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CHAPTER 4

MATTER AND SUBSTANCE

4.1: Changes in The States of Matter


define

Living and non living


things that have
mass and fill space.

Solid
Liquid
exists in three states Gas

MATTER

Kinetic theory of matter


Matter consists of fine and discrete particles
Particles always move, vibrate and rotate
randomly.
The temperature of matter increases as the
particles kinetic energy increases

Support kinetic theory of


matter

* Diffusion
* Brownian
movement

Properties of Matter
Properties of matter
Solid
Arrangement of
Arranged closely,
particles
compactly and
orderly in fixed
positions. There is
very little empty
space between one
particle and another.

Liquid
Liquid particles
neatly nor closely
arranged. There are
empty spaces
among the particles.
Most of the particles
keep contact with
one another.

Gas
Gas particles are
not neatly
arranged and are
further apart from
one another.

Movement of
particles

Particles do not move


freely and only
vibrate at their fixed
positions.
Very strong

Particles move
slowly in a random
manner.
Not very strong

Particles move
fast in a random
manner and in all
directions.
Very weak

Very low
Fixed

Moderate
Following the shape
of the container
Fixed

Very high
Fills up the whole
container
Not fixed

Forces of attraction
between particles
Energy content
Shape
Volume

Fixed

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Compression

Very difficult to
compress

Not compressible

Easily
compressed

Changes in the State of Matter

Solid
sublimation
(heat released)

sublimation
(heat absorbed)

melting
(heat absorbed)

freezing
(heat released)

condensation
(heat released)
Gas

Liquid
boiling
(heat absorbed)

4.2 Structure of Atoms.


Atoms
All matter consists of tiny units called atoms.
Atom is a basic unit of all matter.
Atoms cannot be seen with an ordinary microscope because they are so
tiny.
An atom consists of a nucleus in the centre surrounded by electrons.
Electrons move around the nucleus following a certain orbit.
Orbit
Nucleus

Electron
Structure of an atom

Subatomic particles
An atom is made up of particles that are even smaller called subatomic
particles.
There are three types of subatomic particles :
protons
neutrons
electrons
Protons and neutrons from the nucleus in the centre of an atom.
Electrons move around the nucleus at high speed.
The mass of an atom is concentrated in its nucleus.
electron (-)

nucleus

proton (+)

neutron

Subatomic particles in an atom


Comparison between subatomic particles
Subatomic
particle

Symbol

Proton
Neutron
Electron

p
n
e

Position in atom

Nucleus
Nucleus
Moves around nucleus

Relative
charge

Relative
mass

Mass in gram

+1
0
-1

1
1
1/1840

1.672 x 10-24
1.675 x 10-24
9.107 x 10-28

Comparison between subatomic particles

Atoms of any element are neutral because the number of electrons in an


atom is the same.
In a neutral atom, the total positive charges in the nucleus are the same
as the total negative charges from the electrons which orbit around the
nucleus.
Atom

Hydrogen
Helium
Carbon
Sodium

Number of protons

Number of
electrons

Number of neutrons

1
1
2
2
6
6
11
11
Number of subatomic particles in different atoms

0
2
6
12

Ions are atoms or particles which have charge.


Ions are produced when the number of protons (positive charge) and the
number of electrons (negative charge) are not balanced.
Positive ions are particles that are positively charged.
Positive ions are produced when the number of protons is more than the
number of electrons.
Negative ions are particles that are negatively charged
Negative ions are produced when the number of electrons is more than
the number of protons.

4.3 Proton Number and Nucleon Number in Atoms of Elements.


Proton number and nucleon number

Proton number is the number of protons in an atom of an element.


Elements can be differentiated by referring to their proton number.
In a neutral atom, the proton number also refers to the number of
electrons in that atom.
Proton number = number of protons
= number of electrons in a neutral atom

Nucleon number is the total number of protons and neutrons in an atom of


an element.
Nucleon number = number of protons + number of neutrons
= proton number + number of neutrons

The number of neutrons in an atom can be calculated if its proton number


and nucleon number are known.
Number of neutrons = nucleon number proton number
= nucleon number number of protons

In a neutral atom :
a) Nucleon number = number of electrons + number of neutrons
b) Number of neutron = nucleon number + number of electrons

Table below shows that atoms of different element have different numbers
of protons and electrons.

Element

Number of
protons

Number of
electrons

Number of
neutrons

Proton
number

Nucleon
Number

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

0
2
4
5
6
6
7
8
10
10

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

1
4
7
9
11
12
14
16
19
20

Hydrogen
Helium
Lithium
Beryllium
Boron
Carbon
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Fluorine
Neon

Atoms of certain elements can represented by the following symbol :


nucleon
number

14

proton number

symbol of
element

Number of neutron = 14 7 = 7
Isotopes

Isotopes are atoms of the same element that possesses the same number
of protons but different number of neutrons.

Isotopes can also be defined as atoms of the same element with the same
proton number but different nucleon number.

Isotopes of the same element possess the same chemical properties.

The physical properties of isotopes are different.

Element
Hydrogen
Oxygen

Isotope
Hydrogen-1
Hydrogen-2
Hydrogen-3
Oxygen-16
Oxygen-17

Nucleon
number

Proton
number

1
2
3
16
17

1
1
1
8
8

Number
of
protons
1
1
1
8
8

Number
of
neutrons
0
1
2
8
9

Number
of
electrons
1
1
1
8
8

6
Oxygen-18
Carbon-12
Carbon-13
Carbon-14

Carbon

18
12
13
14

8
6
6
6

8
6
6
6

10
6
7
8

8
6
6
6

Examples of isotopes
4.4 Classification of Elements in Periodic Table.

The elements are arranged in order of increasing proton number.

Each vertical column is called a group.

Elements in the same group have similar chemical properties.

Each horizontal row is called a period.

The chemical and physical properties of the elements are gradually


changed when crossing periods.
In the periodic table, there are 8 groups numbered from 1 to 8 and 7
periods numbered from 1 to 7.
The elements located between groups 2 and 3 are transition elements.
Name of the group:

Group l

: Alkali metals (very reactive metal)

Group II

: Earth alkali metals (very reactive metal)

Group VII

: Non-metals halogens

Group VIII

: Inert Gases (chemically stable and non reactive)

I
8 Group

VIII

1 1

II

III

4
5
6
7

VI

VII
10

3
7 Period

IV

18

Transition elements

7
Alkali Earth alkali metals
metals

Halogens

Inert Gases

4.5 Properties of substances based on their particle content.

Physical properties of atomic, molecular and ionic substances.


Physical
property
Physical state at
room temperature

Atomic
Substance
Solid except
mercury

Molecular Substance

Ionic
Substances
Solid

Arrangement of
particles

Packed very
closely

Forces of
attraction
between particles
Melting point and
boiling point
Electrical

Strong metallic
bond

Solid : Iodine
Liquid : Water
Gas : Oxygen
Solid : Packed
Liquid : Not packed
Gas : Far apart
Weak Van der Waals
forces

High

Low

Strong
electrostatic
force
High

All metals and

Does not conduct

Conducts

Packed very
closely

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conductivity

carbon (graphite)

electricity

Solubility

Does not dissolve


in anything

Most of them dissolve in


organic solvent

electricity in
molten state
Most of them
dissolve in water

4.6 Properties and Uses of Metals and Non-Metals.


Metals and Non-Metals.
elements can be classified into metals and non-metals.
ex : iron, aluminium, zinc, copper, lead, tin ,and gold.
carbon, iodine, bromine, sulphur, phosphorus, and chlorine are examples
of non-metals.
all metals exist in a solid state at room temperature except mercury.(liquid)
non-metals exist in a solid, liquid, or, gaseous state at room temperature.
Physical properties of Metals and Non-Metals.
Metals
Have shiny surfaces
Ductile
Easily rolled or
hammered into foils or
thin sheets
High
Good conductor of
electricity
Good conductor of heat
High
High
Solid (except mercury in
liquid state)

Differences
Luminosity
Ductility
Malleability

Non-metals
Have dull surfaces
Not ductile
Cannot be forged

Tensile strength
Electrical conductivity
Heat conductivity
Melting point and boiling
point
Density
State of matter at room
temperature

Low
Do not conduct electricity
except carbon
Poor conductor of heat
Low
Low
Solid, liquid, or gas

Uses of Metals and Non-Metals in daily life.


Metal
Iron

Physical Property
High tensile strength

Aluminium

Light, good conductor of electricity


and heat
Ductile and malleable, good
conductor of electricity and heat
Do not rust
Does not rust and is shiny

Copper
Tin
Gold

Use
Railway tracks and
framework for bridges
Kitchen utensils and electric
cables
Electrical wires
Electroplating of food cans
Jewellery

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Lead

Cable casing

Ductile, malleable

Non-metal
Carbon (graphite)

Physical Property
Soft and smooth, good
conductor of electricity

Carbon (diamond)
Neon gas and
krypton
Chlorine

Hard
Poor conductor of heat

Sulphur

Yellow in colour

Acidic

Use
Lead of pencils, used as
the electrodes in
electrolysis and in dry cell
Drill bits for cutting stone
Lights used for billboards
Used to kill germs in
drinking water
Use in manufacturing car
batteries

4.7 Methods of Substance Purification.


Characteristics of Pure Substances

Pure substances do not contain any impurities.

Pure substances always have specific melting (freezing) point and


boiling point.

For example : pure water boils at 100 oC and ice melts or freezes at 0oC at
normal atmospheric pressure. pure iron melts at 1540 oC and boils at
2800oC at normal atmospheric pressure.

Any impurities added to a pure substance will increase the boiling point
or lower the freezing (or melting) point of that substance.

For example : water that is added with salt will boil at a temperature higher
than 100oC and will freeze at a temperature lower than 0 oC.

Method of Substance Purification

Distillation

METHOD

1. To obtain a pure substance from a


mixture of solution
2. The liquid mixture is heated until the
required substance boils and turns
into vapour.
3. The vapour cools down and
condenses into a pure liquid.

Crystallisation
To obtain pure crystals from a
saturated solution of the
substances.

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Distillation

Application of distillation :
(a) breaking crude petroleum into its fractions such as petrol,
kerosene and diesel to produce fuels and to make various
kinds of plastic material.
(b) production of pure water or distilled water for the preparation
of chemical solution, medicine, as well as food and
beverages.
(c) obtaining pure ethanol from fermentation of sugar solution
and yeast.
Crystallisation

Application of crystallisation :

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(d) production of salt from seawater.
(e) preparation of white sugar crystals from sugarcane juice.