model of the RBTS 6 bus system. The

model is formulated as a mixed integer nonlinear optimization

problem. The result of the MATLAB program is shown in

Table I

The results indicated that there is a need for one additional

circuit between buses 1 and 3. The flow through the link is 141

MW.

TABLE I

OPTIMAL SOLUTIONS FOR 6-BUS NETWORK USING MATHEMATICAL

OPTIMIZATION

A MATLAB program was developed to solve the

traditional generation planning model. The model is formulated

as linear mixed integer optimization problem. The model is

first solved by relaxing the integer conditions to a continuous

one and finding the optimal solution of the relaxed problem.

No. of

Existing

Line

1

No. of

Proposed

Lines

0

38.783

17.291

18.574

44.43

141.57

38.783

25.856

35.143

Line#

From

To

Flow

(MW)

70.787

System

The 6-Bus RBTS system described in Fig..1 above is

solved using the composite generation and transmission

planning model where the new generators are allowed to be

located anywhere in the system.

109

POWERENG 2009

A.

System for Case-1

The optimization model was used to solve the RBTS

system. It uses the Matlab optimization toolbox and running

Branch and bound on top. The optimum location for the new

generators is shown in Table II and the load flow results are

summarized in Table III. The notable change is that generation

is now located at bus 3 and there will be no need for new

circuits between bus 1 and bus3.

TABLE IV

GENERATION AND LOAD DATA FOR 14-BUS SYSTEM

Nodes

Generator outputs, MW

2280

1636

TABLE II

968

820

1383

1681

Bus No.

0.00

0.00

140.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

Loads, MW

2280

1950

10

11

764

12

1710

13

220

14

210

TABLE V

TABLE III

OPTIMIZATION

Length

Km

Line

Capacity

MW

Existing

Circuit

0.02924

136

1250

0.01806

84

1250

0.00925

43

1250

0.0516

240

1250

Line#

From

To

Reactance

p.u.

Line#

From

To

Flow

(MW)

39.459

No. of

Existing

Line

1

35.505

No. of

Proposed

Lines

0

0

-23.848

22.946

0.01591

74

1250

46.616

0.0387

180

1250

39.459

0.0086

40

1250

35.505

0.01075

50

1250

0.01075

50

1250

10

10

0.01935

90

1250

11

10

11

0.01075

50

1250

12

10

12

0.01356

60

1250

13

10

13

0.07571

335

1250

14

13

14

0.01808

80

1250

8

9

4

5

5

6

23.67

35.143

System II

Fig. 3 shows an existing 380-Kv power system. It is

made of 14 buses and 25 lines. The demand and relevant

generation data are given in Tables IV and the transmission

line data are given in Table V.

110

POWERENG 2009

Table VIII. The results also indicate a need for one

transmission circuit between buses 7-9. The final system

configuration is shown in Fig. 4.

The traditional transmission planning model was then

tested on an existing 380 Kv system. The model is first solved

by relaxing the integer conditions to a continuous one and

finding the optimal solution of the relaxed problem. The result

of the MATLAB program is shown in Table VI. The solution

reveals the need for lines between buses 1 & 2 and buses 10 &

12.

Fig. 4. Final Configuration For The 14 Bus System After The Composite

Planning Model.

TABLE VI

OPTIMAL SOLUTIONS OBTAINED FOR 14-BUS NETWORK USING

MATHEMATICAL OPTIMIZATION

TABLE VII

OPTIMAL GENERATION LOCATION FOR 14-BUS NETWORK USING THE NEW

MATHEMATICAL OPTIMIZATION

Bus No.

1710

Line

#

Fro

m

To

Flow

No. of

Existing Line

1636

No. of

Proposed

Line

1

612.58

31.417

820

329.42

-846

-1681

10

11

12

13

14

-2280

1434

10

10

-516

11

10

11

764

12

10

12

-1710

13

10

13

430

14

13

14

210

The 14-Bus system is solved again using the composite

generation and transmission planning model where the

generators at bus-12 are allowed to be located anywhere in the

system. The best location for the generator at bus 12 is at bus 2

111

POWERENG 2009

TABLE VIII

including an artificial an IPP seeking an appropriate location.

The results provide a location for the IPP with sufficient

transmission access and at the same time minimized the overall

costs.

OPTIMIZATION OF COMPOSITE SYSTEM

Line

#

Fro

m

To

Flow

(MW)

-74.00

No. of

Existing

Line

1

1870.90

483.06

820.00

-781.06

864.00

-1681.00

No. of

Proposed Line

-2280.00

3144.00

10

10

1194.00

11

10

11

764.00

12

10

12

0.00

13

10

13

430.00

14

13

14

210.00

VII.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

facilities of King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals,

Dhahran 31261 Saudi Arabia .

REFERENCES

[1]

CONCLUSIONS

transmission planning under deregulated environment was

presented. The problem is divided into two sub-problems of

generation and transmission. The generation sub-problem

considers investment costs, fuel cost, operation and

maintenance costs, generation limits, and limits on un-served

energy. The transmission sub-problem takes into consideration

power flow, cost of adding lines, number of circuits in a route.

The transmission sub-problem is formulated as mixed integer

optimization problem. The developed algorithms were solved

using Branch and Bound method. The transmission subproblem was solved through DC power flow based on a

expansion planning: an expert system approach. IEE Proceedings, Vol.

135, Pt. C, No. 4, July 1988, pp. 261-267.

[2] R. Dugan, T. McDermott. Planning for Distributed Generation. IEEE

Industry Application Magazine. Pages: 80-88 March 2001.

[3] B. Krasendrink, B. Pribicevic, H. Haubrich. Integrated Planning of

Power Generation and Trending in a Competitive Market. IEEE Trans.

Power Syst.2002.

[4] G. Ault, R. McDonald. Planning for Distributed Generation within

Distribution Network on Restructured Electricity Markets. IEEE power

engineering Review, Feb. 2000.

[5] Jorge Valenzuela, S. Mark and Chan Park. Generation Expansion

Planning in Stability Constrained Power Systems. EPNES 2004

workshop in Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, 12-14 July 2004, Pages: 1-8.

[6] Whei-Min Lin, Tung Zhan and Wen Hung. The generation Expansion

Planning of the Utility in a Deregulated Environment. IEEE

International Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation, Restructuring

and Power Technologies, April 2004, Pages: 702-707.

[7] Jifeng Su and Wu, F.F. Evaluation of generation expansion investment

under competitive market environment. IEEE Power Engineering

Society General Meeting, 12-16 June 2005, Vol. 3, Pages: 2136-2140.

[8] A. Henney, A global perspective on the impact of competition on

transmission, in Proc. IEEE Colloquium on Network Pricing,

Investment and Access, Oct. 1995, pp. 7/17/6.

[9] Q. Xia, Y.Song, C.Kang and N.Xiang. Novel Models and Algorithms

for Generation Unit Location Optimization. IEEE Transaction on

Power System Vol.12, No.4, Pages: 2093-2101, November 1997.

[10] J.R. Saenz, E. Torres, P. Eguia, and I. Albizu. Development of a

Methodology for Transmission Planning In Deregulated Electric

Sectors. appears in Power Tech Proceedings, 2001 IEEE Porto. Vol. 1,

Page(s): 1- 4 10-13 September 2001.

112

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