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# Science: force, sound, light, energy

## magnetism = opposite poles attract

- some poles repel
magnet attracts metals
The north pole of one magnet attracts the south pole of a second magnet,
while the north pole of one magnet repels the other magnet's north pole.
So we have the common saying: like poles repel, unlike poles attract.
NEWTONS FIRST LAW OF MOTION
-

an object at rest ( not moving) will stay at rest unless force makes it move.
A moving object will stay in motion at the same speed and direction unless
a force change its speed and direction. This law is often called "the law of
inertia".

## NEWTON'S SECOND LAW OF MOTION

- The amount of force needed to increase the amount of mass the matter has. A
small force applied on a small object will move it a little. A great force applied on
the same small object will make it move faster.
- Acceleration is produced when a force acts on a mass. The greater the mass
(of the object being accelerated) the greater the amount of force needed (to
accelerate the object).
- Everyone knows that heavier objects require more force to move the same
distance as lighter objects.
NEWTON'S THIRD LAW OF MOTION
For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
Energy is the ability as work
Potential energy = energy at rest
Kinetic energy = moving energy
KINDS OF ENERGY
1. wind = Wind power or wind energy is the energy extracted from
wind using wind turbines to produce electrical power.
2 solar / light = Solar energy is radiant light and heat from the sun
harnessed using a range of ever-evolving technologies such as solar
heating, solar photovoltaics, solar thermal energy, solar architecture
and artificial photosynthesis.
3. sounds vibration / vibrate = Sound energy is the energy produced by
sound vibrations.
4.chemical = is energy caused by chemical reactions. A good example of

## chemical energy is food when it is cooked.

5. mechanical = is the energy of motion that does the work. An example
of mechanical energy is the wind as it turns a windmill.
6. electrical = when electricity creates motion, light or heat. An example
of electrical energy is the electric coils on your stove.
sound - may be soft or loud
drums - beat
guitar , violin, cello, = pluck string
fell symbols - strike
maracas and tambouring - shaking
whistle flute, harmonica - blowing
Sounds are produce when objects vibrate. There is no sound in outer space.
Vibration is produce when object strike or hit each other.
Echo is repeated sound. It is the reverberation of sound is reflected sounds
Activity: 5 examples of Loud and 5 examples of soft sound
Loud sound

Soft sound

A magician pulls a tablecloth out from under dishes and glasses on a table
without disturbing them.
2 A persons body is thrown outward as a car rounds a curve on a highway.
3 Rockets are launched into space using jet propulsion where exhaust
accelerates out from the rocket and the rocket accelerates in an opposite
direction.

## 4 A picture is hanging on a wall and does not move.

5 A person not wearing a seatbelt flies through a car window when someone
slams on the breaks because the persons body wants to remain in continuous
motion even when the car stops.
6 Pushing a child on a swing is easier than pushing an adult on the same
swing, because the adult has more inertia.
7 A soccer ball accelerates more than a bowling ball when thrown with the
same force.
8 A soccer player kicks a ball with their foot and their toes are left stinging.
9 A student leaves a pencil on a desk and the pencil stays in the same spot
until another student picks it up.
10 Two students are in a baseball game. The first student hits a ball very hard
and it has a greater acceleration than the second student who bunts the ball
lightly.
11. Which of Newton's Three Laws does the following statement satisfy?
The relationship between an object's mass (m), its acceleration (a), and the
applied force F is F=ma. Acceleration and force are vectors. This law
requires that the direction of the acceleration vector is in the same
direction as the force vector.
A: Newton's First Law
B: Newton's Second Law
C: Newton's Third Law
D: All of the above
12. Which of Newton's Three Laws does the following statement satisfy?
Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of
motion unless an external force is applied to it.
A: Newton's First Law
B: Newton's Second Law
C: Newton's Third Law
D: All of the above

13. Which of Newton's three laws does the following example illustrate? If
you have a hockey puck sliding along a table, it will eventually come to a
stop.
A: Newton's First Law
B: Newton's Second Law
C: Newton's Third Law
D: All of the above
14. Which of Newton's Laws does this situation represent? Imagine a ball
moving in a straight line directly toward when another ball collides with it.
The moving ball exerts a force on the ball at rest. This causes the ball at
rest to accelerate. However, the ball at rest also exerts the same magnitude
of force (in the opposite direction) of the moving ball. This will cause the
moving ball to decelerate or even move in another direction.
A: Newton's First Law
B: Newton's Second Law
C: Newton's Third Law
D: all of the above
15. ___________was the scientist who gave us the Laws of Motion.
9. What is another name for the Newton's first law of motion?
A: Law of Acceleration
B: Law of Velocity
C: Law of Inertia
D: Law of Mass
16. Which of Newton's Three Law does the following example illustrate?