You are on page 1of 22

Journal of Sound and <ibration (2000) 230(2), 335}356

doi:10.1006/jsvi.1999.2623, available online at http://www.idealibrary.com on

DIFFERENTIAL QUADRATURE METHOD FOR


VIBRATION ANALYSIS OF SHEAR DEFORMABLE
ANNULAR SECTOR PLATES
K. M. LIEW

AND

F.-L. LIU

Centre for Advanced Numerical Engineering Simulations, School of Mechanical and


Production Engineering, Nanyang echnological ;niversity, Singapore 639798, Singapore
(Received 10 September 1997, and in ,nal form 23 July 1999)
This paper presents di!erential quadrature solutions for free vibration analysis
of moderately thick annular sector plates based on the Mindlin "rst-order shear
deformation theory. Numerical characteristics of the di!erential quadrature
method are illustrated through solving selected annular sector plates with di!erent
boundary conditions, relative thickness ratios, inner-to-outer radius ratios and
various sector angles. Parametric studies in terms of the vibration frequency
parameters are thoroughly investigated.
( 2000 Academic Press

1. INTRODUCTION

The annular sector plate forms one of the most widely used structural components
in engineering applications. The vibration analysis of annular sector plates is,
therefore, of paramount importance in practical design. In the past few decades,
many researches have been done on the solution of vibration problems of thin
annular sector plates by analytical methods [1}5] and numerical methods such as
the energy method [6}11], the integral equation method [12], the "nite strip
method [13] and the spline element method [14, 15], and other methods [16]. In
the mean time, the solution of vibration problems of thick annular sector plates has
also attracted the attention of many researchers. Kobayashi et al. [17] obtained an
analytical solution to the vibration of a Mindlin annular sector plate with two
radial edges simply supported and two other circular edges free. Huang et al.
obtained analytical solutions to the sectorial plates having simply supported radial
edges and arbitrarily bounded circular edges [18]. Tanaka et al. [19] reported
solutions to the free vibration of a cantilever annular sector plate with curved radial
edges and varying thicknesses. Other researchers obtained numerical solutions for
free vibration problems of Reissner or Mindlin annular sector plates by using the
"nite element method [20, 21], the boundary element method [22], the "nite strip
method [23, 24] and the Rayleigh}Ritz method [25].
The DQ method was "rst introduced by Bellman and Casti [26] and Bellman
et al. [27] and developed further by Quan and Chang [28] and Shu and Richards
0022-460X/00/070335#22 $35.00/0

( 2000 Academic Press

336

K. M. LIEW AND F.-L. LIU

[29] into the generalized DQ method through introducing a simple algebraic


formula to calculate the weighting coe$cients of di!erent derivatives. Many
previous studies [30}35] have shown that the DQ method is capable of yielding
highly accurate solutions to the initial boundary value problems with much less
computational e!ort. Therefore, it appears that the method has the potential to
become an alternative to the conventional numerical methods. However,
this powerful method has not been tested to solve the vibration analysis of sector
plates.
In this paper, the DQ method is thus applied to the problems of free vibrations of
thick Mindlin annular sector plates which are described by three di!erential
equations in a two-dimensional polar co-ordinate system. The accuracy and the
convergence characteristics of the DQ method for the free vibration analysis of
several thick annular plates of di!erent inner-to-outer radius ratios, relative
thickness ratios and boundary conditions are investigated through directly
comparing the present results with the existing exact or other numerical solutions.
The applicability and the simplicity of the DQ method for the vibration analysis of
Mindlin annular sector plates have been demonstrated through solving examples in
the parameter studies.

2. METHOD OF DIFFERENTIAL QUADRATURE

The two-dimensional polar co-ordinate system can be treated in a similar way to


the two-dimensional Cartesian co-ordinate system in using the di!erential
quadrature rule. Suppose that there are N grid points in the R-direction and
R
NH grid points in the H direction with R , R ,2, R and H , H ,2, H H as the
1 2
Nx
1 2
N
co-ordinates, the nth order partial derivative of f (R, H) with respect to R, the mth
order partial derivative of f (R, H) with respect to H and the (n#m)th order partial
derivative of f (R, H) with respect to both R and H can be expressed discretely at the
point (R , H ) as
i j
NR
f (n) (R , H )" + C(n) f (R , H ), n"1, 2,2, N !1,
R
i j
ik
k j
R
k/1

(1a)

NH
fH(m) (R , H )" + CM (m) f (R , H ), m"1, 2,2, NH!1,
jk
i k
i j
k/1

(1b)

NH
NR
(R , H )" + C (n) + CM (m) f (R , H )
f (n`m)
H
i j
ik
jl
k l
R
k/1
l/1
for i"1, 2,2, N and j"1, 2,2, NH ,
R

(1c)

where C (n) and CM (m) are weighting coe$cients associated with nth order partial
ij
ij
derivative of f (R, H) with respect to R at the discrete point R and mth order
i
derivative with respect to H at H .
j

DQM FOR VIBRATION OF ANNULAR SECTOR MINDLIN PLATES

337

According to Quan and Chang [28] and Shu and Richards [29], the weighting
coe$cients in equations (1a}c) can be determined as follows:
M(1)(R )
i
C (1)"
, i, j"1, 2,2,N , but jOi,
ij
R
(R !R )M(1)(R )
i
j
j

(2)

NR
M(1)(R )" < (R !R )
i
i
j
j/1, jOi

(3)

where

and

C (n~1)
C (n)"n C (n~1) C (1)! ij
ij
ii
ij
R !R
i
j

(4)

for i, j"1, 2,2, N , but jOi; and n"2, 3,2, N !1,


R
R
NR
C (n)"! + C (n) , i"1, 2,2,N , and
ij
R
il
j/1, jOi

n"1, 2,2, N !1.


R

(5)

CM (n) can be determined using equations (1)}(5) simply by replacing all R with H.
ij
3. MODELLING OF PROBLEMS BY DQ METHOD

3.1. GOVERNING EQUATIONS


The problem concerned here is the transverse free vibration of a thick isotropic
annular sector plate with uniform thickness h, sector angle a, inner radius b and
outer radius a as shown in Figure 1. According to Mindlin's plate theory, the
equilibrium equations in terms of moment and shear resultants in polar
co-ordinates are [36]
1 LM
1
oh3 L2t
LM
rh# (M !M )!Q "
r,
r#
r
h
r
r Lh
r
12 Lt2
Lr

(6a)

1 LM
2
oh3 L2t
LM
h# M !Q "
h,
rh#
rh
h
r Lh
r
12 Lt2
Lr

(6b)

LQ
1 LQ
1
L2w
r#
h# Q "oh
,
Lr
r Lh
r r
Lt2

(6c)

where o is the density of the plate. The moment resultants M , M , and M and the
r
h
rh
force resultants Q and Q are expressed by the transverse de#ection w and the
r
h

338

K. M. LIEW AND F.-L. LIU

Figure 1. Geometry and co-ordinate system of annular sector plate.

bending rotations t in the radial plane and t in the circumferential plane as


r
h
follows:

A
AA

1
Lt
Lt
r#l
t# h
M "D
r
r
r
Lh
Lr

BB
B

(7a)

Lt
Lt
1
M "D
t # h #l r ,
h
r
Lh
Lr
r

(7b)

AA

A
A

B
B

1!l
Lt
1 Lt
r!t # h
M "
D
rh
h
2
Lr
r Lh

(7c)

and
Lw
,
Q "iGh t #
r Lr
r

(8a)

1 Lw
Q "iGh t #
,
h
h r Lh

(8b)

Eh3
D"
12(1!l2)

(9)

where

DQM FOR VIBRATION OF ANNULAR SECTOR MINDLIN PLATES

339

and E, G and l are Young's modulus, shear modulus and the Poisson ratio of the
plate respectively, and i is the shear correction factor.
Using the following dimensionless parameters,
R"r/a, H"h/a, ="w/a, W "t , WH"t , d"h/a,
h
R
r

oa2(1!l2)
,
E

"t/t , t "
0
0

(10a)
(10b)

and substituting equations (7) and (8) into equation (6), one can normalize the
governing equations as follows:
R2

L2W
LW
(1!l) L2W
(1#l) L2WH
R#R R!(1#mR2)W #
R#
R
R
LR2
LR
2a2 LH2
2a
LRLH

(3!l) LW
L=
L2W
R,
h!mR2
!
"R2
2a LH
LR
L2

(11a)

(1#l) L2W
(3!l) LW
1 L2WH (1!l)
L2WH
R#
R#
R
#
R2
2
LRLH
2a LH a2 LH2
2
LR2

D
B A

(1!l) LWH
m L=
L2WH
(1!l)
#
R
!
#mR2 WH! R
"R2
, (11b)
2
a LH
LR
L2
2

R2

L2=
L=
1 L2=
LW
#R
#
# R2 R#RW
R
LR2
LR a2 LH2
LR

R LWH
2R2 L2=
#
"
,
a LH i(1!l) L2

(11c)

where
6i(1!l)
m"
d2

(12)

and the stress-displacement relationships are given by

LW
1
1 LWH
W#
,
M " R#l
R
LR
R R a LH

A
CA

(13a)

1
1 LWH
LW
MH" W #
#l R ,
R R a LH
LR

(13b)

1!l 1 1 LW
LW
R!WH # H ,
M H"
R
2
LR
R a LH
where M "M /(D/a), MH"M /(D/a) and M H"M /(D/a).
h
rh
R
r
R

(13c)

340

K. M. LIEW AND F.-L. LIU

For free vibration, the solutions of motion in time can be assumed as


=(R, H, )"= (R, H)e* X jT, W (R, H, )"W (R, H)e* X jT,
R
Rj
j
WH (R, H, )"WH (R, H)e* X jT,
j

(14a, b, c)

where X is the eigenvalue of the jth mode of vibration.


j
Substitution of equation (14) into equation (11) leads to
R2

LW
(1!l) L2W
(1#l) L2WH
L2W
R#
R#R R!(1#mR2)W #
R
R
LR
2a2 LH2
2a
LR2
LRLH

(3!l) LWH
L=
!
!mR2
"!R2X2W ,
R
2a LH
LR

(15a)

(3!l) LW
1 L2WH (1!l)
L2WH
(1#l) L2W
R#
R#
R
#
R2
LRLH
2a LH a2 LH2
2
2a
LR2

(1!l) LWH
m L=
(1!l)
#
R
!
#mR2 WH! R
"!R2X2WH ,
2
a LH
LR
2

R2

B A

(15b)

L2=
L=
1 L2=
LW
#R
#
# R2 R#RW
R
LR2
LR a2 LH2
LR

R LWH
2R2
#
"!
X2=
a LH
i(1!l)

(15c)

in which and also in the following, =, W , WH and X should have been taken as
R
= (R, H), W (R, H), WH (R, H) and X respectively for the jth mode of vibration,
j
Rj
j
j
but the su$x j is omitted for the sake of convenience.
According to the di!erential quadrature procedure, the normalized governing
equations (15) will be transformed into the following discrete forms:

NR
+ (C (2) R2#C (1) R )W (k, j ) !(1#mR2 )W (i, j )
ik i
ik i R
i R
k/1
1!l
#
b2
2

NH
NH
1#l
NR
+ CM (2) W (i, m) #
bR + C (1) + CM (1) WH (k, m)
jm R
i
ik
jm
2
m/1
k/1
m/1

(3!l)
!
b
2

NH
NR
+ CM WH (i, m) !mR 2 + C(1) =(k, j ) "!X2R 2W (i, j ),
i
ik
i R
jm
m/1
k/1
(16a)

341

DQM FOR VIBRATION OF ANNULAR SECTOR MINDLIN PLATES

1#l
bR
i
2
#b2

D
D

NH
1!l NR
+ CM (2) WH (i, m) #
+ (C (2) R 2#C (1) R )WH (k, j )
jm
ik i
ik i
2
m/1
k/1

D
C
C

NH
NH
NR
3!l
+ C (1) + CM (1) W (k, m) #
b + CM (1) W (i, m)
ik
jm R
jm R
2
k/1
m/1
m/1

1!l
#mR 2 WH (i, j )!mbR
i
i
2

D C

NH
+ CM (1) =(i, m) "!)2R 2 WH (i, j ),
jm
i
m/1
(16b)

NH
NR
NR
+ (C (2) R 2#C (1) R )=(k, j ) #b2 + CM (2) =(i, m) #R 2 + C (1) W (k, j )
ik i
ik i
jm
i
ik R
k/1
m/1
k/1
#R W (i, j )#bR
i R
i

NH
2
+ CM (1) WH (i, m) "!
X2R 2 =(i, j ),
jm
i
i(1!l)
m/1

(16c)

where i"2,2, N !1 and j"2,2, NH!1. C (n) and CM (n) are the weighting
rs
rs
R
coe$cients for the nth order partial derivatives of =, W and WH with respect to
R
R and H respectively.
It should be noticed that the domain [b/a, 1] of dimensionless variable R is not
the often used [0, 1] or [!1, 1]. Therefore, the DQ weighting coe$cients, C (n) and
rs
CM (n) , are di!erent from the standard ones corresponding to the [0, 1] or [!1, 1]
rs
domain.
3.2.

BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

The boundary conditions considered herein are divided into four kinds. Taking
the radial edge with h"constant, for example, we have
Simply supported edge (S): w"M "t "0,
h
r

(17)

(S@): w"M "M "0,


h
rh

(18)

Clamped edge

(C): w"t "t "0,


r
h

(19)

Free edge

(F): Q "M "M "0.


h
h
rh

(20)

Substituting equations (7) and (8) into equations (17)}(20) and normalizing them
lead to
Simply supported edge (S):
="0, lR

1 LWH
LW
R#W #
"0, W "0.
R a LH
R
LR

(21)

342

K. M. LIEW AND F.-L. LIU

Simply supported edge (S@):


="0, lR

LW
1 LWH
1 LW
LW
R#W #
R!WH#R H"0.
"0,
R a LH
LR
a LH
LR

(22)

Clamped edge (C):


="0, W "0, WH"0
R

Free edge (F):


1 L=
#RWH"0,
a LH

lR

LW
1 LWH
R#W #
"0,
R
LR
a LH

(23)

1 LW
LW
R!WH#R H"0. (24)
a LH
LR

Using the DQ procedure, the normalized boundary conditions presented by


equations (21)}(24) for an edge of H"constant, can then be described in the
following discrete forms. For an example, at the edge H"0:
(S) = "0,
i1
NR
1 NH
lR + C (1) W (k, 1)#W # + CM (1) WH (i, m)"0,
i
k1 R
R a
1m
k/1
m/1

(25b)

W (i, 1)"0.
R

(25c)

(S@) = "0,
1j

(26a)

1 NH
NR
lR + C (1) W (k, 1)#W # + CM (1) WH (i, m)"0,
k1 R
R a
1m
i
k/1
m/1

(26b)

1 NH
NR
+ CM (1) W (i, m)!WH (i, 1)#R + C (1) WH (k, 1)"0,
1m R
i
ik
a
m/1
k/1

(26c)

(C) = "0,
i1

(F)

(25a)

(27a)

W (i, 1)"0,
R

(27b)

WH (i, 1)"0,

(27c)

1 NH
+ CM (1) =(i, m)#R WH (i, 1)"0,
1k
i
a
k/1

(28a)

NR
1 NH
lR + C (1) W (k, 1)#W # + CM (1) WH (i, m)"0,
i
k1 R
R a
1m
k/1
m/1

(28b)

DQM FOR VIBRATION OF ANNULAR SECTOR MINDLIN PLATES

343

NR
1 NH
+ CM (1) W (i, m)!WH (i, 1)#R + C (1) WH (k, 1)"0,
1m R
i
ik
a
m/1
k/1
i"1, 2,2, N for equations (25a)}(28c).
R

(28c)

For the edge of H"1, the discrete boundary conditions can be simply obtained by
substituting all the subscripts of 1 into equations (25)}(28) with NH . The boundary
conditions for the circular edge with R"constant can also be written in the same
manner.

4. NUMERICAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Based on the formulas presented in the previous section, a programme has been
built up to solve the eigenvalues of the plate. For all the calculations here, the
Poisson ratio and the shear correction factor i have been taken as l"0)3 and
n2/12. The grid points employed in computation are designated by

1
(i!1)n
R " b# 1!cos
i
2
N !1
R

BD

1
( j!1)n
H " 1!cos
j 2
NH!1

HN

a, i"1, 2,2, N ,
R

(a!b)

BD

, j"1, 2,2, NH .

(29a)

(29b)

The moderately thick isotropic plates with six di!erent boundary conditions of
SSSS, CCCC, CSCS, CFCF, FCSC and SCFC have been considered here. The
symbol FCSC, for instance, represents the free, clamped, simply supported and
clamped boundary conditions of edges 1, 2, 3 and 4 on the plate shown in Figure 1
respectively. The eigenvalues are expressed in terms of non-dimensional frequency
parameter j2 which is de"ned as follows:
j2"ua2

4.1.

oh
and u"X
D

E
.
oa2(1!l2)

(30)

CONVERGENCE AND ACCURACY STUDIES

The convergence studies of the DQ method for free vibration of annular sector
Mindlin plates should be carried out "rst to reveal the convergence characteristics
of this numerical method for the problem concerned and also to ensure the
accuracy of the present results. In the mean time, the e!ects of boundary conditions,
relative thickness, inner-to-outer cut-out ratio and sector angle on the convergence
properties should also be investigated so that the number of grid points required for
an e!ective solution of the problem can be determined.
Figures 2}4 show the convergence patterns of an annular sector plate with SSSS,
CCCC and CSCS boundary conditions respectively. The normalized frequency

344

K. M. LIEW AND F.-L. LIU

Figure 2. Convergence pattern of normalized frequency parameter j2/j2 of modes 1, 3, 4 and


%9!#5
5 for a simply supported annular sector plate.

Figure 3. Convergence pattern of normalized frequency parameter j2/j2 of "rst "ve modes for
%9!#5
a fully clamped annular sector plate.

parameters j2/j2 of the "rst "ve mode sequences are presented in these "gures,
%9!#5
and the values of j2
are the exact solutions taken from Ramakrishnan and
%9!#5
Kunikkasseril [2]. The convergence pattern of CFCF annular sector plate is shown

DQM FOR VIBRATION OF ANNULAR SECTOR MINDLIN PLATES

345

Figure 4. Convergence pattern of normalized frequency parameter j2/j2 of "rst "ve modes for
%9!#5
an annular sector plate with CSCS boundary conditions.

in Figure 5 and the parameter j2 stands for the completely converged DQ results
#
(with "ve signi"cant digits). In Figures 2, 4 and 5, the sector angle a and the
inner-to-outer cut-out ratio b/a are taken to be 453 and 0)5 respectively, whereas in
Figure 3, the value of a and b/a are 903 and 0)00001 respectively so that the direct
comparison can be made between the present DQ results and the existing exact
solutions [2]. For all the four cases, the relative thickness h/a is taken to be 0)005.
From these "gures, it is found that (1) for all the four kinds of boundary conditions
considered here, the DQ results of the annular sector plates converge to the exact
solutions (Figures 2}4) or the corresponding converged values with the increase of
the grid points (Figure 5); (2) among the DQ results of these four cases, only the
fully clamped plate (CCCC) demonstrates the monotonic convergence pattern,
while all other cases (SSSS, CSCS and CFCF) show the #uctuating characteristics
in the convergence patterns; (3) for di!erent mode sequences, the convergent speeds
are di!erent. Normally, the higher the mode sequence, the slower the convergent
speed; (4) for all the mode sequences, the boundary condition plays the most
important part in the convergent speed of DQ solutions for the free vibrations of
annular sector plates. For example, for the fully clamped, simply supported
boundary condition and their combinations, all the frequency parameters
completely converge to their corresponding converged values when the number of
the grid points for each co-ordinate variable is equal to or greater than 11, whereas
for the CFCF plate, even when the number of grid points for each co-ordinate is
equal to 25, the results are still #uctuating slightly.

346

K. M. LIEW AND F.-L. LIU

Figure 5. Convergence pattern of normalized frequency parameter j2/j2 of "rst "ve modes for
%9!#5
an annular sector plate with CFCF boundary conditions.

In order to further reveal the e!ects of other parameters such as relative thickness
h/a, sector angle a, and the inner-to-outer cut-out ratio b/a, the most di$cult
convergent case CFCF among the six cases concerned in this paper is selected.
Figure 6 shows the e!ects of plate thickness h/a on the convergence of the frequency
parameter j2 of the "rst and the fourth modes. It is observed that the relative
thickness h/a has the signi"cant e!ects on the convergent speed of the DQ
solutions. The thicker a plate is (h/a"0)005}0)2), the faster the convergent speed
for both the fundamental frequency and the higher mode of frequencies. In other
words, increasing the relative thickness h/a from 0)005 to 0)2 can greatly improve
the convergence ratio of the DQ results with the re"nement of the grid. The e!ects
of the sector angle on the convergence of frequency parameter j2 of the "rst and the
third modes for the annular sector plate are illustrated in Figure 7. It is very clear to
see that for the fundamental frequency (Figure 7(a)), with the increase of the sector
angle (in the range of 30}1203), the convergent rate increases, but for the higher
mode such as the third mode (Figure 7(b)), this conclusion is only true for the grid
points of each co-ordinate variable between 5 and 12; if the grid points along each
co-ordinate direction are over 13, the value of the sector angle will almost bear no
e!ects on the convergent rate. Figure 8 shows the e!ects of the inner-to-outer
cut-out ratio on the convergence of frequency parameter j2 of the "rst and the third
modes of the annular sector plate. It is also found that the inner-to-outer cut-out
ratio b/a can only have the e!ect on the convergence patterns when the grid points
for each co-ordinate variable are smaller than 14; when the grid points are larger

DQM FOR VIBRATION OF ANNULAR SECTOR MINDLIN PLATES

347

Figure 6. E!ects of plate thickness h/a on convergence of normalized frequency parameter j2/j2 of
c
annular sector plate with CFCF boundary conditions: (a) mode 1 *n*, h/a"0)005; 2L2,
h/a"0)01; *K*, h/a"0)1; *e*, h/a"0)2; (b) mode 4. *K*, h/a"0)005; 2e*, h/a"0)01;
*]*, h/a"0)1; *L*, h/a"0)2.

than 14, the convergent rates for both of the "rst and the "fth modes of the
frequency parameter j2 are completely dominated by the number of the grid points.
To examine the accuracy of the converged DQ results, comparisons with the
earlier results obtained by using other methods such as the analytical method [2], the
Mindlin "nite-strip method [15] and the Rayleigh}Ritz method [25] are made for
four boundary conditions (SSSS, CCCC, CSCS and CFCF) in Table 1. It is observed
that close agreement has been obtained for all the cases presented in the table.
4.2.

PARAMETRIC STUDIES

The "rst six natural frequencies of the annular sector plates with six boundary
conditions, di!erent relative thicknesses, di!erent sector angles and inner-to-outer
radius ratios are computed by using the DQ method and presented in Tables 2}7.
The values of sector angle, relative thickness and inner-to-outer radius ratio are
taken as a"30, 60, and 1203, h/a"0)01, 0)1 and 0)2 and b/a"0)1, 0)25 and 0)5
respectively in the calculation. All the results shown in these tables are completely
converged ones with "ve signi"cant digits for the thick plates and four signi"cant
digits for the thin plates. Based on the results in all these tables, the following
conclusion remarks can be made:
(1) As the sector angle increases, for the annular sector plate with SSSS, CCCC,
CSCS, FCSC and SCFC boundary conditions, he "rst six frequency
parameters decrease signi"cantly for any given relative thickness h/a and

348

K. M. LIEW AND F.-L. LIU

Figure 7. E!ects of sector angle a on convergence of normalized frequency parameter j2/j2 of


c
annular sector plate with CFCF boundary conditions: (a) mode 1; (b) mode 3. *n*, a"30; 2L2,
a"60; *K*, a"90; *e*, a"120.

Figure 8. E!ects of plate cut-out ratio b/a on convergence of normalized frequency parameter
j2/j2 of annular sector plate with CFCF boundary conditions: (a) mode 1; (b) mode 5. *n*,
c
b/a"0)1; 2L2, b/a"0)25; *K*, b/a"0)4; *e*, b/a"0)5.

inner-to-outer radius ratio b/a, but for the annular sector plate with CFCF
boundary condition, the frequency parameters may increase for some modes
such as the "rst and third modes in the case of b/a"0)1. This means that
increasing the sector angles will lead to the decrease of the #exural sti!ness
for the annular sector plates with SSSS, CCCC, CSCS, FCSC and SCFC
boundary conditions, but may not necessarily reduce the #exural sti!ness for
the CFCF plates.

TABLE 1
Comparison study of frequency parameters, j2"ua2Joh/D, for annular sector plates with di+erent boundary conditions
Mode sequence
b/a

h/a

45

0)5
0)5
0)5
0)5
0)5
0)5
0)5
0)5
0)5
0)5
0)5
0)5
0)5
0)5

0)005
Thin plate
0)1
0)1
0)1
0)2
0)2
0)2
0)1
0)1
0)1
0)2
0)2
0)2

SSSS
SSSS
SSSS
SSSS
SSSS
SSSS
SSSS
SSSS
SSSS
SSSS
SSSS
SSSS
SSSS
SSSS

DQMs
exactt
DQMs
FSMA
RRMB
DQMs
FSMA
RRMB
DQMs
FSMA
RRMB
DQMs
FSMA
RRMB

68)357
68)380
88)486
88)56
88)530
67)237
67)41
67)394
50)982
51)02
51)025
41)995
42)07
42)066

150)88
150)96
171)23
171)5
171)63
115)82
116)2
116)29
88)486
88)56
88)530
67)237
67)41
67)394

189)43
189)61
199)86
200)2
200)29
131)55
132)0
132)10
138)60
138)9
138)94
97)320
97.62
97)698

278)03
278)46
275)09
275)6
275)07
170)76
171)2
171)54
140)70
140)9
140)89
98)704
99)00
99)040

283)22
283)59
280)69
281)1
281)53
173)78
174)3
174)68
171)23
171)5
171)63
115)82
116)2
116)29

90

0)00001
0)00001
0)5
0)5

0)005
Thin plate
0)005
Thin plate

CCCC
CCCC
CCCC
CCCC

DQMs
exactt
DQMs
exactt

48)766
48)70
95)140
95)04

87)722
88)13
114)83
114)52

104)81
105)06
150)35
151)24

136)80
138)33
201)07
204)41

164)39
165)31
252)73
253)74

45

0)5
0)5
0)5
0)5
0)5
0)5
0)5
0)5
0)4
0)4
0)4
0)4
0)4
0)4
0)4
0)4

0)005
Thin plate
0)1
0)1
0)1
0)2
0)2
0)2
0)001
0)001
0)2
0)2
0)1
0)1
0)2
0)2

CSCS
CSCS
CSCS
CSCS
CSCS
CSCS
CSCS
CSCS
CFCF
CFCF
CFCF
CFCF
CFCF
CFCF
CFCF
CFCF

DQMs
exactt
DQMs
FSMA
RRMB
DQMs
FSMA
RRMB
DQMs
RRMB
DQMs
RRMB
DQMs
RRMB
DQMs
RRMB

107)47
107)63
76)902
77)13
77)082
53)099
53)34
53)321
61)112
61)160
37)292
37)441
51)304
51)406
37)446
37)597

178)61
178)77
103)68
103)9
103)91
72)152
72)40
72)430
75)075
75)150
42)403
42)552
53)649
53)760
38)975
39)126

268)98
169)13
150)41
150)7
150)78
101)11
101)4
101)53
132)57
132)86
71)603
71)804
63)660
63)785
46)046
46)202

305)33
309)34
167)33
167)9
167)89
103)02
103)5
103)52
169)19
169)32
77)536
77)890
84)339
84)497
60)568
60)761

345)68
353)27
191)59
192)1
192)22
119)41
119)8
119)97
190)41
190)26
85)595
85)947
114)59
114)82
77)541
77)895

30

60

60

45

90

Method
used

A
B

Finite-strip method by Mizusawa [15].


Rayleigh}Ritz method by Xiang et al. [25].

349

s Present di!erential quadrature method.


t Exact analytical method by Ramkrishnan and Kunukkasseril [2].

DQM FOR VIBRATION OF ANNULAR SECTOR MINDLIN PLATES

a (deg)

Boundary
condition

350

K. M. LIEW AND F.-L. LIU

TABLE 2
Frequency parameters, j2"ua2Joh/D, for annular sector plates with SSSS boundary conditions
Mode of sequence
a (deg) b/a
30

0)10
0)25
0)50

60

0)10
0)25
0)50

120

0)10
0)25
0)50

h/a

0)01
0)10
0)20
0)01
0)10
0)20
0)01
0)10
0)20
0)01
0)10
0)20
0)01
0)10
0)20
0)01
0)10
0)20
0)01
0)10
0)20
0)01
0)10
0)20
0)01
0)10
0)20

97)817
84)440
64)693
97)828
84)447
64)697
103)238
88)486
67)237
39)948
37)366
32)092
40)835
38)122
32)633
55)898
50)982
41)996
20)492
19)675
17)862
24)076
23)019
20)612
43)961
40)778
34)494

183)322
143)881
100)536
183)597
144)050
100)628
227)683
171)234
115)823
94)539
81)937
63)072
97)828
84)447
64)697
103)238
88)486
67)237
39)948
37)366
32)092
40)835
38)122
32)633
55)898
50)982
41)996

276)687
199)711
131)473
276)686
199)711
131)473
276)957
199)860
131)552
97)817
84)440
64)693
101)379
87)009
66)211
175)437
138)598
97)320
62)727
56)463
45)724
66)248
59)624
48)186
75)788
67)272
53)340

286)881
205)375
134)512
289)176
206)599
135)143
423)932
275)089
170)760
168)874
134)424
95)050
177)030
139)820
98)205
178)407
140)702
98)704
66)136
59)535
48)129
78)861
69)557
54)668
103)238
88)486
67)237

409)124
268)226
165)947
418)904
272)808
167)286
435)419
280)693
173)780
177)030
139)820
98)205
183)597
144)050
100)628
227)683
171)234
115)823
94)539
81)937
63)072
97)827
84)447
64)697
137)650
113)335
82)604

428)095
277)275
167)443
428)089
277)274
169)732
534)834
325)311
173)836
183)322
143)881
100)536
191)747
149)010
103)261
276)956
199)860
131)552
97)817
84)440
64)693
101)379
87)009
66)211
162)478
130)056
92)334

TABLE 3
Frequency parameters, j2"ua2Joh/D, for annular sector plates with CCCC
boundary conditions
Mode of sequence
a (deg)

b/a

h/a

30

0)10

0)01
0)10
0)20
0)01
0)10
0)20
0)01
0)10
0)20

187)056
128)289
81)177
187)056
128)290
81)183
190)942
131)375
83)457

297)335
183)331
110)699
297)337
183)366
110)764
338)662
205)763
123)157

412)551
234)414
136)614
412)547
234)414
136)614
412)663
234)581
136)780

424)333
240)017
141)531
424)348
240)451
141)961
562)649
300)052
173)724

569)715
297)884
171)828
569)759
300)161
173)469
595)274
307)465
176)299

590)374
303)995
173)966
590)325
303)995
173)967
714)458
349)689
198)360

0)25
0)50

351

DQM FOR VIBRATION OF ANNULAR SECTOR MINDLIN PLATES

TABLE 3 (Continued)
Mode of sequence
a (deg)

b/a

h/a

60

0)10

0)01
0)10
0)20
0)01
0)10
0)20
0)01
0)10
0)20
0)01
0)10
0)20
0)01
0)10
0)20
0)01
0)10
0)20

75)445
62)412
45)452
75)874
62)839
45)853
105)750
82)164
56)594
38)009
34)218
27)602
45)421
39)817
31)056
91)936
72)317
49)788

144)531
108)355
72)576
148)165
110)734
73)975
158)636
116)624
77)357
62)712
53)974
41)001
64)539
55)216
41)814
101)564
79)149
54)674

148)163
110)727
73)962
149)750
112)141
74)973
244)320
165)724
103)806
89)369
73)698
53)406
94)114
77)237
55)951
119)268
91)761
63)253

232)571
159)482
101)611
241)864
164)502
104)342
261)859
169)620
105)145
94)448
77)387
55)878
116)003
90)627
62)420
145)796
109)959
74)838

241)913
164)547
104)487
249)154
167)942
106)017
314)706
198)127
121)160
126)422
99)601
69)392
130)199
102)072
71)127
180)886
132)549
88)418

249)029
167)779
105)855
253)613
171)670
108)612
356)056
221)583
135)295
131)473
102)533
71)118
139)097
106)624
72)862
224)242
158)272
98)912

0)25
0)50

120

0)10
0)25
0)50

TABLE 4
Frequency parameters, j2"ua2Joh/D, for annular sector plates with CSCS boundary conditions
Mode of sequence
a (deg)

b/a

h/a

30

0)10

0)01
0)10
0)20
0)01
0)10
0)20
0)01
0)10
0)20
0)01
0)10
0)20
0)01
0)10
0)20
0)01
0)10
0)20

113)912
93)450
67)933
114)047
93)491
67)946
135)047
103)682
72)152
51)149
45)840
36)787
55)913
48)727
38)137
98)586
76)902
53)099

205)158
152)635
102)556
206)885
153)114
102)712
297)984
191)593
119)412
111)796
91)764
66)656
114)047
93)491
67)946
135)047
103)682
72)152

302)082
206)900
132)862
302)081
206)900
132)862
303)798
207)276
132)981
113)912
93)450
67)933
130)885
101)804
71)004
204)817
150)413
101)108

313)934
213)083
135)609
322)509
215)367
136)414
482)085
288)449
172)041
192)926
144)269
97)433
197)886
148)134
100)317
257)257
167)327
103)024

441)102
274)652
165)947
459)708
281)195
167)286
533)976
293)159
173)780
197)884
148)134
100)317
206)885
153)114
102)712
297)984
191)593
119)412

459)708
283)188
167)818
466)302
283)188
170)310
568)787
330)323
174)731
205)158
152)635
102)556
238)049
164)981
106)541
303)798
207)276
132)981

0)25
0)50

60

0)10
0)25
0)50

352

K. M. LIEW AND F.-L. LIU

TABLE 4 (Continued)
Mode of sequence
a (deg)

b/a

h/a

120

0)10

0)01
0)10
0)20
0)01
0)10
0)20
0)01
0)10
0)20

31)730
28)570
23)678
42)728
37)415
29)161
91)198
71)730
49)296

51)149
45)840
36)787
55)913
48)727
38)137
98)586
76)902
53)099

79)752
68)489
50)975
80)749
68)915
52)248
112)749
87)339
60)813

83)049
68)764
52)087
113)861
89)097
61)629
135)047
103)682
72)152

111)796
91)764
66)656
114)047
93)491
67)946
165)879
125)174
85)948

113)912
93)450
67)933
130)885
101)804
71)004
204)813
150)412
98)802

0)25
0)50

TABLE 5
Frequency parameters, j2"ua2Joh/D, for annular sector plates with CFCF
boundary conditions
Mode of sequence
a (deg)

b/a

h/a

30

0)10

0)01
0)10
0)20
0)01
0)10
0)20
0)01
0)10
0)20
0)01
0)10
0)20
0)01
0)10
0)20
0)01
0)10
0)20
0)01
0)10
0)20
0)01
0)10
0)20
0)01
0)10
0)20

25)208
22)899
18)907
38)101
33)525
26)348
87)768
69)340
47)924
25)948
23)333
19)111
38)700
34)045
26)590
88)299
69)744
48)080
26)607
23)917
19)426
39)018
34)381
26)783
88)596
69)969
48)176

57)687
44)274
30)786
68)438
53)091
36)830
113)532
83)530
55)145
37)927
32)377
25)558
48)442
41)016
31)187
95)342
73)872
50)551
29)742
26)425
21)569
41)513
36)177
28)096
90)300
70)954
48)823

71)714
59)550
43)501
106)238
83)363
57)447
225)328
157)007
96)171
73)138
60)356
43)790
89)177
73)542
54)551
122)393
91)885
62)967
43)782
38)813
31)362
51)556
44)214
34)204
96)821
75)206
51)613

134)539
96)968
62)626
158)962
113)967
74)655
241)877
159)210
105)689
87)650
73)172
54)719
107)410
84)271
58)063
176)818
129)168
87)122
68)445
58)885
44)309
71)462
60)501
46)051
109)012
83)556
57)522

142)769
107)901
73)053
209)174
146)217
93)864
280)166
177)555
109)390
94)937
75)670
54)829
122)868
94)253
65)020
242)992
158)774
96)732
74)154
61)216
45)102
100)598
82)771
58)044
128)056
97)139
67)088

214)384
152)784
93)078
214)522
155)742
105)052
414)370
247)316
150)750
144)922
109)074
73)532
161)807
123)847
85)224
252)931
164)194
100)911
80)196
65)904
48)653
108)016
84)842
60)249
155)011
116)047
79)603

0)25
0)50

60

0)10
0)25
0)50

120

0)10
0)25
0)50

353

DQM FOR VIBRATION OF ANNULAR SECTOR MINDLIN PLATES

TABLE 6
Frequency parameters, j2"ua2Joh/D, for annular sector plates with FCSC boundary conditions
Mode of sequence
a (deg)

b/a

h/a

30

0)10

0)01
0)10
0)20
0)01
0)10
0)20
0)01
0)10
0)20
0)01
0)10
0)20
0)01
0)10
0)20
0)01
0)10
0)20
0)01
0)10
0)20
0)01
0)10
0)20
0)01
0)10
0)20

164)744
117)451
76)120
164)744
117)433
76)100
164)287
116)768
75)306
61)366
52)798
40)140
61)292
52)640
39)962
56)957
48)628
36)269
27)473
25)564
21)803
26)364
24)526
20)780
21)433
19)542
16)408

270)541
174)877
108)731
270)540
174)827
108)665
260)459
164)817
100)278
125)725
98)940
69)360
124)809
97)856
67)995
112)173
88)113
63)523
50)182
44)981
36)076
49)938
44)696
35)808
45)088
40)295
32)224

381)218
225)774
134)641
381)218
225)699
134)618
365)713
219)965
134)507
129)094
100)979
70)050
129)093
100)975
70)041
127)479
99)492
68)671
71)384
61)785
47)523
65)099
55)230
42)010
74)395
64)237
48)889

392)709
232)863
140)259
392)687
232)598
139)957
381)206
225)638
135)602
208)799
150)455
99)310
203)518
143)874
92)759
209)481
147)925
96)583
79)186
67)990
51)656
79)019
67)841
51)556
76)806
66)527
52)411

532)584
291)989
171)529
532)375
290)929
169)769
549)096
295)922
170)904
218)162
155)518
101)624
218)133
155)501
101)616
217)704
155)101
101)211
108)689
89)766
65)775
106)752
87)993
64)148
103)058
84)560
62)893

553)774
297)736
172)924
553)773
297)689
172)907
552)856
314)013
178)246
224)722
159)205
103)774
224)704
159)129
103)662
237)054
172)553
114)661
113)945
93)376
67)618
113)656
93)192
67)564
110)811
90)886
65)870

0)25
0)50

60

0)10
0)25
0)50

120

0)10
0)25
0)50

TABLE 7
Frequency parameters, j2"ua2Joh/D, for annular sector plates with SCFC boundary conditions
Mode of sequence
a (deg)

b/a

h/a

30

0)10

0)01
0)10
0)20
0)01
0)10
0)20

100)946
78)311
53)930
100)935
78)311
53)930

193)907
132)054
83)343
193)903
132)054
83)337

264)113
169)733
103)580
264)085
169)733
103)581

302)423
189)733
116)436
302)420
189)689
116)392

428)251
247)247
145)414
428)220
247)248
145)415

437)366
247)766
146)051
437)356
247)586
146)244

0)25

354

K. M. LIEW AND F.-L. LIU

TABLE 7 (Continued)
Mode of sequence
a (deg)

60

b/a

h/a

0)50

0)01
0)10
0)20
0)01
0)10
0)20
0)01
0)10
0)20
0)01
0)10
0)20
0)01
0)10
0)20
0)01
0)10
0)20
0)01
0)10
0)20

100)912
78)280
53)836
28)110
25)767
21)578
28)104
25)764
21)566
27)932
25)524
21)279
8)310
8)084
7)599
8)209
7)975
7)484
8)782
8)502
7)950

194)463
132)778
84)880
71)774
60)447
44)981
71)765
60)447
44)981
71)751
60)431
44)990
19)753
18)636
16)418
19)743
18)628
16)412
20)119
18)945
16)695

264)053
169)733
103)584
76)547
63)647
46)734
76)446
63)498
46)695
89)918
75)236
56)335
35)807
32)722
27)269
36)490
33)380
27)889
37)023
33)761
28)093

322)615
208)024
130)199
135)330
104)588
72)173
135)314
104)589
72)176
135)339
104)587
72)169
37)749
34)351
28)333
39)091
35)716
29)703
59)066
51)926
40)981

437)361
247)349
145)670
145)324
111)480
76)745
145)857
112)517
78)487
160)174
120)507
82)126
58)755
51)686
40)865
58)760
51)702
40)878
67)069
59)717
47)562

500)669
275)278
161)410
155)924
116)889
78)816
155)919
116)887
78)825
217)719
154)325
100)689
64)640
56)149
43)394
64)862
56)398
43)776
84)429
72)510
54)774

0)10
0)25
0)50

120

0)10
0)25
0)50

(2) As the relative thickness h/a increases, the frequency parameters for the
annular sector plate with any boundary conditions will decrease greatly for
any given sector angle, mode sequence and inner-to-outer radius ratio.
(3) For the CFCF annular sector plate, increasing the inner-to-outer radius ratio
b/a from 0)1 to 0)5 will increase the values of frequency parameters regardless
of the sector angle, mode sequences and relative thickness, but for other cases
considered in this paper, the e!ect of inner-to-outer radius ratio b/a on the
frequency parameter is not signi"cant in the range of the values of b/a
between 0)1 and 0)25; the e!ect will become signi"cant in the range of the
values of b/a from 0)25 to 0)5, and in this range, the frequency parameters for
most vibration modes will increase whereas some modes of frequency
parameters may decrease as the value of b/a increases.
For all the natural frequencies considered in these tables, except for the thin
annular sector plate (h/a"0)01) with at least one free edge, using 17 grid points
along each co-ordinate variable will achieve the completely converged DQ results
with "ve signi"cant digits. But for the thin annular sector plates (h/a"0)01) with at
least one free edge such as CFCF, FCSC, or SCFC plates, using 17 grid points
along each co-ordinate variable can only obtain the converged DQ results with
three to four signi"cant digits for some vibration modes. However, this has been
accurate enough for the engineering applications.

DQM FOR VIBRATION OF ANNULAR SECTOR MINDLIN PLATES

355

5. CONCLUDING REMARKS

In this paper, the di!erential quadrature method has been applied to solve the
free vibration problem of thick annular sector plates based on the Mindlin "rst
order shear deformation theory. The "rst six natural frequencies have been
calculated for the plates with arbitrary combinations of free, clamped and simply
supported boundary conditions and with various relative thickness, sector angle
and inner-to-outer radius ratios. The convergence characteristics of the DQ
method have been carefully investigated for di!erent boundary conditions, relative
thicknesses, sector angles and inner-to-outer radius ratios. The numerical results
show that the DQ method can yield accurate results for the title problem with
a relatively small number of grid points.

REFERENCES
1. M. BEN-AMOZ 1959 Journal of Applied Mechanics 26, 136}137. Note on de#ections and
#exural vibrations of clamped sectorial plates.
2. R. RAMAKRISHNAN and V. X. KUNUKKASSERIL 1973 Journal of Sound and <ibration 30,
127}129. Free vibration of annular sector plates.
3. H. YONEZAWA 1962 Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Journal of
Engineering Mechanics 88, 1}21. Moments and free vibrations in curved girder bridges.
4. I. E. HARIK and H. R. MOLAGHASEMI 1989 Proceedings of the American Society of Civil
Engineers, Journal of Engineering Mechanics 115, 2709}2722. Analytical solution to free
vibration of sector plates.
5. I. E. HARIK 1990 Journal of Sound and <ibration 138, 542}528. Vibration of sector plates
on elastic foundations.
6. K. RAMAIAH and K. VIJAYAKUMAR 1974 Journal of Sound and <ibration 34, 53}61.
Natural frequencies of circumferentially truncated sector plates with simply supported
straight edges.
7. M. MUKHOPADHYAY 1982 Journal of Sound and <ibration 80, 275}279. Free vibration of
annular sector plates with edges possessing di!erent degrees of rotational restraint.
8. T. IRIE, K. TANAKA and G. YAMADA 1988 Journal of Sound and <ibration 122, 69}78.
Free vibration of a cantilever annular sector plate with curved radial edges.
9. C. S. KIM and S. M. DICKINSON 1989 Journal of Sound and <ibration 134, 407}421. On
the free vibration of annular and circular, thin, sectorial plates subject to certain
complicating e!ects.
10. T. IRIE G. YAMADA, and F. ITO 1979 Journal of Sound and <ibration 67, 89}100. Free
vibration of polar orthotropic sector plates.
11. K. M. LIEW and K. Y. LAM 1993 International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 35,
129}139. On the use of 2-D orthogonal polynomials in the Rayleigh}Ritz method for
#exural vibration of annular sector plates of arbitrary shape.
12. R. S. SRINIVASAN and V. THIRUVENKATACHARI 1983 Journal of Sound and <ibration 80,
275}279. Free vibration of annular sector plates by an integral equation technique.
13. Y. K. CHEUNG and M. S. CHEUNG 1971 Proceedings of the American Society of Civil
Engineers, Journal of Engineering Mechanics 97, 391}441. Flexural vibrations of
rectangular and other polygonal plates.
14. T. MIZUSAWA 1991 Journal of Sound and <ibration 149, 461}470. Application of the
spline element method to analyze vibration of annular sector plates.
15. T. MIZUSAWA 1991 Journal of Sound and <ibration 150, 245}259. Vibration of thick
annular sector plates using semi-analytical methods.
16. A. P. BHATTACHARYA and K. K. BHOWMIC 1975 Journal of Sound and <ibration 41,
503}505. Free vibration of a sector plate.

356

K. M. LIEW AND F.-L. LIU

17. H. KOBAYASHI, T. NISHIKAWA and K. SONODA 1987 Proceedings of International


Symposium on Geomechanics, Bridges and Structures, anzhou China, 171}185. E!ect of
shear deformation on dynamic response of curved bridge to moving loads.
18. C. S. HUANG, O. G. MCGEE and A. W. LEISSA 1994 International Journal of Solids and
Structures 31, 1609}1631. Exact analytical solutions for free vibration of thick sectorial
plates with simply supported radial edges.
19. K. TANAKA, G. YAMADA, Y. KOBAYASHI and S. MIURA 1990 Journal of Sound and
<ibration 143, 329}341. Free vibration of a cantilever annular sector plate with curved
radial edges and varying thickness.
20. M. N. BAPU RAO, P. GURUSWAMY and K. S. SAMPATH KUMARAN 1977 Nuclear
Engineering and Design 41, 247}255. Finite element analysis of thick annular and sector
plates.
21. P. GURUSWAMY and T. Y. YANG 1979 Journal of Sound and <ibration 62, 505}516.
A sector element for dynamic analysis of thick plates.
22. R. S. SRINIVASAN and V. THIRUVENKATACHARI 1985 Journal of Sound and <ibration 101,
193}210. Free vibration of transverse isotropic annular sector Mindlin plates.
23. P. R. BENSON and E. HINTON 1976 International Journal for Numerical Methods in
Engineering 10, 665}678. A thick "nite strip solution for static, free vibration and
stability problems.
24. M. S. CHEUNG and M. Y. T. CHAN 1981 Computers and Structures 14, 79}88. Static and
dynamic analysis of thin and thick sectorial plates by the "nite strip method.
25. Y. XIANG, K. M. LIEW and S. KITIPORNCHAI 1993 Proceedings of the American Society of
Civil Engineers, Journal of Engineering Mechanics 119, 1579}1599. Transverse vibration
of thick annular sector plates.
26. R. E. BELLMAN and J. CASTI 1971 Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 34,
235}238. Di!erential quadrature and long term integration.
27. R. E. BELLMAN, B. G. KASHEF and J. CASTI 1972 Journal of Computational Physics 10,
40}52. Di!erential quadrature: a technique for the rapid solution of nonlinear partial
di!erential equations.
28. J. R. QUAN and C. T. CHANG 1989 Computers in Chemical Engineering 13, 779}788. New
insights in solving distributed system equations by the quadrature method*I. Analysis.
29. C. SHU and B. E. RICHARDS 1992 Journal of Numerical Methods in Fluids 15, 791}798.
Application of generalized di!erential quadrature to solve two-dimensional
incompressible Navier}Stokes equations.
30. C. W. BERT, S. K. JANG and A. G. STRIZ 1988 AIAA Journal 26, 612}618. Two new
approximate methods for analyzing free vibration of structural components.
31. C. W. BERT, S. K. JANG and A. G. STRIZ 1989 Computational Mechanics 5, 217}226.
Nonlinear bending analysis of orthotropic rectangular plates by the method of
di!erential quadrature.
32. A. R. KUKRETI, J. FARSA and C. W. BERT 1992 Proceedings of the American Society of
Civil Engineers, Journal of Engineering Mechanics 118, 1221}1237. Fundamental
frequency of tapered plates by di!erential quadrature.
33. A. G. STRIZ, S. K. JANG and C. W. BERT 1988 hin-=alled Structures 69, 51}62.
Nonlinear bending analysis of thin circular plates by di!erential quadrature.
34. R. D. MINDLIN and H. DERESIEWICZ 1954 Journal of Applied Physics 25, 1329}1332.
Thickness-shear and #exural vibrations of a circular disk.
35. C. W. BERT and M. MALIK 1996 International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 38,
589}606. The di!erential quadrature method for irregular domains and application to
plate vibration.
36. M. MALIK and C. W. BERT 1997 Applied Mechanics in the Americas (PACAM <, San
Juan Puerto Rico) 5, 228}231. Di!erential quadrature analysis for curvilinear domains
via geometric mapping by blending functions.