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BACHELOR OF PHYSIOTHERAPY (B.P.

T)
PART-II
(SESSION-2014,2015 & 2016)
SCHEME OF EXAMINATION AND COURSES OF STUDIES
THEORY
Paper

Title of the Paper

Teaching
Hrs/Week

Maximum Marks Allowed


External

Internal

Assessment

Assessment

Minimum Passing Marks in

Total

Internal and External


Assessment (in %)

1
2
3
4

Exercise Therapy- II
Electrotherapy- II
Biomechanics
Pathology &

4 Hrs
4 Hrs
4 Hrs
4 Hrs

80
80
80
80

20
20
20
20

100
100
100
100

50%
50%
50%
50%

5
6
7

Microbiology
Pharmacology
Sociology
Computer

2 Hrs
2 Hrs
2 Hrs

40
40
40

10
10
10

50
50
50

50%
50%
50%

Applications
Environmental

50

100

100

35%

studies
Clinical Training

hrs/year
2 Hrs
TOTAL MARKS: 550

PRACTICAL
Paper

Title Paper

Teaching
Hrs/Week

1
2
3

Exercise Therapy- II
Electrotherapy- II
Computer

4 Hrs
4 Hrs
2 Hrs

Maximum Marks Allowed


External

Internal

Assessment

Assessment

80
80
40

20
20
10

Minimum Passing Marks in

Total

Internal and External (In %)

100
100
50

50%
50%
50%

Applications
TOTAL MARKS: 250

PAPER I - EXERCISE THERAPY- II


Time Allowed 3 Hrs

Theory

Practical

External Assessment-80

External Assessment-80

Internal Assessment-20

Internal Assessment-20

Total Marks-100

Total Marks-100

Pass Marks-50%

Pass Marks-50%
INSTRUCTION FOR THE PAPER SETTER

The question paper will consist of five sections: A, B, C, D and E. Each Section A, B,
C and D will have two questions from the respective sections of the syllabus and will carry
14 marks each. Section E will have 12 short questions, which will cover the entire syllabus
uniformly and will carry 2 marks each.
INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE CANDIDATES
Candidates are required to attempt one question from each section A, B, C and D of
the questions paper and the entire Section E.

Section-A
1. Therapeutic Exercises: introduction, definition of therapeutic exercises.
Strength, Range of motion, endurance & volume evaluation

Muscle evaluation methods: manual muscle testing

PRE

Goniometry

Limb girth and length measurement.

Etiogenesis of muscle insufficiency; general techniques of strengthening


including the effects, indications, contraindications & precautions.

2. Stretching :
2

Definition of terms related to stretching; tissue response towards


immobilization and elongation; determinants of stretching exercise; effects
of stretching

Inhibition and relaxation procedures

Precautions and contraindications of stretching

Techniques of stretching.

3. Neuromuscular Inco-ordination:

Review of normal neuromuscular coordination

Etiogenesis of neuromuscular in co-ordination

The general techniques of improving coordination including their effects,


indications, contraindications & precautions.

4. Breathing Mechanism:

Review normal breathing; types, techniques, indications, contraindications,


therapeutic effects and precautions of breathing exercises,

Chest expansion measurement and evaluation

Postural drainage

5. Static and Dynamic Balance and Posture

Assessment & management including therapeutic exercises.

Coordination

Section -B
I.

Motor Learning and Functional Re-education:


Introduction to Motor Learning:

Classification of Motor skills

Measurement of Motor Performance

Introduction to motor control

Theories of Motor control

Application

Learning Environment:

II.

Learning of skill

Instruction and augmented feedback.

Practice Conditions

Functional re-education: General therapeutics techniques to re-educate ADLs


functions, mat activities, starting and derived positions, Hand Rehabilitation, Posture.

III.

Gait training: Normal gait cycle and its phases, Principles of gait selection and
training, Types of walking aids, indications, effects and various training techniques,
transfer techniques, Stair climbing training, Pathological gait.
Section -C

1. Hydrotherapy: Basic principles of fluid mechanics as they relate to

hydrotherapy;

Physiological and therapeutic effects of hydrotherapy including, joint mobility, muscle


strengthening and wound care; Types of Hydrotherapy equipment including indications,
contraindications, operational skills and patient preparation.
2. Relaxation: Describe relaxation, muscle fatigue, muscle spasm and tension (mental &
physical); Factors contributing to fatigue & tension; Techniques of relaxation (local and
general) including effects, uses & clinical application.
3. Therapeutic Gymnasium: gymnasium and its importance; various equipments in
gymnasium; Operational skills including effects and uses of each equipment.
4. Suspension Therapy: Definition, principles, equipments & accessories; indications &
contraindications; benefits of suspension therapy; types of suspension therapy axial,
vertical, pendulum; techniques of suspension therapy for upper limb & lower limb.
5. Group Exercises:

Advantages and Disadvantages; Organization of Group exercises;

Recreational Activities and Sports.

Section D
1. Manual Therapy & Peripheral Joint Mobilization:

Introduction to special mobilization and manipulation techniques

Principles of Mobilizing Techniques

Physiological & accessory movements Schools of Manual Therapy (Maitland,


Kaltenborn,

Mulligan,

Cyriax);

Principles,

Grades,

Indications

and

Contraindications, Effects and Uses


2. PNF :

Conceptual framework , principle of Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation


techniques, general techniques, special techniques

3. Traction: Principle of traction, physiological and therapeutic effects, classification


and types, indications, contraindications, techniques applications, operational skills
and precautions.
4. Yoga: Introduction to Yoga: Conceptual framework, Asanas Principles and elements
, Pranayamas Principles, Methods and Techniques, Different Asanas with their
therapeutic activities.
5. Aerobic Exercise: Definition and key terms, Determinants of an Exercise Program,
designing the aerobic Exercise Program, types and phases of aerobic training. Effects
of aerobic exercises acute and long term ( in brief )
PRACTICALS
1. To study the structure and functions along with application of various equipment in
gymnasium.
2. To study and practice various techniques of mobilizations and stretching of joint
region wise.
3. To practice the various techniques of strengthening region wise
4. To practice the various techniques of suspension therapy region wise
5. To demonstrate the exercises to improve coordination and balance
6. To study and practice the uses of various ambulation aids in gait training.
7. To study the various structures and functions of hydrotherapy equipments and their
applications.
8. To study and practice various traction techniques including manual, mechanical and
electrical procedures.
9. To study plan and practice various exercise programs for normal persons of various
age groups.

Books Recommended:
1) Practical Exercise Therapy: Hollis, Blackwell, Scientific Publications.
2) Therapeutic Exercises: Basmajian, Williams &Wilkins.
3) Therapeutic Exercise: Foundations and Techniques, Kisner & Colby.
4) Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation: Voss et al, Williams & Wilkins
5) Principles Of Exercise Therapy: Gardiner
6) Orthopedic Physical Therapy: Woods, Churchill Livingstone
7) Manipulation and Mobilization: Extremities and Spinal Techniques, Edmond, Mosby.
8) Aquatic Exercise Therapy-Bates and Hanson -W.B. Saunders.
9) Manual Examination and Treatment of Spine & Extremities: Wadsworth, Lippincott.
10) Hydrotherapy: Principles & Practices, Campion, Butterworth & Heinemann.
11) Motor Control: Theory and Practical Applications, Shumway Walcott-Lippincott.

PAPER II ELECTROTHERAPY-II
Time Allowed 3 Hrs
Theory

Practical

External Assessment-80

External Assessment-80

Internal Assessment-20

Internal Assessment-20

Total Marks-100

Total Marks-100

Pass Marks-50%

Pass Marks-50%

INSTRUCTION FOR THE PAPER SETTER


The question paper will consist of five sections: A, B, C, D and E. Each Section A, B,
C and D will have two questions from the respective sections of the syllabus and will carry
14 marks each. Section E will have 12 short questions, which will cover the entire syllabus
uniformly and will carry 2 marks each.

INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE CANDIDATES


Candidates are required to attempt one question from each section A, B, C and D of
the questions paper and the entire Section E.

Section -A
1. Physiological responses to heat gain or loss on various tissues of the body.
2. Therapeutic effects of heat, cold and electrical currents.
3. Physical principles of electromagnetic radiation.
4. Physics of sound including characteristics and propagation.
5. Therapeutic effects of heat & cold on Inflammation & wound healing
Section -B
1. High frequency currents (SWD, MWD)-Production, Biophysical effects, types,
therapeutic effects, techniques of application, indication, contraindications, precautions,
operational skills and patient preparation.
2. Medium frequency currents (Russian currents,interferential therapy)-Conceptual
framework of medium frequency currents therapy , production, biophysical effects ,types,
therapeutic effects , techniques of applications, indications, contraindications,
precautions, operational skills and patient preparation.
3. High frequency sound waves (therapeutic Ultrasound) -Production, biophysical effects,
types, therapeutics types, technique of application, indication, contraindication,
precautions, operational skills and patient preparation,
Section C
1. Radiation therapy-, LASER- Definition , historical background ,physical principles
,biophysical effects , types, therapeutic effects ,techniques of applications, indications,
contraindications , precautions, operational skills and patient preparation.
2. Therapeutic Cold (Cryotherapy)-Sources, biophysical effects, types, therapeutic effects,
techniques of applications, indication, contraindications, precaution, operational skills and
patient preparation.
7

3. Therapeutic mechanical pressure (intermittent compression therapy) -Principle,


biophysical effects, types, therapeutic effects, indications, contraindications, precautions,
operational skills and patient preparation.
Section D

1. Review of Neuromuscular physiology including effects of electrical stimulation


2. Electro- diagnosis: Instrumentation, definition and basic techniques of Strength Duration
Techniques, EMG and NCV.
3. Biofeedback- instrumentation, principles, therapeutic effects, indications,

precautions,

operational skills and patient preparation.


4. Miscellaneous- HVPGS, faradic foot bath, faradic under pressure, combination
therapy(US,IFT),

PRACTICALS
1. To study a short wave diathermy unit, its operation unit, its operation and different
methods of application region wise.
2. To study a microwave diathermy unit its operation and different methods of application
region wise.
3. To study ultrasound unit, its operation and different methods of application region wise.
4. To study a laser unit its operation and different methods of application region wise.
5. To study various forms of therapeutic cold application region wise including - ice, cold
packs, vapor coolant sprays, etc.
6. To study an intermittent compression therapy unit, its operation and different methods of
application region wise.
7. To study an interferential pneumatic therapy unit, its operation and different methods of
application region wise.
8. To observe various Electromyography procedures.
9. To study a Biofeedback unit its operation and different methods of application region
wise.
Books Recommended:

1) Electrotherapy Explained: Principle and Practice, Low and Reed, Butterworth


Heinemann.
2) Claytons Electrotherapy -Kitchen and Basin.
3) Therapeutic Heat and Cold Lehman- Williams and Wilkins.
4) Principles and Practice of Electrotherapy -Kahn Church hill Livingstone.
5) Electrotherapy: Clinics in Physical therapy- Wolf Churchill Livingstone.

PAPER III-BIOMECHANICS
Time Allowed-3 Hrs
Theory
Time Allowed-3 Hrs
External Assessment-80
Internal Assessment-20
Total Marks - 100
Pass Marks - 50%
INSTRUCTION FOR THE PAPER SETTER
The question paper will consist of five sections: A, B, C, D and E. Each Section A, B,
C and D will have two questions from the respective sections of the syllabus and will carry
14 marks each. Section E will have 12 short questions, which will cover the entire syllabus
uniformly and will carry 2 marks each.
INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE CANDIDATES
Candidates are required to attempt one question from each section A, B, C and D of
the questions paper and the entire Section E.
Basic Concepts of Biomechanics:

Introduction to mechanics including motion, forces, parallel forces system

Newtons law of motion, concurrent force systems composition forces,


muscle action line etc.

Axis & Planes

Centre of Gravity, line of gravity, stability and equilibrium.

Starting Position

Introduction to Bio-Mechanics and kinesiology. Introduction to the techniques


of biomechanical analysis.
Section B

I.

Joint Structure and Function:

Basic principles of Joint design and a human joint.

Tissues present in human joint including fibrous tissue, bone cartilage and
connective tissue.

II.

III.

Classification of joints.

Joint function, Kinematics chains and range of motion

Levers & their efficiency, anatomical levers

Pulley & anatomical pulley

Muscle Structure and function:

Mobility and stability functions of muscle.

Elements of muscle structure and its properties.

Types of muscle contractions and muscle work.

Classification of muscles and their functions.

Group action of muscles

Co-ordinated movement.

Biomechanics of vertebral column ( Spine)

Section C
The biomechanics of

Shoulder joint

Elbow Joint

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Wrist & Hand

Hip joint

Knee joint

Ankle joint
Section D

I.Posture

Definition, factors responsible for posture, relationship of gravity on posture.

Postural imbalance factors responsible for imbalance in Static and dynamic


positions.

Introduction to ergonomics

Description of Normal gait, determinants of gait, spatio temporal features and

II.Gait:
analysis.

Gait deviations Types, Causative factors and analysis.

III. Activties of daily living (ADLs)- BADL, IADL.

Books Recommended:
1. Joint Structure and Function A Comprehensive Analysis - Norkins & Levangie F.A. Davis.
2. Measurement of Joint Motion A Guide to Goniometry - Norkins & White - F.A.
Davis.
3. Brunnstroms Clinical Kinesiology - Smith et al - F.A. Davis.
4. Basic Biomechanics explained - Low & Reed - Butterworth Heinmann.
5. Kinesiology: Applied to Pathological Motion - Soderberg Lippincott.

PAPER IV-PATHOLOGY & MICROBIOLOGY


Time Allowed-3 Hrs
Theory
Time Allowed-3 Hrs
11

External Assessment-80
Internal Assessment-20
Total Marks - 100
Pass Marks - 50%
INSTRUCTION FOR THE PAPER SETTER
The question paper will consist of five sections: A, B, C, D and E. Each Section A, B,
C and D will have two questions from the respective sections of the syllabus and will carry
14 marks each. Section E will have 12 short questions, which will cover the entire syllabus
uniformly and will carry 2 marks each.
INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE CANDIDATES
Candidates are required to attempt one question from each section A, B, C and D of
the questions paper and the entire Section E.

Section A, B & C (PATHOLOGY)


Section A
1. Aims and objectives of the study of pathology. Meaning of terms, etiology,
pathogenesis and lesions
2. Causes of disease, cell injury causes of cell injury features of cell injury mechanism
of cell injury hypoxia, free radical injury. Necrosis and gangrene
3. Inflammation- definition, events of acute inflammation, chemical mediator of
inflammation, morphological types of acute inflammation, chronic inflammation,
Difference between acute and chronic inflammation
4. Wounds & its types & healing.
5. Repair primary healing, secondary healing, factors affecting healing and repair
6. Healing of skin, muscle and bone ( fracture healing).
Section B

12

1. Fluid and hemodynamic derangements Oedema, hyperemia, Haemorrhage, shock,


embolism, thrombosis, infarction, ischemia.
2. Immunity natural and acquired Immunological mechanisms of tissue injury,
hypersensitivity reactions, general features of autoimmune diseases and
immunodeficiency diseases.
3. Neoplasm : characteristic of benign and malignant tumors, grading and staging of
malignant tumors, general effects of malignancy on the host , a brief outline of the
carcinogenic agents , a brief outline of the methods of diagnosis of malignancy
4. Nutritional disorders: vitamin & minerals deficiency disorders [protein deficiency,
vitamin deficiency (A, B, C, D, E)] causes and features

Section C
Systemic pathology: a brief outline of etiology, pathogenesis and general features of
disease of the following systems-. (Details of morphological and microscopic features and
diagnostic procedures not required).

Blood: disorders of , RBC, WBC, platelets

Blood vessels: atherosclerosis, thromboangitis obliterence, varicose vein,


DVT, thrombophlebitis, lymphoedema

Disease of heart: congestive cardiac failure, ischemic heart disease, rheumatic


heart disease,)

Respiratory System: Pneumonias, Bronchiactesis, Emphysema, Chronic


bronchitis, Asthma, Tuberculosis.

Joints disorders: Arthritis- types and their features.

Bone disorders: osteoporosis, pagets disease, osteogenesis imperfecta,


osteomylitis, a brief outline of bone tumors

Muscles: muscular dystrophy, mysthenia gravis, myopathies

Nervous system: meningitis, encephalitis, vascular diseases of brain,


peripheral nerve lesions
Section D (MICROBIOLOGY)

13

1. An introduction to microbiology, a brief out line of classification of microorganisms


2. Infection types, source, portals of entry, spread ,nosocomial infection.
3. Prevention and control of infection, Disinfection and antiseptics Sterilization
4. Culture media, culture methods & staining techniques.
5. An outline of the following infectious diseases with respect to the causative organism,
mode of transmission, pathogenesis, prevention, and diagnostic tests (details of the
execution and interpretation of the tests not required)

Chicken Pox, Measles, Mumps, Influenza, Diphtheria, Whooping


Cough, poliomyelitis, Tetanus, Tuberculosis, Leprosy, Rubella,
Cholera, Gastroenteritis, Food Poisoning, Hepatitis, AIDS, Typhoid,
Rabies, STD, Ameobiasis, Kalaazar, Malaria, Filaria.

Books Recommended:
1) Robbins Pathological Basis of Disease - Cotran, Kumar & Robbins - W.B. Saunders.
2) General Pathology - Walter & Israel - Churchill Livingstone
3) Muirs Textbook of Pathology - Anderson - Edward Arnold Ltd.
4) Text book of Pathology - Harsh Mohan - Jaypee Brothers.
5) Pathology: Implications for Physical Therapists - Goodmann and Boissonnault - W.B.
Saunders.
6) Essential of Medical Microbiology - Bhatia & Lal - Jaypee Brothers.
7) Medical Microbiology - Mims - Jaypee Brothers.
8) Microbiology: An Introduction for the Health Sciences Ackerman and Richards W.B. Saunders Co.

14

PAPER VPHARMACOLOGY
Time Allowed-2 Hrs
Theory
External Assessment-40
Internal Assessment-10
Total Marks - 50
Pass Marks 25 (50%)
INSTRUCTION FOR THE PAPER SETTER
The question paper will be consist of four sections A, B, C, D. Each section A, B, C will
have two questions from the respective section of syllabus and will carry 10 marks each.
Section D will have 10 short questions, which will cover the entire syllabus uniformly and
will carry 10 marks in all.
INSTRUCTIONS FOR CANDIDATES
Candidates are required to attempt one question each from section A, B, C of the question
paper and the entire section D.
Section A
I.Introduction of pharmacology & scope in physiotherapy
II.Brief introduction of following

Chemical character of drugs

General Action of Drugs

Drug Allergy and Idiosyncrasy

Drug Toxicity

Metabolic fate of drugs

Methods of administration

Process of Drug Absorption

Dosage forms

15

Section B
1. Drugs acting on central nervous system- anesthetics, alcoholics, alkaloids, narcotics,
antipyretics, hypnotics, sedatives, anticonvulsants, antianxiety, stimulants and
psychotherapies.
2. Drugs acting on peripheral nervous system- stimulating and inhibiting cholinergic
and adrenergic activity.
3. Drugs acting on neuromuscular junction and muscles

Neuromuscular blockers

Muscle Relaxants

Anti inflammatory
Section C

1. Drugs acting cardio-vascular system


2. Drugs acting on respiratory system
3. Chemotherapeutic agents
Section D
1. Hormones and drugs affecting endocrine functions
2. Metabolic and other inorganic compounds
3. Vitamins
4. Immunologic agents
5. Drugs for pain management

Books Recommended:
1) The Pharmacological basis of Therapeutics - Goodman and Gilman - MacMillan.
2) Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics - Satoskar & Bhandarkar - Popular
Publications - Bombay

16

PAPER VI- SOCIOLOGY


Time Allowed-2 Hrs
Theory
External Assessment-40
Internal Assessment-10
Total Marks - 50
Pass Marks - 25
INSTRUCTIONS FOR PAPER SETTERS
The question paper will be consists of four section A, B, C, D. Each section A, B, C
will have two questions from the respective section of syllabus and will carry 10 marks each.
Section D will have 10 short questions from the respective section and will carry 10 marks in
all.
INSTRUCTION FOR THE CANDIDATES
Candidates are required to attempt one question from each section A, B, C, & entire
section D.
Section A
1. Introduction: Definitions of sociology, sociology as a science of society, uses of the
study of sociology, application of knowledge of sociology in health and
physiotherapy.
2. Sociology & Health: Social factors affecting health status, social consciousness and
perception of illness, social consciousness and meaning of illness, decision making in
taking treatment. Institutions of health, their role in the improvement of the health of
the people
3. Socialization: Meaning of socialization, influence of social factor on personality,
4. Socialization in hospitals, socialization in the rehabilitation of patients
5. Social Groups: Concept of social groups, influence of formal and informal groups on
health and sickness, the role of primary groups and secondary groups in the hospitals
and rehabilitation settings.

17

6. Family : Influence of family on human personality, discussion of changes in the


functions of a family, influence of family on the individuals health, family and
nutrition, the effects of sickness on family, and psychosomatic disease.
7. Community: Concept of community, role of rural and urban communities in public
health, role of community in determining beliefs, practices and home remedies in
treatment.
Section B
1. Culture: Components of culture. Impact of culture on human behavior, cultural
meaning of sickness, response & choice of treatment (role of culture as social
consciousness in moldings the perception of reality), and culture induced symptoms
and disease, sub culture of medical workers.
2. Social Change: Meaning of social change, factors of social change, human adaptation
and social change, social change and stress, social change and deviance, social change
and health programmes, the role of social planning in the improvement of health and
rehabilitation.
3. Social Control: Meaning of social control, role of norms, folkways, customs, morals,
religion, law and other means of social control in the regulation of human behavior,
social deviance and disease
Section C
1. Community resources and their uses
2. Social Problems of the Disabled: Consequences of the following social problems in
relation to sickness and disability; remedies to prevent these problems:
3. Population explosion
4. Poverty and unemployment
5. Beggary
6. Crime
7. Prostitution
8. Alcoholism and drug abuse
9. Problems of women in employment
10. Role of commonly leaders and health professionals in health promotion
18

Books Recommended:
1) McGee - Sociology - Drydon Press Illinois.
2) Kupuswamy - Social Changes in India - Vikas, Delhi.
3) Ahuja - Social Problems - Bookhive, Delhi.
4) Ginnsberg - Principles of Sociology - Sterling Publications.
5) Parter & Alder - Psychology & Sociology applied to medicine - W.B. Saunders.
6) Julian - Social Problems - Prentice Hall.

PAPER VII BASICS COMPUTER & INTERNET APPLICATIONS


Time Allowed-2 Hrs
Theory
External Assessment-40
Internal Assessment-10
Total Marks - 50
Pass Marks - 25
INSTRUCTIONS FOR PAPER SETTERS
The question paper will be consists of four section A,B,C,D. Each section A,B,C will
have two questions from the respective section of syllabus and will carry 10 marks
each.section D will have 10 short questions from the respective section and will carry 10
marks in all.
INSTRUCTION FOR THE CANDIDATES
Candidates are required to attempt one question from each section A,B,C, & entire
section D.
Section A

19

1. Computer Fundamentals: Computer Concepts and its components, characteristics of


computer, Storage device, input output devices, software, application of computers in
different areas.
2. Operating System: Introduction, Functions, Characteristics of operating system, user
interface, types: DOS, DOS Commands, Windows its features.
Section B
Application Packages: Working knowledge of MS-WORD, MS EXCEL and
MS-POWERPOINT.
Section C
Multimedia and Internet: Introduction of multimedia, its components,
application areas, Networks: LAN, WAN, MAN. Internet and its applications: WWW,
E-mail, Surfing, Browsing, Modem

PRACTICAL
Practical as related to the concepts outlined in theory syllabus

Books Recommended:
1) P.K. Sinha, Introduction to Computers.
2) Rachpal Singh & Gurinder Singh, PC Softwares
3) R.K. Texali, PC Softwares
4) Alan Simpson, Internet to Go.

PAPER VII- ENVIRONMENTAL & ROAD SAFTEY AWARENESS


Time Allowed-3 Hrs
Theory
External Assessment-100
Internal Assessment-

20

Total Marks-100
Pass Marks-35

INSTRUCTIONS
1. The paper will be taught in the 2nd yr/ 4th yr of all U.G courses & will be a
qualifying paper only. The marks of this paper will not be counted towards final score of the
undergraduate degree.
2. This will cover only preliminary & basics of the subject & the paper will be set
accordingly.
3. The written paper will have 2 parts. Each part of the paper will be of 50 marks &
will contain 10 questions. The candidates will attempt 5 questions out of each part. The
answer to each question should not exceed 500 words. Each question will carry 10 marks.
Section-I
Unit 1

6 Lectures
The multidisciplinary nature of environmental studies. Definition, scope &
importance.

Concept of biosphere- lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere

Need for public awareness

Unit-II- Natural Resources- Renewable & non-renewable resources

7 Lectures

Natural Resources & associated problems.


Forest resources- use & over exploitation, deforestation & its
impact.

21

Water resources-use & overutilization of surface & ground water &


its impact.
Mineral resources-use & effects on environment on over
exploitation.
Food resources-effects modern agriculture, fertilizer-pesticide
problem, water logging & salinity.
Energy resources- growing energy needs, renewable & nonrenewable energy sources, use of alternate energy resources.
Role of an individual in conservation of natural resources for
sustainable development.
Unit-III- Ecosystems

6 Lectures

Ecosystems & its components- Definition,structure & function, producer,


consumer & decomposer.

Types of ecosystems ( Introduction only)

Food chains, food web & ecological pyramids.

Unit-IV- Biodiversity & conservation

6 Lectures

Introduction- Definition, genetic, species & ecosystem diversity, value of


biodiversity.

Hot spots of biodiversity

Threats of biodiversity: habitat loss, poocting of wildlife, man-wildlife conflicts

Endangered & endemic species of India

Conservation of biodiversity.
Section- II

22

Unit-V- Environmental pollution

7 Lectures

Definition, causes, effects & control measure of Air pollution


Water pollution
Soil pollution
Marine pollution
Noise pollution
Thermal pollution
Nuclear hazard

Role of an individual in prevention of pollution

Solid waste management :vermicomposting

Disaster management: floods, earthquake, cyclone & landslides.

Unit -VI- Social issues & the environment

Urban problems related to energy

Water conservation rain water harvesting, water shed management

Resettlement & rehabilitation of people : its problems & concerns.

Climate changes, global warming, acid rain, ozone layer depletion.

Consumerism & waste products

Population explosion- family welfare programme.

6 Lectures

23

Unit-VII- Introduction To Environmental Protection Laws In India

Environment Protection Act

Air (Prevention & control of pollution) Act

Water (Prevention & control of pollution) Act

Wildlife Protection Act

Forest Conservation Act

Issues involved in the enforcement of environmental legislation.

Unit- VII- Road safety Awareness

Concept & significance of road safety

Traffic signs

Traffic rules

Traffic offences & penalities

How to obtain license

Role of first aid in road safety.

6 Lectures

6 Lectures

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