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NDB QDR and QDM

Intercepts
NDB: Non- Directional Beacon
QDR: Magnetic Bearing FROM Station
QDM: Magnetic Bearing TO Station
ADF: Automatic Direction Finder

Procedures to Intercept a QDR


(i)
(ii)

Turn onto QDR Heading on the DI. (Quickest way on the DI)
Once on the QDR heading observe which side the HEAD of the
needle is deflected to on the RBI (left or right). Confirm that the

(iii)

intercept heading is bigger than the cone angle (tail of the needle).
Turn 30 towards the direction of the head of the needle away from

(iv)

the heading on the DI.


Wait for the TAIL of the RBI needle to CLOSE to 030 or 330

(v)

depending on the side which the needle was deflected initially.


Then turn onto the QDR heading on the DI.

Note: The TAIL of the RBI needle provides information of what QDR
the aircraft is tracking.

Procedures to intercept a QDM


(i)
(ii)

Turn onto QDM Heading on the DI. (Quickest way on the DI)
Once on the QDM heading observe which side the HEAD of the
needle is deflected to on the RBI (left or right). Confirm that the
intercept heading is bigger than the cone angle (head of the

(iii)

needle).
Turn 60 towards the direction of the head of the needle away from

(iv)

the heading on the DI.


Wait for the HEAD of the RBI needle to OPEN to 060 or 300

(v)

depending on the side which the needle was deflected initially.


Then turn onto the QDM heading on the DI.

Note: The HEAD of the RBI needle provides information of what


QDM the aircraft is tracking.

Rule of Thumb: When intercepting a QDR to QDM ALWAYS


take
the LONGEST way round on the DI.

RBI

RMI

Note: The RBI needle provides information of which direction the


WIND is BLOWING/COMING from.

Aircraft Equipment for ADF


(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)

ADF Receiver
Loop Antenna
Sense Antenna
Relative Bearing Indicator (RBI) or a
Relative Magnetic Indicator (RMI)

Factors Affecting the NDB Accuracy


Night Effect: At night the D layer disappears and NDB transmissions are
refracted by the E layer of the ionosphere. The unstable signal causes it very
difficult to extract clear information from the ADF due to the needle oscillating.
This error is most well-defined at DAWN and DUSK.
Thunderstorms Effect: The thunderstorm effect is also known as the static
effect. When there are thunderstorms or precipitation within the vicinity the ADF
needle is deflected towards the storm and the NDB signal can be refracted by
precipitation.
Interference: The NDB could be affected by another NDB transmitting on the
same frequency and is within range. This is highly unlikely but possible.
Coastal Refraction: As a radio wave passes from land to sea its velocity
increases and the radio wave bends towards the medium with the higher density
(land). The error is zero if the radio wave crosses the coast at 90 and increases
as the angle becomes more acute.
Mountains/ Terrains: High ground may reflect a NDB transmission resulting in
multi-path reception. The ADF needle will indicate the mean bearing between
the two signals, thus an error. The error can be minimised by climbing.
Quadrant Error: Waves are reflected by the fuselage and wings of an aircraft.
Signals arriving from the nose, tail, 090 relative and 270 relative are not
affected. Signals from the quadrant points (045, 135, 225 and 315 relative)
can give large errors.